WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard-accented speakers linguistic

  1. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  2. Teaching First Language Speakers to Communicate across Linguistic Difference: Addressing Attitudes, Comprehension, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtirelu, Nicholas Close; Lindemann, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    While most research in applied linguistics has focused on second language (L2) speakers and their language capabilities, the success of interaction between such speakers and first language (L1) speakers also relies on the positive attitudes and communication skills of the L1 speakers. However, some research has suggested that many L1 speakers lack…

  3. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  4. Mismatch: Globalization and Native Speaker Models of Linguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kevin Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although the paradigm shift towards English as an International Language (EIL) has been generally accepted within the academic community, a valorization of native speaker norms continues to be prevalent among many non-native speakers (NNSs). Through data drawn from a qualitative questionnaire and proficiency assessment results (TOEIC), this mixed…

  5. "I May Be a Native Speaker but I'm Not Monolingual": Reimagining "All" Teachers' Linguistic Identities in TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher linguistic identity has so far mainly been researched in terms of whether a teacher identifies (or is identified by others) as a native speaker (NEST) or nonnative speaker (NNEST) (Moussu & Llurda, 2008; Reis, 2011). Native speakers are presumed to be monolingual, and nonnative speakers, although by definition bilingual, tend to be…

  6. Native-Speakerism, Stereotyping and the Collusion of Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Although, in recent years there have been several advances in critical applied linguistics which have attempted to problematize the ideological underpinnings of language practices, there have in parallel been resistances mounted on the part of traditional applied linguistics that adamantly oppose any form of coming to terms with the political and…

  7. Indexical and linguistic processing by 12-month-olds: Discrimination of speaker, accent and vowel differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Mulak

    Full Text Available Infants preferentially discriminate between speech tokens that cross native category boundaries prior to acquiring a large receptive vocabulary, implying a major role for unsupervised distributional learning strategies in phoneme acquisition in the first year of life. Multiple sources of between-speaker variability contribute to children's language input and thus complicate the problem of distributional learning. Adults resolve this type of indexical variability by adjusting their speech processing for individual speakers. For infants to handle indexical variation in the same way, they must be sensitive to both linguistic and indexical cues. To assess infants' sensitivity to and relative weighting of indexical and linguistic cues, we familiarized 12-month-old infants to tokens of a vowel produced by one speaker, and tested their listening preference to trials containing a vowel category change produced by the same speaker (linguistic information, and the same vowel category produced by another speaker of the same or a different accent (indexical information. Infants noticed linguistic and indexical differences, suggesting that both are salient in infant speech processing. Future research should explore how infants weight these cues in a distributional learning context that contains both phonetic and indexical variation.

  8. A cross-linguistic PET study of tone perception in Mandarin Chinese and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Zatorre, R J; Milner, B; Zhao, V

    2001-04-01

    PET was used in a cross-linguistic study to determine whether neural mechanisms subserving pitch perception differ as a function of linguistic relevance. We compared tone perception in 12 native Mandarin speakers, who use tonal patterns to distinguish lexical meaning, with that of 12 native speakers of a nontone language, English. Subjects were scanned under two conditions: a silent resting baseline and a tonal task involving discrimination of pitch patterns in Mandarin words. Both groups showed common regions of CBF increase, but only Mandarin speakers showed additional activation in frontal, parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of the left hemisphere; this latter finding indicates that language experience may influence brain circuitry in the processing of auditory cues. In contrast, only the English group showed activity in the right inferior frontal cortex, consistent with a right-hemispheric role in pitch perception. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. The acquisition of English prepositions in first language speakers of Northern Sotho and Afrikaans : a cognitive linguistic study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.A. (Applied Linguistics) This study seeks to understand the acquisition of English prepositions by second language (L2) speakers of English. Prepositions are notoriously difficult linguistic items to acquire, and the reasons for this are manifold. This study looks into the relationship between the linguistic similarities between prepositions in the first language (L1) and the English prepositions in, on, to and into. The study focuses on two particular groups of L1 speakers: (i) Northern...

  10. Context and Linguistic Skills Factors Affecting the Pronunciation of Arabic Proper Names in Speakers of Bahdini Kurdish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilgash Mohammed Shareef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the pronunciation of Arabic proper names by Bahdini Kurds living in Duhok and the districts around. Thirty-two respondents were selected to say fifty Arabic proper names commonly used by Kurdish today’s society. The variables identified are linguistic skills in Kurdish and Arabic, and the extent of the formality of the context. The study concluded that being a fluent speaker of Arabic gives a Bahdini Kurdish speaker the ability to pronounce the Arabic proper names in a native-like accent. Yet, those speakers have revealed a tendency towards the use of a Kurdish pronunciation of such names when the context was informal. Dissimilarly, the Kurdish pronunciation was regularly used by speakers skilled or unskilled in Kurdish language and linguistics in both formal and informal situations.

  11. Predicting stuttering from linguistic factors for German speakers in two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter; Natke, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Brown's factors [J. Speech Disorders 10 (1945) 181] predict the likely loci of disfluency in English-speaking adults who stutter. A word is more likely to be stuttered for these speakers if it is a content word, starts with a consonant, is positioned at the beginning of a sentence, and if it is a long word. These same factors were examined in native German-speaking children and adults who stutter. Speech data of 15 German adults and 17 children were coded according to Brown's factors. For the adult group, it was predicted that words starting with consonants would not lead to as much of an increase in disfluencies compared with English samples, because of cross-linguistic differences in syllable onset properties. It was predicted that stuttering would be more likely in later sentence positions in German because in German the verb is usually near the end of a sentence. There were no obvious reasons to expect differences on the two remaining factors, content words and word length. With children, it was hypothesised that Brown's factors that specify level of linguistic difficulty would not be such a good predictor of stuttering rate. Specifically, it was predicted that the difference in stuttering rate between function and content words would be lower in children. For the adults both word type (content/function) and word length increased stuttering rate significantly, whereas changes in stuttering rate for the other two factors were non-significant. It was also found that when word difficulty (based on a combined measure of all factors) increased, stuttering rate rose. With children, only the word-length factor was significant, and stuttering rate was not governed to the same extent by overall word difficulty. Conclusions are drawn as to the effect of linguistic and motor influences on stuttering. The reader will learn about and be able to describe: (1) how linguistic factors affect stuttering rates in German; (2) the different patterns of adults and children who

  12. –ED ALLOMORPHS AND LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE OF MALAY SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH: A DESCRIPTIVE AND CORRELATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskanah Mohammad Lotfie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malay is a language from the Austronesian family and unlike the Indo-European-originated English, it does not generally have inflectional temporal markers. Investigating this from a cross-linguistics - influence perspective, differences between the languages could mean difficulties for Malay speakers to acquire features of English. The objectives of this study are to investigate Malay speakers’ pronunciation of the English language –ed allomorphs – [d], [t] and [ɪd]/[əd] – and the relationship between the morphophonological forms and two types of linguistic knowledge, one of which is implicit while the other is explicit. Data were collated from fifty participants who are social science undergraduates and English majors who speak English as a second language. Four instruments were used to gauge the respondents’ verbal use of –ed allomorphs as well as their implicit and explicit knowledge of the allomorphs. Results indicate that the students’ verbal usage of the target items either lacks approximation to Standard English pronunciation or is largely dropped altogether. Results also suggest a moderate relationship between implicit and explicit knowledge of the allomorphs and their verbal production by Malay speakers of English. The finding illuminates acquisition problem of English language speakers whose mother tongue does not share similar inflectional markers. Pedagogical solutions can help learners of the English language to approximate Standard English and in the long run, enhance effective communication and increase chances of employability.

  13. Linguistic and Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism with Regional Minority Languages: A Study of Sardinian–Italian Adult Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Obregon, Mateo; Sorace, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effects of bilingualism in Sardinian as a regional minority language on the linguistic competence in Italian as the dominant language and on non-linguistic cognitive abilities. Sardinian/Italian adult speakers and monolingual Italian speakers living in the same geographical area of Sardinia were compared in two kinds of tasks: (a) verbal and non-verbal cognitive tasks targeting working memory and attentional control and (b) tasks of linguistic abilities in Italian focused on the comprehension of sentences differing in grammatical complexity. Although no difference was found between bilinguals and monolinguals in the cognitive control of attention, bilinguals performed better on working memory tasks. Bilinguals with lower formal education were found to be faster at comprehension of one type of complex sentence (center embedded object relative clauses). In contrast, bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education showed comparable slower processing of complex sentences. These results show that the effects of bilingualism are modulated by type of language experience and education background: positive effects of active bilingualism on the dominant language are visible in bilinguals with lower education, whereas the effects of higher literacy in Italian obliterate those of active bilingualism in bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education. PMID:29163288

  14. Differences in reported linguistic thermal sensation between Bangla and Japanese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Aklima; Hasib, Md Abdul; Nagano, Hisaho; Taimura, Akihiro

    2017-06-05

    Thermal sensation is a fundamental variable used to determine thermal comfort and is most frequently evaluated through the use of subjective reports in the field of environmental physiology. However, there has been little study of the relationship between the semantics of the words used to describe thermal sensation and the climatic background. The present study investigates the linguistic differences in thermal reports from native speakers of Bangla and Japanese. A total of 1141 university students (932 in Bangladesh and 209 in Japan) responded to a questionnaire survey consisting of 20 questions. Group differences between Bangladeshi and Japanese respondents were then tested with a chi-square test in a crosstab analysis using SPSS (version 21). For the Bangla-speaking respondents, the closest feeling of thermal comfort was "neutral" (66.6%) followed by "slightly cool" (10.2%), "slightly cold" (6.0%), "slightly hot" (4.1%), and "cold" (3.8%). For the Japanese respondents, the closest feeling of thermal comfort was "cool" (38.3%) followed by "slightly cool" (20.4%), "neutral" (14.6%), "slightly warm" (13.1%), and "warm" (10.7%). Of the Bangladeshi respondents, 37.7% reported that they were sensitive to cold weather and 18.1% reported that they were sensitive to hot weather. Of the Japanese respondents, 20.6% reported that they were sensitive to cold weather and 29.2% reported that they were sensitive to hot weather. Of the Bangladeshi respondents, 51.4% chose "higher than 29 °C" as hot weather and 38.7% of the Japanese respondents chose "higher than 32 °C" as hot weather. In the case of cold weather, 43.1% of the Bangladeshi respondents selected "lower than 15 °C" as cold weather and 53.4% of the Japanese respondents selected "lower than 10 °C" as cold weather. Most of the Bangla-speaking respondents chose "neutral" as the most comfortable temperature, and most of the Japanese respondents chose "cool." Most of the Bangladeshi respondents reported that they

  15. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  16. Linguistic skills of adult native speakers, as a function of age and level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the

  17. The Incongruence of the Breton Linguistic Landscape for Young Speakers of Breton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation processes, often accused of imposing uniformity the world over, also open up opportunities for minorities (including linguistic ones) to exploit a variety of spaces for self-definition and self-expression. The expansion in the use of minority languages in public signage is one consequence of this present phase of reorientation in…

  18. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. English as a Lingua Franca in an international context: An approach to the linguistic identity of native and non-native English speakers in Geneseo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Agüera, Javier S.

    2016-01-01

    “Would you rather speak “perfect English” or keep your foreign accent?” That is the initial question that this paper deals with. As is universally acknowledged, the aim of every foreign-language learner is to become proficient, both in speaking and writing, in a certain language. The more one becomes like a native speaker in language comprehension and pronunciation, the easier it is to get integrated within a certain linguistic community. Nevertheless, what do people understand by “perfec...

  20. Heritage, Second-Language and Native Speakers' Intuitions on Deictic Verbs in Spanish: Beyond the Linguist's Intuitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of the Spanish deictic verbs "venir" "to come", "ir" "to go", traer "to bring" and "llevar" "to take" have drawn upon Fillmore's (1975) series of lectures on deixis in noting that speakers of Spanish forbid the use of the verbs "venir" and…

  1. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  2. "My Language, My Mother Tongue": Competing Language Ideologies and Linguistic Diversity among Speakers of Standard and Non-Standard Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on longitudinal research of a linguistic ethnographic nature with four young women of Pontian Greek origin who migrated to Greece, from Russia and Georgia, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and who speak Standardised Modern Greek and Pontian Greek; a language variety of the former. The article focuses on the ways in…

  3. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers' performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English learning and teaching, and the inappropriate…

  4. When speaker identity is unavoidable : Neural processing of speaker identity cues in natural speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuninetti, A.; Chládková, K.; Peter, V.; Schiller, N.O.; Escudero, P.

    2017-01-01

    Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word.

  5. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  6. Co-verbal gestures among speakers with aphasia: Influence of aphasia severity, linguistic and semantic skills, and hemiplegia on gesture employment in oral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Wat, Watson Ka-Chun; Lai, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The use of co-verbal gestures is common in human communication and has been reported to assist word retrieval and to facilitate verbal interactions. This study systematically investigated the impact of aphasia severity, integrity of semantic processing, and hemiplegia on the use of co-verbal gestures, with reference to gesture forms and functions, by 131 normal speakers, 48 individuals with aphasia and their controls. All participants were native Cantonese speakers. It was found that the severity of aphasia and verbal-semantic impairment was associated with significantly more co-verbal gestures. However, there was no relationship between right-sided hemiplegia and gesture employment. Moreover, significantly more gestures were employed by the speakers with aphasia, but about 10% of them did not gesture. Among those who used gestures, content-carrying gestures, including iconic, metaphoric, deictic gestures, and emblems, served the function of enhancing language content and providing information additional to the language content. As for the non-content carrying gestures, beats were used primarily for reinforcing speech prosody or guiding speech flow, while non-identifiable gestures were associated with assisting lexical retrieval or with no specific functions. The above findings would enhance our understanding of the use of various forms of co-verbal gestures in aphasic discourse production and their functions. Speech-language pathologists may also refer to the current annotation system and the results to guide clinical evaluation and remediation of gestures in aphasia. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Speaker Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on use of voice as a biometric measure for personal authentication. In particular, "Speaker Recognition" covers two approaches in speaker authentication: speaker verification (SV) and verbal information verification (VIV). The SV approach attempts to verify a speaker’s identity based on his/her voice characteristics while the VIV approach validates a speaker’s identity through verification of the content of his/her utterance(s). SV and VIV can be combined for new applications. This is still a new research topic with significant potential applications. The book provides with a broad overview of the recent advances in speaker authentication while giving enough attention to advanced and useful algorithms and techniques. It also provides a step by step introduction to the current state of the speaker authentication technology, from the fundamental concepts to advanced algorithms. We will also present major design methodologies and share our experience in developing real and successful speake...

  8. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  9. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  10. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  11. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  12. Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eScontras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language to their dominant language (the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  13. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  14. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading comprehension research and in linguistic pragmatics, and to assess its significance for both reading .... metaphorical or ironical interpretation; (vii) the meaning of any stylistic effects. The basic problem for ..... the speaker's emotional state and assumptions about other speakers' perception of your emotional state.

  15. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  16. Voice aftereffects of adaptation to speaker identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kawahara, Hideki

    2010-09-01

    While adaptation to complex auditory stimuli has traditionally been reported for linguistic properties of speech, the present study demonstrates non-linguistic high-level aftereffects in the perception of voice identity, following adaptation to voices or faces of personally familiar speakers. In Exp. 1, prolonged exposure to speaker A's voice biased the perception of identity-ambiguous voice morphs between speakers A and B towards speaker B (and vice versa). Significantly biased voice identity perception was also observed in Exp. 2 when adaptors were videos of speakers' silently articulating faces, although effects were reduced in magnitude relative to those seen in Exp. 1. By contrast, adaptation to an unrelated speaker C elicited an intermediate proportion of speaker A identifications in both experiments. While crossmodal aftereffects on auditory identification (Exp. 2) dissipated rapidly, unimodal aftereffects (Exp. 1) were still measurable a few minutes after adaptation. These novel findings suggest contrastive coding of voice identity in long-term memory, with at least two perceptual mechanisms of voice identity adaptation: one related to auditory coding of voice characteristics, and another related to multimodal coding of familiar speaker identity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. When speaker identity is unavoidable: Neural processing of speaker identity cues in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Alba; Chládková, Kateřina; Peter, Varghese; Schiller, Niels O; Escudero, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, native and nonnative speakers of Dutch were exposed to naturally-produced Dutch vowels varying in speaker, sex, accent, and phoneme identity. Unexpectedly, the analysis of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes elicited by each type of change shows a large degree of early perceptual sensitivity to non-linguistic cues. This finding on perception of naturally-produced stimuli contrasts with previous studies examining the perception of synthetic stimuli wherein adult listeners automatically disregard acoustic cues to speaker identity. The present finding bears relevance to speech normalization theories, suggesting that at an unattended level of processing, listeners are indeed sensitive to changes in fundamental frequency in natural speech tokens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilingual speaker age recognition: regression analyses on the Lwazi corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feld, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available towards improved understanding of multilingual speech processing, the current contribution investigates how an important para-linguistic aspect of speech, namely speaker age, depends on the language spoken. In particular, the authors study how certain...

  19. Profiles of an Acquisition Generation: Nontraditional Heritage Speakers of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2018-01-01

    Though definitions vary, the literature on heritage speakers of Spanish identifies two primary attributes: a linguistic and cultural connection to the language. This article profiles four Anglo college students who grew up in bilingual or Spanish-dominant communities in the Southwest who self-identified as Spanish heritage speakers, citing…

  20. Cross-Linguistic Influence in L3 Phonological Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates possible sources and directions of cross-linguistic influence on vowel reduction and speech rhythm produced by four trilingual speakers with different L1s in their L2 (German or English) and L3 (English or German). It was shown that, compared to native speakers, the speakers produced distinct differences in these…

  1. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  2. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  3. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach.

  4. Investigating linguistic relativity through bilingualism: the case of grammatical gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers and show that gender affects the semantic substitution errors made by monolingual Italian speakers compared with monolingual English speakers. They then showed that Italian-English bilingual speakers behave like monolingual English speakers when the task is in English and like monolingual Italian speakers when the task is in Italian, hence exhibiting appropriate semantic representations for each language. These results show that for bilingual speakers there is intraspeaker relativity in semantic representations and, therefore, that gender does not have a conceptual, nonlinguistic effect. The results also have implications for models of bilingual semantic memory and processing. (c) 2008 APA

  5. The Unforeseen Consequences of Interacting With Non-Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Ho, Emily; Keysar, Boaz

    2018-02-07

    Sociolinguistic research shows that listeners' expectations of speakers influence their interpretation of the speech, yet this is often ignored in cognitive models of language comprehension. Here, we focus on the case of interactions between native and non-native speakers. Previous literature shows that listeners process the language of non-native speakers in less detail, because they expect them to have lower linguistic competence. We show that processing the language of non-native speakers increases lexical competition and access in general, not only of the non-native speaker's speech, and that this leads to poorer memory of one's own speech during the interaction. We further find that the degree to which people adjust their processing to non-native speakers is related to the degree to which they adjust their speech to them. We discuss implications for cognitive models of language processing and sociolinguistic research on attitudes. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  7. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  8. Looking at the evidence in visual world : eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seckin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference

  9. Linguistic Fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul, Ed.; Ratliff, Martha, Ed.

    This book is a collection of original essays on the practice of linguistic fieldwork and language documentation. Twelve leading linguistics have contributed chapters about the study of languages in a natural setting. They pass on lessons learned, best practices, and discuss a wide variety of topics including the attitude of the linguistic, the…

  10. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  11. Language Planning, Linguistic Culture and its Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Davari Ardakani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available “Linguistic culture” is a term used in sociology of language and the anthropology of language. This study attempts to examine the term, its parameters, and the relation it has with language planning. A detail analysis of the status of the linguistic culture, at micro and macro levels, is necessary for language planning. Accordingly, the parameters of the linguistic culture were studies among Persian speakers of Tehran. The results show that linguistic culture contains attitudes, beliefs, norms, and linguistic capital. Linguistic attitude itself involves three dimensions: body of language, dignity of language, and language-learning. Studying these three dimensions shows that feeling in general and empathy with the dignity of the Persian language in particular, have the main share in linguistic attitude, and thus in the structure of linguistic culture among Persian speakers in Tehran. Therefore, it could be said that the emotional factors, as parts of linguistic culture, are very important in sociology of the Persian language and the promotion of language planning.

  12. Toward a semantic approach to the English passive : on the basis of the speaker's conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyama, Mika

    1991-01-01

    Since Bolinger's (1975) analysis, many linguists have been analyzing passives in terms of our (the speaker's) conceptual content.1 In such studies, the passive is assumed to be one of the grammatical codings ...

  13. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The evidences from all these integrated systems can be combined to obtain a speaker identification system that provides improved performance under limited data. Hence the motivation for this work. A few attempts have been made earlier to study and provide solution to the problem of limited data in the speaker recognition ...

  14. Omission of definite and indefinite articles in the spontaneous speech of agrammatic speakers with Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cross-linguistic investigation of agrammatic speech in speakers of different languages allows us to tests theoretical accounts of the nature of agrammatism. A significant feature of the speech of many agrammatic speakers is a problem with article production. Mansson and Ahlsen (2001)

  15. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  16. Pre-emigration reflections: Afrikaans speakers moving to New Zealand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the pre-emigration reflections of 15 Afrikaans speakers, all of whom were in the final stages of preparing to emigrate to New Zealand. The study explores the linguistic histories of the participants, their attitudes to their mother tongue (Afrikaans) and to English, and their views on South Africa\\'s language ...

  17. Request Strategies in Everyday Interactions of Persian and English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiler Yazdanfar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural studies of speech acts in different linguistic contexts might have interesting implications for language researchers and practitioners. Drawing on the Speech Act Theory, the present study aimed at conducting a comparative study of request speech act in Persian and English. Specifically, the study endeavored to explore the request strategies used in daily interactions of Persian and English speakers based on directness level and supportive moves. To this end, English and Persian TV series were observed and requestive utterances were transcribed. The utterances were then categorized based on Blum-Kulka and Olshtain’s Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Pattern (CCSARP for directness level and internal and external mitigation devises. According to the results, although speakers of both languages opted for the direct level as their most frequently used strategy in their daily interactions, the English speakers used more conventionally indirect strategies than the Persian speakers did, and the Persian speakers used more non-conventionally indirect strategies than the English speakers did. Furthermore, the analyzed data revealed the fact that American English speakers use more mitigation devices in their daily interactions with friends and family members than Persian speakers.

  18. A neural mechanism for recognizing speech spoken by different speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Gaudrain, Etienne; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-05-01

    Understanding speech from different speakers is a sophisticated process, particularly because the same acoustic parameters convey important information about both the speech message and the person speaking. How the human brain accomplishes speech recognition under such conditions is unknown. One view is that speaker information is discarded at early processing stages and not used for understanding the speech message. An alternative view is that speaker information is exploited to improve speech recognition. Consistent with the latter view, previous research identified functional interactions between the left- and the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus/gyrus, which process speech- and speaker-specific vocal tract parameters, respectively. Vocal tract parameters are one of the two major acoustic features that determine both speaker identity and speech message (phonemes). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that a similar interaction exists for glottal fold parameters between the left and right Heschl's gyri. Glottal fold parameters are the other main acoustic feature that determines speaker identity and speech message (linguistic prosody). The findings suggest that interactions between left- and right-hemispheric areas are specific to the processing of different acoustic features of speech and speaker, and that they represent a general neural mechanism when understanding speech from different speakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  20. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  1. Social and Linguistic Cues Facilitate Children's Register Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Van Horn, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Speakers must command different linguistic registers to index various social-discourse elements, including the identity of the addressee. Previous work found that English-learning children could link registers to appropriate addressees by 5 years. Two experiments found that better cues to the linguistic form or to the social meaning of register…

  2. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  3. Speaker recognition through NLP and CWT modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Kercel, S. W.; Tucker, R. W.

    1999-06-23

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the ''huge population'' problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are extracted using the techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant

  4. Speaker Recognition Through NLP and CWT Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Tucker, R.W.

    1999-06-16

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the "large population" problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are he techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the glottal excitation

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  6. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Speaker identification; limited training and testing data; MFSR; LPR; LPRP; LVQ; GMM–UBM and combining. ... Department of Information Science and Engineering, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur 572 103; Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, ...

  7. Speaker Profiles and Abstracts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-05

    Nov 5, 2016 ... a polarised fashion. Their work thus illuminates how Cas1-2 complex and IHF coordinate bring about the preferential integration of protospacer into the leader proximal end. Speaker's Profile. B Anand, IIT ... has a realization formula where a Hilbert space makes a natural appearance. Agler in 1990 found a ...

  8. Speaker Profiles and Abstracts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... After a brief mention of some of her early work in topological field theories, the speaker will describe her ... therapy. The unique properties of Helicobacter pylori DNA replication and cell division include but are not limited to the absence of a helicase loader DnaC, polar replisome formation and assembly of ...

  9. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dependent or text-independent type. Speech for the same text is used for ... are practical situations like forensic investigations where the availability of speech data is limited and technology is ...... Murthy K S R, Yegnanarayana B 2006 Combining evidence from residual phase and MFCC features for speaker recognition.

  10. The communicative style of a speaker can affect language comprehension? ERP evidence from the comprehension of irony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Stefanie; Coulson, Seana; Gunter, Thomas C

    2010-01-22

    An important issue in irony comprehension concerns when and how listeners integrate extra-linguistic and linguistic information to compute the speaker's intended meaning. To assess whether knowledge about the speaker's communicative style impacts the brain response to irony, ERPs were recorded as participants read short passages that ended either with literal or ironic statements made by one of two speakers. The experiment was carried out in two sessions in which each speaker's use of irony was manipulated. In Session 1, 70% of ironic statements were made by the ironic speaker, while the non-ironic speaker expressed 30% of them. For irony by the non-ironic speaker, an increased P600 was observed relative to literal utterances. By contrast, both ironic and literal statements made by the ironic speaker elicited similar P600 amplitudes. In Session 2, conducted 1 day later, both speakers' use of irony was balanced (i.e. 50% ironic, 50% literal). ERPs for Session 2 showed an irony-related P600 for the ironic speaker but not for the non-ironic speaker. Moreover, P200 amplitude was larger for sentences congruent with each speaker's communicative style (i.e. for irony made by the ironic speaker, and for literal statements made by the non-ironic speaker). These findings indicate that pragmatic knowledge about speakers can affect language comprehension 200 ms after the onset of a critical word, as well as neurocognitive processes underlying the later stages of comprehension (500-900 ms post-onset). Thus perceived speakers' characteristics dynamically impact the construction of appropriate interpretations of ironic utterances. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Study of Critical Eco-Linguistic in Green Discourse: Prospective Eco-Linguistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Yuniawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-linguistic studies are influenced by one of the other interdisciplinary sciences, namely critical discourse analysis. The combination of these two sciences is called critical eco-linguistic studies. Critical eco-linguistic examines the discourse about the environment and various forms of discourse and their ideology which concerns people and the environment. The environmental discourse with all its manifestations (oral text, written text is called green discourse. To that end, critical eco-linguistic dictates the linguistic aspects contained in the green discourse. Utilization of lingual units in green discourse will affect the sense and logic of people involved in the discourse, ie the writers and readers or the speakers and the speakers. What is recorded in their cognition, will affect their attitudes and actions to the environment. If green discourse is constructive, then their attitude and actions to the environment are constructive. Conversely, if green discourse is more destructive and exploitative, then their attitudes and actions towards the environment will also be affected towards destruction and exploitation. For this reason, critical eco-linguistic studies in green discourse deserve to be given space as a form of prospective eco-linguistic analysis.

  12. Communicative predictions can overrule linguistic priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczek, Leon O H; Gunter, Thomas C

    2017-12-14

    Predictions allow for efficient human communication. To be efficient, listeners' predictions need to be adapted to the communicative context. Here we show that during speech processing this adaptation is a highly flexible and selective process that is able to fine-tune itself to individual language styles of specific interlocutors. In a newly developed paradigm, speakers differed in the probabilities by which they used particular sentence structures. Probe trials were applied to infer participants' syntactic expectations for a given speaker and to track changes of these expectations over time. The results show that listeners fine-tune their linguistic expectations according to the individual language style of a speaker. Strikingly, nine months after the initial experiment these highly specific expectations could be rapidly reactivated when confronted with the particular language style of a speaker but not merely on the basis of an association with speaker identity per se. These findings highlight that communicative interaction fine-tunes and consolidates interlocutor specific communicative predictions which can overrule strong linguistic priors.

  13. Humanistic Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Henry; Kahane, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Examines (1) the historical development of humanistic linguistics through five stages of western renaissances--Carolingian renaissance, twelfth-century renaissance, Italian renaissance, neo-humanism, and impressionism and idealism and (2) how the late twentieth century continues the tradition. Expressionism and structuralism, philology,…

  14. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional......-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological taxonomy among the Karam of the New...

  15. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  16. The relation between working memory and language comprehension in signers and speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Giezen, Marcel R; Petrich, Jennifer A F; Spurgeon, Erin; O'Grady Farnady, Lucinda

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between linguistic and spatial working memory (WM) resources and language comprehension for signed compared to spoken language. Sign languages are both linguistic and visual-spatial, and therefore provide a unique window on modality-specific versus modality-independent contributions of WM resources to language processing. Deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing monolingual English speakers, and hearing ASL-English bilinguals completed several spatial and linguistic serial recall tasks. Additionally, their comprehension of spatial and non-spatial information in ASL and spoken English narratives was assessed. Results from the linguistic serial recall tasks revealed that the often reported advantage for speakers on linguistic short-term memory tasks does not extend to complex WM tasks with a serial recall component. For English, linguistic WM predicted retention of non-spatial information, and both linguistic and spatial WM predicted retention of spatial information. For ASL, spatial WM predicted retention of spatial (but not non-spatial) information, and linguistic WM did not predict retention of either spatial or non-spatial information. Overall, our findings argue against strong assumptions of independent domain-specific subsystems for the storage and processing of linguistic and spatial information and furthermore suggest a less important role for serial encoding in signed than spoken language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Cross-linguistic perspectives on speech assessment in cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Henningsson, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with cross linguistic perspectives that need to be taken into account when comparing speech assessment and speech outcome obtained from cleft palate speakers of different languages. Firstly, an overview of consonants and vowels vulnerable to the cleft condition is presented. Then......, consequences for assessment of cleft palate speech by native versus non-native speakers of a language are discussed, as well as the use of phonemic versus phonetic transcription in cross linguistic studies. Specific recommendations for the construction of speech samples in cross linguistic studies are given....... Finally, the influence of different languages on some aspects of language acquisition in young children with cleft palate is presented and discussed. Until recently, not much has been written about cross linguistic perspectives when dealing with cleft palate speech. Most literature about assessment...

  19. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (pPortuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  20. Speaker adaptation in the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van

    2005-01-01

    New in the 2004 edition of the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) was the condition where unsupervised adaptation of speaker models is allowed. Despite the promising results on development test material, hardly any beneficial results were obtained in the Evaluation itself. An analysis is made

  1. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Linguistic Simplification of Mathematics Items: Effects for Language Minority Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Nicole; Heppt, Birgit; Roppelt, Alexander; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale assessment studies, language minority students typically obtain lower test scores in mathematics than native speakers. Although this performance difference was related to the linguistic complexity of test items in some studies, other studies did not find linguistically demanding math items to be disproportionally more difficult for…

  3. Earliest Ga-Dangme culture from a linguistic point of view | Dakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores what linguistic research can tell us about the earliest history of the Ga and the Dangme languages: how they came to develop as separate languages, and where their early speakers may have come from. Hypotheses proposed in earlier writings by this author are refined. In addition, linguistic evidence is ...

  4. Linguistic Intensification and Its Role in Interlingual Translation of Speech Acts between English and Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ali Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to answer two questions: first, how far do intensifiers in English have the capability to fulfill linguistic intensification in order to achieve the communicative action between the speaker and the listener? Second, to what extent do linguistic characteristics of intensifiers influence translation of locutions of linguistic…

  5. Studia Linguistica. A Journal of General Linguistics, Volume 35, Number 1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurd, Bengt, Ed.; Svartvik, Jan, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1981 International Congress of Applied Linguistics include the full text of papers read by invited speakers. The keynote address, four plenary lectures, seven special lectures, and one symposium symmary are presented. The papers cover such topics as the status of applied linguistics, bilingual education for majority and…

  6. IsiNgqumo – Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to sociolinguistic and queer terminology. This paper presents a first discussion of isiNgqumo as a linguistic variety thus far ignored in South African research and argues that from a sociological perspective it constitutes a 'language' for most of its speakers. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2008, ...

  7. Revealing Word Order: Using Serial Position in Binomials to Predict Properties of the Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Smirnova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Three studies test the link between word order in binomials and psychological and demographic characteristics of a speaker. While linguists have already suggested that psychological, cultural and societal factors are important in choosing word order in binomials, the vast majority of relevant research was focused on general factors and on broadly…

  8. Myths and Misconceptions about Nonnative English Speakers in the TESOL (NNEST) Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Ali Fuad

    2014-01-01

    Parallel to the growing recognition of English as an international language, the fundamental premises of the TESOL discipline (e.g., the ownership of the language, native speakers as a goal and model of competence for learning and teaching, linguistic standards and language variety/ies to be taught, monolingual/monocultural approach to teaching)…

  9. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  10. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary verbs. The traditional grammar alongside structural grammar was used to ...

  11. the role of linguistic pragmatics illustrated by Swahili1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dictionaries and learning grammars with the linguistic facts used in everyday conversations. It will be shown that dictionaries and grammars do not sufficiently represent the ... esteemed representatives of Swahili verbal art. For the .... the help of the discourse marker 'sasa' the speaker wa9ts to express his intention to lead ...

  12. Perspectives on Linguistic Repertoires in Adult Multilinguals: An Epilogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces this special issue by declaring that the studies contained here build on the idea that multilinguals, in the sense of learners or speakers that have more than two languages in their linguistic repertoire, are different from bilinguals and monolinguals in various ways. Several authors in the area of third language…

  13. SPEAKERS' IDENTIFICATION METHOD BASED ON COMPARISON OF PHONEME LENGTHS STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bulgakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents a semi-automatic method of speaker identification based on prosodic features comparison - statistics of phone lengths. Due to the development of speech technologies in recent times, there is an increased interest in searching of expert methods for speaker's voice identification, which supplement existing methods to increase identification reliability and also have low labour intensity. An efficient solution for this problem is necessary for making the reliable decision whether the voices of the speakers in the audio recordings are identical or different. Method description. We present a novel algorithm for calculating the difference of speakers’ voices based on comparing of statistics for phone and allophone lengths. Characteristic feature of the proposed method is the possibility of its application along with the other semi-automatic methods (acoustic, auditive and linguistic due to the lack of a strong correlation between analyzed features. The advantage of the method is the possibility to carry out rapid analysis of long-duration recordings because of preprocessing automation for data being analyzed. We describe the operation principles of an automatic speech segmentation module used for statistics calculation of sound lengths by acoustic-phonetic labeling. The software has been developed as an instrument of speech data preprocessing for expert analysis. Method approbation. This method was approved on the speech database of 130 speech records, including the Russian speech of the male speakers and female speakers, and showed reliability equal to 71.7% on the database containing female speech records, and 78.4% on the database containing male speech records. Also it was experimentally established that the most informative of all used features are statistics of phone lengths of vowels and sonorant sounds. Practical relevance. Experimental results have shown applicability of the proposed method for the

  14. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  15. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Atkinson

    Full Text Available A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  16. Basque speakers and the media: opinions, habits and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Salces Alcalde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to shed light on the relationship of Basque language speakers with the media, as its main aim is to help understand which social, psychological and cognitive mechanisms influence the media consumption of minoritised language speakers. To fulfill this purpose, it was used an integrated methodological perspective, which has combined conducting in-depth interviews, on the qualitative side, and the compilation of audience data, on the quantitative one. Given that both the media landscape and the Basque linguistic community are involved in a process of deep transformation, this work´s conclusions try to set out some findings and lines of reflection that could help Basque language media understand better their potential audience and anticipate the challenges of the near future.

  17. Social network size can influence linguistic malleability and the propagation of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2018-03-12

    We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker. Experiment 2 uses computational simulations to test whether this greater malleability could lead people with smaller social networks to be important for the propagation of linguistic change despite the fact that they interact with fewer people. The results indicate that when innovators were connected with people with smaller rather than larger social networks, the population exhibited greater and faster diffusion. Together these experiments show that the properties of people's social networks can influence individuals' learning and use as well as linguistic phenomena at the community level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SPEAKER RECOGNITION OF MAGHREB DIALECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Beltaifa - Zouari *1, Asma Chayeh 2

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have focused on the west Arabic (Maghreb) dialects for which resources are rare. To handle this problem, we devoped a web-based database of speech from Tunisian, Algerian and Moroccan speakers covering the diversity of Arabic dialects spoken in north Africa. Then speaker identification and verification experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of each dialect-based system. A baseline system using Timit database have also be developed for comparison pur...

  19. The 2016 NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    impact on system performance. Index Terms: NIST evaluation, NIST SRE, speaker detection, speaker recognition, speaker verification 1. Introduction NIST...test segments were uni- formly sampled, ranging approximately from 10s to 60s. This provided the opportunity to more precisely measure the impact of...test segment duration on speaker recognition performance. As for speaker model enrollment, unlike previous SREs, gender labels were not provided. There

  20. Non-linguists' judgments of linguistic distances between dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of geographic and objective linguistic distances to the perceived and estimated linguistic distances between Norwegian dialects as judged by non-linguists. The perceived linguistic distances were quantified by playing recordings of fifteen Norwegian

  1. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  2. Assessing the Performance of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems When Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of Three Major Languages in Dictation Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers...... of three major languages and with different linguistic profiles: non-native English speakers; non-native French speakers; and native Spanish speakers. The main objective of this experiment is to examine ASR performance in translation dictation (TD) and medical dictation (MD) workflows without manual...

  3. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Bilinguals' Fundamental Frequency Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail; Mennen, Ineke

    2017-06-10

    We investigated cross-linguistic differences in fundamental frequency range (FFR) in Welsh-English bilingual speech. This is the first study that reports gender-specific behavior in switching FFRs across languages in bilingual speech. FFR was conceptualized as a behavioral pattern using measures of span (range of fundamental frequency-in semitones-covered by the speaker's voice) and level (overall height of fundamental frequency maxima, minima, and means of speaker's voice) in each language. FFR measures were taken from recordings of 30 Welsh-English bilinguals (14 women and 16 men), who read 70 semantically matched sentences, 35 in each language. Comparisons were made within speakers across languages, separately in male and female speech. Language background and language use information was elicited for qualitative analysis of extralinguistic factors that might affect the FFR. Cross-linguistic differences in FFR were found to be consistent across female bilinguals but random across male bilinguals. Most female bilinguals showed distinct FFRs for each language. Most male bilinguals, however, were found not to change their FFR when switching languages. Those who did change used different strategies than women when differentiating FFRs between languages. Detected cross-linguistic differences in FFR can be explained by sociocultural factors. Therefore, sociolinguistic factors are to be taken into account in any further study of language-specific pitch setting and cross-linguistic differences in FFR.

  4. On the same wavelength: predictable language enhances speaker-listener brain-to-brain synchrony in posterior superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Silbert, Lauren J; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason D

    2014-04-30

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability to predict a speaker's utterance increases such neural coupling between speakers and listeners. Nine subjects listened to recordings of a speaker describing visual scenes that varied in the degree to which they permitted specific linguistic predictions. In line with our hypothesis, the temporal profile of listeners' brain activity was significantly more synchronous with the speaker's brain activity for highly predictive contexts in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), an area previously associated with predictive auditory language processing. In this region, predictability differentially affected the temporal profiles of brain responses in the speaker and listeners respectively, in turn affecting correlated activity between the two: whereas pSTG activation increased with predictability in the speaker, listeners' pSTG activity instead decreased for more predictable sentences. Listeners additionally showed stronger BOLD responses for predictive images before sentence onset, suggesting that highly predictable contexts lead comprehenders to preactivate predicted words.

  5. Linguistic Diversity in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Terry

    1999-01-01

    Reviews Peter Muhlhausler's book "Linguistic Ecology: Language Change and Linguistic Imperialism in the Pacific Region." Discusses the linguistic diversity of the Pacific, the linguistic impact of colonialism in the Pacific, and the role of linguists in the evolving linguistic situation in the Pacific. (Author/VWL)

  6. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  7. Acoustic variation during passage reading for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic variation in a passage read by speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers was examined. 15 speakers with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 14 healthy speakers were studied. Acoustic variables included measures of global speech timing (e.g., articulation rate, pause characteristics), vocal intensity (e.g., mean sound pressure level and intensity modulation), and segmental articulation (i.e., utterance-level second formant interquartile range (F2 IQR)). Acoustic measures were obtained from three segments operationally defined to represent the beginning, middle, and end of a reading passage. Two speaking conditions associated with common treatment techniques for dysarthria were included for comparison to a habitual speaking condition. These conditions included a slower-than-habitual rate (Slow) and greater-than-habitual intensity (Loud). There was some degree of acoustic variation across the three operationally-defined segments of the reading passage. The Slow, Loud and Habitual conditions yielded comparable characteristics of variation. Patterns of acoustic variation across the three passage segments also were largely similar across speaker groups. Within-task acoustic variation during passage reading should be considered when making decisions regarding speech sampling in clinical practice and research. The contributions of speech disorder severity and linguistic variables to within-task acoustic change warrant further investigation. Readers will be able to (1) discuss the motivation for studying and understanding within-task variation in contextual speech, (2) describe patterns of acoustic variation for speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers during passage reading, (3) discuss the relationship between non-habitual speaking conditions and within-task variation, (4) understand the need to consider within-speaker, within-task variation in speech sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An analysis of topics and vocabulary in Chinese oral narratives by normal speakers and speakers with fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Christy

    2018-01-01

    This study analysed the topic and vocabulary of Chinese speakers based on language samples of personal recounts in a large spoken Chinese database recently made available in the public domain, i.e. Cantonese AphasiaBank ( http://www.speech.hku.hk/caphbank/search/ ). The goal of the analysis is to offer clinicians a rich source for selecting ecologically valid training materials for rehabilitating Chinese-speaking people with aphasia (PWA) in the design and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatments. Discourse production of 65 Chinese-speaking PWA of fluent types (henceforth, PWFA) and their non-aphasic controls narrating an important event in their life were extracted from Cantonese AphasiaBank. Analyses of topics and vocabularies in terms of part-of-speech, word frequency, lexical semantics, and diversity were conducted. There was significant overlap in topics between the two groups. While the vocabulary was larger for controls than that of PWFA as expected, they were similar in distribution across parts-of-speech, frequency of occurrence, and the ratio of concrete to abstract items in major open word classes. Moreover, proportionately more different verbs than nouns were employed at the individual level for both speaker groups. The findings provide important implications for guiding directions of aphasia rehabilitation not only of fluent but also non-fluent Chinese aphasic speakers.

  9. Relationship between deficits of verbal short-term memory and auditory impairment among Cantonese speakers with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana W.L. Ho

    2014-04-01

    Our results suggested that Cantonese speakers demonstrated more difficulties in non-words and lexical decision tasks, potentially due to the additional linguistic factor of lexical tone (Cutler & Chen, 1997.The importance of lexical tone in phonological processing of tonal languages, which warrants further investigation, should be highlighted for clinical assessment as well as intervention.

  10. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  11. Opening up to Native Speaker Norms: The Use of /?/ in the Speech of Canadian French Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasdi, Terry; Vickerman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Our study examines the extent to which French immersion students use lax /?/ in the same linguistic context as native speakers of Canadian French. Our results show that the lax variant is vanishingly rare in the speech of immersion students and is used by only a small minority of individuals. This is interpreted as a limitation of French immersion…

  12. Speaker Identity Supports Phonetic Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Schneider, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Visual cues from the speaker's face, such as the discriminable mouth movements used to produce speech sounds, improve discrimination of these sounds by adults. The speaker's face, however, provides more information than just the mouth movements used to produce speech--it also provides a visual indexical cue of the identity of the speaker. The…

  13. Signal modelling in speaker recognition | Sharma | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces recent advancements in speaker recognition system. It incorporates the background concepts and emphasizes the signal model design technique most commonly used in the state-of-the-art of speaker recognition system. An analytical description is provided of procedures applied in speaker ...

  14. Phonological knowledge of rhotics in English L2 of brazilian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cristófaro Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the appropriation of rhotics in English-L2 spoken by Brazilian speakers. he results show that rhotics are quickly incorporated into the English-L2 speakers’ production. A detailed examination of the data indicates that the following factors are relevant in the appropriation of retrolex approximant in English-L2: proficiency, the individual (learner and the lexical item. he fact that the appropriation of the retrolex approximant quickly achieves excellent levels in English-L2 spoken by Brazilian speakers suggests that teaching of pronunciation is speciic and not global. Based on Multirepresentational Models, it is argued that grammatical knowledge is a dynamic construct, interlaced by various linguistic and non-linguistic factors.

  15. Cross-linguistic scope ambiguity: When two systems meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Scontras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately recognizing and resolving ambiguity is a hallmark of linguistic ability. English is a language with scope ambiguities in doubly-quantified sentences like 'A shark ate every pirate'; this sentence can either describe a scenario with a single shark eating all of the pirates, or a scenario with many sharks—a potentially-different one eating each pirate. In Mandarin Chinese, the corresponding sentence is unambiguous, as it can only describe the single-shark scenario. We present experimental evidence to this effect, comparing native speakers of English with native speakers of Mandarin in their interpretations of doubly-quantified sentences. Having demonstrated the difference between these two languages in their ability for inverse scope interpretations, we then probe the robustness of the grammar of scope by extending our experiments to English-dominant adult heritage speakers of Mandarin. Like native speakers of Mandarin, heritage Mandarin speakers lack inverse scope in Mandarin. Crucially, these speakers also lack inverse scope in English, their dominant language in adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence for the pressure to simplify the grammar of scope, decreasing ambiguity when possible. In other words, when two systems meet—as in the case of heritage speakers—the simpler system prevails. This article is part of the special collection: Quantifier Scope

  16. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  17. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  18. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Wammes; Myra A. Fernandes; Janet H. Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of audi...

  19. Hybrid Speaker Recognition Using Universal Acoustic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    We propose a novel speaker recognition approach using a speaker-independent universal acoustic model (UAM) for sensornet applications. In sensornet applications such as “Business Microscope”, interactions among knowledge workers in an organization can be visualized by sensing face-to-face communication using wearable sensor nodes. In conventional studies, speakers are detected by comparing energy of input speech signals among the nodes. However, there are often synchronization errors among the nodes which degrade the speaker recognition performance. By focusing on property of the speaker's acoustic channel, UAM can provide robustness against the synchronization error. The overall speaker recognition accuracy is improved by combining UAM with the energy-based approach. For 0.1s speech inputs and 4 subjects, speaker recognition accuracy of 94% is achieved at the synchronization error less than 100ms.

  20. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  1. Verbal short-term memory and language impairments in Cantonese speakers after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Diana Wai-Lam; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Koon, Nim-Ting

    2017-02-21

    The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks. All stroke participants were assessed with the Cantonese version of Western Aphasia Battery (CAB). The LH group performed significantly worse than the RH and healthy control groups in the auditory verbal ISR and auditory linguistic tasks. There were significant lexicality, frequency and imageability effects in most tasks. Auditory discrimination and word comprehension tasks, but not the auditory word recognition task had correlations with ISR tasks. Verbal STM and language performance of Cantonese-speakers with history of LH stroke were inferior to RH stroke and healthy controls. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and imageability on verbal STM memory performance were found. Cantonese tones have effects on performance in auditory word recognition task, similar to onset, nucleus and rime.

  2. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Wammes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  3. Representation of linguistic information determines its susceptibility to memory interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Hsiao, Janet H

    2013-08-08

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  4. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  5. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  6. What Are Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30…

  7. Linguistic relativism and colour cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Davies, Ian R L

    2004-11-01

    Native speakers of two languages (English and Ndonga) were compared on three colour cognition tasks (sorting, triads and visual search) in a test of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956). The colour lexicons of these two languages differ because Ndonga has no basic terms for ORANGE, PINK and PURPLE, and stimuli were chosen to exploit this difference. On the sorting task (sorting into similarity-groups) for each language, nominally similar colours were grouped together more often than nominally dissimilar colours. On the triads task (choosing the most different of three colours), when the most nominally isolated colour differed for the two language-groups, each group tended to choose their nominal isolate. On the search task (scanning for target colours among distractors), targets were either in a different English category than distractors (cross-category), or some distractors were in the same English category as distractors (within-category). The 'cost' in speed of having within-category distractors was much greater for the English than for the Ndonga. Overall, these data suggest that a core universal component is modulated by a small relativist influence. The differences in the visual search task are consistent with language affecting pre-attentive processes (an indirect language effect) as well as exerting on-line influences (a direct effect).

  8. Linguistic Privilege and Justice: What can we learn from STEM?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, V. [Fermilab

    2018-01-19

    The linguistic privilege of native speakers in scientific communication, both oral and written, has been widely reported to influence researchers’ publications and careers in and beyond academia. I analyze social structure and communication in the STEM field through the example of big science and attempt to answer the question of why language injustice has a less significant effect on nonnative scientists and engineers than on humanity scholars, scrutinizing the role of signs and nonlinguistic boundary objects in STEM practice and written communication and how they mitigate the emphasis on linguistic eloquence. I suggest that although big science is relatively linguistically inclusive, for collaborative publications and presentations the rhetoric component requirements nevertheless remain at a level comparable to that of the humanities. I draw on the theory of justice to argue that to increase L2 speakers’ and writers’ satisfaction, language standards for international communication must be adjusted to a level convenient for an average L2.

  9. Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

  10. The Multi/Plural Turn, Postcolonial Theory, and Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Complicities and Implications for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    In applied linguistics and language education, an increased focus has been placed on plurality and hybridity to challenge monolingualism, the native speaker norm, and the modernist view of language and language use as unitary and bounded. The multi/plural turn parallels postcolonial theory in that they both support hybridity and fluidity while…

  11. The Sociolinguistic Gender Pattern in French: A Comparison of Two Linguistic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Nigel

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of French spoken by French girls aged 11-12 years found that, unlike older counterparts, theirs shows variable linguistic behavior on the phonological level that suggests avoidance of vernacular forms, the "sociolinguistic gender pattern." However, one speaker's discourse shows manipulation of conversational tone comparable to adult…

  12. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Intonation: French/Japanese and French/English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Reports the findings of research on the acquisition of French intonation by native speakers of Canadian English and Japanese. Results show that cross-linguistic influence in intonation is of central importance to the learner's acquisition of the target system, and that one should not underestimate the degree of the complexity of that influence.…

  13. The Use of Prior Linguistic Knowledge in the Early Stages of L3 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition relative to language typology, psychotypology and proficiency level. In particular, it observes how learners make use of their background languages when faced with a language they know little to nothing about. The participants, native French speakers with English as a…

  14. Cross-Linguistic Variation and the Acquisition of Pronominal Reference in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jill; VanPatten, Bill; Keating, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The current investigation tested two predictions regarding second language (L2) processing at the syntax-discourse interface: (1) that L2 performance on measures of interface phenomena can differ from that of native speakers; and (2) that cross-linguistic influence can be a source of such divergence. Specifically, we examined the offline…

  15. Reflections on “Democratic Choice” in the History of Linguistics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Last year the speakers of the different Nigerian languages had every justification to join in the celebration of ten years of democracy in the country, for democracy has created the enabling environment for them to exercise their freedom of choice in their use of their language without feeling intimidated. Although linguistics in ...

  16. The linguistic means of persuasive communication in the election campaign discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Ж Багана; Э А Бочарова

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the linguistic means of the speaker's influence on the audience in order to persuade them. The article is based on the public speeches transcripts of Barack Obama, John McCain and Dmitrii Medvedev in 2007-2008.

  17. The linguistic means of persuasive communication in the election campaign discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж Багана

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the linguistic means of the speaker's influence on the audience in order to persuade them. The article is based on the public speeches transcripts of Barack Obama, John McCain and Dmitrii Medvedev in 2007-2008.

  18. Determining the Effectiveness of Visual Input Enhancement across Multiple Linguistic Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Ian; McDonald, Janet L.

    2018-01-01

    Visual input enhancement (VIE) increases the salience of grammatical forms, potentially facilitating acquisition through attention mechanisms. Native English speakers were exposed to an artificial language containing four linguistic cues (verb agreement, case marking, animacy, word order), with morphological cues either unmarked, marked in the…

  19. From Opfer to Gangsta: The Evolving Linguistic Representations of Turkish-Germans in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Brenna Reinhart

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the media's portrayal of the linguistic situation of the predominantly Turkish migrant communities in Germany by analyzing data gathered from films, television clips, interviews, radio clips and the Internet, paying specific attention to the vowel systems of each speaker. I observe that the most salient aspect in…

  20. Understanding the Role of Interaction from Linguistic, Affective, and Social Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to broaden the scope of studies on interaction. It examined the role of interaction in terms of linguistic, affective, and social aspects. A questionnaire was administered and intensive interviews conducted to reveal the reality of communication between Chinese ESL students and Canadian native English speakers and how…

  1. The Impact of Non-Native English Teachers' Linguistic Insecurity on Learners' Productive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2017-01-01

    The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…

  2. Revisiting the role of language in spatial cognition: Categorical perception of spatial relations in English and Korean speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kevin J; Moty, Kelsey; Regier, Terry

    2017-12-01

    The spatial relation of support has been regarded as universally privileged in nonlinguistic cognition and immune to the influence of language. English, but not Korean, obligatorily distinguishes support from nonsupport via basic spatial terms. Despite this linguistic difference, previous research suggests that English and Korean speakers show comparable nonlinguistic sensitivity to the support/nonsupport distinction. Here, using a paradigm previously found to elicit cross-language differences in color discrimination, we provide evidence for a difference in sensitivity to support/nonsupport between native English speakers and native Korean speakers who were late English learners and tested in a context that privileged Korean. Whereas the former group showed categorical perception (CP) when discriminating spatial scenes capturing the support/nonsupport distinction, the latter did not. An additional group of native Korean speakers-relatively early English learners tested in an English-salient context-patterned with the native English speakers in showing CP for support/nonsupport. These findings suggest that obligatory marking of support/nonsupport in one's native language can affect nonlinguistic sensitivity to this distinction, contra earlier findings, but that such sensitivity may also depend on aspects of language background and the immediate linguistic context.

  3. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  4. Linguistics and the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plockinger, Othmar

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistics during the Third Reich in Nazi Germany. Discusses Nazi linguistics or linguistics in Nazism, Yiddish studies and the horror of assimilation, and remarks on the relevance of historical approaches in linguistics in the field of academic education. (Author/VWL)

  5. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Speaker-specific variability of phoneme durations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The durations of phonemes varies for different speakers. To this end, the correlations between phonemes across different speakers are studied and a novel approach to predict unknown phoneme durations from the values of known phoneme durations for a...

  12. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  13. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  14. Language Description and Mother Tongue of the Linguist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Alpatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the material of a number of languages it is presented the principles of describing the language in different linguistic traditions. The differences are explained, among other things, by the fact that the traditions of describing the language developed at different times in different linguistic areas on a material of languages that differed significantly in their structure. Particular attention to some areas of linguistics (and inattention to others can also be explained by the difference in the structure of the languages themselves. Chinese has a poor morphology, but in ancient Greek and Latin it is very rich. In China, grammar was not written, but many dictionaries were written, and in Europe antiquity was primarily concerned with the task of describing grammar. The areas of linguistics that have a priority in their development in one linguistic area may not be considered as priorities in another linguistic area. Thus, to comparative-historical linguistics, focused primarily on the establishment of family ties of languages and the reconstruction of the proto-languages, the developed area in European linguistics, in Japan, for an extended period, there was no intrinsic interest. The comparativehistorical method developed within the European tradition was stimulated by the presence of linguistically relevant material of numerous genetically related Indo-European languages. National variants in approaches and concepts also appear in directions of linguistics, dating back to the ancient tradition. The discrepancies between Russian and English linguistic traditions are described, including the semantic inconsistencies of similar linguistic terms (phrase, the absence of exact equivalents in a number of English and Russian linguistic terms (phrase, attempts to find an equivalent (introduction of the term in Russian linguistic discourse clause as a match of the English clause. The connection between the linguistic thinking of native speakers of

  15. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English with Implications for Vietnamese Language Acquisition and Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two overall goals of this paper are a to provide a linguistic basis for promoting first language maintenance of Vietnamese in a larger United States context and b to stimulate future research in language acquisition of Vietnamese-English speakers. This paper is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses previous studies on first language (L1 maintenance among Vietnamese Americans. Section 2 presents a cross-linguistic comparison of Vietnamese and English across speech-sound, word, and grammatical language levels. A cross-linguistic analysis may help educators better understand speaking patterns of Vietnamese American students. Based on this cross-linguistic comparison, Section 3 presents potential bi-directional interactions between Vietnamese and English within an individual speaker. These predictions are intended to provide a framework for future empirical studies related to bilingual development.

  16. Extending Situated Language Comprehension (Accounts with Speaker and Comprehender Characteristics: Toward Socially Situated Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Münster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more findings suggest a tight temporal coupling between (non-linguistic socially interpreted context and language processing. Still, real-time language processing accounts remain largely elusive with respect to the influence of biological (e.g., age and experiential (e.g., world and moral knowledge comprehender characteristics and the influence of the ‘socially interpreted’ context, as for instance provided by the speaker. This context could include actions, facial expressions, a speaker’s voice or gaze, and gestures among others. We review findings from social psychology, sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics to highlight the relevance of (the interplay between the socially interpreted context and comprehender characteristics for language processing. The review informs the extension of an extant real-time processing account (already featuring a coordinated interplay between language comprehension and the non-linguistic visual context with a variable (‘ProCom’ that captures characteristics of the language user and with a first approximation of the comprehender’s speaker representation. Extending the CIA to the sCIA (social Coordinated Interplay Account is the first step toward a real-time language comprehension account which might eventually accommodate the socially situated communicative interplay between comprehenders and speakers.

  17. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Anneke P

    2016-05-20

    There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals' languages, regardless of input quantity. Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals' acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals' acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals' input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  18. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  19. The role of linguistic experience in the processing of probabilistic information in production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Erin; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Speakers track the probability that a word will occur in a particular context and utilize this information during phonetic processing. For example, content words that have high probability within a discourse tend to be realized with reduced acoustic/articulatory properties. Such probabilistic information may influence L1 and L2 speech processing in distinct ways (reflecting differences in linguistic experience across groups and the overall difficulty of L2 speech processing). To examine this issue, L1 and L2 speakers performed a referential communication task, describing sequences of simple actions. The two groups of speakers showed similar effects of discourse-dependent probabilistic information on production, suggesting that L2 speakers can successfully track discourse-dependent probabilities and use such information to modulate phonetic processing.

  20. Integrational Linguistics and the Structuralist Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines attempts to extend Ferdinand de Saussure's structuralist linguistic theory, particularly those by integrational linguists. Discusses the place of integrational linguistics with regard to Saussurean work. (MSE)

  1. [Speaker discrimination in cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühler, R; Ziese, M; Verhey, J L

    2017-03-01

    Although the word and sentence recognition skills of cochlear implant (CI) users have been studied extensively, little is known about their ability to distinguish between individuals on the basis of voice, an important skill for social communication. Speech material from the Oldenburg Logatome Corpus (OLLO) was used to build a set of 120 logatome pairs spoken by 15 male and 15 female speakers, with no overlap of the fundamental frequencies of the two groups of speakers. Each pair contained two different logatomes. For half of the pairs, the two logatomes were spoken by the same speaker, for the other half they were spoken by different speakers. Using a same-different paradigm, 13 adult normal-hearing listeners and 13 adult post-lingually deafened CI users were asked whether the pair of different logatomes were spoken by the same or by different speakers. Mean speaker discrimination score for the CI users was 74.6 % correct and for the normal-hearing listeners 89.6 % correct. A significant influence of voice gender on speaker discrimination score was found in CI users and in normal hearing listeners. The results of the CI users were significantly above the level of chance and no ceiling effect was observed for the normal-hearing listeners, i. e., the presented set of logatome pairs from the OLLO seems to be very well suited to speaker discrimination experiments in CI users and quantitative comparison to normal-hearing listeners. CI users are able to discriminate between speakers but their performance is slightly worse than that of normal-hearing listeners.

  2. Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.

  3. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do ...... not subscribe to clear language policies. Consequently, the predominant language is here, as elsewhere, the Anglo-American. This article outlines the deep division between the postulate of linguistic diversity and reality, and is a call for soul-searching.......To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  4. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery Using Linguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Warta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is taken for granted that students' vocabulary can be developed to a certain degree and its development can be done through a number of ways. This study investigated the effectiveness of linguistic approach in developing EFL learners' vocabulary. 50 participants were involved in the study. They were divided into experimental and controlled groups, consisting of 25 students. The experimental group was taught using linguistic method while the controlled was instructed with a conventional method. The experiment was carried out in the classroom setting and lasted for one semester. The two groups were evaluated by means of pre-and post-test. The results show that the experimental group performed better than the controlled. The value of t-test is bigger than the value of t-table, and assessment of student' performance level, by the help of two native speakers, shows significant development; it developed from marginal to modest or between modest and competent, or from basic level to intermediate with the mean difference of 1.76.

  5. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On the optimization of a mixed speaker array in an enclosed space using the virtual-speaker weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Zheng, Sifa; Liao, Xiangning; Lian, Xiaomin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve sound field reproduction in a wide frequency band, multiple-type speakers are used. The reproduction accuracy is not only affected by the signals sent to the speakers, but also depends on the position and the number of each type of speaker. The method of optimizing a mixed speaker array is investigated in this paper. A virtual-speaker weighting method is proposed to optimize both the position and the number of each type of speaker. In this method, a virtual-speaker model is proposed to quantify the increment of controllability of the speaker array when the speaker number increases. While optimizing a mixed speaker array, the gain of the virtual-speaker transfer function is used to determine the priority orders of the candidate speaker positions, which optimizes the position of each type of speaker. Then the relative gain of the virtual-speaker transfer function is used to determine whether the speakers are redundant, which optimizes the number of each type of speaker. Finally the virtual-speaker weighting method is verified by reproduction experiments of the interior sound field in a passenger car. The results validate that the optimum mixed speaker array can be obtained using the proposed method.

  7. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  8. Data requirements for speaker independent acoustic models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, JAC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing speech recognition systems in resource-constrained environments, careful design of the training corpus can play an important role in compensating for data scarcity. One of the factors to consider relates to the speaker composition...

  9. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  10. Sociolinguistic competence in the complimenting act of native Chinese and American English speakers: a mirror of cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Chung

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from those of Westerners, this paper aims at illuminating the fact that, in cross-cultural communication, foreign language speakers have to pay close attention to sociolinguistic rules of the target language in addition to structure and discourse rules to meet the needs of linguistic accuracy and fluency. This is due to the fact that such rules play an indispensable role in appropriating the proper use of linguistic forms. The data for this study were collected using ethnographic observation pioneered in this field by Wolfson and Manes (1980). The analysis will first explore both the features of distribution of paying compliments, and the functions they may serve in spoken exchanges for native Chinese and American English speakers. To present a fuller picture of the socio-cultural features this speech act may represent in Chinese and American societies, the analysis will further focus on the issues of topics, the addresser-addressee relationship, and culture-specificity versus universality.

  11. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  12. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  13. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  14. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Historical linguistics deals with the evolutionary relation- ships of languages to one another. Of the many ... India, Iran and Europe belong to one or the other of the eleven surviving branches of this family, and are ... steppes of southern Russia (site of the Kurgan culture) not more than 6000 years ago, after the horse was ...

  15. Transferability and Linguistic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlin, Terence

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of transferability principles to language contact in the British Isles, especially Ireland, is shown with a detailed discussion of absolute constructions, structures with interesting relations between syntax and discourse, and with susceptibility to cross-linguistic influence. Evidence for transferability of absolutes in…

  16. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  18. Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics, Papers of a Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Malzkom, Wolfgang; Räsch, Thoralf

    2003-01-01

    "Foundations of the Formal Sciences" (FotFS) is a series of interdisciplinary conferences in mathematics, philosophy, computer science and linguistics. The main goal is to reestablish the traditionally strong links between these areas of research that have been lost in the past decades. The second conference in the series had the subtitle "Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics" and brought speakers from all parts of the Formal Sciences together to give a holistic view of how mathematical methods can improve our philosophical and technical understanding of language and scientific discourse, ranging from the theoretical level up to applications in language recognition software. Audience: This volume is of interest to all formal philosophers and theoretical linguists. In addition to that, logicians interested in the applications of their field and logic students in mathematics, computer science, philosophy and linguistics can use the volume to broaden their knowledge of applications of...

  19. Accent attribution in speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, J.; De Pauw, G.; Pettinato, M.; Hirson, A.; Van Borsel, J.; Marien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to establish the extent to which the impression of foreignness in speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is in any way comparable to the impression of foreignness in speakers with a real foreign accent.\\ud \\ud Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5 native speaker controls. The listener groups differe...

  20. Using event-related brain potentials to assess perceptibility: The case of French speakers and English [h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm. Unlike native speakers, French learners of English elicit an MMN response only in the non-linguistic condition. Our results provide neurobiological evidence against the hypothesis that French speakers’ difficulties with [h] are acoustically based. They instead suggest that the problem is in constructing an appropriate phonological representation for [h] in the interlanguage grammar.

  1. Role of Speaker Cues in Attention Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current state-of-the-art approaches to emotion recognition primarily focus on modeling the nonverbal expressions of the sole individual without reference to contextual elements such as the co-presence of the partner. In this paper, we demonstrate that the accurate inference of listeners’ social-emotional state of attention depends on accounting for the nonverbal behaviors of their storytelling partner, namely their speaker cues. To gain a deeper understanding of the role of speaker cues in attention inference, we conduct investigations into real-world interactions of children (5–6 years old storytelling with their peers. Through in-depth analysis of human–human interaction data, we first identify nonverbal speaker cues (i.e., backchannel-inviting cues and listener responses (i.e., backchannel feedback. We then demonstrate how speaker cues can modify the interpretation of attention-related backchannels as well as serve as a means to regulate the responsiveness of listeners. We discuss the design implications of our findings toward our primary goal of developing attention recognition models for storytelling robots, and we argue that social robots can proactively use speaker cues to form more accurate inferences about the attentive state of their human partners.

  2. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...... – and with no additional effort, you can use it as an automatic language analyzer. I show also another important extension to Prolog, called Constraint Handling Rules, which boosts these grammars with capabilities for captur- ing semantics and pragmatics by abductive reasoning, in a way that I claim is considerably...... can be downloaded from the following website: http://www.ruc.dk/∼henning/LP-for-Linguists....

  3. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  4. Language contact phenomena in the language use of speakers of German descent and the significance of their language attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of my investigation on language use and language attitudes of People of German Descent from the USSR, I find almost regular different language contact phenomena, such as viel bliny habn=wir gbackt (engl.: 'we cooked lots of pancakes' (cf. Ries 2011. The aim of analysis is to examine both language use with regard to different forms of language contact and the language attitudes of the observed speakers. To be able to analyse both of these aspects and synthesize them, different types of data are required. The research is based on the following two data types: everyday conversations and interviews. In addition, the individual speakers' biography is a key part of the analysis, because it allows one to draw conclusions about language attitudes and use. This qualitative research is based on morpho-syntactic and interactional linguistic analysis of authentic spoken data. The data arise from a corpus compiled and edited by myself. My being a member of the examined group allowed me to build up an authentic corpus. The natural language use is analysed from the perspective of different language contact phenomena and potential functions of language alternations. One central issue is: How do speakers use the languages available to them, German and Russian? Structural characteristics such as code switching and discursive motives for these phenomena are discussed as results, together with the socio-cultural background of the individual speaker. Within the scope of this article I present exemplarily the data and results of one speaker.

  5. The kinesthetic speaker. Putting action into words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N

    2001-04-01

    Speeches and presentations offer an interesting catch-22: executives don't want to spend long hours creating them, and people don't want to sit for long hours listening to them. Ultimately, though, executives can't live without them. That's because a good speech or presentation has the power to inspire people to act on the speaker's behalf and create change. Author Nick Morgan, a longtime speech-writer and speaking coach, says what's most often lacking in today's speeches and presentations is what he calls the "kinesthetic connection." Many good speakers connect aurally with their audiences, telling dramatic stories and effectively pacing their speeches to hold people's attention. Others connect visually, with a vivid film clip or a killer slide. Some people do both, but not many also connect kinesthetically. Morgan says the kinesthetic speaker feeds an audience's primal hunger to experience a presentation on a physical, as well as an intellectual, level. Through awareness of their own physical presence--gestures, posture, movements--and through the effective use of the space in which they present, kinesthetic speakers can create potent nonverbal messages that reinforce their verbal ones. In this article, Morgan describes techniques for harnessing kinesthetic power and creating a sense of intimacy with an audience--a closeness that is more widely expected from speakers since the advent of television. For instance, kinesthetic speakers should make use of audience proxies--individuals in the crowd who serve as representatives for the others. Ultimately, the author says, a speech or presentation offers something of great value to business executives: it's the best vehicle for winning trust from large groups of people--be they employees, colleagues, or share-holders.

  6. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SPEAKER VERIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bulgakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a semi-automatic speaker verification system based on comparing of formant values, statistics of phone lengths and melodic characteristics as well. Due to the development of speech technology, there is an increased interest now in searching for expert speaker verification systems, which have high reliability and low labour intensiveness because of the automation of data processing for the expert analysis. System Description. We present a description of a novel system analyzing similarity or distinction of speaker voices based on comparing statistics of phone lengths, formant features and melodic characteristics. The characteristic feature of the proposed system based on fusion of methods is a weak correlation between the analyzed features that leads to a decrease in the error rate of speaker recognition. The system advantage is the possibility to carry out rapid analysis of recordings since the processes of data preprocessing and making decision are automated. We describe the functioning methods as well as fusion of methods to combine their decisions. Main Results. We have tested the system on the speech database of 1190 target trials and 10450 non-target trials, including the Russian speech of the male and female speakers. The recognition accuracy of the system is 98.59% on the database containing records of the male speech, and 96.17% on the database containing records of the female speech. It was also experimentally established that the formant method is the most reliable of all used methods. Practical Significance. Experimental results have shown that proposed system is applicable for the speaker recognition task in the course of phonoscopic examination.

  7. Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways.

  8. Joint Single-Channel Speech Separation and Speaker Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a closed loop system to improve the performance of single-channel speech separation in a speaker independent scenario. The system is composed of two interconnected blocks: a separation block and a speaker identiſcation block. The improvement is accomplished by incorporat......In this paper, we propose a closed loop system to improve the performance of single-channel speech separation in a speaker independent scenario. The system is composed of two interconnected blocks: a separation block and a speaker identiſcation block. The improvement is accomplished...... by incorporating the speaker identities found by the speaker identiſcation block as additional information for the separation block, which converts the speaker-independent separation problem to a speaker-dependent one where the speaker codebooks are known. Simulation results show that the closed loop system...

  9. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barbieri

    Full Text Available Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  10. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneberger, T

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a "revolution" in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism.

  11. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a “revolution” in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism. PMID:22477214

  12. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  13. A Cross-linguistic Perspective on Questions in German and French Adult Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Bonnesen; Solveig Chilla

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the morphological and syntactic aspects of adult second language acquisition (SLA). Two prominent hypotheses that have been put forward concerning late L2 speakers' knowledge of inflectional morphology and of related functional categories and their feature values are the Impaired Representation Hypothesis (IRH) and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH).The cross-linguistic comparison of the acquisition of questio...

  14. Pratap Raychaudhuri | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... from the studies carried out in the speaker's laboratory, the kind of problems that can be addressed using this technique will be highlighted. That it is much more economic and infinitely more productive to build your own scanning tunneling microscope than to buy commercial products commonly available in the market will ...

  15. Souvik Mukherjee | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Past studies did not consider Asian/Indian individuals, which is important since these populations have diverse population histories. The speakers team has characterised the healthy facial skin microbiome in an Indian population of Dravidian descent and derived evidence that inter-individual variability in microbiome profile ...

  16. Raghavan Krishnan | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a state-of-the-art global climate model with high-resolution zooming over South Asia, it was demonstrated by the speaker's group that the weakening trend of the monsoon is attributable largely to anthropogenic aerosol forcing, together with contributions from land-use land-cover changes and rapid warming of the ...

  17. Pradyut Ghosh | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How they succeeded in linking molecules together to design molecular machines from a tiny lift to microscopic motors and muscles will first be discussed. Then the speaker's group's work on the development of threaded systems, such as pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes having multiple functionalities, will also be discussed ...

  18. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    memory coincides with the findings by Ensink et al.11 who reported a similar trend among Xhosa-speaking patients with schizophrenia and the culture-bound syndrome known as amafufunyana. Table II: Primary symptoms expressed by Sesotho speakers. Symptoms. (%). Symptoms. (%). Auditory hallucinations. 90,0.

  19. Amitabh Joshi | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshi's research interests include the evolution of life-histories; evolution of competitive ability and its consequences for population dynamics; small population and ... a few examples from work in the speaker's laboratory over the past twenty years will be used to illustrate the power of this approach, and underscore the point ...

  20. Sociophonetic study of young Nigerian English speakers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is with a view to confirming the hypothesis that continuous speech processes (CSPs) can be socially differentiated in a speech community. A sample of 180 young educated Nigerian English (NigE) speakers, evenly stratified into gender and class, voiced 19 utterances and a short passage into digital recording devices ...

  1. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language.

  2. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  4. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke P. Potgieter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives: To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1 occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2 in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method: Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results: The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion: As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  5. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure. PMID:27245133

  6. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  7. Linguistic Turn and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lorente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how postmodernity comes from doctrines originating in the «linguistic revolution». The thinkers of the 19th century German tradition —who are included in the socalled «Triple-H theory»— wanted to shift the line of argument from reason to language. The presupposition of the primacy of language will be presumed by the prophet of postmodernism, Nietzsche, thus making possible the dawning of postmodernity. Postmodernity will accept unquestionably the shift from the universal and absolute to the particular and relative.

  8. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  9. Cross-Linguistic Lexical, Grammatical, and Discourse Performance on Oral Narrative Retells Among Young Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relations among microlevel and macrolevel domains of oral narrative retells within and across the languages of Spanish-speaking bilingual children. Fifty-six first and second graders (Mage = 7 years, 3 months) were assessed on a retell task in Spanish and English. Two statistical analyses were conducted: (a) correlations within and across microlevel lexical (number of different words) and grammatical (mean length of utterance-word and subordination index) domains and (b) hierarchical regression to determine the influence of microlevel domains on a macrolevel discourse score. Results highlighted a number of significant within- and cross-language correlations, and identified vocabulary as a significant predictor of macrolevel discourse scores within both languages, while grammar was a predictor within English only. © 2015 The Author. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  11. Posteriori Probabilities and Likelihoods Combination for Speech and Speaker Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    BenZeghiba, Mohamed Faouzi; Bourlard, Hervé

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates a new approach to perform simultaneous speech and speaker recognition. The likelihood estimated by a speaker identification system is combined with the posterior probability estimated by the speech recognizer. So, the joint posterior probability of the pronounced word and the speaker identity is maximized. A comparison study with other standard techniques is carried out in three different applications, (1) closed set speech and speaker identification, (2) open set spee...

  12. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  13. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  14. Improving Monaural Speaker Identification by Double-Talk Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to improve monoaural speaker identification where two speakers are present in a single-microphone recording. The goal is to identify both of the underlying speakers in the given mixture. The proposed approach is composed of a double-talk detector (DTD) as a p...

  15. A Tutorial on Text-Independent Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bimbot

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a state-of-the-art text-independent speaker verification system. First, an introduction proposes a modular scheme of the training and test phases of a speaker verification system. Then, the most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, namely, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique used in most systems, is then explained. A few speaker modeling alternatives, namely, neural networks and support vector machines, are mentioned. Normalization of scores is then explained, as this is a very important step to deal with real-world data. The evaluation of a speaker verification system is then detailed, and the detection error trade-off (DET curve is explained. Several extensions of speaker verification are then enumerated, including speaker tracking and segmentation by speakers. Then, some applications of speaker verification are proposed, including on-site applications, remote applications, applications relative to structuring audio information, and games. Issues concerning the forensic area are then recalled, as we believe it is very important to inform people about the actual performance and limitations of speaker verification systems. This paper concludes by giving a few research trends in speaker verification for the next couple of years.

  16. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  17. An experimental comparison of modelling techniques for speaker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feature extraction involves extracting speaker-specific features from the speech signal at reduced data rate. The extracted features are further combined using modelling techniques to generate speaker models. The speaker models are then tested using the features extracted from the test speech signal. The improvement in ...

  18. Accent Attribution in Speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Pettinato, Michele; Hirson, Allen; Van Borsel, John; Marien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to investigate the perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome in comparison to speakers with an authentic foreign accent. Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5…

  19. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  20. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  1. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  2. An Introduction to Linguistic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Edgar H.

    The basis for understanding the origin, development, and behavior of language is presented in this introduction to linguistic science. Aspects of language that link linguistics to anthropology, social studies, and mathematics are examined. Major emphasis is on phonetics and phonemics, historical considerations, vocabulary, and semantic change.…

  3. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  4. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  5. A Survey of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, Giulio C.

    This book, a revised and expanded English version of the author's Italian work "La Linguistica strutturale" (1961), is a survey of the main trends in structural linguistics intended not only for the linguist but for specialists in other fields and the general reader as well. The initial chapter, "Introductory Notions," discusses general linguistic…

  6. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  7. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  8. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  9. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  10. DEVELOPING LINGUISTIC SKILLS AND ABILITIES IN EMP STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Milosavljević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available English for medical purposes falls within the category of discipline-specific language learning. It is characterized by specific linguistic features and requires specific study that is possible to carry out using specially designed programmes. Reading skill is one way of learning strategy of English for medical purposes. Most often, students use this skill in order to obtain information for some particular topic from the area of medical science, or because they need some sort of instruction in order to carry out certain task. Vocabulary acquisition plays a very important role in EMP teaching. It is achieved best through learning vocabulary in context, rather than in isolation. One of the most important questions in EMP teaching is related to what grammatical constructions should be analysed and emphasised. Some types of these activities would include, for example, asking students to find examples of one particular structure in the text or fill in the blanks with the missing forms such as tenses, passive forms, prepositions, etc. Speaking skill represents productive skill the aim of which is communication. In order for foreign language communication to be suucessful, a student should know linguistic and cultural features of native speakers and follow certain rules and conventions that are not easy to define. It is of crucial importance that during teaching process students develop strategies and techniques that will help them use linguistic structures fluently, apply language in different situations, take part in discussions, and use acquired vocabulary in accurate and precise way.

  11. Speaker models and the English classroom: the impact of the intercultural-speaker teacher model in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the present thesis, I examine the extent to which the intercultural-speaker model is acknowledged by teachers of English in Norway. As opposed to the native-speaker model, the model of the intercultural speaker focuses on the context in which intercultural communication takes place and how interlocutors can use their own background to master the interaction between them. My point of departure is that the teaching tradition in Norway is based on the native-speaker model,...

  12. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  13. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  14. The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students' comprehension of nursing course test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosher, Susan; Bowles, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that language may be a source of construct-irrelevant variance for non-native speakers of English, or English as a second language (ESL) students, when they take exams. As a result, exams may not accurately measure knowledge of nursing content. One accommodation often used to level the playing field for ESL students is linguistic modification, a process by which the reading load of test items is reduced while the content and integrity of the item are maintained. Research on the effects of linguistic modification has been conducted on examinees in the K-12 population, but is just beginning in other areas. This study describes the collaborative process by which items from a pathophysiology exam were linguistically modified and subsequently evaluated for comprehensibility by ESL students. Findings indicate that in a majority of cases, modification improved examinees' comprehension of test items. Implications for test item writing and future research are discussed.

  15. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  16. Methods of Speakers\\' Effects on the Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فریبا حسینی

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of Speakers' Effects on the Audience    Nasrollah Shameli *   Fariba Hosayni **     Abstract   This article is focused on four issues. The first issue is related to the speaker's external appearance including the beauty of face, the power of his voice, moves and signals by hand, the stick and eyebrow as well as the height. Such characteristics could have an important effect on the audience. The second issue is related to internal features of the speaker. These include the ethics of the preacher , his/her piety and intention on the speakers based on their personalities, habits and emotions, knowledge and culture, and speed of learning. The third issue is concerned with the appearance of the lecture. Words should be clear enough as well as being mixed with Quranic verses, poetry and proverbs. The final issue is related to the content. It is argued that the subject of the talk should be in accordance with the level of understanding of listeners as well as being new and interesting for them.   3 - A phenomenon rhetoric: It was noted in this section How to give words and phrases so that these words and phrases are clear, correct, mixed in parables, governance and Quranic verses, and appropriate their meaning.   4 - the content of Oratory : It was noted in this section to the topic of Oratory and say that the Oratory should be the theme commensurate with the minds of audiences and also should mean that agree with the case may be, then I say: that the rhetoric if the theme was innovative and new is affecting more and more on the audience.     Key words : Oratory , Preacher , Audience, Influence of speech     * Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan E-mail: Dr-Nasrolla Shameli@Yahoo.com   * * M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature from Isfahan University E-mail: faribahosayni@yahoo.com

  17. Using timing information in speaker verification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ) linear predic- tor coefficients and mel frequency cepstral coefficients. However, it is likely that speakers also differ significantly in the duration assigned to segments they speak. As far as could be determined, such temporal information has..., with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) as input features. HMMs were generated for all triphones, with Figure 1: Dark areas show acceptable areas where normal variance in temporal information will cause recurring in- stances of the same phoneme...

  18. The Acquisition of English Focus Marking by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2

  19. The influence of lexical characteristics and talker accent on the recognition of English words by speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.

  20. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A system of automatic speaker recognition on a minicomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Chafei, Cherif

    1978-01-01

    This study describes a system of automatic speaker recognition using the pitch of the voice. The pre-treatment consists in the extraction of the speakers' discriminating characteristics taken from the pitch. The programme of recognition gives, firstly, a preselection and then calculates the distance between the speaker's characteristics to be recognized and those of the speakers already recorded. An experience of recognition has been realized. It has been undertaken with 15 speakers and included 566 tests spread over an intermittent period of four months. The discriminating characteristics used offer several interesting qualities. The algorithms concerning the measure of the characteristics on one hand, the speakers' classification on the other hand, are simple. The results obtained in real time with a minicomputer are satisfactory. Furthermore they probably could be improved if we considered other speaker's discriminating characteristics but this was unfortunately not in our possibilities. (author) [fr

  2. Sequence Complexity Effects on Speech Production in Healthy Speakers and Speakers with Hypokinetic or Ataxic Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Spencer, Kristie A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of sequence complexity, defined in terms of phonemic similarity and phonotoactic probability, on the timing and accuracy of serial ordering for speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. Sequences were comprised of strings of consonant-vowel (CV) syllables with each syllable containing the same vowel, /a/, paired with a different consonant. High complexity sequences contained phonemically similar consonants, and sounds and syllables that had low phonotactic probabilities; low complexity sequences contained phonemically dissimilar consonants and high probability sounds and syllables. Sequence complexity effects were evaluated by analyzing speech error rates and within-syllable vowel and pause durations. This analysis revealed that speech error rates were significantly higher and speech duration measures were significantly longer during production of high complexity sequences than during production of low complexity sequences. Although speakers with dysarthria produced longer overall speech durations than healthy speakers, the effects of sequence complexity on error rates and speech durations were comparable across all groups. These findings indicate that the duration and accuracy of processes for selecting items in a speech sequence is influenced by their phonemic similarity and/or phonotactic probability. Moreover, this robust complexity effect is present even in speakers with damage to subcortical circuits involved in serial control for speech. PMID:24146997

  3. Sequence complexity effects on speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Reilly

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of sequence complexity, defined in terms of phonemic similarity and phonotoactic probability, on the timing and accuracy of serial ordering for speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. Sequences were comprised of strings of consonant-vowel (CV syllables with each syllable containing the same vowel, /a/, paired with a different consonant. High complexity sequences contained phonemically similar consonants, and sounds and syllables that had low phonotactic probabilities; low complexity sequences contained phonemically dissimilar consonants and high probability sounds and syllables. Sequence complexity effects were evaluated by analyzing speech error rates and within-syllable vowel and pause durations. This analysis revealed that speech error rates were significantly higher and speech duration measures were significantly longer during production of high complexity sequences than during production of low complexity sequences. Although speakers with dysarthria produced longer overall speech durations than healthy speakers, the effects of sequence complexity on error rates and speech durations were comparable across all groups. These findings indicate that the duration and accuracy of processes for selecting items in a speech sequence is influenced by their phonemic similarity and/or phonotactic probability. Moreover, this robust complexity effect is present even in speakers with damage to subcortical circuits involved in serial control for speech.

  4. Effective Prediction of Errors by Non-native Speakers Using Decision Tree for Speech Recognition-Based CALL System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongcui; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) systems using ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) for second language learning have received increasing interest recently. However, it still remains a challenge to achieve high speech recognition performance, including accurate detection of erroneous utterances by non-native speakers. Conventionally, possible error patterns, based on linguistic knowledge, are added to the lexicon and language model, or the ASR grammar network. However, this approach easily falls in the trade-off of coverage of errors and the increase of perplexity. To solve the problem, we propose a method based on a decision tree to learn effective prediction of errors made by non-native speakers. An experimental evaluation with a number of foreign students learning Japanese shows that the proposed method can effectively generate an ASR grammar network, given a target sentence, to achieve both better coverage of errors and smaller perplexity, resulting in significant improvement in ASR accuracy.

  5. Cultural-Linguistic Aspects in Asian Language Teaching. Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the American Council of Teachers of Uncommonly-Taught Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono, Comp.

    Problems encountered by teachers of uncommonly-taught Asian languages attempting to teach the culture of the native speakers of the target language are discussed in these articles: (1) "Cultural Context, Linguistic Categories, and Foreign Language Teaching: A Case from Marathi" by Vasant S. Khokle, (2) "The Ethnology of Communication and the…

  6. Pragma- und textilinguistische Untersuchungsmethoden zur indirekten Rede im Englischen (Pragmatic and Text-Linguistic Research Methods on Indirect Discourse in English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Examines the mechanisms involved in changing from direct to indirect discourse, taking as a starting point research findings in linguistic pragmatics, which involve the practical application of speech symbol use between speaker and hearer. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Little houses and casas pequeñas: message formulation and syntactic form in unscripted speech with speakers of English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E

    2008-11-01

    During unscripted speech, speakers coordinate the formulation of pre-linguistic messages with the linguistic processes that implement those messages into speech. We examine the process of constructing a contextually appropriate message and interfacing that message with utterance planning in English (the small butterfly) and Spanish (la mariposa pequeña) during an unscripted, interactive task. The coordination of gaze and speech during formulation of these messages is used to evaluate two hypotheses regarding the lower-limit on the size of message planning units, namely whether messages are planned in units isomorphous to entire phrases or units isomorphous to single lexical items. Comparing the planning of fluent pre-nominal adjectives in English and post-nominal adjectives in Spanish showed that size information is added to the message later in Spanish than English, suggesting that speakers can prepare pre-linguistic messages in lexically-sized units. The results also suggest that speakers can use disfluency to coordinate the transition from thought to speech.

  8. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  9. FORMING PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE BY USING LINGUISTIC COUNTRY STUDYING CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Beskorsa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the role of linguistic country studying content in learning the English language and the ways of forming primary schoolchildren’s linguistic country studying competence. According to reforming the system of foreign language education in Ukraine it should be selected in the context of intercultural paradigm. Linguistic country study solves a number of problems, including the main philological problem of adequate understanding of the foreign speech which is the basis of linguistics. While interpreting the foreign speech, pupils should understand it, selecting the appropriate equivalents in the native language. The author thinks that authentic linguistic country studying materials contribute to the qualitative understanding and producing foreign speech. The stages of the work with authentic content are presented in the article. The author singles out the following stages: incentive-motivational one includes the forming communicative tasks and increases the pupils’ level of motivation; content-operational stage aims at presenting and semantization of new lexical items and the use of training exercises; concluding one is focused on using lexical items in pupils’ speech. The examples of practical tasks are given for each stage. Linguistic country studies deal with the linguistic units that most clearly reflect the cultural characteristics of the people – native speakers and their living place. Thereby lingvoregional aspect of sociocultural competence in the English language teaching involves lexical background vocabulary and national realias. It is proved that using linguistic country studying comments intensifies the process of mastering background vocabulary and national realias of English-speaking countries, which are the components of sociocltural competence and provide forming pupils’ communicative skills at the elementary level.

  10. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    at the university or divinity school level, but also to scholars of the Hebrew Bible in general who have not been exposed to the full scope of issues. The book is useful to a wide range of readers by introducing topics at a basic level before entering into detailed discussion. Among the many issues discussed...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...... and Greek loanwords (Chapters 6, 8-12). Volume 2 builds on the topics outlined in volume 1. It begins with a book by book survey of scholarship on the origins of biblical sources, passages and books, with particular reference to the linguistic evidence scholars have cited in arriving at these conclusions...

  15. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 38 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Tracking Intermittently Speaking Multiple Speakers Using a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Quinlan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.

  20. Speaker diarization system using HXLPS and deep neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Subba Ramaiah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, speaker diarization is defined as the process of segmenting the input speech signal and grouped the homogenous regions with regard to the speaker identity. The main idea behind this system is that it is able to discriminate the speaker signal by assigning the label of the each speaker signal. Due to rapid growth of broadcasting and meeting, the speaker diarization is burdensome to enhance the readability of the speech transcription. In order to solve this issue, Holoentropy with the eXtended Linear Prediction using autocorrelation Snapshot (HXLPS and deep neural network (DNN is proposed for the speaker diarization system. The HXLPS extraction method is newly developed by incorporating the Holoentropy with the XLPS. Once we attain the features, the speech and non-speech signals are detected by the Voice Activity Detection (VAD method. Then, i-vector representation of every segmented signal is obtained using Universal Background Model (UBM model. Consequently, DNN is utilized to assign the label for the speaker signal which is then clustered according to the speaker label. The performance is analysed using the evaluation metrics, such as tracking distance, false alarm rate and diarization error rate. The outcome of the proposed method ensures the better diarization performance by achieving the lower DER of 1.36% based on lambda value and DER of 2.23% depends on the frame length. Keywords: Speaker diarization, HXLPS feature extraction, Voice activity detection, Deep neural network, Speaker clustering, Diarization Error Rate (DER

  1. Problems in Translating The Names of Dog Breeds From the Perspective of Different Nomination Principles and Linguistic Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Suchanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses selected terms from the perspective of linguistic relativity. It examines how the speakers of English, Lithuanian, and Russian perceive similar phenomena, how this specific perception is reflected in the linguistic nomination, and what difficulties this difference may cause for a translator. The analysis has demonstrated that some dog breeds are grouped differently in given languages, which presents certain problems of translation. The translator must possess considerable knowledge of cynology vocabulary or seek for a professional advice in order to produce a correct translation of dog breeds from English into Lithuanian and Russian, and vice versa.

  2. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  3. Netlang: A software for the linguistic analysis of corpora by means of complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Barceló-Coblijn

    Full Text Available To date there is no software that directly connects the linguistic analysis of a conversation to a network program. Networks programs are able to extract statistical information from data basis with information about systems of interacting elements. Language has also been conceived and studied as a complex system. However, most proposals do not analyze language according to linguistic theory, but use instead computational systems that should save time at the price of leaving aside many crucial aspects for linguistic theory. Some approaches to network studies on language do apply precise linguistic analyses, made by a linguist. The problem until now has been the lack of interface between the analysis of a sentence and its integration into the network that could be managed by a linguist and that could save the analysis of any language. Previous works have used old software that was not created for these purposes and that often produced problems with some idiosyncrasies of the target language. The desired interface should be able to deal with the syntactic peculiarities of a particular language, the options of linguistic theory preferred by the user and the preservation of morpho-syntactic information (lexical categories and syntactic relations between items. Netlang is the first program able to do that. Recently, a new kind of linguistic analysis has been developed, which is able to extract a complexity pattern from the speaker's linguistic production which is depicted as a network where words are inside nodes, and these nodes connect each other by means of edges or links (the information inside the edge can be syntactic, semantic, etc.. The Netlang software has become the bridge between rough linguistic data and the network program. Netlang has integrated and improved the functions of programs used in the past, namely the DGA annotator and two scripts (ToXML.pl and Xml2Pairs.py used for transforming and pruning data. Netlang allows the researcher

  4. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  5. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  6. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  7. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  8. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  9. Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el español mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1 diseño especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2 adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3 control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH. La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1 special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2 standard speaker adaptation, and (3 control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary

  10. Cultural models of linguistic standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Geeraerts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In line with well-known trends in cultural theory (see Burke et al., 2000, Cognitive Linguistics has stressed the idea that we think about social reality in terms of models – ‘cultural models’ or ‘folk theories’: from Holland & Quinn (1987 over Lakoff (1996 and Palmer (1996 to Dirven et al. (2001a, 2001b, Cognitive linguists have demonstrated how the technical apparatus of Cognitive Linguistics can be used to analyze how our conception of social reality is shaped by underlying patterns of thought. But if language is a social and cultural reality, what are the models that shape our conception of language? Specifically, what are the models that shape our thinking about language as a social phenomenon? What are the paradigms that we use to think about language, not primarily in terms of linguistic structure (as in Reddy 1979, but in terms of linguistic variation: models about the way in which language varieties are distributed over a language community and about the way in which such distribution should be evaluated?In this paper, I will argue that two basic models may be identified: a rationalist and a romantic one. I will chart the ways in which they interact, describe how they are transformed in the course of time, and explore how the models can be used in the analysis of actual linguistic variation.

  11. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  12. Genre Analysis of MA Thesis Abstracts by native and (Iraqi non-native Speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abdul-Munim Jawad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract         The purpose of the present study is to investigate the macro-structure (move-step analysis of abstract section of MA theses in linguistics. There are two corpora consist of fifteen MA theses written by American native and fifteen others by Iraqi Arab non-native speakers of English. Based on the analysis, some similarities and differences were found regarding cyclicity (move structure and move-step frequency of occurrence. The findings of the present study are useful for Iraqi non-native writers by presenting the important factors that make them familiar with rhetorical move-step structure of MA thesis abstracts.

  13. A corpus-linguistic investigation of dental English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D M

    2000-04-01

    This article begins by presenting corpus linguistics and explaining how the corpus approach to language analysis can be used to investigate the language of dentistry. It then reports findings from an analysis that was carried out with readily available software and a corpus of 1,400 dental research abstracts. Included is information about word frequency in dental abstracts and also about how certain words tend to co-occur in sentences and form regular patterns. The article concludes with a discussion of ways that corpus-based findings can be applied to the teaching of English to non-native speakers of the language, many of whom will need English skills for their future careers in dentistry.

  14. Linguistic expressions of emotion in Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    How are emotions expressed in Kalaallisut In Kalaallisut the expressions of emotions are expressed by verbal stems, verbal as well as nominal affixes, and of ‘metaphorical’ expressions. Within verbal stems there are both mono morphemic ‘basic’ emotion terms and also ‘metaphorical’ terms which...... consist of compound verbal stems. Besides these it seems there are specific aspectual markers with concrete emotional meanings, and some verbal modifying affixes with emotional meanings also, and finally a group of nominal modifiers which express the speakers emotional evaluation of another person....... In this paper I’ll consider these questions: -do emotions terms have special linguistic constructions or not? - do emotions verbs have specificity in comparison with other verbs, for example in telicity? -are special affixes linked with the verbs of emotion? - do emotions verbs have special temporal...

  15. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  16. Speech, speaker and speaker's gender identification in automatically processed broadcast stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silovský, J.; Nouza, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2006), s. 42-48 ISSN 1210-2512 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS108040569 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech processing * speaker recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  17. Guest speakers and internationalization in higher education: A critical reflection of guest speakers in tourism programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At its general term, this paper discusses the role of guest lecturers in higher education. More precisely, the paper considers the role of guest lecturers in tourism Management programmes taught to student in Universities. The paper examines theory and literature relating to tourism studies and higher education in general. It discusses the relevance of guest speakers in universities and examines their contributions towards tourism programmes. The paper discusses lecturers in tourism degrees suggesting that they might lack industry experiences but are still required to deliver theories to students and are seen as classroom managers and student mentors. The paper further investigates how lecturers and guest speakers are perceived as two different entities by students where lecturers are seen as classroom managers and guest speakers are seen as the industry knowledge providers. As internationalization of education becomes the focus of higher education institutions that aim to deliver education in a more international context, guest speakers that address local practical occurrences become less appealing. With the rapid spread of distant learning and online education, the paper concludes that guest lecturers are not the solution for perfect academic experiences in higher education in general and specifically in tourism programmes.

  18. Speaker-dependent Dictionary-based Speech Enhancement for Text-Dependent Speaker Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The problem of text-dependent speaker verification under noisy conditions is becoming ever more relevant, due to increased usage for authentication in real-world applications. Classical methods for noise reduction such as spectral subtraction and Wiener filtering introduce distortion and do not p...... on dictionary-based noise reduction and compare it to the baseline methods....

  19. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kulshreshtha, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study discusses the subject of forensic voice identification and speaker profiling. Specifically focusing on speaker profiling and using dialects of the Hindi language, widely used in India, the authors have contributed to the body of research on speaker identification by using accent feature as the discriminating factor. This case study contributes to the understanding of the speaker identification process in a situation where unknown speech samples are in different language/dialect than the recording of a suspect. The authors' data establishes that vowel quality, quantity, intonation and tone of a speaker as compared to Khariboli (standard Hindi) could be the potential features for identification of dialect accent.

  20. Real Time Recognition Of Speakers From Internet Audio Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weychan Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automatic speaker recognition technique with the use of the Internet radio lossy (encoded speech signal streams. We show an influence of the audio encoder (e.g., bitrate on the speaker model quality. The model of each speaker was calculated with the use of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM approach. Both the speaker recognition and the further analysis were realized with the use of short utterances to facilitate real time processing. The neighborhoods of the speaker models were analyzed with the use of the ISOMAP algorithm. The experiments were based on four 1-hour public debates with 7–8 speakers (including the moderator, acquired from the Polish radio Internet services. The presented software was developed with the MATLAB environment.

  1. Perceptual prothesis in native Spanish speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.

    2003-04-01

    Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  3. Living with acquired dysarthria: the speaker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Miller, Nick

    2011-01-01

    To explore the speaker's experience of living with acquired chronic dysarthria. Ten people with dysarthria and progressive neurological illness and one person with dysarthria following stroke were interviewed in depth about their experience of living with dysarthria. They covered a range of ages, time post-onset and dysarthria severity levels. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Framework Method of Analysis. Acquired dysarthria can negatively impact on speakers' lives. Findings here suggest that the experience of living with dysarthria is highly individual. There were some common perspectives. Six key themes emerged from interviews: 'dysarthria as only part of the picture', 'communication has changed', 'people treat me differently', 'dysarthria resulting in negative emotions', 'barriers to communication' and 'life is different now. The impact of co-existing physical disability and the need to consider dysarthria in context was emphasised by all participants. Findings re-emphasise the need to consider the individual experience in clinical practice. The findings provide direction for assessment and intervention in the area.

  4. Visual speaker gender affects vowel identification in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    The experiment examined the effect of visual speaker gender on the vowel perception of 20 native Danish-speaking subjects. Auditory stimuli consisting of a continuum between /muːlə/ ‘muzzle’ and /moːlə/ ‘pier’ generated using TANDEM-STRAIGHT matched with video clips of a female and a male speaker...... were used to determine whether visual speaker gender affected Danish listeners similarly to American English-speaking listeners tested in a similar way....

  5. On the Sequential Negotiation of Identity in Spanish-Language Discourse: Mobilizing Linguistic Resources in the Service of Social Action

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Chase Wesley

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation takes an ethnomethodologically-grounded, conversation-analytic approach in investigating the sequential deployment of linguistic resources in Spanish-language talk-in-interaction. Three sets of resources are examined: 2nd-person singular reference forms (tú, vos, usted), indicative/subjunctive verbal mood selection, and Spanish-English intersentential code-switching. In each case, we ask: How is it that these elements of language are mobilized by speakers to accomplish ident...

  6. The Open Linguistics Working Group: Developing the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McCrae, John Philip; Chiarcos, Christian; Bond, Francis; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; de Melo, Gerard; Gracia, Jorge; Hellmann, Sebastian; Klimek, Bettina; Moran, Steven; Osenova, Petya; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Pool, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG) brings together researchers from various fields of linguistics, natural language processing, and information technology to present and discuss principles, case studies, and best practices for representing, publishing and linking linguistic data collections. A major outcome of our work is the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud, an LOD (sub-)cloud of linguistic resources, which covers various linguistic databases, lexicons, corpora, terminologies,...

  7. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  8. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Prototypicality Norms Used by Male and Female Persian and American Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Reza; Bahadoran-Baghbaderani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Human beings generally cut the realities of the world in various ways in order to express their thoughts and interact with other people. Naturally, words are linguistic categories which carry the intended concepts; however, humans tend to economize by bundling words into different conceptual classes. Accordingly, the present study sought to explore the prototypicality norms used by male and female Persian and American speakers adopting a cross cultural analysis. For this purpose, from the existing prototypes, four conceptual categories; namely, vehicles, vegetables, furniture, and clothes were randomly selected and used as the tertium comparationis for determining the way 120 male and female monolingual American and Persian speakers, sixty from each language, ranked the category membership of different conceptual members belonging to the targeted prototypes. The analysis of the obtained data based on participants' ranking of the prototypes along with the respective frequency values revealed that gender and culture played a significant role in identifying the category membership of various members of a given concept across different languages. The findings can have important implications for language teachers, material designers, and second language students since culture is an overriding factor in language learning.

  9. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  10. Action speaks louder than words: young children differentially weight perceptual, social, and linguistic cues to learn verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C; Pence, Khara L; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how children use two possible solutions to the verb-mapping problem: attention to perceptually salient actions and attention to social and linguistic information (speaker cues). Twenty-two-month-olds attached a verb to one of two actions when perceptual cues (presence/absence of a result) coincided with speaker cues but not when these cues were placed into conflict (Experiment 1), and not when both possible referent actions were perceptually salient (Experiment 2). By 34 months, children were able to override perceptual cues to learn the name of an action that was not perceptually salient (Experiment 3). Results demonstrate an early reliance on perceptual information for verb mapping and an emerging tendency to weight speaker information more heavily over developmental time.

  11. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  12. Linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovskaya Yulia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis, thus establishing a new branch of pedagogy called pedagogical semiology that is concerned with students’ acquisition of culture encoded in symbols and the way students’ sign consciousness formed in the context of learning affects their world cognition and interpersonal communication. The article introduces a set of tools that would enable the teacher to organize the educational process in compliance with the rules of language as a sign system applied to the context of pedagogy and with the formation of younger generation’s language picture of the world.

  13. Attitudes Towards World War II Collaboration in Belgium: Effects on Political Positioning Towards the Amnesty Issue in the Two Main Linguistic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Guissmé

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that some Belgians collaborated with the Nazi occupier during WWII. However, according to a popular myth, collaboration was widespread in Flanders, whereas Walloons bravely resisted. Of course, historical reality is much more nuanced, but this oversimplification has largely resurfaced in political debates surrounding the Belgian linguistic conflict. Demands for amnesty for former collaborators addressed by Flemish nationalist parties are a case in point. We conducted two studies in order to investigate Belgians’ attitudes towards this political issue in the two linguistic communities. In 2012, a first survey (N = 521; 315 French-speakers (FS and 206 Dutch-speakers (DS showed that WWII collaboration was morally condemned, and attitudes towards amnesty were predominantly negative, in both groups. However, DS tended to support amnesty more than FS. This effect of Linguistic Group on Support for Amnesty was mediated by Judgments of Morality of collaboration, and this mediation was moderated by Linguistic identification. In 2015, a second survey (N = 774; 476 FS and 298 DS confirmed these results. Moreover, judgments about the Unfairness of the repression of collaboration also mediated the effect of Linguistic Group on Support for Amnesty. These results suggest that differences in political position-taking regarding the granting of amnesty between DS and FS are, at least partly, due to different attitudes towards collaboration and to the membership to a linguistic community.

  14. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  15. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  16. Issues in Austronesian Historical Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kimoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the first JSEALS special publication since JSEALS became a University of Hawai‘i Press publication as of January 2017. The goal of JSEALS special publications is to share collections of linguistics articles, such as select papers from conferences or other special research agendas, as well as to offer a way for linguistic researchers in the greater Southeast Asian region to publish monograph-length works. In this instance, Hsiu-chuan Liao, the primary editor of this publication, requested that papers from the 2015 13-ICAL meeting be published through JSEALS, which we were able to complete in a timely manner. The five papers include works by prominent names in the field of Austronesian historical linguistics.

  17. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  18. The Role of Wishes in Tatar and English Linguistic Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A. Nurgalieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wishes are an important category of speech etiquette, whose significance in society culture and life is undeniable. The purpose of this article is to compare the main ways of wishes in two completely different linguistic cultures. The main research methods include comparative, definitional, component and contextual analysis and ethnic-linguistic-culturological one. In the process of the study, we came to the conclusion that one of the few units of speech etiquette can function in parallel with many other phenomena of speech etiquette, such as greeting, farewell, congratulation, condolence, gratitude, advice, etc. Despite the fact that wishes are a natural norm of communication, they have a huge force of influence on a person, as they are aimed on the creation of a good mood for an interlocutor. In Tatar and English, wishes have different forms of use, which characterizes them as the most common unit of speech etiquette. Wishes are chosen by a speaker with an emphasis on the generally accepted value system, on the idea of a value system of a listener, as well as his own ideas about what is good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant for an addressee. The materials of this article can be used in the practice of intercultural communication, in the translation process of teaching English to a Tatar language audience at higher education institutions and schools in order to develop intercultural communication among learners.

  19. Who spoke when? Audio-based speaker location estimation for diarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Speaker diarization is the process which detects active speakers and groups those speech signals which has been uttered by the same speaker. Generally we can find two main applications for speaker diarization. Automatic Speech Recognition systems make use of the speaker homogeneous clusters to adapt

  20. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  1. Sensory Intelligence for Extraction of an Abstract Auditory Rule: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Xiu-Yuan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2018-02-21

    In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so-called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear. To address this issue, we constructed a complex speech sound stream using auditory materials in Mandarin Chinese, in which syllables had a flat lexical tone but differed in other acoustic features to form an abstract auditory rule. This rule was occasionally and randomly violated by the syllables with the rising, dipping or falling tone. We found that both Chinese and foreign speakers detected the violations of the abstract auditory rule in the speech sound stream at a pre-attentive stage, as revealed by the whole-head recordings of mismatch negativity (MMN) in a passive paradigm. However, MMNs peaked earlier in Chinese speakers than in foreign speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers showed different MMN peak latencies for the three deviant types, which paralleled recognition points. These findings indicate that the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech sounds is innate but shaped by language experience. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An experimental comparison of modelling techniques for speaker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the existing modelling techniques for the speaker recognition task make an implicit assumption of sufficient data for speaker modelling and hence may lead to poor modelling under limited data condition. The present work gives an experimental evaluation of the modelling techniques like Crisp Vector Quantization ...

  3. Optimization of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Voznak, Miroslav; Skapa, Jan; Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker identification. The main task of speaker identification is to find a specific person in the known set of speakers. It means that the voice of an unknown speaker (wanted person) belongs to a group of reference speakers from the voice database. One of the requests was to develop the text-independent system, which means to classify wanted person regardless of content and language. Multilayer neural network has been used for speaker identification in this research. Artificial neural network (ANN) needs to set parameters like activation function of neurons, steepness of activation functions, learning rate, the maximum number of iterations and a number of neurons in the hidden and output layers. ANN accuracy and validation time are directly influenced by the parameter settings. Different roles require different settings. Identification accuracy and ANN validation time were evaluated with the same input data but different parameter settings. The goal was to find parameters for the neural network with the highest precision and shortest validation time. Input data of neural networks are a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). These parameters describe the properties of the vocal tract. Audio samples were recorded for all speakers in a laboratory environment. Training, testing and validation data set were split into 70, 15 and 15 %. The result of the research described in this article is different parameter setting for the multilayer neural network for four speakers.

  4. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa | Mosotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical presentation of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers. Method: A sample of 100 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia was evaluated using the Psychiatric Interview Questionnaire. Results: Core symptoms of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers do not ...

  5. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'aida, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher's family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of…

  6. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  7. An experimental comparison of modelling techniques for speaker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Most of the existing modelling techniques for the speaker recog- nition task make an implicit assumption of sufficient data for speaker modelling and hence may lead to poor modelling under limited data condition. The present work gives an experimental evaluation of the modelling techniques like Crisp.

  8. Intonation and Gesture as Bootstrapping Devices in Speaker Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Iris; Esteve-Gibert, Núria; Igualada, Alfonso; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates 3- to 5-year-old children's sensitivity to lexical, intonational and gestural information in the comprehension of speaker uncertainty. Most previous studies on children's understanding of speaker certainty and uncertainty across languages have focused on the comprehension of lexical markers, and little is known about the…

  9. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  10. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Holliday, Adrian; Swan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  11. Internal request modification by first and second language speakers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the question of whether Luganda English speakers would negatively transfer into their English speech the use of syntactic and lexical down graders resulting in pragmatic failure. Data were collected from Luganda and Luganda English speakers by means of a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) ...

  12. Dysprosody and Stimulus Effects in Cantonese Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. Aims: To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with…

  13. Guest Speakers in School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…

  14. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  15. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  16. Data-Model Relationship in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapert Robert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text-independent speaker recognition systems such as those based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs do not include time sequence information (TSI within the model itself. The level of importance of TSI in speaker recognition is an interesting question and one addressed in this paper. Recent works has shown that the utilisation of higher-level information such as idiolect, pronunciation, and prosodics can be useful in reducing speaker recognition error rates. In accordance with these developments, the aim of this paper is to show that as more data becomes available, the basic GMM can be enhanced by utilising TSI, even in a text-independent mode. This paper presents experimental work incorporating TSI into the conventional GMM. The resulting system, known as the segmental mixture model (SMM, embeds dynamic time warping (DTW into a GMM framework. Results are presented on the 2000-speaker SpeechDat Welsh database which show improved speaker recognition performance with the SMM.

  17. Do We Perceive Others Better than Ourselves? A Perceptual Benefit for Noise-Vocoded Speech Produced by an Average Speaker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Schuerman

    Full Text Available In different tasks involving action perception, performance has been found to be facilitated when the presented stimuli were produced by the participants themselves rather than by another participant. These results suggest that the same mental representations are accessed during both production and perception. However, with regard to spoken word perception, evidence also suggests that listeners' representations for speech reflect the input from their surrounding linguistic community rather than their own idiosyncratic productions. Furthermore, speech perception is heavily influenced by indexical cues that may lead listeners to frame their interpretations of incoming speech signals with regard to speaker identity. In order to determine whether word recognition evinces similar self-advantages as found in action perception, it was necessary to eliminate indexical cues from the speech signal. We therefore asked participants to identify noise-vocoded versions of Dutch words that were based on either their own recordings or those of a statistically average speaker. The majority of participants were more accurate for the average speaker than for themselves, even after taking into account differences in intelligibility. These results suggest that the speech representations accessed during perception of noise-vocoded speech are more reflective of the input of the speech community, and hence that speech perception is not necessarily based on representations of one's own speech.

  18. Do We Perceive Others Better than Ourselves? A Perceptual Benefit for Noise-Vocoded Speech Produced by an Average Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerman, William L; Meyer, Antje; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    In different tasks involving action perception, performance has been found to be facilitated when the presented stimuli were produced by the participants themselves rather than by another participant. These results suggest that the same mental representations are accessed during both production and perception. However, with regard to spoken word perception, evidence also suggests that listeners' representations for speech reflect the input from their surrounding linguistic community rather than their own idiosyncratic productions. Furthermore, speech perception is heavily influenced by indexical cues that may lead listeners to frame their interpretations of incoming speech signals with regard to speaker identity. In order to determine whether word recognition evinces similar self-advantages as found in action perception, it was necessary to eliminate indexical cues from the speech signal. We therefore asked participants to identify noise-vocoded versions of Dutch words that were based on either their own recordings or those of a statistically average speaker. The majority of participants were more accurate for the average speaker than for themselves, even after taking into account differences in intelligibility. These results suggest that the speech representations accessed during perception of noise-vocoded speech are more reflective of the input of the speech community, and hence that speech perception is not necessarily based on representations of one's own speech.

  19. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  20. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  1. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fusion of heterogeneous speaker recognition systems in the STBU submission for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brümmer, N.; Burget, L.; Černocký, J.H.; Glembek, O.; Grézl, F.; Karafiát, M.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Matějka, P.; Schwarz, P.; Strasheim, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the "STBU" speaker recognition system, which performed well in the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2006 (SRE). STBU is a consortium of four partners: Spescom DataVoice (Stellenbosch, South Africa), TNO (Soesterberg, The Netherlands), BUT (Brno, Czech Republic),

  3. Revisiting the Issue of Native Speakerism: "I Don't Want to Speak Like a Native Speaker of English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Lee Jin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…

  4. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF WORKING WITH LINGUISTICALLY GIFTED SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina N Kartashova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors reveal a number of pedagogical conditions necessary for training the linguistically gifted school students in a foreign language in the system of additional foreign-language education providing fully specific content, the forms and methods of training and education of pupils aimed at the solution of the specific pedagogical objectives. Using the specific language material, the teacher of a foreign language (FL has to try to create such pedagogical conditions in the system of additional foreign-language education that would teach the linguistically gifted school students to understand the outlook and psychology of the native-speakers of a FL which are generally expressed through artistic means having a set of uniform philosophical and psychological, mythopoetic sources in the ancient times which promotes the formation of the inner world of linguistically gifted school students in many respects.

  5. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  6. Text linguistics: memory and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lopes Fávero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Text Linguistics originates in Brazil in the 80s of the twentieth century. The first work that we know of is from 1981, authored by Prof. Ignacio Antonio Neiss, entitled Por uma gramática textua, which was followed by two other in 1983: Linguística textual: o que é e como se faz, by Prof. Luiz Antônio Marcuschi and Linguística textual: introdução by Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore Villaça Koch. Professor Neiss shows how initial attempts to textual linguistics, were generally related to structural and generative grammars. The work of Prof. Marcuschi focuses on the analysis of some text definitions and on the study of theoretical aspects in relation to their applicability. Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore V. Koch aim to provide the Brazilian reader with an overview of text linguistics in Europe, a recent branch of language science then. This work is part of the History of Linguistic Ideas, part of the Cultural History, which seeks to identify how at different times , a social reality is constructed, designed, and enlightened (Chartier, 1990.

  7. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  8. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  9. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the third of a series of studies painting a macroscopic picture of the architecture and dynamics of linguistic reality. It has to be read together with the first two, The World of Language. llts Crust(= SPJL PLUS 24, 1994) and The World of Language. 2 Its Behavioural Belt (= SPIL PLUS 25, 1994). Without the generous ...

  11. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  12. Language Teaching=Linguistic Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism is the expansion of a small number of privileged languages at the cost of a large number of others. The language teaching profession needs to address the ecological impact of language teaching and focus on the well-being of the inhabitants of a language ecology rather than on the economic benefits of the teaching…

  13. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me ... Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  14. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 50 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me ... Josh Westbury, Alexander Andrason. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  15. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Abstract. This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  16. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  17. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  18. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts, ...

  19. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  20. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  1. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The papers published in SPiL Plus are primarily intended for scholars with an interest in linguistics and related disciplines in Southern Africa. SPiL Plus provides a platform ... Using multimodal pedagogies in writing centres to improve student writing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  3. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible interp...

  4. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  5. Online Databases as Sources of Linguistic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    1988-01-01

    This description of the types of linguistic information obtainable from online databases generally used to acquire technical information includes examples of equivalent words, English usage, and statistical linguistic data. The implications of online databases as substitutes for dictionaries and as corpora for linguistic survey are considered.…

  6. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  7. Linguistic Intermarriage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gillian; Schoen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Examined linguistic and educational marriage patterns for native-born Americans in six language groups while controlling for population age, sex, education, and linguistic composition. Found that linguistic homogamy was more pronounced for persons of lower educational status. Education was more salient than language in marriage choices of…

  8. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  9. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  10. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  11. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: Effects of sequence length and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Reilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson’s disease, 5 adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson’s disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria.

  12. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: effects of sequence length and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Spencer, Kristie A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson’s disease, five adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs) and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson’s disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria. PMID:24137121

  13. La influencia de "los de abajo" en tres procesos de cambio linguistico en el espanol de Morelia, Michoacan (The Influence of "the Underclass" on Three Processes of Linguistic Change in the Spanish of Morelia, Michoacan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Manuel J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the educational and socioeconomic levels of the speakers in advancing linguistic change. The study reviews three grammatical phenomena found at distinct stages of change. Individuals at the lower socioeconomic and educational strata of society embrace innovations in language more readily than their affluent and educated…

  14. NES++: number system for encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Tao; Zhao, Xi; Shi, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    As speech based operation becomes a main hand-free interaction solution between human and mobile devices (i.e., smartphones, Google Glass), privacy preserving speaker verification receives much attention nowadays. Privacy preserving speaker verification can be achieved through many different ways, such as fuzzy vault and encryption. Encryption based solutions are promising as cryptography is based on solid mathematic foundations and the security properties can be easily analyzed in a well established framework. Most current asymmetric encryption schemes work on finite algebraic structures, such as finite group and finite fields. However, the encryption scheme for privacy preserving speaker verification must handle floating point numbers. This gap must be filled to make the overall scheme practical. In this paper, we propose a number system that meets the requirements of both speaker verification and the encryption scheme used in the process. It also supports addition homomorphic property of Pailliers encryption, which is crucial for privacy preserving speaker verification. As asymmetric encryption is expensive, we propose a method of packing several numbers into one plain-text and the computation overhead is greatly reduced. To evaluate the performance of this method, we implement Pailliers encryption scheme over proposed number system and the packing technique. Our findings show that the proposed solution can fulfill the gap between speaker verification and encryption scheme very well, and the packing technique improves the overall performance. Furthermore, our solution is a building block of encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification, the privacy protection and accuracy rate are not affected.

  15. Presentation skills for the reluctant speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, J E

    1999-01-01

    Presentation skills are vital to clinical systems managers. This article covers four steps to successful presentations: 1) tailoring for an audience, 2) organizing a presentation, 3) mastering presentation techniques, and 4) creating effective visual aids. Tailoring for the audience entails learning about the audience and matching the presentation to their knowledge, educational level, and interests. Techniques to curry favor with an audience include: establishing common ground, relating through universal experiences, and pushing "hot buttons." Tasks involved in organizing the presentation for maximum audience interest begin with arranging the key points in a transparent organizational scheme. Audience attention is sustained using "hooks," such as graphics, anecdotes, humor, and quotations. Basic presentation techniques include appropriate rehearsal, effective eye contact with an audience, and anxiety-reducing strategies. Visual aids include flip charts, slides, transparencies, and computer presentations. Criteria for selecting the type of visual aids are delineated based on audience size and type of presentation, along with respective advantages and disadvantages. The golden rule for presentations is "Never show a slide for which you have to apologize." Rules to maximize visibility and effectiveness, including use of standard templates, sans serif fonts, dark backgrounds with light letters, mixed cases, and effective graphics, ensure that slides or projected computer images are clear and professional. Taken together, these strategies will enhance the delivery of the presentation and decrease the speaker's anxiety.

  16. STUDENTS WRITING EMAILS TO FACULTY: AN EXAMINATION OF E-POLITENESS AMONG NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.

  17. Human and automatic speaker recognition over telecommunication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Gallardo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the evaluation of the human and the automatic speaker recognition performances under different channel distortions caused by bandwidth limitation, codecs, and electro-acoustic user interfaces, among other impairments. Its main contribution is the demonstration of the benefits of communication channels of extended bandwidth, together with an insight into how speaker-specific characteristics of speech are preserved through different transmissions. It provides sufficient motivation for considering speaker recognition as a criterion for the migration from narrowband to enhanced bandwidths, such as wideband and super-wideband.

  18. The role of linguistic and indexical information in improved recognition of dysarthric speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Stephanie A; McAuliffe, Megan J; Liss, Julie M; O'Beirne, Greg A; Anderson, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined perceptual learning of dysarthric speech. Forty listeners were randomly assigned to one of two identification training tasks, aimed at highlighting either the linguistic (word identification task) or indexical (speaker identification task) properties of the neurologically degraded signal. Twenty additional listeners served as a control group, passively exposed to the training stimuli. Immediately following exposure to dysarthric speech, all three listener groups completed an identical phrase transcription task. Analysis of listener transcripts revealed remarkably similar intelligibility improvements for listeners trained to attend to either the linguistic or the indexical properties of the signal. Perceptual learning effects were also evaluated with regards to underlying error patterns indicative of segmental and suprasegmental processing. The findings of this study suggest that elements within both the linguistic and indexical properties of the dysarthric signal are learnable and interact to promote improved processing of this type and severity of speech degradation. Thus, the current study extends support for the development of a model of perceptual processing in which the learning of indexical properties is encoded and retained in conjunction with linguistic properties of the signal.

  19. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pérez-Losada, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before the out-of-Africa dispersal; (iii) an increase in the phonemic accumulation rate with the number of speakers per unit area. Numerical simulations show that the predictions of the model agree with the observed decrease of linguistic diversity with increasing distance from the most likely origin of the out-of-Africa dispersal. Thus, the proposal that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity is viable, if three strong assumptions are satisfied. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in English, Mandarin, and Mandarin-English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky T. Lai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people’s representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatiotemporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2, and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1. These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatiotemporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience.

  1. The N400 Effect during Speaker-Switch-Towards a Conversational Approach of Measuring Neural Correlates of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goregliad Fjaellingsdal, Tatiana; Ruigendijk, Esther; Scherbaum, Stefan; Bleichner, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking) are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies. Here, we make an attempt to study the effects of a conversational element, namely turn-taking, on linguistic neural correlates, specifically the N400 effect. We focus on the physiological aspect of turn-taking, the speaker-switch, and its effect on the detectability of the N400 effect. The N400 event-related potential reflects expectation violations in a semantic context; the N400 effect describes the difference of the N400 amplitude between semantically expected and unexpected items. Sentences with semantically congruent and incongruent final words were presented in two turn-taking modes: (1) reading aloud first part of the sentence and listening to speaker-switch for the final word, and (2) listening to first part of the sentence and speaker-switch for the final word. A significant N400 effect was found for both turn-taking modes, which was not influenced by the mode itself. However, the mode significantly affected the P200, which was increased for the reading aloud mode compared to the listening mode. Our results show that an N400 effect can be detected during a speaker-switch. Speech articulation (reading aloud) before the analyzed sentence fragment did also not impede the N400 effect detection for the final word. The speaker-switch, however, seems to influence earlier components of the electroencephalogram, related to processing of salient stimuli. We conclude that the N400 can

  2. The N400 effect during speaker-switch – Towards a conversational approach of measuring neural correlates of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies.Here we make an attempt to study the effects of a conversational element, namely turn-taking, on linguistic neural correlates, specifically the N400 effect. We focus on the physiological aspect of turn-taking, the speaker-switch, and its effect on the detectability of the N400 effect. The N400 event-related potential reflects expectation violations in a semantic context; the N400 effect describes the difference of the N400 amplitude between semantically expected and unexpected items.Sentences with semantically congruent and incongruent final words were presented in two turn-taking modes: (1 reading aloud first part of the sentence and listening to speaker-switch for the final word, and (2 listening to first part of the sentence and speaker-switch for the final word.A significant N400 effect was found for both turn-taking modes, which was not influenced by the mode itself. However, the mode significantly affected the P200, which was increased for the reading aloud mode compared to the listening mode.Our results show that an N400 effect can be detected during a speaker-switch. Speech articulation (reading aloud before the analyzed sentence fragment did also not impede the N400 effect detection for the final word. The speaker-switch, however, seems to influence earlier components of the electroencephalogram, related to processing of salient stimuli. We conclude that the N

  3. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    problem in search and advertising. The question that this thesis asks is if the patterns studied in syntax , morphology , and semantics are influenced by the...draw upon formalisms developed in multiple subfields of linguistics: syntax , semantics, and cross-language investigations of semantics and morphology . We...11 1.2 Sources for Capturing More Nuanced Patterns from Text . . . . . . . 12 1.2.1 Syntax

  5. Cochlear implanted children: Linguistic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lynce, Sofia; Marques, Sofia; Paço, João; Mineiro, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The present exploratory study aims at exploring expressive linguistics abilities of cochlear-implanted children by testing spontaneous speech samples. For this purpose, Mean Length of Utterance in words will be measured and the productive use of single grammatical morphemes will be analysed. We analysed the spontaneous speech of three deaf Portuguese children with cochlear implants and three normal-hearing children paired case by case, taking into account the chronological age, gender and par...

  6. Archives: Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at http://gjl.laghana.org and https://www.ajol.info. However ... They may be sent to Dr. Ọbádélé Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of Linguistics, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 1149, Legon, Accra, Ghana. Anyone ...

  7. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  8. Multistyle Training and Fusion for Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification research faces challenges due to mismatched training and test conditions, arising out of several factors. Non-electronic voice disguise is one of such factor and is commonly seen in crimes. This paper presents a study of the effect of three different types of voice disguises......, taken from the CHAINS speech corpus for the speaker identification accuracy. Out of the three voice disguises, two are variants of imitative style, namely, synchronous and repetitive synchronous imitation, and one is the fast speaking style. Different variants of multistyle training to increase...... the speaker identification accuracy are investigated in this paper. The manner in which the different speaking style’s speech examples are used for multistyle training plays an important role in the speaker identification accuracy. Further, a fusion of two multistyle training at the decision level is proposed...

  9. A neural mechanism for recognizing speech spoken by different speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Gaudrain, Etienne; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding speech from different speakers is a sophisticated process, particularly because the same acoustic parameters convey important information about both the speech message and the person speaking. How the human brain accomplishes speech recognition under such conditions is unknown. One

  10. Cost-Sensitive Learning for Emotion Robust Speaker Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Yang, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    In the field of information security, voice is one of the most important parts in biometrics. Especially, with the development of voice communication through the Internet or telephone system, huge voice data resources are accessed. In speaker recognition, voiceprint can be applied as the unique password for the user to prove his/her identity. However, speech with various emotions can cause an unacceptably high error rate and aggravate the performance of speaker recognition system. This paper deals with this problem by introducing a cost-sensitive learning technology to reweight the probability of test affective utterances in the pitch envelop level, which can enhance the robustness in emotion-dependent speaker recognition effectively. Based on that technology, a new architecture of recognition system as well as its components is proposed in this paper. The experiment conducted on the Mandarin Affective Speech Corpus shows that an improvement of 8% identification rate over the traditional speaker recognition is achieved. PMID:24999492

  11. Workshop on IVHM and Aviation Safety: Invited Speakers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Confirmed Speakers from the United States Ashok N. Srivastava, NASA Ames Research Center Robert Mah, NASA Ames Research Center Gary Hunter, NASA Glenn Research...

  12. Voice patterns in adult English speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Yarrow, Kielan

    in a supervised machine-learning process to determine whether acoustic features predict diagnostic status and severity of the symptoms. In addition we were interested to evaluate how valid the model built based on Danish data would be on English data, i.e. which parameters were dependent and which were....... Using Recurrence Quantification analysis of acoustic features, Fusaroli et al. (2013 ; IMFAR 2014) demonstrated a high efficacy of identifying voice patterns characteristic of adult Danish speakers with Asperger’s syndrome and trained machine learning algorithms to accurately (80-86%) discriminate...... autistic from non-autistic speakers in both adult and children Danish speakers with ASD. Objectives: Our first aim was to replicate the results obtained by Fusaroli et al. (2013, 2014) in a sample of English speakers, i.e. (1) characterise the speech patterns of adults with ASD and (2) employ the results...

  13. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  14. Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods† Douglas Sturim and William M. Campbell MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA...to prove this by extending the proof of [8] to non-parametric hashing. 6. References [1] W. M. Campbell, D. E. Sturim, and D. A. Reynolds , “Support vec...EPFL-CONF-192414, 2012. [13] S. H. Shum, W. M. Campbell, and D. A. Reynolds , “Large-scale community detection on speaker content graphs,” in

  15. Intonation and gender perception: applications for transgender speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Colton, Lindsey; Douglas, Fiacre

    2014-03-01

    Intonation is commonly addressed in voice and communication feminization therapy, yet empirical evidence of gender differences for intonation is scarce and rarely do studies examine how it relates to gender perception of transgender speakers. This study examined intonation of 12 males, 12 females, six female-to-male, and 14 male-to-female transgender speakers describing a Norman Rockwell image. Several intonation measures were compared between biological gender groups, between perceived gender groups, and between male-to-female (MTF) speakers who were perceived as male, female, or ambiguous gender. Speakers with a larger percentage of utterances with upward intonation and a larger utterance semitone range were perceived as female by listeners, despite no significant differences between the actual intonation of the four gender groups. MTF speakers who do not pass as female appear to use less upward and more downward intonations than female and passing MTF speakers. Intonation has potential for use in transgender communication therapy because it can influence perception to some degree. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. FPGA Implementation for GMM-Based Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaklen EhKan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's society, highly accurate personal identification systems are required. Passwords or pin numbers can be forgotten or forged and are no longer considered to offer a high level of security. The use of biological features, biometrics, is becoming widely accepted as the next level for security systems. Biometric-based speaker identification is a method of identifying persons from their voice. Speaker-specific characteristics exist in speech signals due to different speakers having different resonances of the vocal tract. These differences can be exploited by extracting feature vectors such as Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs from the speech signal. A well-known statistical modelling process, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, then models the distribution of each speaker's MFCCs in a multidimensional acoustic space. The GMM-based speaker identification system has features that make it promising for hardware acceleration. This paper describes the hardware implementation for classification of a text-independent GMM-based speaker identification system. The aim was to produce a system that can perform simultaneous identification of large numbers of voice streams in real time. This has important potential applications in security and in automated call centre applications. A speedup factor of ninety was achieved compared to a software implementation on a standard PC.

  17. Free-classification of perceptually similar speakers with dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Kaitlin L; Liss, Julie M; Norton, Rebecca E

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, the construct of perceptual similarity was explored in the dysarthrias. Specifically, we employed an auditory free-classification task to determine whether listeners could cluster speakers by perceptual similarity, whether the clusters mapped to acoustic metrics, and whether the clusters were constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. Twenty-three listeners blinded to speakers' medical and dysarthria subtype diagnoses participated. The task was to group together (drag and drop) the icons corresponding to 33 speakers with dysarthria on the basis of how similar they sounded. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) modeled the perceptual dimensions underlying similarity. Acoustic metrics and perceptual judgments were used in correlation analyses to facilitate interpretation of the derived dimensions. Six clusters of similar-sounding speakers and 3 perceptual dimensions underlying similarity were revealed. The clusters of similar-sounding speakers were not constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. The 3 perceptual dimensions revealed by MDS were correlated with metrics for articulation rate, intelligibility, and vocal quality, respectively. This study shows (a) feasibility of a free-classification approach for studying perceptual similarity in dysarthria, (b) correspondence between acoustic and perceptual metrics to clusters of similar-sounding speakers, and (c) similarity judgments transcended dysarthria subtype diagnosis.

  18. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    OpenAIRE

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  19. Effects of Speaker Variability on Learning Foreign-Accented English for EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…

  20. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  1. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  2. Corpus Linguistics: theory, interfaces and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Pacheco de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Corpus Linguistics, characterizing it as an area of research, considering its relations with other areas of study and illustrating its applications with specific focus on Brazilian Portuguese. In order to develop these topics, this research paper discusses Corpus Linguistics characteristics by pointing out some issues that distinguish it from other areas of research, such as: (1 its specific way to define language as well as a particular form to do empirical research on the basis of evidence extracted from linguistic corpora, using computational tools; (2 the possibility to generate theoretical contributions through new descriptions of different language uses; (3 the interfaces it establishes with Systemic- Functional Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Computational Linguistics; (4 the expansion of the area in many countries, including Brazil, due to new perspectives opened in several fields, such as, lexicography, lexicogrammatical studies, genre and language variation studies as well as cross-cultural studies. The discussion of the topics above should reinforce the argument that Corpus Linguistics cannot be considered only as a methodological approach, but rather as a research area that allows for empirical linguistic knowledge, leading into new theoretical insights about language. In order to illustrate some corpus research done within the scope of Corpus Linguistics using data from the Portuguese language, three empirical studies are briefly described at the end of this paper. These academic works used data from the CORPOBRAS PUC-Rio, a corpus compiled with the purpose of representing Brazilian Portuguese.

  3. Methodological Thoughts from the Linguistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are the heart and soul of any linguistic research. Regardless of how incisive an analysis might be, or how clever, it can never be any better than the data it is based upon. For the field linguist gathering data, important considerations include the selection of informants, the number of informants selection, and data collection techniques. Different research objectives, be they descriptive, prescriptive or theory-driven, require techniques appropriate to those particular goals and should be evaluated within the context of inquiry. What follows is a consideration of the techniques generally used by field linguists with a general descriptive goal within the framework of generative linguistics.

  4. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  5. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  6. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis of the a......  Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...... limits of cohesion...

  7. The Locus Preservation Hypothesis: Shared Linguistic Profiles across Developmental Disorders and the Resilient Part of the Human Language Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Leivada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical markers are not uniformly impaired across speakers of different languages, even when speakers share a diagnosis and the marker in question is grammaticalized in a similar way in these languages. The aim of this work is to demarcate, from a cross-linguistic perspective, the linguistic phenotype of three genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders: specific language impairment, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. After a systematic review of linguistic profiles targeting mainly English-, Greek-, Catalan-, and Spanish-speaking populations with developmental disorders (n = 880, shared loci of impairment are identified and certain domains of grammar are shown to be more vulnerable than others. The distribution of impaired loci is captured by the Locus Preservation Hypothesis which suggests that specific parts of the language faculty are immune to impairment across developmental disorders. Through the Locus Preservation Hypothesis, a classical chicken and egg question can be addressed: Do poor conceptual resources and memory limitations result in an atypical grammar or does a grammatical breakdown lead to conceptual and memory limitations? Overall, certain morphological markers reveal themselves as highly susceptible to impairment, while syntactic operations are preserved, granting support to the first scenario. The origin of resilient syntax is explained from a phylogenetic perspective in connection to the “syntax-before-phonology” hypothesis.

  8. The Locus Preservation Hypothesis: Shared Linguistic Profiles across Developmental Disorders and the Resilient Part of the Human Language Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivada, Evelina; Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2017-01-01

    Grammatical markers are not uniformly impaired across speakers of different languages, even when speakers share a diagnosis and the marker in question is grammaticalized in a similar way in these languages. The aim of this work is to demarcate, from a cross-linguistic perspective, the linguistic phenotype of three genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders: specific language impairment, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder. After a systematic review of linguistic profiles targeting mainly English-, Greek-, Catalan-, and Spanish-speaking populations with developmental disorders ( n = 880), shared loci of impairment are identified and certain domains of grammar are shown to be more vulnerable than others. The distribution of impaired loci is captured by the Locus Preservation Hypothesis which suggests that specific parts of the language faculty are immune to impairment across developmental disorders. Through the Locus Preservation Hypothesis, a classical chicken and egg question can be addressed: Do poor conceptual resources and memory limitations result in an atypical grammar or does a grammatical breakdown lead to conceptual and memory limitations? Overall, certain morphological markers reveal themselves as highly susceptible to impairment, while syntactic operations are preserved, granting support to the first scenario. The origin of resilient syntax is explained from a phylogenetic perspective in connection to the "syntax-before-phonology" hypothesis.

  9. The linguistics of social networking: A study of writing conventions on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Sabater

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly research on computer-mediated communication discourse has mainly centred upon the linguistic characteristics of emails, focusing on the formal and informal features and the orality involved in this form of communication. This paper presents a new insight into the study of computer-mediated communication (CMC by analysing a fairly recent genre of computer-mediated communication, comments posted on the new social networking websites. The research undertaken examines the comments published on the official Facebook sites of some universities to observe the level of formality/informality of online communication in English. The distinction between online writings by native and non-native speakers of English has been considered as well. The study focuses on the formulae of etiquette and protocol used for salutation, opening, pre-closing and closing as an indicator of the degree of orality and informality in online writing. Data reveal that, in the specific context of the university, the use of Facebook is not conventionalised, as the comments posted on Facebook present important stylistic variations. Moreover, in most instances non-native speakers of English display more formal traits than native speakers when communicating electronically on social networking sites in the academic world.

  10. Speaker-Adaptation for Hybrid HMM-ANN Continuous Speech Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Joao; Almeida, Luis; Hochberg, Mike; Martins, Ciro; Nunes, Luis; Renals, Steve; Robinson, Tony

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that recognition performance degrades significantly when moving from a speaker-dependent to a speaker-independent system. Traditional hidden Markov model (HMM) systems have successfully applied speaker-adaptation approaches to reduce this degradation. In this paper we present and evaluate some techniques for speaker-adaptation of a hybrid HMM-artificial neural network (ANN) continuous speech recognition system. These techniques are applied to a well trained, speaker-independe...

  11. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  12. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  13. The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: a comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.

  14. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  15. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  16. Coming To Terms: Quantifying the Benefits of Linguistic Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Bahrami, Bahador; Olsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    other's linguistic practices. However, although general linguistic alignment did not have a positive effect on performance, the alignment of particular task-relevant vocabularies strongly correlated with collective performance. In other words, the more dyad members selectively aligned linguistic tools...

  17. A genomic insight into the origin and dispersal of Austroasiatic speakers in South and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashree Tagore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available India and Southeast Asia are home to diverse linguistic groups; the Austroasiatic language group being one of them. The Austroasiatic speakers live in scattered settlements in these regions. What led to such dispersed distribution over this vast geographical space is yet to be resolved. Our work is aimed at reconstructing the migration route of early Austroasiatic settlers and examines their relationship with other linguistic groups. We genotyped 511 unrelated individuals from India and Malaysia out of which 189 were Austroasiatic. The rest belonged to Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austronesian language families. Jarawa and Onge populations from Andaman and Nicobar Islands were also included. Our genotype data was combined with that of 940 individuals from HGDP dataset. We analyzed nearly 0.3 million autosomal SNPs and found that allele frequency correlation between Malaysian Austroasiatics and Indian Tibeto-Burmans was slightly higher (R2= 0.77 than with Indian Austroasiatics (R2= 0.72. Principal Components Analysis revealed that Malaysian Austroasiatic clustered closer to Tibeto-Burman than to Indian Austroasiatic. Similar clustering pattern was obtained by fineSTRUCTURE cluster dendrogram. The ADMIXTURE analysis inferred genetic component that is modal to the Malaysian Austroasiatic, is also significantly higher amongst Tibeto-Burman than Indian Austroasiatic (P < 2.117e-10, indicating that genetic distance correlates better with geography than language. Studying segments which were Identity by descent between individuals belonging to two different linguistic groups; i.e. Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman, we found Tibeto-Burman sharing larger number of segments with Malaysian Austroasiatic, but overall smaller in size. On the other hand the segments shared between the two Austroasiatic populations (India and Malaysia are comparatively larger in size (P= 0.034 but smaller in number. Our analyses indicate that Malaysian

  18. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  19. Quantile Acoustic Vectors vs. MFCC Applied to Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga-Ortiz Pedro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe speaker and command recognition related experiments, through quantile vectors and Gaussian Mixture Modelling (GMM. Over the past several years GMM and MFCC have become two of the dominant approaches for modelling speaker and speech recognition applications. However, memory and computational costs are important drawbacks, because autonomous systems suffer processing and power consumption constraints; thus, having a good trade-off between accuracy and computational requirements is mandatory. We decided to explore another approach (quantile vectors in several tasks and a comparison with MFCC was made. Quantile acoustic vectors are proposed for speaker verification and command recognition tasks and the results showed very good recognition efficiency. This method offered a good trade-off between computation times, characteristics vector complexity and overall achieved efficiency.

  20. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...... study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers’ subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times...

  1. The Linguist and the English Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph

    This collection of essays focuses on linguistic investigations of English, both spoken and written. The 12 chapters deal with Charles Dickens' linguistic criticism; eighteenth century prescriptivism; the relevance of language study to the study of Shakespeare; obstacles to the study of Old and Middle English; the contributions of R. G. Latham to…

  2. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...

  3. Linguistic characteristics of SLI in Afrikaans | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Linguistic characteristics of SLI in Afrikaans.

  4. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  5. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  6. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  7. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  8. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  9. Transparency and accountability in applied linguistics | Weideman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The designed solutions to language problems that are the stock-in-trade of applied linguistics affect the lives of growing numbers of people. By calling for these designs to be accountable, applied linguistics has, in its most recent, postmodern form, added an ethical dimension that is lacking in earlier work. Postmodern ...

  10. Linguistic Opportunism and English in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the role of English in Moldova. Building on Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism and Kachru's three concentric circles of world Englishes, proposes a weak form of linguistic dominance based on the notion of opportunism. The model is supported by data from a recent study of language attitudes and language use in Moldova. Data…

  11. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  12. The linguistic encoding of landscape in Lokono

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybka, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how landscape elements are expressed linguistically in Lokono (Arawakan). As a background to the analysis, an account of language vitality and a description of the grammar of space are given. The linguistic analysis of landscape starts with landform terms, which form a

  13. Circumfixes as emergent linguistic structures | Hendrikse | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the manifestations of linguistic complexity is what Dahl (2004:2) describes as 'grammaticalconstructions whose expression is longer than apparently necessary from a cross-linguistic perspective'.In the morphological system of Nguni languages there is a range of co-occurring affixes in both the nominaland the verbal ...

  14. Clinical Linguistics: Its Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the…

  15. A Modest Proposal: Linguistics and Literary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Linguistics should make significant contributions to literary and critical theory, but has failed to do so. This paper investigates the reasons for the failure and suggests an approach based in Relevance Theory for a working relationship between literary studies and pragmatics. Literary critics have misappropriated linguistic terminology and…

  16. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  17. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  18. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  19. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  20. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  1. Cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition with applications to English-language learners with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Brenda K

    2009-11-01

    There is a considerable gap in English reading achievement between English-language learners and native speakers in the United States. Differentiation of whether English language learners' struggles are symptomatic of reading disability or related to second language acquisition is often challenging. These issues highlight the need for increased insight into reading development and disability in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition, how reading disabilities manifest in various languages, and whether diagnostic and instructional approaches that are effective for native English speakers are also appropriate for English-language learners. Recommendations for assessment and intervention practices for at-risk and reading-disabled English-language learners are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. The road to understanding is paved with the speaker's intentions: cues to the speaker's attention and intentions affect pronoun comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappa, Rebecca; Arnold, Jennifer E

    2014-05-01

    A series of experiments explore the effects of attention-directing cues on pronoun resolution, contrasting four specific hypotheses about the interpretation of ambiguous pronouns he and she: (1) it is driven by grammatical rules, (2) it is primarily a function of social processing of the speaker's intention to communicate, (3) it is modulated by the listener's own egocentric attention, and (4) it is primarily a function of learned probabilistic cues. Experiment 1 demonstrates that pronoun interpretation is guided by the well-known N1 (first-mention) bias, which is also modulated by both the speaker's gaze and pointing gestures. Experiment 2 demonstrates that a low-level visual capture cue has no effect on pronoun interpretation, in contrast with the social cue of pointing. Experiment 3 uses a novel intentional cue: the same attention-capture flash as in Experiment 2, but with instructions that the cue is intentionally created by the speaker. This cue does modulate the N1 bias, demonstrating the importance of information about the speaker's intentions to pronoun resolution. Taken in sum, these findings demonstrate that pronoun resolution is a process best categorized as driven by an appreciation of the speaker's communicative intent, which may be subserved by a sensitivity to predictive cues in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral and subcortical signatures of musical expertise in Mandarin Chinese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Tervaniemi, Mari; Aalto, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups. This work provides a profile of primary auditory feature discrimination for Mandarin speaking musicians and nonmusicians. The musicians showed enhanced perceptual discrimination for both frequency and duration as well as enhanced duration discrimination in a multifeature discrimination task, compared to nonmusicians. However, there were no differences between the groups in duration processing of nonspeech sounds at a subcortical level or in subcortical frequency representation of a nonnative tone contour, for fo or for the first or second formant region. The results indicate that musical expertise provides a cognitive, but not subcortical, advantage in a population of Mandarin speakers.

  4. Phonological processing skills in 6 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Momen Vaghefi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological processing skills include the abilities to restore, retrieve and use memorized phonological codes. The purpose of this research is to compare and evaluate phonological processing skills in 6-7 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This research is an analysis-comparison study. The subjects were 24 blind and 24 sighted children. The evaluation test of reading and writing disorders in primary school students, linguistic and cognitive abilities test, and the naming subtest of the aphasia evaluation test were used as research tools.Results: Sighted children were found to perform better on phoneme recognition of nonwords and flower naming subtests; and the difference was significant (p<0.001. Blind children performed better in words and sentence memory; the difference was significant (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in other subtests.Conclusion: Blind children's better performance in memory tasks is due to the fact that they have powerful auditory memory.

  5. Behavioral and subcortical signatures of musical expertise in Mandarin Chinese speakers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Dawson

    Full Text Available Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups. This work provides a profile of primary auditory feature discrimination for Mandarin speaking musicians and nonmusicians. The musicians showed enhanced perceptual discrimination for both frequency and duration as well as enhanced duration discrimination in a multifeature discrimination task, compared to nonmusicians. However, there were no differences between the groups in duration processing of nonspeech sounds at a subcortical level or in subcortical frequency representation of a nonnative tone contour, for fo or for the first or second formant region. The results indicate that musical expertise provides a cognitive, but not subcortical, advantage in a population of Mandarin speakers.

  6. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  7. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  8. How Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Grammaticalization of Future Time Reference Influence Intertemporal Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Dieter; Tytus, Agnieszka E

    2017-08-22

    According to Chen's (2013) Linguistic Savings Hypothesis (LSH), our native language affects our economic behavior. We present three studies investigating how cross-linguistic differences in the grammaticalization of future-time reference (FTR) affect intertemporal choices. In a series of decision scenarios about finance and health issues, we let speakers of altogether five languages that represent FTR with increasing strength, that is, Chinese, German, Danish, Spanish, and English, choose between hypothetical sooner-smaller and later-larger reward options. While the LSH predicts a present-bias that increases with FTR-strength, our decision makers preferred later-larger options and this future-bias increased with FTR-strength. In multiple regressions, the FTR-strength effect persisted when controlled for socioeconomic and cultural differences. We discuss why our findings deviate from the LSH and ask in how far the FTR-strength effect represents a habitual constitution of linguistic relativity or an instance of online decision framing. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  10. Acquiring variation in an artificial language: Children and adults are sensitive to socially conditioned linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anna; Smith, Kenny; Brown, Helen; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups. Furthermore, artificial language learning experiments have shown that children have a tendency to eliminate variation, a process which could potentially work against their acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. The current study used a semi-artificial language learning paradigm to investigate learning of the sociolinguistic cue of speaker identity in 6-year-olds and adults. Participants were trained and tested on an artificial language where nouns were obligatorily followed by one of two meaningless particles and were produced by one of two speakers (one male, one female). Particle usage was conditioned deterministically on speaker identity (Experiment 1), probabilistically (Experiment 2), or not at all (Experiment 3). Participants were given tests of production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2, both children and adults successfully acquired the speaker identity cue, although the effect was stronger for adults and in Experiment 1. In addition, in all three experiments, there was evidence of regularization in participants' productions, although the type of regularization differed with age: children showed regularization by boosting the frequency of one particle at the expense of the other, while adults regularized by conditioning particle usage on lexical items. Overall, results

  11. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  12. Intergenerational Differences in Acculturation Orientations of Turkish Speakers in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, acculturation and language orientations among Turkish speakers in Australia (n = 283) are discussed. Compared to West European countries, the Turkish community in Australia is much smaller. Given the prevalent pluralism ideology in Australia, a high level of sociocultural adjustment

  13. Timing control accuracy in normal speakers and stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M H; Allen, G D

    1977-03-01

    This study attempted to assess the abilities of 10 normal speakers, five stutterers in therapy, and five stutterers no longer in therapy, to control the time program of repeated utterances. The speech sample comprised repeated sentences, paragraphs, and nursery rhymes, and a finger-tapping task was included as a control. Temporal accuracy was measured. Results suggest that (1) there is a wide range of timing abilities, even among the normal speakers, with considerable overlap between the different groups of speakers; (2) on most of the experimental tasks, normal speakers are more accurate timers than are stutterers; (3) stutterers released from therapy are more accurate timers than are stutterers still in therapy, whenever these groups differ; and (4) subjects' speech timing scores correlate moderately with their tapping scores. These results are discussed in terms of (1) theoretical timing control processes, such as a neural clock for controlling speech segment durations, and a speech motor output buffer, whose capacity may be limited in stutterers, and (2) known effects of rhythmic constraints and respiratory irregularity on fluency.

  14. The Role of Surrogate Speakers in the 1980 Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Martha Stout

    1981-01-01

    Describes the employment of surrogate speakers and examines their role in the 1980 presidential contest. Considers the advantages and disadvantages of their use and concludes that surrogates served the important needs of three groups--the candidates for whom they spoke, the audiences they addressed, and the surrogates themselves. (PD)

  15. Generating natural language descriptions using speaker-dependent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Paraboni, Ivandré

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of human variation in natural language referring expression generation. We introduce a model of content selection that takes speaker-dependent information into account to produce descriptions that closely resemble those produced by each individual, as seen in a number

  16. The Space-Time Topography of English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    English speakers talk and think about Time in terms of physical space. The past is behind us, and the future is in front of us. In this way, we "map" space onto Time. This dissertation addresses the specificity of this physical space, or its topography. Inspired by languages like Yupno (Nunez, et al., 2012) and Bamileke-Dschang (Hyman,…

  17. Distinguished guests, notable speakers, and almost 4,000 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... This year's notable speakers included The Honourable Stéphane Dion, Minister of Foreign Affairs; The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade; The Honourable Jane Philpott, Minister of Health; conference co-chair Irina Bokova, Director General of UNESCO; conference co-chair ...

  18. Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: evidence from longitudinal child data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth; Farrington, Charlie

    2012-03-01

    Speaker vowel formant normalization, a technique that controls for variation introduced by physical differences between speakers, is necessary in variationist studies to compare speakers of different ages, genders, and physiological makeup in order to understand non-physiological variation patterns within populations. Many algorithms have been established to reduce variation introduced into vocalic data from physiological sources. The lack of real-time studies tracking the effectiveness of these normalization algorithms from childhood through adolescence inhibits exploration of child participation in vowel shifts. This analysis compares normalization techniques applied to data collected from ten African American children across five time points. Linear regressions compare the reduction in variation attributable to age and gender for each speaker for the vowels BEET, BAT, BOT, BUT, and BOAR. A normalization technique is successful if it maintains variation attributable to a reference sociolinguistic variable, while reducing variation attributable to age. Results indicate that normalization techniques which rely on both a measure of central tendency and range of the vowel space perform best at reducing variation attributable to age, although some variation attributable to age persists after normalization for some sections of the vowel space. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  19. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  20. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to

  1. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  2. Openings and Closings in Telephone Conversations between Native Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1998-01-01

    A study analyzed the opening and closing sequences of 11 dyads of native Spanish-speakers in natural telephone conversations conducted in Spanish. The objective was to determine how closely Hispanic cultural patterns of conduct for telephone conversations follow the sequences outlined in previous research. It is concluded that Spanish…

  3. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilingual and monolingual children prefer native-accented speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler et al., 2007). Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld and Lambert, 1964), which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children's reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  5. Negotiation and Intercultural Learning in Italian Native Speaker Chat Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Foreign language learners purportedly demonstrate intercultural communicative competence in native speaker (NS) chat rooms through self-initiated negotiation sequences, including those triggered by pragmatic issues and cultural content. This study identified and classified one-to-one NS-learner negotiations between intermediate learners and NS of…

  6. AN APPLICATION OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat CANER

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study an artificial neural network (ANN is implemented, which has been used frequently as an implementation model in recent years, to recognize speaker identification. Generally, recognition is consist of three stages that, processing of signal, obtaining attributes and comparing them. Speech samples are transformed into digital data according to voice card of PC. In the analysis of voice stage, recurrent periods and white noise of voice data are trimmed by hamming window method and voice attribute part of the digital data is obtained. For obtaining attribute of voice data LPC (linear predictive coding and DFT (discrete fourier transform methods are used. Of those 28 coefficents, that is used for speaker recognition, 16 were obtained by the analysis of DFT and 12 were obtained by the analysis of LPC. The parameters that represent speaker voice, is used for training and test of ANN. Multilayer perceptron model is used as an architecture of ANN and backpropagation algorithm is used for training method. Voices of "a" is taken from 7 different person and their attributes are found. ANN is trained with these features to find the speaker who is the owner of the sample voice. And then using the test data that is not used for training part, recognition achievement of ANN is tested. As a result, good results were obtained with low failure rate.

  7. Google Home: smart speaker as environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kenichiro

    2017-08-23

    Environmental Control Units (ECU) are devices or a system that allows a person to control appliances in their home or work environment. Such system can be utilized by clients with physical and/or functional disability to enhance their ability to control their environment, to promote independence and improve their quality of life. Over the last several years, there have been an emergence of several inexpensive, commercially-available, voice activated smart speakers into the market such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. These smart speakers are equipped with far field microphone that supports voice recognition, and allows for complete hand-free operation for various purposes, including for playing music, for information retrieval, and most importantly, for environmental control. Clients with disability could utilize these features to turn the unit into a simple ECU that is completely voice activated and wirelessly connected to appliances. Smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost and versatility, may be a more affordable and accessible alternative to the traditional ECU. Implications for Rehabilitation Environmental Control Units (ECU) enable independence for physically and functionally disabled clients, and reduce burden and frequency of demands on carers. Traditional ECU can be costly and may require clients to learn specialized skills to use. Smart speakers have the potential to be used as a new-age ECU by overcoming these barriers, and can be used by a wider range of clients.

  8. Teaching the Native English Speaker How to Teach English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhuu, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…

  9. Umesh V Waghmare | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh V Waghmare. Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064, ... These ideas apply quite well to dynamical structure of a crystal, as described by the dispersion of its phonons or vibrational waves. The speakers group has shown an interesting ...

  10. Utterance Verification for Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Kukanov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    in the literature, a treatment of simultaneous speaker and utterance verification with a modern, standard database is so far lacking. This is despite the burgeoning demand for voice biometrics in a plethora of practical security applications. With the goal of improving overall verification performance, this paper...

  11. Speaker Recognition from Emotional Speech Using I-vector Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACKOVÁ Lenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the concept of i-vectors become very popular and successful in the field of the speaker verification. The basic principle of i-vectors is that each utterance is represented by fixed-length feature vector of low-dimension. In the literature for purpose of speaker verification various recordings obtained from telephones or microphones were used. The aim of this experiment was to perform speaker verification using speaker model trained with emotional recordings on i-vector basis. The Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC, log energy, their deltas and acceleration coefficients were used in process of features extraction. As the classification methods of the verification system Mahalanobis distance metric in combination with Eigen Factor Radial normalization was used and in the second approach Cosine Distance Scoring (CSS metric with Within-class Covariance Normalization as a channel compensation was employed. This verification system used emotional recordings of male subjects from freely available German emotional database (Emo-DB.

  12. Articulatory settings of French-English bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.

  13. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Language Processing in Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Patrick A.; Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dearth of language-processing research addressing Spanish heritage speakers in assimilationist communities. First, we review key offline work on this population, and we then summarize the few psycholinguistic (online) studies that have already been carried out. In an attempt to encourage more such research, in the next…

  14. On the Use of Complementary Spectral Features for Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most popular features for speaker recognition are Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs and linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs. These features are used extensively because they characterize the vocal tract configuration which is known to be highly speaker-dependent. In this work, several features are introduced that can characterize the vocal system in order to complement the traditional features and produce better speaker recognition models. The spectral centroid (SC, spectral bandwidth (SBW, spectral band energy (SBE, spectral crest factor (SCF, spectral flatness measure (SFM, Shannon entropy (SE, and Renyi entropy (RE were utilized for this purpose. This work demonstrates that these features are robust in noisy conditions by simulating some common distortions that are found in the speakers' environment and a typical telephone channel. Babble noise, additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, and a bandpass channel with 1 dB of ripple were used to simulate these noisy conditions. The results show significant improvements in classification performance for all noise conditions when these features were used to complement the MFCC and ΔMFCC features. In particular, the SC and SCF improved performance in almost all noise conditions within the examined SNR range (10–40 dB. For example, in cases where there was only one source of distortion, classification improvements of up to 8% and 10% were achieved under babble noise and AWGN, respectively, using the SCF feature.

  15. Bilingual Speakers in the Lab: Psychophysiological Measures of Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Bilingual speakers report experiencing stronger emotions when speaking and hearing their first language compared to their second. Does this occur even when a second language is learned early and becomes the dominant language? Spanish-English bilinguals who had grown up in the USA (early learners) or those who were first exposed to English during…

  16. An Investigation of Pragmatic Functions and Position of Prevalent Persian Discourse Markers Used in Casual Conversations among Tehrani Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Alami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that a systematic treatment of Persian Discourse Markers (hereafter DMs is almost absent in modern Persian linguistics and to bridge this gap, the audio-recorded data comprising 14 face to face casual conversations involving two-party and multi-party interactions among family members, acquaintances and close friends are used to shed light on these ‘frequently used’ but ‘frequently unnoticed’ linguistic elements. To document a list of the most common DMs typically used in Tehrani dialect of Persian language and to have a detailed description of their discoursal functions in talk, Brinton’s (1996 binary classification of DMs functions (textual and interpersonal was developed to provide an empirically-supported account of the functions and position of Persian DMs in interaction among Tehrani speakers. The present account of DMs which is basically ‘analytical description’ provides the reader with the knowledge about how Persian DMs operate in actual usage. The findings are built upon a 3105-word corpus including 14 audio-recorded conversations among 50 participants. Altogether 34 tokens of Persian DMs with an overall 254 occurrences were identified among which na/na baba (no/no daddy with the total of 33 (12.84% occurrences were the most frequently used Persian DM in the data which are followed by dige (no English equivalent, aare/ba’ale (yep/yes, yani (I mean, vali (but, haalaa/ alaan (now, bebin/nega kon (look and aslan (by no means/ never.To the author, research on the functions and distributional patterns of Persian DMs will broaden our knowledge of their discoursal behavior in language in general and contribute to the already growing cross-linguistic body of work on DMs.

  17. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    of and feedback on pupils’ written and oral texts. Based on the analyses, we will discuss how linguistic ethnography can contribute to the development of literacy teaching at intermediate level in primary and lower secondary school and highlight the potentials and benefits of linguistic ethnography as a resource...... in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...

  18. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  19. LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE RUSSIAN TEXTS OF PERSONS WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE AND PERSONS WITH A HIGH RISK OF AUTOAGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorovskaya, O.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising areas of modern research is speech analysis for the purpose of identifying the mental state and assessing the mental health of the speaker / writer. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in solving problems of this kind with the use of methods and tools for computer linguistics and data mining. A separate scientific problem far from its solution and, undoubtedly, requiring consolidation of the efforts of psychologists, linguists and experts in the intellectual analysis of data, is the problem of diagnosing a propensity for autoaggressive behavior (and suicide as an extreme form of it based on linguistic analysis of writing. This problem has not only theoretical, but also obvious practical significance. Using the methods of natural language processing, scientists analyze the texts (mostly English of suiciders and build models that classify the text as belonging or not belonging to the suicider, and reveal the characteristics of such texts. At the same time, if earlier mainly the fiction texts of suiciders were analyzed, then in the newest works scientists study Internet texts (blogs, tweets, Facebook posts etc. of persons who committed suicide or express their intention to commit it. The Russian language has long remained on the periphery of such studies. The article presents the results of studies aimed at identifying the linguistic features of Russian-language texts of persons who committed suicide, as well as persons prone to autoaggressive behavior. The studies used methods and techniques of corpus linguistics, computer linguistics, statistical analysis. Prospects for further research are indicated.

  20. Application of Native Speaker Models for Identifying Deviations in Rhetorical Moves in Non-Native Speaker Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Explicit teaching of generic conventions of a text genre, usually extracted from native-speaker (NS manuscripts, has long been emphasized in the teaching of Academic Writing inEnglish for Specific Purposes (henceforthESP classes, both in theory and practice. While consciousness-raising about rhetorical structure can be instrumental to non-native speakers(NNS, it has to be admitted that most works done in the field of ESP have tended to focus almost exclusively on native-speaker (NS productions, giving scant attention to non-native speaker (NNS manuscripts. That is, having outlined established norms for good writing on the basis of NS productions, few have been inclined to provide a descriptive account of NNS attempts at trying to produce a research article (RA in English. That is what we have tried to do in the present research. Methods: We randomly selected 20 RAs in dentistry and used two well-established models for results and discussion sections to try to describe the move structure of these articles and show the points of divergence from the established norms. Results: The results pointed to significant divergences that could seriously compromise the quality of an RA. Conclusion: It is believed that the insights gained on the deviations in NNS manuscripts could prove very useful in designing syllabi for ESP classes.

  1. TOWARDS A RE-ORIENTATION OF LINGUISTIC STUDY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    The fact that remarkable progress has been made in linguistic study and research in Nigeria notwithstanding, the ... and Nigerian languages have made remarkable contributions to linguistic and literary scholarship in ..... areas of forensic linguistics including research on the role of the linguist in crime prevention, protection ...

  2. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  3. Conference Reports | Issah | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Conference Reports | Authors | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Conference Reports | Authors | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.

  7. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-04-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  8. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  9. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  10. Ling An: LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF NPP INSTRUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2008-07-01

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  11. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Porras; Sajed S. Ingilan

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12) available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS) model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across th...

  12. Respiratory Control in Stuttering Speakers: Evidence from Respiratory High-Frequency Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Margaret; Smith, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether stuttering speakers (N=10) differed from fluent speakers in relations between the neural control systems for speech and life support. It concluded that in some stuttering speakers the relations between respiratory controllers are atypical, but that high participation by the high frequency oscillation-producing circuitry…

  13. Defining "Native Speaker" in Multilingual Settings: English as a Native Language in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…

  14. Signal-to-Signal Ratio Independent Speaker Identification for Co-channel Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider speaker identification for the co-channel scenario in which speech mixture from speakers is recorded by one microphone only. The goal is to identify both of the speakers from their mixed signal. High recognition accuracies have already been reported when an accurately...

  15. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  16. An acoustic analysis of English vowels produced by speakers of seven different native-language backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Gooskens, C.

    2017-01-01

    We measured F1, F2 and duration of ten English monophthongs produced by American native speakers and by Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch, Hungarian and Chinese L2 speakers. We hypothesized that (i) L2 speakers would approximate the English vowels more closely as the phonological distance between

  17. 78 FR 65511 - Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory of Thomas S. Foley, former Speaker of the House...

  18. Is a shared interlanguage beneficial? Mutual intelligibility of American, Dutch and Mandarin speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Doel, van den R.; Rupp, L.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the mutual intelligibility Mandarin Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English in all nine logically possible combinations of speaker and listener native language backgrounds. Designated speakers (one male, one female per language group) were selected from larger sets of 20

  19. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  20. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  1. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  2. Women in the Linguistics Profession: The Cornell Lectures. Conference on Women in Linguistics (Ithaca, New York, June 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Alice, Ed.; Eckert, Penelope, Ed.

    Papers on women in linguistics are presented in five groups. An introductory section contains: "Feminist Linguistics: A Whirlwind Tour"; "Women in Linguistics: The Legacy of Institutionalization"; "Reflections on Women in Linguistics"; and "The Structure of the Field and Its Consequences for Women." Papers on trends and data include: "The Status…

  3. Czy kompetencja językowa jest wiedzą? (Is linguistic competence knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wawrzyniak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the nature of linguistic competence. My consideration starts with the question whether a competence in our native language should be conceived as a kind of knowledge. The answer is positive, and the main reason is the fact that while describing linguistic competence we use the words “to know”, “knowledge”. Looking at the problem in this way leads to the next question: what is the nature of this kind of knowledge? More precisely, the problem which I consider concerns the nature of cognitive relation between a speaker and his or her mother tongue, or rather one of its aspects, namely the meaning. My discussion of this question begins with the criticism of the conception which treats the knowledge of our native tongue as the knowledge of a theory of meaning of this language. After that, I examine the possibility of using the distinction between know that and know how to investigate and solve that problem. I indicate that linguistic knowledge is neither classically or narrowly conceived knowledge that (a collection of true and justified beliefs, nor such a practical skill like the ability to swim. On the other hand, in the first place, a knowledge of a language satisfies grammatical criteria of knowledge that, however, a content of that knowledge is not beliefs, but rather rules – rules which are constitutive not regulative. From that I draw the conclusion that a linguistic competence cannot be explained from outside of any language. Secondly, one cannot deny that knowledge of a language is a practical ability, but it is a capacity of a very special kind. One of essential features of linguistic knowledge, which I emphasize, is its ostensive character. It is revealed, among other things, in the fact that learning our native language and the world constitute one process.It is worth stressing that the discussed question has a great significance to analytic philosophy. Many adherents of this trend claim that

  4. “It’s Not the Way We Use English”—Can We Resist the Native Speaker Stranglehold on Academic Publications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Strauss

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English dominates the academic publishing world, and this dominance can, and often does, lead to the marginalisation of researchers who are not first-language speakers of English. There are different schools of thought regarding this linguistic domination; one approach is pragmatic. Proponents believe that the best way to empower these researchers in their bid to publish is to assist them to gain mastery of the variety of English most acceptable to prestigious journals. Another perspective, however, is that traditional academic English is not necessarily the best medium for the dissemination of research, and that linguistic compromises need to be made. They contend that the stranglehold that English holds in the publishing world should be resisted. This article explores these different perspectives, and suggests ways in which those of us who do not wield a great deal of influence may yet make a small contribution to the levelling of the linguistic playing field, and pave the way for an English lingua franca that better serves the needs of twenty-first century academics.

  5. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages. PMID:28638355

  6. Austin Jennifer, Blume María, & Sánchez Liliana (2015. Bilingualism in the Spanish-speaking world: linguistic and cognitive perspectives. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Fionda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The book reviewed here may serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate students of linguistics, as well as graduates and scholars in the field and related disciplines. It comprises five chapters that explore, through three Spanish bilingual communities, the following topics: basic concepts in bilingualism, such as code-switching and language transfer; a brief historical review of Spanish bilingualism; proposed definitions of bilingualism and the different ways in which bilinguals may be classified according to factors such as language competence and age of acquisition; the effect of bilingualism on the brains and minds of bilingual speakers, such as increased cortical activation and enhanced literacy; and, finally, the development and outcomes of bilingualism on the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. The authors cover a breadth of research, rendering it accessible by succinctly reviewing findings, and further identify areas for future research.

  7. Variation among heritage speakers: Sequential vs. simultaneous bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the differences in the grammatical knowledge of two types of heritage speakers of Korean. Early simultaneous bilinguals are exposed to both English and the heritage language from birth, whereas early sequential bilinguals are exposed to the heritage language first and then to English upon schooling. A listening comprehension task involving relative clauses was conducted with 51 beginning-level Korean heritage speakers. The results showed that the early sequential bilinguals exhibited much more accurate knowledge than the early simultaneous bilinguals, who lacked rudimentary knowledge of Korean relative clauses. Drawing on the findings of adult and child Korean L1 data on the acquisition of relative clauses, the performance of each group is discussed with respect to attrition and incomplete acquisition of the heritage language.

  8. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Sa'aida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher’s family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic. The data consist of transcriptions of deictic expressions, which were categorised into groups according to the types or usages of deictic words. The data were translated and transliterated by the researcher. The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols were used to transcribe the data. Findings of the study show that there are five types of deictic expressions in Jordanian Urban Arabic: Personal, spatial, temporal, discourse and social deixis. The current study has also described the various usages of deictic words in Jordanian Urban Arabic: gestural, symbolic, and non-deictic usage.

  9. English exposed common mistakes made by Chinese speakers

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Having analysed the most common English errors made in over 600 academic papers written by Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers, Steve Hart has written an essential, practical guide specifically for the native Chinese speaker on how to write good academic English. English Exposed: Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Speakers is divided into three main sections. The first section examines errors made with verbs, nouns, prepositions, and other grammatical classes of words. The second section focuses on problems of word choice. In addition to helping the reader find the right word, it provides instruction for selecting the right style too. The third section covers a variety of other areas essential for the academic writer, such as using punctuation, adding appropriate references, referring to tables and figures, and selecting among various English date and time phrases. Using English Exposed will allow a writer to produce material where content and ideas-not language mistakes-speak the loudest.

  10. Phoneme discrimination and mismatch negativity in English and Japanese speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Marie D.; Choly, David; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Neural templates for phonemes in one’s native language are formed early in life; these can be modified but are difficult to form de novo. These can be examined with mismatch negativity. Three phonemic contrasts were presented to adult native English compared to Japanese speakers who acquired English later: vowels native to both languages (/i//iy/); consonant-vowel contrasts (/da//wa/) phonemic in both languages; and consonant-vowel contrasts phonemic in English but not in Japanese (/ra//la/). For vowels, no MMN differences were found. For /da//wa/, MMN amplitude was significantly reduced in Japanese speakers. For /ra//la/, only 50% of the Japanese group showed an identifiable MMN. This suggests that phonemic templates are formed early in life and non-native consonant contrasts are difficult to learn later. PMID:21610545

  11. Willing Learners yet Unwilling Speakers in ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Ali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To some of us, speech production in ESL has become so natural and integral that we seem to take it for granted. We often do not even remember how we struggled through the initial process of mastering English. Unfortunately, to students who are still learning English, they seem to face myriad problems that make them appear unwilling or reluctant ESL speakers. This study will investigate this phenomenon which is very common in the ESL classroom. Setting its background on related research findings on this matter, a qualitative study was conducted among foreign students enrolled in the Intensive English Programme (IEP at Institute of Liberal Studies (IKAL, University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN. The results will show and discuss an extent of truth behind this perplexing phenomenon: willing learners, yet unwilling speakers of ESL, in our effort to provide supportive learning cultures in second language acquisition (SLA to this group of students.

  12. How I Became a "Different" English Speaker and Listener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    The author went to the United States to study applied linguistics. Although he was there for nine months, his English proficiency did not improve as much as he had hoped, considering that he was using English almost exclusively every day. After his time in the United States, he spent 10 months in Australia working and traveling on a working…

  13. The NNEST lens non native english speakers in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboob, Ahmar

    2010-01-01

    The NNEST Lens invites you to imagine how the field of TESOL and applied linguistics can develop if we use the multilingual, multicultural, and multinational perspectives of an NNEST lens to re-examine our assumptions, practices, and theories in the field

  14. American English Business Negotiations: Training for Non-Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics, structure, and content of American English business negotiations are described. A course taught in the Harvard University Summer Program for Foreign Students, developed to eliminate the linguistic and cultural component of potential misunderstandings in cross-cultural negotiations, is outlined and illustrated with an example…

  15. A speaker recognition solution for identification and authentication

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Informatics) A certain degree of vulnerability exists in traditional knowledge-based identification and authentication access control, as a result of password interception and social engineering techniques. This vulnerability has warranted the exploration of additional identification and authentication approaches such as physical token-based systems and biometrics. Speaker recognition is one such biometric approach that is currently not widely used due to its inherent technological...

  16. Teaching English to speakers of other languages an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nunan, David

    2015-01-01

    David Nunan's dynamic learner-centered teaching style has informed and inspired countless TESOL educators around the world. In this fresh, straightforward introduction to teaching English to speakers of other languages he presents teaching techniques and procedures along with the underlying theory and principles. Complex theories and research studies are explained in a clear and comprehensible, yet non-trivial, manner without trivializing them. Practical examples of how to develop teaching materials and tasks from sound principles provide rich illustrations of theoretical constructs.

  17. Speech rate normalization used to improve speaker verification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available the normalized durations is then compared with the EER using unnormalized durations, and also with the EER when duration information is not employed. 2. Proposed phoneme duration modeling 2.1. Choosing parametric models Since the duration of a phoneme... the known transcription and the speaker-specific acoustic model described above. Only one pronunciation per word was allowed, thus resulting in 49 triphones. To decide which parametric model to use for the duration density func- tions of the triphones...

  18. Neural bases of congenital amusia in tonal language speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Peng, Gang; Shao, Jing; Wang, William S-Y

    2017-03-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia. To investigate this question, we examined the neural circuitries sub-serving the processing of relative pitch interval in pitch-matched Cantonese level tone and musical stimuli in 11 Cantonese-speaking amusics and 11 musically intact controls. Cantonese-speaking amusics exhibited abnormal brain activities in a widely distributed neural network during the processing of lexical tone and musical stimuli. Whereas the controls exhibited significant activation in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the lexical tone condition and in the cerebellum regardless of the lexical tone and music conditions, no activation was found in the amusics in those regions, which likely reflects a dysfunctional neural mechanism of relative pitch processing in the amusics. Furthermore, the amusics showed abnormally strong activation of the right middle frontal gyrus and precuneus when the pitch stimuli were repeated, which presumably reflect deficits of attending to repeated pitch stimuli or encoding them into working memory. No significant group difference was found in the right IFG in either the whole-brain analysis or region-of-interest analysis. These findings imply that the neural deficits in tonal language speakers might differ from those in non-tonal language speakers, and overlap partly with the

  19. Collective Memories of WWII Collaboration in Belgium and Attitudes About Amnesty in the Two Main Linguistic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Guissmé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration with the Nazi occupier during WWII has always been a topic of dissent between French-speakers (FS and Dutch-speakers (DS in Belgium. According to a popular myth coined after the war and often narrated in the media and literature, collaboration was widespread in Flanders, whereas Walloons bravely resisted, although historical reality is much more nuanced. These representations regularly resurface in political debates surrounding the Belgian linguistic conflict. Demands for amnesty addressed by nationalist Flemish parties are a case in point. A questionnaire survey (N = 521; 315 FS and 206 DS showed that collaboration was represented negatively and was morally condemned in both groups. However, DS expressed more Support for Amnesty (SA than FS. This effect of Linguistic Group (LG on SA was mediated by judgment of morality of collaboration, and this mediation was moderated by identification with the LG. Interestingly, SA was predicted by judgments of morality of DS, but not of FS, collaborators, in both groups, as if francophone collaboration was deemed irrelevant. Results suggest that differences between DS and FS in political position taking regarding the granting of amnesty are partly due to differences in representations of collaboration, and to different perspectives towards the same historical representation. The myth is both shared and disputed.

  20. Identifying the Attended Speaker Using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, K.; Brunner, P.; Gunduz, A.; Coon, W.; Ritaccio, A.L.; Farquhar, J.; Schalk, G.

    2015-01-01

    People affected by severe neuro-degenerative diseases (e.g., late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or locked-in syndrome) eventually lose all muscular control. Thus, they cannot use traditional assistive communication devices that depend on muscle control, or brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that depend on the ability to control gaze. While auditory and tactile BCIs can provide communication to such individuals, their use typically entails an artificial mapping between the stimulus and the communication intent. This makes these BCIs difficult to learn and use. In this study, we investigated the use of selective auditory attention to natural speech as an avenue for BCI communication. In this approach, the user communicates by directing his/her attention to one of two simultaneously presented speakers. We used electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals in the gamma band (70–170 Hz) to infer the identity of attended speaker, thereby removing the need to learn such an artificial mapping. Our results from twelve human subjects show that a single cortical location over superior temporal gyrus or pre-motor cortex is typically sufficient to identify the attended speaker within 10 s and with 77% accuracy (50% accuracy due to chance). These results lay the groundwork for future studies that may determine the real-time performance of BCIs based on selective auditory attention to speech. PMID:26949710