WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard covers nickel

  1. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  2. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes normally are used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium-nickel steels in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  3. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0% and nickel does not exceed 50.0%

  4. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  5. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  6. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of nickel(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Giera, Edward [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2} and bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(HttfaS){sub 2} were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of the monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) complex was measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean nickel(II)-ligand molar dissociation enthalpies, (Ni-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(cr)/(kJ.mol{sup -1})Diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-993.3+/-3.8Diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-2452.0+/-8.3Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2}-42.1+/-5.9Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfaS){sub 2}-1473.5+/-8.1.

  7. Standard rules for liability and cover for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.; Kuckuck, B.

    1980-01-01

    To afford full protection for possible victims, the authors of this article are in favour of doing away with the limitation of liability of nuclear operators presently provided under the German Atomic Energy Act, the principle of which is based on the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. In support of this argument reference is made to the recent accident at Three Mile Island, trends in other national legislation towards unlimited liability as well as high safety standards in German nuclear plants. Finally, possible ways of providing unlimited liability are proposed, in particular increased insurance cover and the constitution of an interest-bearing fund in addition to State intervention in case of a major nuclear incident. (NEA) [fr

  8. Absorption of Nickel, Chromium, and Iron by the Root Surface of Primary Molars Covered with Stainless Steel Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Keinan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the absorption of metal ions released from stainless steel crowns by root surface of primary molars. Study Design. Laboratory research: The study included 34 primary molars, exfoliated or extracted during routine dental treatment. 17 molars were covered with stainless-steel crowns for more than two years and compared to 17 intact primary molars. Chemical content of the mesial or distal root surface, 1 mm apically to the crown or the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ, was analyzed. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS was used for chemical analysis. Results. Higher amounts of nickel, chromium, and iron (5-6 times were found in the cementum of molars covered with stainless-steel crowns compared to intact molars. The differences between groups were highly significant (<.001. Significance. Stainless-steel crowns release nickel, chromium, and iron in oral environment, and the ions are absorbed by the primary molars roots. The additional burden of allergenic metals should be reduced if possible.

  9. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, B. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gysin, U.; Marot, L., E-mail: Laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-01-25

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ∼100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(π) hybridization.

  10. STRUCTURE, PHASE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF GAS-THERMAL COVERINGS OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED THERMOREACTING COMPOSITE POWDERS OF NICKEL-ALUMINIUM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results show that coverings from mechanically alloyed thermoreacting powders of system «nickel–aluminum» are nonequilibrium multiphase systems which basis represents solid solution of aluminum in nickel. It has the microcrystalline type of structure which is characterized by an advanced surface of borders of the grains and subgrains stabilized by nanodimensional inclusions of oxides and alyuminid. These coverings surpass by 1,2–1,6 times analogs in durability, hardness and wear resistance.

  11. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

  12. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

  13. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  14. Standard specification for cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS R31233) plate, sheet and strip. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 818-91. Last previous edition was B 818-93

  15. Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic Covered with Patient's Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Zigiotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months. Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, M; F and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes. There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.

  16. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Nickel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 58Ni(n,p)58Co. 1.2 This activation reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 2.1 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 200 days in the absence of high thermal neutron fluence rates (for longer irradiations, see Practice E 261). 1.3 With suitable techniques fission-neutron fluence rates densities above 107 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note—The burnup corrections were com...

  17. Diskette-based database covering standards etc. of relevance to the construction of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The project concerns the development of the database ''Diskettebaseret database med vindmoellestandarder'' (diskette-based database containing wind turbine standards), which contains information about standards, recommendations and other technical documents of relevance for the design, construction and approval of wind mills. The information in the database covers data from Denmark, UK, Germany, Holland and USA together with data from internationally recognized standards and recommendations. The database is contained on a single PC-diskette, which also contains the purpose-built userfriendly serchsoftware. About 5500 records are included in the database. The last edition of the database was updated January 1994. (au)

  18. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  19. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  20. Standard practice for determining the susceptibility of stainless steels and related Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in polythionic acids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for preparing and conducting the polythionic acid test at room temperature, 22 to 25°C (72 to 77°F), to determine the relative susceptibility of stainless steels or other related materials (nickel-chromiumiron alloys) to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. 1.2 This practice can be used to evaluate stainless steels or other materials in the “as received” condition or after being subjected to high-temperature service, 482 to 815°C (900 to 1500°F), for prolonged periods of time. 1.3 This practice can be applied to wrought products, castings, and weld metal of stainless steels or other related materials to be used in environments containing sulfur or sulfides. Other materials capable of being sensitized can also be tested in accordance with this test. 1.4 This practice may be used with a variety of stress corrosion test specimens, surface finishes, and methods of applying stress. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ...

  1. Virginia Standards of Learning (Grades 6 through 12) That Are Covered When Students Attend Live Performances of Shakespeare's Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper outlines Standards of Learning for grades 6-12 students in Virginia that are covered when they attend live performances of William Shakespeare's plays. The paper details separate standards for each grade in English, subdivided into standards which fulfill requirements in Oral Language, Reading/Literature, Writing, and Research, along…

  2. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

  4. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  5. Performance on a Stage IV Object-Permanence Task with Standard and Nonstandard Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Rader, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Examined the role of perceptual-motor development in a typical Stage IV task. The performance of ten infants was compared on a Stage IV object permanence task when a cloth cover was used and when a small card cover was used. (JMB)

  6. Standard land-cover classification scheme for remote-sensing applications in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For large areas, satellite remote-sensing techniques have now become the single most effective method for land-cover and land-use data acquisition. However, the majority of land-cover (and land-use) classification schemes used have been developed...

  7. Austenitic chromium nickel steel as standard reference material in measurement of thermal and temperature conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkele, L.

    1990-01-01

    A niobium-stabilized CrNi steel with the NBS designation SRM 735 is introduced as WLF standard reference material in a report by Hust and Giarratano, for the temperature range 300-1200 K and for thermal conductivities around 20 W/mk. However, its specification does not show it to be a direct member of the DIN family of CrNi steels. This report should be regarded as a continuation and supplement to the above-mentioned efforts in America. On the one hand, a solution of a possibly too-narrow specification is aimed at for the reference material, where it is important how sensitive the thermal conductivity is to changes in the chemical composition and changes of the manufacturing parameters and what accuracy can be reached for the reference values with the best measurement techniques. On the other hand, the data base should be expanded and the accuracy of the reference curve should be improved if possible. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    electrolytic processes for nickel recovery (GM = 0.04 mg m(-3) total nickel, containing 82% soluble nickel) and those jobs involving contact with soluble nickel compounds (GM = 0.02 mg m(-3) total nickel content, containing 76% soluble nickel). The stainless steel workers were exposed to low concentrations of relatively insoluble airborne nickel species (GM = 0.03 mg m(-3) total nickel, containing 1% soluble nickel). A statistically significant correlation was observed between dermal exposures for all anatomical areas across all tasks. In addition, the dermal and inhalable (total) nickel exposures were similarly associated. Overall, dermal exposures to nickel, nickel compounds, and nickel alloys were relatively low. However, exposures were highly variable, which can be explained by the inconsistent use of personal protective equipment, varying working practices, and different standards of automation and engineering controls within each exposure category.

  9. Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 · °C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 ·° C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

  10. 77 FR 593 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... standards include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity standards, requirements for overall risk management (including establishing a risk committee), single-counterparty credit limits...-counterparty credit limits; (iv) overall risk management and risk committees; (v) stress tests; and (vi) a debt...

  11. Bio-based biodegradable film to replace the standard polyethylene cover for silage conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Giorgio; Tabacco, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The research was aimed at studying whether the polyethylene (PE) film currently used to cover maize silage could be replaced with bio-based biodegradable films, and at determining the effects on the fermentative and microbiological quality of the resulting silages in laboratory silo conditions. Biodegradable plastic film made in 2 different formulations, MB1 and MB2, was compared with a conventional 120-μm-thick PE film. A whole maize crop was chopped; ensiled in MB1, MB2, and PE plastic bags, 12.5kg of fresh weight per bag; and opened after 170d of conservation. At silo opening, the microbial and fermentative quality of the silage was analyzed in the uppermost layer (0 to 50mm from the surface) and in the whole mass of the silo. All the silages were well fermented with little differences in fermentative quality between the treatments, although differences in the mold count and aerobic stability were observed in trial 1 for the MB1 silage. These results have shown the possibility of successfully developing a biodegradable cover for silage for up to 6mo after ensiling. The MB2 film allowed a good silage quality to be obtained even in the uppermost part of the silage close to the plastic film up to 170d of conservation, with similar results to those obtained with the PE film. The promising results of this experiment indicate that the development of new degradable materials to cover silage till 6mo after ensiling could be possible. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of gamma prime volume fractions and lattice misfits in a nickel base superalloy using the external standard X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiley, J., E-mail: jaimie.tiley@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Viswanathan, G.B. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Hwang, J.Y. [Materials Engineering Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Shiveley, A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Banerjee, R. [Materials Engineering Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2010-11-25

    The unconstrained lattice parameters and volume fractions of {gamma}' for a low misfit nickel based superalloy were evaluated using X-ray diffraction techniques. Extraction techniques were used to provide unconstrained {gamma}' powders for both water quenched and slow cooled samples that were aged at 760 deg. C for 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 h. The external standard method was used to determine the volume fraction for the unaged water quenched sample and the slow cooled sample aged for 200 h. These two extremes in processing conditions provided an increase in the total volume fraction of {gamma}'.

  13. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  14. Dissimilar steel welding and overlay covering with nickel based alloys using SWAM (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) and GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) processes in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Chilque, Angel Rafael [Centro Tecnico de Engenharia e Inovacao Empresarial Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bracarense, Alexander Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Marconi, Guilherme [Federal Center of Technological Education (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the welding of dissimilar ferritic steel type A508 class 3 and austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316 L using Inconel{sup R} 600 (A182 and A82) and overlay covering with Inconel{sup R} 690 (A52) as filler metal. Dissimilar welds with these materials without defects and weldability problems such as hot, cold, reheat cracking and Ductility Dip Crack were obtained. Comparables mechanical properties to those of the base metal were found and signalized the efficiency of the welding procedure and thermal treatment selected and used. This study evidences the importance of meeting compromised properties between heat affected zone of the ferritic steel and the others regions presents in the dissimilar joint, to elaborate the dissimilar metal welding procedure specification and weld overlay. Metallographic studies with optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness were carried out to justified and support the results, showing the efficiency of the technique of elaboration of dissimilar metal welding procedure and overlay. The results are comparables and coherent with the results found by others. Some alternatives of welding procedures are proposed to attain the efficacy. Further studies are proposed like as metallographic studies of the fine microstructure, making use, for example, of scanning electron microscope (SEM adapted with an EDS) to explain looking to increase the resistance to primary water stress corrosion (PWSCC) in nuclear equipment. (author)

  15. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  16. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  17. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  18. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    . The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  19. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  20. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  1. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  2. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  3. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  4. The Making of a History Standards Wiki: "Covering", "Uncovering", and "Discovering" Curriculum Frameworks Using a Highly Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.; Poirier, Michelle; Smith, Hilary K.; Edwards, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores using a wiki, one of the newest forms of interactive computer-based technology, as a resource for teaching the Massachusetts K-12 History and Social Science Curriculum Framework, a set of state-mandated learning standards. Wikis are web pages that can be easily edited by multiple authors. They invite active involvement by…

  5. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  6. 40 CFR 421.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory... reclaim leaching belt filter backwash. PSNS for the Secondary Nickel Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  7. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  8. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  9. 40 CFR 421.245 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Nickel... Nickel 9.590 6.344 (c) Acid reclaim leaching belt filter backwash PSES for the Secondary Nickel...

  10. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...

  12. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  13. Analytical approaches for the characterization of nickel proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Szpunar, Joanna

    2017-08-16

    The use of nickel in modern industry and in consumer products implies some health problems for the human being. Nickel allergy and nickel carcinogenicity are well-known health effects related to human exposure to nickel, either during production of nickel-containing products or by direct contact with the final item. In this context, the study of nickel toxicity and nickel carcinogenicity involves the understanding of their molecular mechanisms and hence the characterization of the nickel-binding proteins in different biological samples. During the last 50 years, a broad range of analytical techniques, covering from the first chromatographic columns to the last generation mass spectrometers, have been used in order to fully characterize the nickel proteome. The aim of this review is to present a critical view of the different analytical approaches that have been applied for the purification, isolation, detection and identification of nickel-binding proteins. The different analytical techniques used are discussed from a critical point of view, highlighting advantages and limitations.

  14. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  15. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  16. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  17. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  18. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  19. 40 CFR 421.244 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Nickel... all times. (c) Acid reclaim leaching belt filter backwash. NSPS for the Secondary Nickel Subcategory...

  20. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg...

  1. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  2. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  3. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  4. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  5. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...... the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test....

  7. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  8. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  9. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  10. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  11. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  12. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  13. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si∥Ni and Ni3Si∥Ni for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  14. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  15. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  17. Preparation of fine Ni powders from nickel hydrazine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Woo; Chae, Eun H.; Kim, Sang H.; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Jeong Wook; Yoon, Seon Mi; Choi, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Fine nickel powders with narrow size distribution have been prepared from the reduction of nickel hydrazine complexes in aqueous solution. The pure nickel hydrazine complexes, [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 were prepared with the molar ratio of N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ = 4.5, while a mixture of complexes, such as Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 , [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 , and [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 2 were formed with N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ 2+ to metallic Ni powder proceeded via the formation of nickel hydroxide which was reduced by hydrazine liberated from the ligand exchange reaction between the nickel hydrazine complex and NaOH. The standard deviation of the particle size decreased with the decreasing molar concentration of nickel hydrazine complex while the mean particle size increased. As the amount of hydrazine increased, the surface roughness of the particles was improved significantly due to the catalytic decomposition of the excess hydrazine at the surface of the nickel particle. It was found that average particle size could be controlled from 150 to 380 nm by adjusting the reaction molar ratio and temperature

  18. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  19. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  20. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  1. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  2. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  4. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  5. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods and bare electrodes - approved 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    This specification covers corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods for use with the atomic hydrogen and gas-tungsten-arc welding processes and bare electrodes for use with the submerged arc and gas metal-arc welding processes. These welding rods and electrodes include those alloy steels designated as corrosion- or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4% and nickel does not exceed 50%

  6. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  7. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  8. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  9. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-07-01

    Serpentine soils have elevated concentrations of trace metals including nickel, cobalt, and chromium compared to non-serpentine soils. Identifying the nickel bearing minerals allows for prediction of potential mobility of nickel. Synchrotron-based techniques can identify the solid-phase chemical forms of nickel with minimal sample treatment. Element concentrations are known to vary among soil particle sizes in serpentine soils. Sonication is a useful method to physically disperse sand, silt and clay particles in soils. Synchrotron-based techniques and sonication were employed to identify nickel species in discrete particle size fractions in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils to better understand solid-phase nickel geochemistry. Nickel commonly resided in primary serpentine parent material such as layered-phyllosilicate and chain-inosilicate minerals and was associated with iron oxides. In the clay fractions, nickel was associated with iron oxides and primary serpentine minerals, such as lizardite. Linear combination fitting (LCF) was used to characterize nickel species. Total metal concentration did not correlate with nickel speciation and is not an indicator of the major nickel species in the soil. Differences in soil texture were related to different nickel speciation for several particle size fractionated samples. A discussion on LCF illustrates the importance of choosing standards based not only on statistical methods such as Target Transformation but also on sample mineralogy and particle size. Results from the F-test (Hamilton test), which is an underutilized tool in the literature for LCF in soils, highlight its usefulness to determine the appropriate number of standards to for LCF. EXAFS shell fitting illustrates that destructive interference commonly found for light and heavy elements in layered double hydroxides and in phyllosilicates also can occur in inosilicate minerals, causing similar structural features and leading to false positive results in

  10. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  11. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium in nickel-base alloys with Arsenazo III after separation by froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, K.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    0.02-0.1% of zirconium can be determined in nickel alloys by spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III after its separation from the sample solution by means of froth flotation using Arsenazo III and Zephiramine. Nickel, chromium and iron do not interfere. Analysis of standard alloys yielded a standard deviation of 2.2%. (orig.) [de

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Maibach, Howard I; Lidén, Carola

    2010-05-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the DMG test. DMG spot testing, chemical analysis according to the EN 1811 reference method, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were performed concomitantly on 96 metallic components from earrings recently purchased in San Francisco. The sensitivity of the DMG test was 59.3% and the specificity was 97.5% based on DMG-test results and nickel release concentrations determined by the EN 1811 reference method. The DMG test has a high specificity but a modest sensitivity. It may serve well for screening purposes. Past exposure studies may have underestimated nickel release from consumer items.

  14. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches and 1.2g (permanent grass cover of set-aside in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the monitoring carried out in three hilly farms of the MONACO project in order to verify the effectiveness of the Standard 1.1 (commitment a (temporary ditches and Standard 1.2 (commitment g (Vegetation cover throughout the year in set-aside land in the reduction in soil erosion, contained in Rule 1: ‘minimum land management that meets specific conditions’ of the decree Mipaaf 2009 and following modifications, until the recent decree No. 180 of January 23, 2015. In addition, the assessment of the competitiveness gap was done. That is the evaluation of the additional costs borne by the beneficiary of the single payment determined from agronomic commitments. Monitoring has also compared the erosion actually observed in the field with that predicted by RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Renard et al., 1997 in the two situations: with and without the presence of temporary ditches, i.e. assuming Factual (compliance rules and in that Counterfactual (infringement. This comparison was made in view of the fact that the RUSLE model was chosen by the 'European Evaluation Network for Rural Development (EEN, 2013 as a forecasting tool for the quantification of' Common Indicator ‘soil erosion by water’. The results of soil erosion survey carried out by using a new  UAV-GIS methodology  on two monitoring farms in two years of observations have shown that temporary ditches were effective in decreasing erosion, on average, by 42.5%, from 36. 59 t ha-1 to 21.05 t ha-1 during the monitoring period. It was also evaluated the effectiveness of grass strips (at variance with the commitment of temporary ditches. The results showed a strong, highly significant, reduction in erosion by about 35% times respect soil erosion observed in bare soil and also a significant reduction in the volume of runoff water.  With regard to Standard 1.2 (commitment g the statistical analysis shows a strong and highly significant

  15. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  16. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  17. Direct quantification of nickel in stainless steels by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ritu; Raut, Vaibhavi V.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method based on the Ni-DMG complex for the quantification of nickel in steel samples without employing any prior separation is reported in the present study. The interfering ions are masked by suitable complexing agents and the method was extended to real samples after validating with BCS and Euro steel standards. (author)

  18. Fabrication technology of CNT-Nickel Oxide based planar pseudocapacitor for MEMS and NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, E. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Gavrilin, I. M.; Gromov, D. G.; Gruzdev, N. E.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dronov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication technology of planar pseudocapacitor (PsC) based on carbon nanotube (CNT) forest, synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, covered with thin nickel oxide layer deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, is demonstrated. Dependences of deposited oxide layers thickness on device specific capacities is studied. It is shown that pseudocapacity of nickel oxide thin layer increases specific capacity of the CNT's based device up to 2.5 times.

  19. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  20. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  1. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  2. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1998-07-01

    The EU is planning to drop the threshold value for nickel in drinking water down to 20 {mu}g/l (present German threshold value: 50 {mu}g/l). Since ICP-MS-screenings of spot checks of water cookers were striking with respect to nickel, emissions of electrical water cookers have been investigated systematically within this study. As a result, water cookers with open heating coils are emitting relevant amounts of nickel into the water while it is brought to the boil. Investigation of eight preused water cookers with open heating coils revealed that the boiled water contained more than 50 {mu}g Ni/l in one case, more than 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two cases and, between 10 and 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two more cases, respectively. Removing of the lime by the aid of citric acid is increasing the nickel concentrations by a factor of up to 50 (max. 640 {mu}g/l). A new device was checked in a long-term test. During standard use with tapwater, Ni concentrations fall below the detection limit of 5 {mu}g Ni/l (120 cooking events). However, after removing of the lime, 5 times of cooking were necessary in order to diminish the Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of dionized water Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of deionized water Ni concentrations remained between 94 und 190 {mu}g/l. Health risk assessment: The intake of nickel with beverages made from hot water out of these cookers is in the range of 26 {mu}g/day. Considering an alltogether dietary nickel intake of 130-170 (900) {mu}g/day, this is not beyond the scope. However, according to the fact that nickel allergies (dermatitis) are very frequent (up to 13% of the population), this source should be limited or closed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Anlass der geplanten Absenkung des Trinkwassergrenzwertes fuer Nickel auf 20 {mu}g/l sowie aufgrund von Auffaelligkeiten bei Stichprobenuntersuchungen wurde das Nickel-Emissionsverhalten von elektrischen Wassererhitzern betrachtet. Hierbei erwies sich

  3. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  4. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  5. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  6. Initial study of Nickel Electrolyte for EnFACE Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayatno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel electrolyte for a micro-pattern transfer process without photolithography, EnFACE, has been developed. Previous work on copper deposition indicated that a conductivity of ~2.7 Sm-1 is required. Electrochemical parameters of electrolyte i.e. current density and overpotential are also crucial to govern a successful pattern replication. Therefore, the investigation focused on the measurement of physicochemical properties and electrochemical behaviour of the electrolyte at different nickel concentrations and complexing agents of chloride and sulfamate. Nickel electrolytes containing sulfamate, chloride and combined sulfamate-chloride with concentrations between 0.14 M and 0.3 M were investigated. Physicochemical properties i.e. pH and conductivity were measured to ensure if they were in the desired value. The electrochemical behaviour of the electrolytes was measured by polarisation experiments in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrode was a copper disc (surface area of 0.196 cm2 and the counter electrode was platinum mesh. The potential was measured againts a saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. The experiments were carried out at various scan rate and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE rotation speed to see the effect of scan rate and agitation. Based on the measured physicochemical properties, the electrolyte of 0.19 M nickel sulfamate was chosen for experimentation. Polarisation curve of agitated solution suggested that overall nickel electrodeposition reaction is controlled by a combination of kinetics and mass transfer.  Reduction potential of nickel was in the range of -0.7 to -1.0 V. The corresponding current densities for nickel deposition were in the range of -0.1 to -1.5 mA cm-2.

  7. Laser ablation deposition measurements from silver and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Ellegaard, Ole; Schou, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The deposition rate for laser ablated metals has been studied in a standard geometry for fluences up to 20 J/cm(2). The rate for silver and nickel is a few percent of a monolayer per pulse at the laser wavelengths 532 nm and 355 nm. The rate for nickel is significantly higher than that for silver...... at 532 nm, whereas the rate for the two metals is similar at 355 nm. This behaviour disagrees with calculations based on the thermal properties at low intensities as well as predictions based on formation of an absorbing plasma at high intensities. The deposition rate falls strongly with increasing...

  8. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  9. Urinary nickel: measurement of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Chisato; Usuda, Kan; Hayashi, Satsuki; Dote, Tomotaro; Kono, Koichi

    2004-09-01

    Nickel is a rare earth metal and is widely used in modern industry. Its overexposure in human beings can provoke significant effects including lung, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. As an index of occupational exposure, urine is widely used for the monitoring of nickel concentration because it is a minimally invasive method. Recent studies have used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure nickel concentration. In this study, we introduced novel inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry (ICPAES) which enables us to measure multiple elements simultaneously with smaller volume and with lower detection limits compared to conventional atomic absorption emission spectrometry, and we established the new measuring method by determining the appropriate wavelengths for nickel concentration. Furthermore, using the established new measuring method, we investigated the correlation between a single oral administration of nickel and urine elimination in rats. As a result, different concentrations of nickel standard solutions were measured by ICPAES, and among five specific wavelengths of nickel, 221.647 and 231.604 nm were chosen because they had the highest inclines of both signal to background ratio and emission intensity in simple linear regression analysis. Next, by using healthy human urine samples that had not been exposed to nickel, 231.604 nm was determined to be the most appropriate wavelength because it did not present abnormal intensity due to obstacle wavelength. Male Wistar rats received an oral administration of nickel ranging from 0.025 to 250 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 0.0015 - 15% of LD50, and during the following 24 h, urine samples were collected and the nickel concentration was measured by ICPAES. With a single oral administration of nickel, there was an increase in urine nickel concentration in a dose-dependent manner and the appropriate equation was developed. Acute renal failure was not observed in this dosage of oral nickel

  10. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  11. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  12. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  13. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  14. Pulsed laser dewetting of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y F; Pearce, R C; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D; Melechko, A V; Hensley, D K

    2008-01-01

    We present a pulsed laser dewetting technique that produces single nickel catalyst particles from lithographically patterned disks for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth through plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Unlike the case for standard heat treated Ni catalyst disks, for which multiple nickel particles and consequently multiple carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are observed, single vertically aligned CNFs could be obtained from the laser dewetted catalyst. Different laser dewetting parameters were tested in this study, such as the laser energy density and the laser processing time measured by the total number of laser pulses. Various nickel disk radii and thicknesses were attempted and the resultant number of carbon nanofibers was found to be a function of the initial disk dimension and the number of laser pulses

  15. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  16. Nickel nanoparticles exposure and reproductive toxicity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-11-17

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  17. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  19. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  20. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  1. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  2. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  3. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-10-01

    To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry out statistical modelling of mortalities within the cohort (internal standard). Four variables were considered to have the potential to influence mortality within the cohort: attained age (age at follow up or age at death), year of starting nickel work, period of follow up (measured from the first period of work with nickel exposure), and duration of exposure to nickel. The only significant difference between observed and expected numbers, when investigated by site of cancer and by broad non-cancer groupings, was that for stomach cancer (observed eight, expected 2.49, SMR 322). The study provides only weak evidence that nickel plating is associated with an excess risk of stomach cancer. This cohort of nickel platers does not seem to have experienced any discernible risk of occupational lung cancer. Other studies of nickel platers rather than nickel/chromium platers would be useful.

  4. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  5. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  6. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  7. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  8. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pnickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  10. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  11. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  12. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  13. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: jhersh@anl.gov; Ajayi, O.O. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fenske, G.R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing.

  14. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing

  15. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  16. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  18. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  19. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  20. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  1. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  2. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  3. Development and characterization of protective nickel coatings by CVD process for non-ferrous metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of this thesis is the formation of adhesive and corrosion resistant nickel film on aluminum, aluminum-lithium (Li 0.5 %) alloy and copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Different surface preparation treatments such as electropolishing, anodizing and pickling are applied to the aforementioned substrates and its effect on the adhesion and corrosion resistance of nickel coating is studied. Nickel coating is deposited on different substrates by using already optimized parameters of 190-200 degree C deposition temperature, 9-8 x 10/sup -1/ Torr pressure during deposition, pure nickel-tetra-carbonyl gas, and induction heating source and 5 minutes deposition time. Substrates subjected to pickling treatment show excellent adhesion of nickel coating with a value of 5B based on ASTM standard while electropolished substrates show valve of 3B. XRD characterization of the nickel film show characteristic peaks of nickel confirming its phase purity. The SEM images show that nickel coating follows the surface features of the substrate. The pickled surface results in film with rough morphology than electropolished or anodized surface. The corrosion resistance of both uncoated and coated substrates is studied by monitoring its open circuit potential in different electrolytes (brine solution, sea and distilled water) at different temperatures. All substrates coated with nickel show 120-400mV potential difference compare with uncoated substrates in different electrolytes. (author)

  4. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  5. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  6. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  7. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  8. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  9. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  10. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  11. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  14. New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller James G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While epidemiological methods have grown in sophistication during the 20th century, their application in historical occupational (and environmental health research has also led to a corresponding growth in uncertainty in the validity and reliability of the attribution of risk in the resulting studies, particularly where study periods extend back in time to the immediate postwar era (1945–70 when exposure measurements were sporadic, unsystematically collected and primitive in technique; and, more so, to the pre-WWII era (when exposure data were essentially non-existent. These uncertainties propagate with animal studies that are designed to confirm the carcinogenicity by inhalation exposure of a chemical putatively responsible for historical workplace cancers since exact exposure conditions were never well characterized. In this report, we present a weight of scientific evidence examination of the human and toxicological evidence to show that soluble nickel is not carcinogenic; and, furthermore, that the carcinogenic potencies previously assigned by regulators to sulphidic and oxidic nickel compounds for the purposes of developing occupational exposure limits have likely been overestimated. Methods Published, file and archival evidence covering the pertinent epidemiology, biostatistics, confounding factors, toxicology, industrial hygiene and exposure factors, and other risky exposures were examined to evaluate the soluble nickel carcinogenicity hypothesis; and the likely contribution of a competing workplace carcinogen (arsenic on sulphidic and oxidic nickel risk estimates. Findings Sharp contrasts in available land area and topography, and consequent intensity of production and refinery process layouts, likely account for differences in nickel species exposures in the Kristiansand (KNR and Port Colborne (PCNR refineries. These differences indicate mixed sulphidic and oxidic nickel and arsenic exposures in KNR's historical

  15. Replacement of nickel sealing rings by expanded graphite sealing rings -upgrading of SG primary collector flange connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikryt, F.; Bednarek, L.; Kusyn, L. [Vitkovice, Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most loaded parts of a steam generator of VVER 440 MW type are the bolts and thread holes of the primary collector cover sealing set. The strength calculations and tensometric measurings performed during operation proved the high degree of a load on the bolts. The conditions of the stress limitation are not met in some cases according to the pertinent standards. The untightnesses at nickel rings occurred during putting the units of Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany nuclear power stations into operation. With regard to improve the reliability, the producer has taken measures to improve the quality of the rings and users have introduced more strict regulations for bolts tightening. Due to these measures the high reliability of the set has been obtained from point of view of the tightness, but substantial reduction of bolts and holes threads loading have not been obtained. Several years operation experience proved relatively low service of bolts, damage of thread holes and sealing grooves. As the degree of mechanical load is one of the vital parameters influencing the damage of sealing set, in 1996 we started with the works aimed at a possibility of nickel sealing rings replacement for a more modern type of sealing which assure the higher reliability and service life of the individual part of sealing set under the reduced load.

  16. Replacement of nickel sealing rings by expanded graphite sealing rings -upgrading of SG primary collector flange connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikryt, F; Bednarek, L; Kusyn, L [Vitkovice, Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    One of the most loaded parts of a steam generator of VVER 440 MW type are the bolts and thread holes of the primary collector cover sealing set. The strength calculations and tensometric measurings performed during operation proved the high degree of a load on the bolts. The conditions of the stress limitation are not met in some cases according to the pertinent standards. The untightnesses at nickel rings occurred during putting the units of Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany nuclear power stations into operation. With regard to improve the reliability, the producer has taken measures to improve the quality of the rings and users have introduced more strict regulations for bolts tightening. Due to these measures the high reliability of the set has been obtained from point of view of the tightness, but substantial reduction of bolts and holes threads loading have not been obtained. Several years operation experience proved relatively low service of bolts, damage of thread holes and sealing grooves. As the degree of mechanical load is one of the vital parameters influencing the damage of sealing set, in 1996 we started with the works aimed at a possibility of nickel sealing rings replacement for a more modern type of sealing which assure the higher reliability and service life of the individual part of sealing set under the reduced load.

  17. On the system of provision of ojsc "MMC 'Norilsk Nickel'" with interstate and State certified reference materials for quality control of cobalt, nickel, copper and promproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Shabelnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the quality of OJSC "MMC "Norilsk Nickel" products the Centre of Certified Reference Material Development has developed and is currently successfully implementing a system of operations provision with interstate and state certified reference materials of nickel, cobalt and copper composition. The system wholly corresponds to modern metrological requirements. The Centre of Reference Materials Development, fulfilling leading function in the field of state certified reference material production and supply to the Company's operations, aims its activity both at the development of new types of certified reference materials in the form of metals and at widening the range of synthetic oxide certified reference materials. Developed for the first time, metallic state certified reference materials of nickel, cobalt composition with certified mass fractions of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and carbon were put into practice of the Company's analytical services work. Certified reference material use provides the possibility to take into account requirements of some consumers to the quality of nickel and produce by OJSC "MMC "Norilsk Nickel" and also helps to raise competitive ability of the products on the world metals market. Over recent years the Centre fulfilled the work on the development, certification in established order, approval and entering into the State Register twenty five types of state certified reference materials. Certified reference materials are intended for fulfillment of the analysis of chemical composition of nickel, cobalt and copper in terms of their conformity with both national and international standards.

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  19. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  20. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  1. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  2. Reactivity to patch tests with nickel sulfate and fragrance mix in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, H; Norberg, L A; Vach, W

    2004-01-01

    sulfate in 3 concentrations, 200, 66 and 22 microg/cm(2), and fragrance mix 430 microg/cm(2) were used. A likely case of nickel sensitivity was defined as a reproducible positive reaction with at least homogeneous erythema and palpable infiltration occurring at least 2x and present at both the 12 and 18......The pattern of patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate and fragrance mix was studied with respect to patch test performance, reproducibility and clinical relevance in a population of unselected infants followed prospectively from birth to 18 months of age. TRUE Testtrade mark patches with nickel...... sensitivity was found in only 1 child. No reproducible positive reaction to fragrance mix was found. The high proportion of transient patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate 200 microg/cm(2) indicates that this standard concentration used for adults cannot be applied to infants. The interpretation of a single...

  3. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  4. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  5. Standard practice for electrolytic extraction of phases from Ni and Ni-Fe base superalloys using a hydrochloric-methanol electrolyte

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the isolation of carbides, borides, TCP (topologically close-packed), and GCP (geometrically close-packed) phases (Note 1) in nickel and nickel-iron base gamma prime strengthened alloys. Contamination of the extracted residue by coarse matrix (gamma) or gamma prime particles, or both, reflects the condition of the alloy rather than the techniques mentioned in this procedure. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. CASTI handbook of stainless steels and nickel alloys. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, S.

    2002-01-01

    This is the only up-to-date (2002) reference book that covers both stainless steels and nickel alloys. Written by 30 authors and peer reviewers with over 700 years of combined industrial experience, this CASTI handbook provides the latest stainless steels and nickel alloys information in a practical and comprehensive manner. For the project engineer, maintenance engineer or inspector, this book provides solutions to many of the corrosion problems encountered in aggressive environmental conditions. Some of the corrosive conditions covered are: stress corrosion cracking, reducing environments, halogenation, highly oxidizing environments, and high temperatures. Hundreds of different material applications and selections, throughout many industries, are referenced. It is an ideal reference source to assist in preventing or minimizing corrosion related problems, including those encountered during welding fabrication. This practical handbook also contains a handy 'Alloy Index' which lists each alloy by its ASTM Specification, UNS Number, common name, trade name and page number references. The second edition includes additional coverage of corrosion resistant alloys for downhole production tubing. The new material covers corrosion processes, corrosion rates, hydrogen sulfide environments, corrosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant alloys, the application of stainless steel in production conditions, and more

  7. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nano powders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tientong, J.; Garcia, S.; Thurber, C.R.; Golden, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nano powders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at ph ∼ 12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54-65 °C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution ph affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (ph ∼10) of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  9. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  10. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  11. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  12. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  14. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  15. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  16. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  17. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  19. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  20. [Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements.

  1. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  2. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Wang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  3. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 WeiXing Road, ChangChun 130022 (China)

    2009-12-09

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  4. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  5. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  6. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  7. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  8. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  9. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics

  10. Cancer incidence among copper smelting and nickel refining workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Markku; Uitti, Jukka; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Among workers employed at a nickel refinery in Harjavalta, Finland an increased risk of lung and sinus cancer has been demonstrated in two previous studies. The current study adds 16 more years of follow-up to these studies. A total of 1,115 persons exposed to nickel and 194 non-exposed workers in the Harjavalta nickel smelter and refinery were followed up for cancer from 1967 to 2011 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. The total number of cancer cases in men was 251 (Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.05) and in women 12 (SIR 1.22). In the most nickel-exposed work site (refinery), there were 14 lung cancers (SIR 2.01) and 3 sinonasal cancers (SIR 26.7, 95%). It is likely that exposure to nickel compounds is the main reason for elevated nasal cancer risk among the nickel refinery employees and may also contribute to the excess risk of lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:87-95, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nickel allergy in a Danish population 25 years after the first nickel regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...

  12. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    .4% versus 19.8%) (p = 0.02), in female dermatitis patients aged ≤17 years (14.3% versus 29.2%) (p women: 20.2% versus 36.6%) (p men: 4.9% versus 6.6%) (p ..., and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries.......Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...

  13. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  14. Electrodeposition of Manganese-Nickel Oxide Films on a Graphite Sheet for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-nickel (Mn-Ni oxide films were electrodeposited on a graphite sheet in a bath consisting of manganese acetate and nickel chloride, and the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of these films were investigated. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide films had porous structures covered with nanofibers. The X-ray diffractometer pattern revealed the presence of separate manganese oxide (g-MnO2 and nickel oxide (NiO in the films. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 424 F/g in Na2SO4 electrolyte. This electrode maintained 86% of its initial specific capacitance over 2000 cycles of the charge-discharge operation, showing good cycling stability.

  15. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  16. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  17. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  18. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  19. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  20. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  1. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  2. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Brauer, G.; Leidheiser, H. Jr

    1981-01-01

    Electrodeposited nickel samples were investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC), their concentrations are obtained from the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined. (author)

  3. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  4. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  5. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  6. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  7. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  8. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  9. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  10. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini Shirazi, Seyed Farshad; Aghvami, Marjan; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2018-02-01

    Nickel compounds possess many applications in different industrial processes. Human beings are exposed to nickel commonly through occupational exposure and food. Although a few studies so far have investigated the effects of nickel compounds on human lymphocytes, the complete mechanism of cytotoxicity of this metal on human lymphocytes is yet to be determined. The intention of this paper was to determine the cytotoxicity mechanism of water soluble NiCl 2 toward human lymphocytes using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanisms screening (ACMS) technique. Human lymphocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy subjects based on Ficoll-Paque PLUS standard method. For the assessment of cell viability, lymphocytes were incubated with 0.05-1 mM NiCl 2 for 12 h. Determination of mechanistic parameters was performed 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment of cells with ½ EC50 12h , EC50 12h and 2EC50 12h of NiCl 2 . Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of NiCl 2 on human lymphocytes is associated with increased ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, glutathione depletion, lysosomal membrane damage, cellular proteolysis and activation of caspase-3 before cytotoxicity ensued.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt’s solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5 constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  12. Emission spectral analysis of nickel-base superalloys with fixed time intergration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Haruno; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sudo, Emiko

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of multielements (C, B, Mo, Ta, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Nb, Cu, Ti, Zr, and Al) in nickel-base superalloys (Ni: 68 -- 76%) was performed by emission spectral analysis. At first, samples which had various nickel contents (ni: 68 -- 76%) were prepared by using JAERI R9, nickel and other metals (Fe, Co, or Cr). It was confirmed that in the internal standard method (Ni II 227.73 nm), analytical values of all the elements examined decreased with a decrease of the integration time (ca. 3.9 -- 4.6 s), that is, an increase of the nickel content. On the other hand, according to the fixed time integration method, elements except for C, Mo, and Cr were not interfered within the range of nickel contents examined. A series of nickel-base binary alloys (Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Nb, Mo, and W series) were prepared by high frequency induction melting and the centrifugal casting method and formulae for correcting interferences with near spectral lines were obtained. Various synthetic samples were prepared and analysed by this method. The equations of calibration curves were derived from the data for standard samples (JAERI R1 -- R6, NBS 1189, 1203 -- 1205, and B.S. 600B) by curve fitting with orthogonal polynomials using a computer. For the assessment of this method studied, the F-test was performed by comparison of variances of both analytical values of standard and synthetic samples. The surfaces of specimens were polished with a belt grinder using No. 80 of alumina or silicon carbide endless-paper. The preburn period and integration one were decided at 5 and 6 s respectively. A few standard samples which gave worse reproducibility in emission spectral analysis was investigated with an optical microscope and an electron probe X-ray microanalyser. (author)

  13. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Corynybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 4 tables.

  14. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production methodology was applied. Thirty land cover classes were discerned. Most extended land cover types were pastures (231), arable land (211) and complex cultivation patterns (242). Between 1986 and 2000 aroun...

  15. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  16. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  17. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  18. Environmental and human toxicology of nickel - a review; Umwelt- und Humantoxikologie von Nickel - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, D. [Fachbereich Biologie und Chemie, Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Nickel is a relatively rare element, and its concentrations in ambient air, soils and waters are very low. Higher burdens of nickel are found in nickel industries and their proximity. The human uptake of nickel from the ambient air is neglectably low, except in industrial exposures. The main fraction of human nickel uptake is from food, nearly 50% stems from vegetables. Only about 2% of the oral uptake of nickel are resorbed and distributed over all organs investigated. The uptake of nickel compounds through the skin generally is very low. However, chronic skin contact with nickel and nickel compounds causes a specific contact allergy. This disease was observed after occupational exposure but also frequently in the general population. The number of new cases has dropped considerably due to reinforced prevention. Epidemiological studies with workers of nickel smelting and refining plants have demonstrated increased risks of nose and lung cancer. Human data are supported by results from animal experiments which have shown that inhalation of various nickel compounds caused lung cancer. Furthermore, animal experiments have yielded evidence that oral and inhalative exposure to nickel compounds impair reproduction. National and international agencies have classified various nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans. The unit cancer risk attributed to life-long inhalation of 1 {mu}g Ni/m{sup 3} air is estimated to be between 2 x 10{sup -4} and 7 x 10{sup -4}. Occupational exposure limits in Germany have been the Technical Guidance Values of 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} for nickel and weakly soluble nickel compounds and of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for inhalable droplets of soluble nickel salts. The German limit value for ambient immission is 0.015 mg Ni/m{sup 2}. d, and for emission 0,5 mg Ni/m{sup 3}. Limit values for nickel in air are to be taken not as safe thresholds but as guidance values for the delimitation of the cancer risk. (orig.)

  19. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  20. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  1. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works.

  2. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  3. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  4. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  5. 40 CFR 421.286 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Tantalum Subcategory... Nickel 11.110 7.474 Zinc 20.600 8.484 Tantalum 9.090 (c) Tantalum sludge leach and rinse. PSNS for the...

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  7. A clearer view of the insect brain – combining bleaching with standard whole-mount immunocytochemistry allows confocal imaging of pigment-covered brain areas for 3D reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Stöckl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of insect neuroanatomy, three-dimensional reconstructions of neurons and neuropils have become a standard technique. As images have to be obtained from whole-mount brain preparations, pigmentation on the brain surface poses a serious challenge to imaging. In insects, this is a major problematic in the first visual neuropil of the optic lobe, the lamina, which is obstructed by the pigment of the retina as well as by the pigmented fenestration layer. This has prevented inclusion of this major processing center of the insect visual system into most neuroanatomical brain atlases and hinders imaging of neurons within the lamina by confocal microscopy. It has recently been shown that hydrogen peroxide bleaching is compatible with immunohistochemical labeling in insect brains, and we therefore developed a simple technique for removal of pigments on the surface of insect brains by chemical bleaching. We show that our technique enables imaging of the pigment-obstructed regions of insect brains when combined with standard protocols for both anti-synapsin-labeled as well as neurobiotin-injected samples. This method can be combined with different fixation procedures, as well as different fluorophore excitation wavelengths without negative effects on staining quality. It can therefore serve as an effective addition to most standard histology protocols used in insect neuroanatomy.

  8. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone fondue

  9. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone

  10. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  11. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  12. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  13. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a nickel-iron battery suitable for use in electric vehicles. Ultimately, it is expected that a number of these batteries will be demonstrated under the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act of 1976. The report presents the technical approach and a summary of the progress that was achieved under the contract. Work began 1 May 1978. The report covers the period through September 1978. (TFD)

  15. Systemic nickel: the contribution made by stainless-steel cooking utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1995-04-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19 Cr/9 Ni stainless-steel cooking utensils to nickel in the diet is negligible. The amount of nickel (0 to 8 micrograms) derived from the utensils in standard portions of various "aggressive" foodstuffs tested was less than that to be found occurring in 1 square of a bitter-sweet chocolate bar. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, can show a greater pick-up of nickel, which, in the worst case observed, amounted to approximately 1/5 of the normal daily intake for the average person (ca. 200 micrograms). This situation does not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan has been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of nickel release was observed in new pans on first use from 4 manufacturers located in different countries and appears to be a general phenomenon. This could provide a possible explanation for the high pick-up of nickel by acid fruits reported in 1 instance in the literature.

  16. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism.

  17. Determination of nickel and thallium concentration in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Neamat; Zare Javid, Ahmad; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Ardeshirzadeh, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of nickel and thallium in muscle tissue of fish samples was 2.458 ± 0.910 and 0.781 ± 1.754 mg kg -1 /ww, respectively. The GLM analysis showed a significant negative relationship between nickel concentration and length. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between thallium concentration and fish length. Nickel concentration exceeded the allowable standards of WHO and FDA in Cynoglossus arel. Therefore, regarding with high consumption of seafood in this region, it is recommended that these fishes should be consumed under a nutritionist counseling.

  18. Assessment of nickel release from earrings randomly purchased in China and Thailand using the dimethylglyoxime test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan J; Hamann, Quinlan J; Hamann, Curtis P; Boonchai, Waranya; Li, Lin-Feng; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-04-01

    China and Thailand produce large amounts of jewellery that are sold domestically and abroad. To identify nickel release and metal content in earrings purchased in China and Thailand. A total of 557 earrings were randomly purchased from vendors in 11 markets located in Beijing, Chengdu, Bangkok, Patong Beach, and Hat Yai. Earrings were subjected to dimethylglyoxime (DMG) tests and 26 of the DMG negative earrings were further evaluated qualitatively for major and minor metal content using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A total of 314 Chinese earrings (31.5%) and 243 Thai earrings (29.2%) were DMG test positive. Three (11.5%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a major component; 7 (26.9%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a minor component. Excessive nickel release was frequent. This may contribute to the high prevalence of nickel allergy in both countries. Increased public education together with the adoption of a regulatory intervention in Thailand may be warranted. In China, enforcement of the 2002 Chinese National Standard GB 11887 may assist in reducing sensitization. These initiatives may eventually result in decreased morbidity among the Chinese and Thai citizens, but can potentially benefit recipient countries of these important earring producing countries.

  19. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  20. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  1. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  2. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nanopowders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanopowders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at pH ~12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54–65°C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution pH affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (pH~10 of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  4. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  5. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  6. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  7. Operational monitoring of temperature and state of stress of primary collectors, their stud bolts and cover and temperatures of steam generator's pressure vessel at the nuclear power unit WWER 440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Simo, T.; Holy, F.; Vejvoda, S.

    1992-01-01

    Both primary collectors of the WWER 440 steam generator (STGE) are vertically positioned inside the STGE pressure vessel and connected in their lower part to the primary piping and closed at their upper part by primary covers. The primary cover is pushed against the primary collector flange by 20 stud bolts. Two nickel packing rings are fitted between the primary cover and collector. A leakage in the collector-cover junction could cause flow of the radioactive water into the clean secondary water. If the junction is made in accordance with the Soviet standard design the computed stresses exceed the allowable value in the stud bolts by a factor of 1.5. Therefore an improved design of the primary collector - primary cover flange joint was designed and tested on one STGE at a WWER 440 nuclear power unit in Czechoslovakia. The paper describes the system of joint properties measurement, gives some substantial characteristics of the new stud bolts and primary cover design and comments on significant measured results of state of stress and temperatures in comparison with the operational regime of the STGE. (orig.)

  8. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  9. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  11. Effects of nickel on irradiation embrittlement of light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This TECDOC was developed under the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Effects of Nickel on Irradiation Embrittlement of Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels. This CRP is the sixth in a series of CRPs to determine the influence of the mechanism and quantify the influence of nickel content on the deterioration of irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels of the Ni-Cr-Mo-V or Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo types. The scientific scope of the programme includes procurement of materials, determination of mechanical properties, irradiation and testing of specimens in power and/or test reactors, and microstructural characterization. Eleven institutes from eight different countries and the European Union participated in this CRP and six institutes conducted the irradiation experiments of the CRP materials. In addition to the irradiation and testing of those materials, irradiation experiments of various national steels were also conducted. Moreover, some institutes performed microstructural investigations of both the CRP materials and national steels. This TECDOC presents and discusses all the results obtained and the analyses performed under the CRP. The results analysed are clear in showing the significantly higher radiation sensitivity of high nickel weld metal (1.7 wt%) compared with the lower nickel base metal (1.2 wt%). These results are supported by other similar results in the literature for both WWER-1000 RPV materials, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type materials, and model alloys. Regardless of the increased sensitivity of WWER-1000 high nickel weld metal (1.7 wt%), the transition temperature shift for the WWER-1000 RPV design fluence is still below the curve predicted by the Russian code (standard for strength calculations of components and piping in NPPs - PNAE G 7-002-86). For higher fluence, no data were available and the results should not be extrapolated. Although manganese content was not incorporated directly in this CRP

  12. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  13. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  14. A Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Glucose Sensor By Nickel-Epoxy Electrode With Non-Enzymatic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of new sensor for glucose was based on the fact that glucose can be determined by non-enzymatic glucose oxidase. The Ni metals (99.98% purity, 0.5 mm thick, Aldrich Chemical Company was used to prepare Ni-Epoxy electrode. The Ni-epoxy electrodes were prepared in square cut of 1 cm and 1 mm by length and wide respectively. The Ni metal electrodes were connected to silver wire with silver conducting paint prior covered with epoxy gum. The prepared of nickel-epoxy modified electrode showed outstanding electro catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution. The result from this research are correlation of determination using Nickel-Epoxyelectrode for electroanalysis of glucose in NaOH was R2 = 0.9984. LOQ, LOD and recovery of the Nickel-Epoxy electrode towards glucose were found to be 4.4 μM, 1.48 μM and 98.19%, respectively. The Nickel-Epoxy wire based electrochemical glucose sensor demonstrates good sensitivity, wide linear range, outstanding detection limit, attractive selectivity, good reproducibility, high stability as well as prominent feasibility use of non-enzymatic sensor for monitoring glucose in human urine owing to its advantages of low cost, simple preparation and excellent properties for glucose detection.

  15. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  16. Design of a single variable helium effects experiment for irradiation in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] using alloys enriched in nickel 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Nickel enriched in nickel 59 was extracted from the fragments of a fracture toughness specimen of Inconel 600 irradiated in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The nickel contained 2.0% nickel 59. Three heats of austenitic steel doped with nickel-59 were prepared and inserted in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The experiment was single variable in helium effects because chemically identical alloys without nickel-59 were being irradiated side by side with the doped material. The alloys doped with nickel 59 produced 10 to 100 times more helium than the control alloys. The materials included ternary and quaternary alloys in the form of transmission electron microscope (TEM) discs and miniature tensile specimens. The helium to dpa ratio was in the range 5 to 35 and was nearly constant throughout the irradiation. The exposures ranged from 0.25 to 50 displacements per atom (dpa) over the duration of the experiment. The irradiation temperatures covered the range of 360 to 600 0 C

  17. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  18. Numerous dilemmas surrounding the 1917 nickel coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Extraordinary Loans Amounting to 200 Million Dinars and the Minting of Silver and Nickel Coins in 1916 was the legal basis for minting the 5-, 10-, and 20-para nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia featuring the year 1917 as their minting year. Some authors believe that these coins were minted in the Minting House in Paris, whereas the others agree that they were certainly minted in France, but in a still unidentified minting house. There are authors who in recent reference literature underline the possibility of their minting in the USA Gorham Company, in Providence, Rhode Island. These coins had all the characteristics of the nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1883, 1884, 1904 and 1912. Although, according to the Law, the Minister of Finance was authorized to mint 10 million dinars of these nickel coins, only 5 million pieces in each denomination were actually minted, in the total nominal value of just 1,750,000 dinars. The general opinion is that after the war only a small amount of these nickel coins reached Serbia, because the ships transporting the Serbian coins from the minting house sank on their way. The only varying aspect in this explanation is the location from which the ships were sailing towards Corfu, i.e. from the USA or from France. These coins stopped being legal tender as of 30 November 1931.

  19. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg( - )(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 μg g( - )(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that

  20. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  1. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of new nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel nickel molybdenum complex with the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid ligand was success- ... made for preparing nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. 2. ... Formula weight ..... talline nickel molybdates J. Alloys Compd.

  2. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  3. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  4. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  5. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cover gas box for handling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.

    1978-01-01

    An inert atmosphere box has been developed to work with sodium experimentally and analytically. The volumen of the box is 0.6 m 3 . A blower mounted inside the work chamber constantly circulates the argon from the work chamber through a gas purification system (nickel-catalyst 6525 and molecular sieve 4A). The flow rate is 450 l/h. The box is equipped with neoprene gloves. The glove ports can be closed with interior flanges. The work chamber is constantly kept to a low superpressure of 25 mm water gange. In a bypass the oxygen concentration is measured with the OXYLYT-electrolyte cell and the water vapour concentration with the KEIDEL-electrolytic hygrometer. During long-term operation oxygen levels of 35 vpm and water vapour levels of 50 vpm can be hold even when the gloves are not covered. By means of putting a vessel with liquid sodium in the work chamber oxygen levels of 8 vpm and water vapour levels of 20 vpm can be attained for short times. The inert atmosphere purity can be improved by means of increasing the gas flow rate. (author)

  7. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  8. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  9. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  10. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  11. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  12. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  13. 40 CFR 420.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product Chromium 0.00292 0.00117 Nickel 0.00263 0.000876 (2) Batch, rod and wire. Subpart H Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standards for new sources Maximum for... Chromium 0.00175 0.000701 Nickel 0.00158 0.000526 (3) Batch, pipe and tube. Subpart H Pollutant or...

  14. 40 CFR 415.476 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts...): The limitations for copper (T) and nickel (T) are the same as specified in § 415.474(a). (b) Except as... the same as specified in § 415.474(b). ...

  15. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  16. Impact of nickel (Ni) on hematological parameters and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... The effect of nickel on hematological parameters and behaviour in Cyprinus carpio after a 96 h exposure to nickel test was investigated. .... important food item in human diet. Nickel is a natural element in the earth's makeup. This must be a factor in assessing its ability to harm the environment. Although,.

  17. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  18. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prototype nickel component demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    We have been developing a process to produce high-purity nickel structures from nickel carbonyl using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The prototype demonstration effort had been separated into a number of independent tasks to allow Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) the greatest flexibility in tailoring the project to their needs. LANL selected three of the proposed tasks to be performed--Task 1- system modification and demonstration, Task 2-stainless steel mandrel trials, and Task 4-manufacturing study. Task 1 focused on converting the CVD system from a hot-wall to a cold-wall configuration and demonstrating the improved efficiency of the reactor type by depositing a 0.01-inch-thick nickel coating on a cylindrical substrate. Since stainless steel substrates were preferred because of their low α-emitter levels, Task 2 evaluated mandrel configurations which would allow removal of the nickel tube from the substrate. The manufacturing study was performed to develop strategies and system designs for manufacturing large quantities of the components needed for the Sudbury Nuetrino Observatory (SNO) program. Each of these tasks was successfully completed. During these efforts, BIRL successfully produced short lengths of 2-inch-diameter tubing and 6-inch-wide foil with levels of α-radiation emitting contaminants lower than either conventional nickel alloys or electroplated materials. We have produced both the tubing and foil using hot-substrate, cold-wall reactors and clearly demonstrated the advantages of higher precursor efficiency and deposition rate associated with this configuration. We also demonstrated a novel mandrel design which allowed easy removal of the nickel tubing and should dramatically simplify the production of 1.5-meter-long tubes in the production phase of the program

  20. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  1. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  2. Origin of nickel in water solution of the chalk aquifer in the north of France and influence of geochemical factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Daniel; El Khattabi, Jamal; Lefevre, Emilie; Serhal, Hani; Bastin-Lacherez, Sabine; Shahrour, Isam

    2008-01-01

    In the north of France, high registers of nickel are sometimes recorded within the chalk aquifer. In a confined context, the presence of pyrite in the covering clays or in the marcasite nodules encrusted in the clay may constitute a natural source of trace metals. With an objective of sanitary control, the limits of chemical contents regulating the quality of water destined for human consumption have been lowered by the European Framework Directive in the field of water policy (2000/60/EC). As a result, nickel limits have been reduced from 50 to 20 μg/l. The analyses, carried out on three water catchment fields in our area of study, were centred on variable parameters (Eh, O2(d), pH, Conductivity, T°), major elements (SO4, NO3) and metals (Fe, Ni, Mn, Co). The acquired data enabled us to identify from one hand, the conditions which are presented within the site, special thanks to the evolution of nitrate and iron contents and on the other hand, the natural origin (geological) of nickel for two of the three sites studied based essentially on the evaluation of the Nickel/Cobalt ratio. Thus, on the first site, the evolution of nickel content and nitrate content showed the influence of the phenomenon of denitrification on the re-mobilisation of the nickel. Whereas on the second site, a high variation of total iron content and oxygen dissolved in solution highlighted a particular phenomenon of oxidation of the pyrite through molecular oxygen. Finally, the correlation with the sulphates clearly showed behaviour of the nickel, once released, that was entirely dependent on the phenomenon of adsorption on the iron and manganese hydroxides.

  3. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  4. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite...... = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts...... of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface....

  5. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  6. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  8. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  9. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  10. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  11. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  12. Evaluation of High Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Finned Tubes Made of Austenitic Steel And Nickel Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turowska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the resistance to high temperature corrosion of laser welded joints of finned tubes made of austenitic steel (304,304H and nickel alloys (Inconel 600, Inconel 625. The scope of the paper covered the performance of corrosion resistance tests in the atmosphere of simulated exhaust gases of the following chemical composition: 0.2% HCl, 0.08% SO2, 9.0% O2 and N2 in the temperature of 800°C for 1000 hours. One found out that both tubes made of austenitic steel and those made of nickel alloy displayed good resistance to corrosion and could be applied in the energy industry.

  13. External self-gettering of nickel in float zone silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, N.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1997-05-01

    During indiffusion of Ni atoms in silicon crystals at 950 °C from a nickel layer source, Ni-Si alloys can be formed close to the surface. Metal solubility in these alloys is higher than in silicon, which induces a marked segregation gettering of the Ni atoms which have diffused in the bulk of the wafers. Consequently, the regions of the wafers covered with the Ni layer are less contaminated than adjacent regions in which Ni atoms have also penetrated, as shown by the absence of precipitates and the higher diffusion length of minority carriers. The results suggest the existence of external self-gettering of Ni atoms by the nickel source.

  14. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  15. Covering the Standards: Astronomy Teachers' Preparation and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Zahm, Valerie M.

    2010-01-01

    An online survey of science teachers and interviews with curriculum directors were used to investigate the coverage of astronomy in middle and high schools in the greater Philadelphia region. Our analysis looked beyond astronomy elective courses to uncover all sources of astronomy education in secondary schools. We focused on coverage of state…

  16. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  17. Cryoforming evaluation using high-purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.E.; Meisner, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    The cryogenic forming process was evaluated using nickel 270 to see if it had significant advantages over room-temperature (RT) forming. Typically, the procedure involved fast-strain-rate forming a set of nickel samples at cryogenic temperatures and another set at RT. Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves compared at equal strains. Two more sets were formed, this time at slow strain rates (one at cryogenic temperatures, the other at RT). Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves of these sets compared with the previous two at equal temperatures and strains. Cryoforming produced a 30 percent higher-strength nickel than that produced at room temperature at equal strains and strain rates. Forming rate effects disappeared as working temperature decreased. Rate-insensitive cryoforming produced a considerably stronger room-temperature material than room-temperature forming at high strain rates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated apparent structural differences between cryoformed and room-temperature-formed nickel. 14 fig

  18. Nickel-iron spherules from aouelloul glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Merrill, C.W.

    1966-01-01

    Nickel-iron spherules, ranging from less than 0.2 to 50 microns in diameter and containing 1.7 to 9.0 percent Ni by weight, occur in glass associated with the Aouelloul crater. They occur in discrete bands of siliceous glass enriched in dissolved iron. Their discovery is significant tangible evidence that both crater and glass originated from terrestrial impact.

  19. Important Parameters and Applications for Nickel Electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Benzon, Michael Eis; Rasmussen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    H-value, temperature and the use of pulse plating and additives will be examined with respect to mechanical properties such as internal stress, material distribution and hardness. Pulse plating in a chloride and Watts nickel bath and DC plating in sulphamate bath will be discussed, as well as different methods...... for measuring internal stress and material distribution....

  20. Diffusion of alloying elements in liquid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, G.S.; Majboroda, V.P.; Permyakova, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    Values of diffusion coefficients for chromium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, tin, antimony, lead and zirconium in liquid nickel are determined within 1500-1700 deg C temperature range using annular gap technique. The data obtained are explained concerning microheterogeneous structure of metallic melts

  1. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  2. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  3. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  4. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore, E-mail: sgiuffrida@unict.it; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Nigro, Raffaella Lo [IMM-CNR (Italy); Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Bongiorno, Corrado [IMM-CNR (Italy); Fragala, Ignazio L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac){sub 2} (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl{sub 2} was formed from CCl{sub 4} solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl{sub 2} films.

  5. Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Koene, L.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous removal of nickel ions from a dilute solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis process. Emphasis was placed on the ionic state of the bed during the process, and the mass balance of ions in the system. Much of this information was obtained by analysing

  6. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  8. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  9. Experimental study of different nickel-titanium memory tracheal stents in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang Xu; He Nengshu; Fan Hailun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Since membrane -covered metal tracheal stent was applied successfully to treat the airway stenosis, it has been widely used and obtained satisfactory result during the past years. The purpose of our study was provide theoretical rational for treatment with membrane-covered tracheal stent by using animal experiment. Methods: The nickel- titanium memory stents of 22 mm in diameter and 6 cm in length were deployed in 18 dogs. The dogs were grouped into full- length membrane-covered group (n=6), partial-length membrane-covered group (membrane was covered for 4 cm in the medial part of the stent, n=6), and naked stent group (n=6). After the stent placement dysphagia or dysphonia was monitored daily. Twenty-four weeks later, the dogs were executed. Speiments were taken from the cephalic, medial, and caudal trachea under the stent. HE stain and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated. Results: After the stent placement, no dyspnea, dysphagia or dysphonia but cough was present in each dog. There was no significant difference in symptom between the three groups. Inflammation reaction, metaplasia from low columnar epithelium to spuamous epithelium, and mild granulation tissue hyperplasia in the underlying mucosa were present in each group. However, fibrosis and tracheal straitness were present only in the non-membrane-covered area, but not in the membrane-covered area. More PCNA expression was observed in the non-membrane -covered area than in the membrane-covered area. Conclusion: Both membrane-covered and non-membrane-covered stents can cause similar symptoms. However, the membrane -covered tracheal stent has good biological compatibility and would not induce tracheal straitness. The non-membrane -covered tracheal stent could induce a severe pathologic reaction and tracheal straitness. (authors)

  10. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  11. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  12. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Electro Co-deposition of (Zinc-Nickel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhlas Abdulrahman Salman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available abstract An experimental investigation has been carried out for zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni electro-deposition using the constant applied current technique. Weight difference approach method was used to determine the cathode current efficiency and deposit thickness. Also, the influence effect of current density on the deposition process, solderability, and porosity of the plating layer in microelectronic applications were examined. The bath temperature effect on nickel composition and the form of the contract was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Moreover, elemental nature of the deposition was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX. It has been found that the best bath temperature was 40˚C, specifically at a concentration of 73 g/L of NiCl2.6H2O, has a milestone influence on the nickel composition and structure of the deposits. The potential is a major factor influencing the deposition coating alloy which is adjusted by the operations of the cathodic polarization; rather than the standard potential of the two metals as determined by the e.m.f. series. The anomalous deposition was obtained at a current density lower than 0.8 A/dm2, while normal deposition occurred at current densities less than 1.2 A/dm2. Corrosion behavior was exhibited by the bath and for performance was carried out, and it shows that the best corrosion performance was for nickel composition of 10-12.6 wt%.

  14. Improvement of the Wear Resistance of Ferrous Alloys by Electroless Plating of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleicheva, J. K.; Karaguiozova, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The electroless nickel (Ni) and composite nickel - nanodiamond (Ni+DND) coatings are investigated in this study. The method EFTTOM-NICKEL for electroless nickel plating with nanosized strengthening particles (DND 4-6 nm) is applied for the coating deposition. The coatings are deposited on ferrous alloys samples. The wear resistance of the coatings is performed by friction wear tests under 50-400 MPa loading conditions - in accordance with a Polish Standard PN-83/H-04302. The microstructure observations are made by optic metallographic microscope GX41 OLIMPUS and the microhardness is determined by Vickers Method. Tests for wear resistance, thickness and microhardness measurements of the coatings without heat treatment and heat treatment are performed. The heat treatment regime is investigated with the aim to optimize the thermal process control of the coated samples without excessive tempering of the substrate material. The surface fatigue failure is determined by contact fatigue test with the purpose to establish suitable conditions for production of high performance materials.

  15. Glucose sensing on graphite screen-printed electrode modified by sparking of copper nickel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riman, Daniel; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karantzalis, Alexandros E; Hrbac, Jan; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2017-04-01

    Electric spark discharge was employed as a green, fast and extremely facile method to modify disposable graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) with copper, nickel and mixed copper/nickel nanoparticles (NPs) in order to be used as nonenzymatic glucose sensors. Direct SPEs-to-metal (copper, nickel or copper/nickel alloys with 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25wt% compositions) sparking at 1.2kV was conducted in the absence of any solutions under ambient conditions. Morphological characterization of the sparked surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical composition of the sparked NPs was evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the various sparked SPEs towards the electro oxidation of glucose in alkaline media and the critical role of hydroxyl ions were evaluated with cyclic voltammetry and kinetic studies. Results indicated a mixed charge transfer- and hyroxyl ion transport-limited process. Best performing sensors fabricated by Cu/Ni 50/50wt% alloy showed linear response over the concentration range 2-400μM glucose and they were successfully applied to the amperometric determination of glucose in blood. The detection limit (S/N 3) and the relative standard deviation of the method were 0.6µM and green methods in sensor's development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  17. The determination of copper and nickel in iron- and chromium-bearing materials by a pressed-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaes, A.M.E.; Dixon, K.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed that is suitable for the determination of copper and nickel in ores such as those from the Merensky and UG-2 Reefs. The sample was ground finely and diluted with river sand so that matrix variations were avoided as much as possible. After the addition of a wax-polystyrene binder, the material was pelletized. The matrix effects of iron and chromium, and the effects of their mutual interferences on the determination of copper and nickel, were then investigated. Equations were derived for the corrected copper and nickel Kα intensities, and were applied to the analyses of head, concentrate, middling, and tailing samples. Comparative values obtained by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry were found to be in reasonable agreement with the X-ray values; the average deviation was +0,3 per cent for copper and -1,6 per cent for nickel relative to the AAS values. The limits of detection of the method for copper and nickel are 31 and 40μg/g respectively; the limit of determination for copper is 92μg/g and for nickel is 119μg/g. The relative standard deviation at 900 and 2400μg of copper and nickel per gram is 0,02

  18. Method for determining the hardness of strain hardening articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a rapid nondestructive method for determining the extent of strain hardening in an article of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy. The method comprises saturating the article with a magnetic field from a permanent magnet, measuring the magnetic flux emanating from the article, comparing the measurements of the magnetic flux emanating from the article with measured magnetic fluxes from similarly shaped standards of the alloy with known amounts of strain hardening to determine the hardness

  19. Nickel Nanowire@Porous NiCo2O4 Nanorods Arrays Grown on Nickel Foam as Efficient Pseudocapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhao Wan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional hierarchical nanostructure composed of nickel nanowires and porous NiCo2O4 nanorods arrays on the surface of nickel foam is successfully fabricated by a facile route. In this structure, the nickel nanowires are used as core materials to support high-pseudocapacitance NiCo2O4 nanorods and construct the well-defined NiCo2O4 nanorods shell/nickel nanowires core hierarchical structure on nickel foam. Benefiting from the participation of nickel nanowires, the nickel nanowire@NiCo2O4/Ni foam electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance (7.4 F cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2, excellent rate capability (88.04% retained at 100 mA cm−2, and good cycling stability (74.08% retained after 1,500 cycles. The superior electrochemical properties made it promising as electrode for supercapacitors.

  20. Integration of multiple, excess, backup, and expected covering models

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; K Hogan; C ReVelle

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of multiple, excess, backup, and expected coverage are defined. Model formulations using these constructs are reviewed and contrasted to illustrate the relationships between them. Several new formulations are presented as is a new derivation of the expected covering model which indicates more clearly the relationship of the model to other multi-state covering models. An expected covering model with multiple time standards is also presented.

  1. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production

  2. Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-11-01

    This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces.

  3. Effect of tetraethylthiuramdisulphide and diethyldithiocarbamate on nickel toxicokinetics in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalsgaard, G.; Andersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    A new experimental pharmacokinetic model using the γ-emitting isotope 57 Ni for studying nickel toxicokinetics was employed in a recent investigation in order to quantitatively study, for the first time, the effect of tetraethylthiuram disulphide (disulfiram, Antabuse, TTD) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on whole-body retention and organ distribution of nickel in mice. TTD or its decomposition product DDC given orally by stomach tube shortly after oral administration of a low dose of nickel chloride labelled with 57 Ni resulted in an approximately ten times higher whole-body retention of nickel compared to the retention in a control group exposed to nickel only. These chelators increased the whole-body retention of nickel also when given by intraperitoneal injection shortly after oral or intraperitoneal administration of nickel. Oral administration of a single dose of TTD or DDC rapidly after an oral dose of nickel chloride also resulted in extensive changes in the organ distribution of nickel, thus the nickel content in the brain was at least 700 times higher than in a control group given the same dose of nickel only. If DDC was given intraperitoneally after nickel given orally, the relative organ distribution of nickel to most organs was the same as if the chelator was given orally, though the contents of the liver and lungs were lower. That TTD and DDC resulted in a transport of nickel to the brain, is underlined by the fact that after 20 hr, approximately 15% and after 45-50 hr, 30% of the total body burden of Ni was found in the brain. Stating the nickel content as concentrations, we found after 19 hr to 23 hr the highest nickel concentration in the brain, kidneys, lungs and liver, in order of decreasing concentration. From 68 hr to 122 hr the order was brain, lungs, kidneys and liver. TTD and DDC are widely used clinically. These results indicate, that long-term simultaneous administration of nickel and TTD or DDC to humans should be avoided, as

  4. The GENIALL process for generation of nickel-iron alloys from nickel ores or mattes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, G.; Frias, C.; Palma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new process, called GENIALL (acronym of Generation of Nickel Alloys), for nickel recovery as ferronickel alloys from ores or mattes without previous smelting is presented in this paper. Its core technology is a new electrolytic concept, the ROSEL cell, for electrowinning of nickel-iron alloys from concentrated chloride solutions. In the GENIALL Process the substitution of iron-based solid wastes as jarosite, goethite or hematite, by saleable ferronickel plates provides both economic and environmental attractiveness. Another advantage is that no associated sulfuric acid plant is required. The process starts with leaching of the raw material (ores or mattes) with a solution of ferric chloride. The leachate liquor is purified by conventional methods like cementation or solvent extraction, to remove impurities or separate by-products like copper and cobalt. The purified solution, that contains a mixture of ferrous and nickel chlorides is fed to the cathodic compartment of the electrowinning cell, where nickel and ferrous ions are reduced together to form an alloy. Simultaneously, ferrous chloride is oxidized to ferric chloride in the anodic compartment, from where it is recycled to the leaching stage. The new electrolytic equipment has been developed and scaled up from laboratory to pilot prototypes with commercial size electrodes of 1 m 2 . Process operating conditions have been established in continuous runs at bench and pilot plant scale. The technology has shown a remarkable capacity to produce nickel-iron alloys of a wide range of compositions, from 10% to 80% nickel, just by adjusting the operating parameters. This emerging technology could be implemented in many processes in which iron and other non-ferrous metals are harmful impurities to be removed, or valuable metals to be recovered as a marketable iron alloy. Other potential applications of this technology are regeneration of spent etching liquors, and iron removal from aqueous effluents. (author)

  5. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  6. Nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Divya Ratan; Khan, Muhammad F; Tandar, Anwar; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Neuharth, Renée; Patel, Amit N; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Badger, Rodney S

    2015-02-01

    We sought to compare nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices in vitro. There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved devices for percutaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect: the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO; St Jude Medical Corporation) and Gore Helex septal occluder (HSO; W.L. Gore & Associates). The new Gore septal occluder (GSO) device is in clinical trials. These are also used off-label for patent foramen ovale closure in highly selected patients. These devices have high nickel content. Nickel allergy is the most common reason for surgical device explantation. Nickel elution properties of contemporary devices remain unknown. We compared nickel elution properties of 4 devices - ASO, GSO, HSO, and sternal wire (SW) - while Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) served as control. Three samples of each device were submerged in DPBS. Nickel content was measured at 14 intervals over 90 days. Nickel elution at 24 hours, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L), was significantly higher for ASO (2.98 ± 1.65 mg/L; P=.04) and SW (0.03 ± 0.014 mg/L; P=.03). Nickel levels at 90 days, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L) and adjusting for multiple comparisons, were significantly higher for ASO (19.80 ± 2.30 mg/L; P=.01) and similar for HSO (P=.34), GSO (P=.34), and SW (P=.34). ASO had significantly higher nickel elution compared to HSO, GSO, and SW (P=.01). There is substantial variability in nickel elution; devices with less exposed nickel (HSO and GSO) have minimal elution. The safety of low nickel elution devices in patients with nickel allergy needs to be evaluated in prospective trials.

  7. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  8. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  9. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  10. Amine-functionalized mesoporous polymer as potential sorbent for nickel preconcentration from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Zaidi, Noushi; Ahmad, Hilal; Kumar, Suneel

    2015-05-01

    In this study, mesoporous glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-based chelating resin was synthesized and grafted with diethylenetriamine through epoxy ring-opening reaction. The synthesized resin was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and pore size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. The resin was used for the first time as an effective sorbent for the preconcentration of nickel in electroplating wastewater samples. The analytical variables like pH, flow rate for sorption/desorption, and eluate selection were systematically investigated and optimized. The uniform and monolayer sorption behavior of resin for nickel was proved by an evident fit of the equilibrium data to a Langmuir isotherm model. Under optimized conditions, the resin was observed to show a good sorption capacity of 20.25 mg g(-1) and >96% recovery of nickel even in the presence of a large number of competitive matrix ions. Its ability to extract trace amount of nickel was exhibited by low preconcentration limit (5.9 μg L(-1)). The calibration curve was found to be linear (R(2) = 0.998) in the concentration range of 6.0-400.0 μg L(-1). Coefficient of variation of less than 5 for all the analysis indicated good reproducibility. The reliability was evaluated by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) and recovery experiments. The applicability of the resin for the systematic preconcentration of nickel is substantiated by the analysis of electroplating wastewater and river water samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. THE INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF LASER RADIATION ON THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE ELECTROLYTIC NICKEL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of laser radiation effect on the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited nickel composite coatings containing ultrafine diamonds. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel films was carried out with the addition of a standard solution of ultrafine diamonds (UFD on laser-electrolytic installation, built on the basis of the gas-discharge CO2 laser. Mechanical testing the durability of coatings were performed on a machine with reciprocating samples in conditions of dry friction against steel. The spectral microanalysis of the elemental composition of the film - substrate was performed on REMMA-102-02. Findings. Research of nickel coatings and modified ultrafine diamond electrodeposited under external stimulation laser demonstrated the dependence of the structure and mechanical properties of composite electrolytic coating (CEC, and the qualitative and quantitative distribution of nanodiamond coprecipitated from an electrodeposition method. Originality. The effect of laser light on the process of co-precipitation of the UFD, which increases the micro-hardness and wear resistance of electrolytic nickel coatings was determined. Practical value. The test method of laser-stimulated composite electrolytic nickel electrodeposition coating is an effective method of local increase in wear resistance of metal coatings, which provides durability save performance (functional properties of the surface.

  12. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nickel 0.000 0.000 (e) Sodium hypochlorite filter backwash. PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.275 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  13. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A. Igual; Anton, J. Garcia; Guin-tilde on, J.L.; Herranz, V. Perez

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO 4 2- , molybdate MoO 4 2- , and tetraborate B 4 O 7 2- ) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  14. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  15. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  16. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  17. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  18. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  19. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  20. Size-controlled synthesis of nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.; Kondoh, H.; Ohta, T.; Gao, S.

    2005-01-01

    A facile reduction approach with nickel acetylacetonate, Ni(acac) 2 , and sodium borohydride or superhydride leads to monodisperse nickel nanoparticles in the presence of hexadecylamine (HDA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The combination of HDA and TOPO used in the conventional synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals also provides better control over particle growth in the metal nanoparticle synthesis. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 3 to 11 nm, depending on the ratio of HDA to TOPO in the reaction system. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that Ni nanoparticles have narrow size distribution. SQUID magnetometry was also used in the characterization of Ni nanoparticles. The synthetic procedure can be extended to the preparation of high quality metal or alloy nanoparticles

  1. Normal modes of vibration in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B

    1964-07-01

    The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)

  2. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  3. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  4. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  5. Bloch walls in a nickel single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.; Treimer, W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a consistent theory for the dependence of the magnetic structure in bulk samples on external static magnetic fields and corresponding experimental results. We applied the theory of micromagnetism to this crystal and calculated the Bloch wall thickness as a function of external magnetic fields. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental data, so that the Bloch wall thickness of a 71 deg. nickel single crystal was definitely determined with some hundred of nanometer

  6. Multiple cell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1991-01-01

    Johnson Controls, Inc. has developed a multiple cell CPV nickel hydrogen battery that offers significant weight, volume, and cost advantages for aerospace applications. The baseline design was successfully demonstrated through the testing of a 26-cell prototype, which completed over 7000 44 percent depth-of-discharge low earth orbit cycles. Prototype designs using both nominal 5 and 10 inch diameter vessels are currently being developed for a variety of customers and applications.

  7. Dislocation density changes in nickel under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, I.V.; Okrainets, P.N.; Pishchak, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in dislocation density was studied in the process of nickel creep p at t=900 deg c and σ=2 kgf/mm 2 . The dislocation structure was studied independently by the X-ray technique and transmission electron-microscopy. The e two methods show good conformity of results by comparison. It is concluded that independent determination of dislocation density under creep is possible us sing the X-ray technique

  8. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  10. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  11. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  12. Investigation of nickel hydrogen battery technology for the RADARSAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, D. A.; Lackner, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) operations of the RADARSAT spacecraft require high performance batteries to provide energy to the payload and platform during eclipse period. Nickel Hydrogen cells are currently competing with the more traditional Nickel Cadmium cells for high performance spacecraft applications at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and Leo. Nickel Hydrogen cells appear better suited for high power applications where high currents and high Depths of Discharge are required. Although a number of GEO missions have flown with Nickel Hydrogen batteries, it is not readily apparent that the LEO version of the Nickel Hydrogen cell is able to withstand the extended cycle lifetime (5 years) of the RADARSAT mission. The problems associated with Nickel Hydrogen cells are discussed in the contex of RADARSAT mission and a test program designed to characterize cell performance is presented.

  13. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  14. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300 degrees C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss

  15. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300{degrees}C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss.

  16. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  17. Evaluation of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese content in wheat, flour, bran and selected baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawiec Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.

  18. Development and electrochemical characterization of Ni‐P coated tungsten incorporated electroless nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibli, S.M.A., E-mail: smashibli@yahoo.com; Chinchu, K.S.

    2016-08-01

    Ni‐P-W alloy and composite coatings were prepared by incorporation of sodium tungstate/tungsten and Ni‐P coated tungsten into electroless nickel bath respectively. Good inter-particle interactions among the depositing elements i.e. Ni and P with the incorporating tungsten particles were achieved by means of pre-coated tungsten particle by electroless nickel covering prior to its addition into the electroless bath. The pre-coated tungsten particles got incorporated uniformly into the Ni-P matrix of the coating. The particles and the coatings were characterized at different stages by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The electroless Ni-P coating incorporated with pre-coated tungsten exhibited considerably high hardness, thickness and deposition rate. The performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of the composite coating incorporated with the nickel coated tungsten were found to be superior over other conventional Ni-P-W ternary alloy coatings currently reported. - Highlights: • An amorphous Ni-P coating was effectively formed on tungsten particles. • Electroless ternary Ni-P-W composite coatings were successfully prepared. • Enhancement in the inter-particle interaction in the Ni-P composite matrix was achieved. • Efficient and uniform incorporation of the composite in the internal layer was evident. • The tungsten incorporated coating possessed effective barrier protection.

  19. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  20. The influence of x-rays radiation on the kinetic electrocrystallization of nickel and cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Val'ko, N.G.; Moroz, N.I.; Vorontsov, A.S.; Vojna, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    In the work research kinetic electrocrystallization of nickel and cobalt coatings of coverings from sulfate electrolyte under the influence of x-ray radiation. It has been revealed that under the influence of radiation the thickness coatings alloy and the alloy exit on a current increases in comparison with control samples. It is caused by increase in streams diffusion ions of restored metal to cathodes and formation intermediate Co xN i 1-1 in irradiated electrolytes. Thus, on the above stated processes essential influence is rendered by length of a wave of operating radiation. (authors)

  1. Nanoroses of nickel oxides: Synthesis, electron tomography study, and application in CO oxidation and energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz; Sougrat, Rachid; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Rahal, Raed; Cha, Dong Kyu; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Alshareef, Husam N.; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Nickel oxide and mixed-metal oxide structures were fabricated by using microwave irradiation in pure water. The nickel oxide self-assembled into unique rose-shaped nanostructures. These nickel oxide roses were studied by performing electron

  2. Sintering of nickel catalysts. Effects of time, atmosphere, temperature, nickel-carrier interactions, and dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehested, Jens; Gelten, Johannes A.P.; Helveg, Stig [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-01

    Supported nickel catalysts are widely used in the steam-reforming process for industrial scale production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. This paper provides a study of sintering in nickel-based catalysts (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Specifically the influence of time, temperature, atmosphere, nickel-carrier interactions and dopants on the rate of sintering is considered. To probe the sintering kinetics, all catalysts were analyzed by sulfur chemisorption to determine the Ni surface area. Furthermore selected samples were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury porosimetry, BET area measurements, and electron microscopy (EM). The observed sintering rates as a function of time, temperature, and P{sub H{sub 2}O}/P{sub H{sub 2}} ratio were consistent with recent model predictions [J. Sehested, J.A.P. Gelten, I.N. Remediakis, H. Bengaard, J.K. Norskov, J. Catal. 223 (2004) 432] over a broad range of environmental conditions. However, exposing the catalysts to severe sintering conditions the loss of nickel surface area is faster than model predictions and the deviation is attributed to a change in the sintering mechanism and nickel removal by nickel-carrier interactions. Surprisingly, alumina-supported Ni particles grow to sizes larger than the particle size of the carrier indicating that the pore diameter does not represent an upper limit for Ni particle growth. The effects of potassium promotion and sulfur poisoning on the rates of sintering were also investigated. No significant effects of the dopants were observed after ageing at ambient pressure. However, at high pressures of steam and hydrogen (31bar and H{sub 2}O:H{sub 2}=10:1) potassium promotion increased the sintering rate relative to that of the unpromoted catalyst. Sulfur also enhances the rate of sintering at high pressures, but the effect of sulfur is less than for potassium. (author)

  3. Systemic nickel hypersensitivity and diet: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutelli, S

    2011-02-01

    Nickel is a very common metal contained in many everyday objects and is the leading cause of ACD (Allergic Contact Dermatitis). Nickel is present in most of the constituents of a normal diet, but some food groups are usually considered to be richer. However, the nickel content of specific food can vary widely, depending on many factors. Thus, the daily intake of nickel is also highly variable both among different populations and in a single individual, in different seasons and even in different days. Measuring precisely the daily intake of nickel from food and drinks is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The relationship between ACD and contact with nickel is undisputed and widely confirmed in literature. The situation is different for systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS can have cutaneous signs and symptoms (Systemic Contact Dermatitis or SCD) or extracutaneous signs and symptoms (gastrointestinal, respiratory, neurological, etc.).The occurrence of SCD as a systemic reaction to the nickel normally assumed in the daily diet is very controversial. A rigorous demonstration of the relationship between SCD and nickel is extremely difficult. In particular, further and larger studies are needed to assess the reality and the prevalence of nickel urticaria. With respect to nickel-related gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, recurring cold sores and recurrent infections in general, the data available in literature are not conclusive and the studies lack the support of clear, first-hand evidence. With respect to respiratory disorders, the role of food nickel and the effectiveness of a dietary treatment have been assumed but not proven. In fact, the usefullness of a therapeutic low-nickel diet is controversial: rare, if not exceptional, and limited to very sporadic cases of SCD. Additionally, the quantitative and qualitative composition of a low-nickel diet presents few certainties and many uncertainties

  4. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  5. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  6. An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cyclic voltammetry, electrooxidation, glassy carbon electrode, methanol, nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. 1. ... substrate at room temperature without templates. Recently, we ... placed in ethanol and sonicated to remove adsorbed particles.

  7. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  8. Analysis of nickel industrial wastes by nuclear techniques and its pollution assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Coto Hernandez, I.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Diaz Arado, O.; Reyes Perez, H.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of some heavy metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in nickel industrial wastes from Moa, northeastern Cuba, is determined. The analysis was performed by External Standard method of ED-XRF, using 238 Pu (1.11 GBq) excitation source and laterite certified reference material as standards. The capability of INAA using neutrons from a Pu-Be (10 7 n/s) source and Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC is studied. The determined concentration values for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn shows a different pollution degree according to Dutch regulations and US NOAA guidelines. (Author)

  9. First steps towards cube textured nickel profile wires for YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickemeyer, J.; Gueth, A.; Freudenberger, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2011-01-01

    The cube texture as a typical sheet texture can also be formed by cold drawing and recrystallization in profile wires. Cube textured Ni profile wires containing up to 96.2% cube oriented grains in the central region were obtained. Forthcoming investigations are promising to get a textured substrate wire for YBCO-coated conductors. Cube textured nickel alloy tapes prepared by cold rolling and annealing (RABiTS method) represent a standard metallic substrate for superconductor coatings of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) type. These tapes have a width to thickness ratio of about 30-100. However, a value of close to one is optimal concerning low energetic losses under alternating current applications. First experiments on micro-alloyed nickel prove that the cube texture as a typical sheet texture can also be formed in profile wires with a rectangular cross-section after cold drawing and recrystallization treatment.

  10. Thick nickel plating of spent fuel transport and storage casks CASTOR and POLLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel elements have to be safely handled in containers for transport and storage. These large casks (100-120 t) are made by various firms according to the specifications given by the nuclear plant operator. For shielding and protection of the hazardous material, the casks' inner surface is coated with a nickel plating about 3000 μm thick. The product and the production process are subject to very stringent requirements, due to the hazardous potential of the material to be shipped or stored. Therefore, both the extremely high quality standards to be met by the nickel plating and the dimensions and capability of the plating plant required for the process are problems that cannot be solved by a usual commercial plating plant. The new concept and process that had to be established are explained in the paper. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Magnetoelectric Effect in Gallium Arsenide-Nickel-Tin-Nickel Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Tikhonov, A. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Firsova, T. O.; Manicheva, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data have been presented for the magnetoelectric effect in nickel-tin-nickel multilayer structures grown on a GaAs substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The method of fabricating these structures has been described, and the frequency dependence of the effect has been demonstrated. It has been shown that tin used as an intermediate layer reduces mechanical stresses due to the phase mismatch at the Ni-GaAs interface and, thus, makes it possible to grow good structures with a 70-μm-thick Ni layer. The grown structures offer good adhesion between layers and a high Q factor.

  12. Alloys of nickel-iron and nickel-silicon do not swell under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Silvent, A.; Regnard, C.; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This research is concerned with the effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the swelling of nickel and nickel alloys. Ni-Fe (0-60at%Fe) and Ni-Si (0-8at%Si) were studied, and the fluences were in the range 10 20 -4.3x10 22 n/cm 2 . In dilute alloys, the added elements are dissolved and reduce swelling, silicon being particularly effective. In more concentrated alloys, irradiation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Si alloys brings about the formation of plate-shaped precipitates of Ni 3 X and these alloys do not swell. (Auth.)

  13. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The microstructures of several high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels and to establish whether any additional phases were present after neutron irradiation. The nickel levels in these steels were at least twice that typically found in Western pressure vessel steels. Two different types of pressure vessel steels with low and high copper contents were selected for this study. The first set of alloys was low copper (∼0.05% Cu) base (15Ch2NMFAA) and weld (12Ch2N2MAA) materials used in a VVER-1000 reactor. The composition of the lower nickel VVER-1000 base material was Fe- 0.17 wt% C, 0.30% Si, 0.46% Mn, 2.2% Cr, 1.26% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.01% S, 0.008% P, 0.10% V and 0.50% Mo. The composition of the higher nickel VVER-1000 weld material was Fe- 0.06 wt % C, 0.33% Si, 0.80% Mn, 1.8% Cr, 1.78% Ni, 0.07% Cu, 0.009% S, 0.005% P, and 0.63% Mo. The VVER-1000 steels were irradiated in the HSSI Program's irradiation facilities at the University of Michigan, Ford Nuclear Reactor at a temperature of 288 o C for 2,137 h at an average flux of 7.08 x 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a fluence of 5.45 x 10 18 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV) and for 5,340 h at an average flux of 4.33 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 for a fluence of 8.32 x 10 1 28 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). Therefore, the total fluence was 1.38 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). The second type of pressure vessel steel was a high copper (0.20% Cu) weld from the Palisades reactor. The average composition of the Palisades weld was Fe- 0.11 wt% C, 0.18% Si, 1.27% Mn, 0.04% Cr, 1.20% Ni, 0.20% Cu, 0.017% S, 0.014% P, 0.003% V and 0.55% Mn. The Palisades weld, designated weldment 'B' from weld heat 34B009, was irradiated at a temperature of 288 o C and a flux of ∼7 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 to a fast fluence of 1.4 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). These three

  14. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  15. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  16. Cartographic modelling of aerotechnogenic pollution in snow cover in the landscapes of the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkin, N E; Asming, V E; Koshkin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop computational techniques for sulphates, nickel and copper accumulation in the snow in the local pollution zone. The main task was to reveal the peculiarities of formation and pollution of snow cover on the region with complex cross-relief. A digital cartographic model of aerotechnogenic pollution of snow cover in the landscapes of the local zone has been developed, based on five-year experimental data. Data regarding annual emissions from the industrial complex, information about distribution of wind and the sum of precipitation from meteostation "Nikel" for the winter period, allowed the model to ensure: * material presentation in the form of maps of water capacity and accumulation of sulphates, nickel and copper in the snow over any winter period in retrospective; * calculation of water capacity and accumulation of pollutants for watersheds and other natural-territorial complexes; * solution of the opposite problem about the determination of the emissions of sulphates, nickel and copper from the enterprise by measuring snow pollution in datum points. The model can be used in other northern regions of the Russian Federation with similar physical-geographical and climatic conditions. The relationships between the sum of precipitation and water capacity in the landscapes of the same type and also the relationships between pollution content in snow and relief, pollution content in snow and distance from the source of emissions, were used as the basis for the model.

  17. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  18. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Teh-Long; Lai, Yuan-Lung; Yu, Jen-Wei; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Teh-Long [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yuan-Lung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jen-Wei [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chen-Bin, E-mail: chenbin@ccit.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  20. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers.

  1. Separation and Precipitation of Nickel from Acidic Sulfate Leaching Solution of Molybdenum-Nickel Black Shale by Potassium Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigan; Wei, Chang; Fan, Gang; Li, Xingbin; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2018-02-01

    Nickel was separated and precipitated with potassium nickel sulfate hexahydrate [K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O] from acidic sulfate solution, a leach solution from molybdenum-nickel black shale. The effects of the potassium sulfate (K2SO4) concentration, crystallization temperature, solution pH, and crystallization time on nickel(II) recovery and iron(III) precipitation were investigated, revealing that nickel and iron were separated effectively. The optimum parameters were K2SO4 concentration of 200 g/L, crystallization temperature of 10°C, solution pH of 0.5, and crystallization time of 24 h. Under these conditions, 97.6% nickel(II) was recovered as K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals while only 2.0% of the total iron(III) was precipitated. After recrystallization, 98.4% pure K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals were obtained in the solids. The mother liquor was purified by hydrolysis-precipitation followed by cooling, and more than 99.0% K2SO4 could be crystallized. A process flowsheet was developed to separate iron(III) and nickel(II) from acidic-sulfate solution.

  2. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  3. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios; Shervin, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400–600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3–6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude–Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ∼0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor. (paper)

  4. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  5. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Nielsen, Morten M; Schmidt, Jonas D; Bzorek, Michael; Poulsen, Steen S; Thomsen, Allan R; Woetmann, Anders; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Odum, Niels; Menné, Torkil; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts to establish a model in mice that reflects nickel allergy in humans have been made. Most models use intradermal injection of nickel in combination with adjuvant to induce nickel allergy. However, such models poorly reflect induction of nickel allergy following long-lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. This new model for nickel allergy that reflects epicutaneous exposure to nickel in humans shows that nickel allergy is dependent on MyD88 and IL-1 receptor signalling, but independent of TLR4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Occupational exposure to nickel, uranium and thorium in a nickel mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, A.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Dias da Cunha, K.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Miekeley, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    The workers involved in mining and milling ores are exposed in the workplace to many hazardous agents that can cause a health detriment. In this work, the measurements obtained in a nickel mineral processing facility in the Brazilian Central-West are presented. One of the most important hazardous agents in this facility is the aerosol present in the air that contains nickel, uranium and thorium. The aerosol is inhaled or ingested, metabolised and deposited in the whole body or in specific organs. The surveillance of internal contamination of workers was performed by analysis of urine, fecal and hair samples. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) method was used to analytically determine nickel, uranium and thorium in these biological samples. Additional data were obtained by the collection of air samples in the workplace. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted in each stage of the cascade impactor were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission), which permits the determination of elemental mass air concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter). The concentrations of nickel, uranium and thorium were determined in the aerosol samples. All the results were analysed using statistical methods and biokinetical modelling was applied to evaluate the internal contamination and to make a risk estimation. (author)

  7. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  8. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Department of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  9. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Gopalan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  11. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R; Julander, Anneli; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread use. The key risk factor in this situation is the ability of metal alloys in coins to release nickel and contaminate the skin after repeated contact from coin handling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  13. Electrochemical removal of nickel ions from industrial wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njau, K.N.; Woude, van der M.E.; Visser, G.J.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nickel ions in dilute industrial wastewater from a galvanic nickel plating plant was carried out on a three-dimensional electrode in a gas diffusion electrode packed bed electrode cell (GBC) and also on a rotating disc electrode. To explain the experimental results,

  14. Kinetics of oxidation of nickel(II) aza macrocycles by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The kinetics of the oxidation of nickel (II) hexaaza and nickel (II) pentaaza macrocycles by the peroxydisulphate anion, S2O8 2-, were studied in aqueous media. Effect of H on reaction rate was also studied. The rate increases with increase of S2OO8 2- concentration. Rates are almost independent of acid between H 4 ...

  15. Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions from dilute solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njau, K.N.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions in dilute solution using a divided GBC-cell is of interest for purification of waste waters. A typical solution to be treated is the effluent from steel etching processes which contain low quantities of nickel, chromate and chromium ions. Reduction of

  16. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  17. Intrinsic gettering of nickel impuriy deep levels in silicon substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrinsic gettering of nickel impurity in p-type silicon substrate has been investigated. The density of electrically active nickel in intentionally contaminated silicon was determined before and after oxygen precipitation by means of resistivity measurements. These data, coupled with minority carrier lifetime and infrared ...

  18. Nuclear orientation on rare earth nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    A hyperfine interaction study of the light rare earth elements, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm, in the rare earth nickel and CeNi 2 Al 5 compounds by means of the low temperature nuclear orientation is summarised. The magnitudes and directions of the magnetic hyperfine fields obtained through measurements of γ-ray anisotropy and angular distributions reveal the magnetic structures of the ions. The experiments extracted peculiar results for the magnetic properties of the ions, and show certain novel features of the technique to the study of solid-state magnetism. Copyright (1998) Australian Journal of Physics

  19. Drying Rate of Carbonate of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Aymara Ricardo-Riverón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the drying rate of carbonate of nickel was studied experimentally at the laboratory scale. The values of critical moisture are shown and the graphics: characteristic curve of drying rate and the moisture dependence of the time. Models ware obtained to estimate the slope of the constant - rate period and to the falling - rate period until the equilibrium humidity, in dependence of external factors: drying temperature, initial moisture and the pH of the slurry. The chemical composition of the carbonate didn't exercise effect statistically significant over the drying rate.

  20. Nickel-hydrogen CPV battery update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1993-01-01

    The multicell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery manufactured by Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. has completed full flight qualification, including random vibration at 19.5 g for two minutes in each axis, electrical characterization in a thermal vacuum chamber, and mass-spectroscopy vessel leak detection. A first launch is scheduled for late in 1992 or early 1993 by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Specifics of the launch date are not available at this time due to the classified nature of the program. Release of orbital data for the battery is anticipated following the launch.

  1. Multikilowatt Bipolar Nickel/Hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    High energy densities appear feasible. Nickel/hydrogen battery utilizing bipolar construction in common pressure vessel, addressing needs for multikilowatt storage for low-Earth-orbit applications, designed and 10-cell prototype model tested. Modular-concept-design 35-kW battery projected energy densities of 20 to 24 Wh/b (160 to 190 kj/kg) and 700 to 900 Wh/ft3 (90 to 110 MJ/m3) and incorporated significant improvements over state-of-the-art storage systems.

  2. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  3. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  4. Electrodeposition of nickel particles and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. T. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Laboratorio de Microscopia. Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, Saltillo 25253, Coahuila (Mexico); Zavala, G.; Videa, M. [ITESM, Campus Monterrey, Depto. de Fisica, Av. Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey 64849, N. L. (Mexico)], e-mail: gtadeo@ciqa.mx

    2009-07-01

    Electrodeposition of nickel particles on ITO substrates is achieved by current pulse reduction. A comparison between potential pulse and current pulse experiments presents differences in particle size and particle size distribution. The latter shows smaller particle size dispersion than what is found with potential pulses. Characterization of the particles carried out by Atomic Force Microscopy shows particles with average sizes between 100 to 300 nm. Magnetic characterization by Magnetic Force Microscopy and SQUID shows that particles of {approx} 300 nm were ferromagnetic with a coercive field of 200 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 40 x 10{sup -6} emu at 300 K. (Author)

  5. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  6. Synthesis and Electrical Resistivity of Nickel Polymethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, M. H.; Khalid, A. H.; Zulfiqar, M.; Butt, P. K.; Khan, Farah; Hussain, Rizwan

    Synthesis of nickel polymethacrylate was carried out using methanolic solutions of sodium hydroxide and polymethacrylic acid. The electrical resistivity of the pellets made from Ni-polymethacrylate was measured at different voltages and temperatures. Results showed that the electrical resistivity of Ni-polymethacrylate decreases significantly with voltage in high temperature regions but the decrease is insignificant at temperatures nearing room temperature. The activation energy at low temperatures is approximately 0.8 eV whereas at high temperature it is in the range 0.21-0.27 eV.

  7. Electrodeposited zinc/nickel coatings. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, Madiha A. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo (Egypt). Surface Coating Dept.

    2011-10-15

    In recent years, the use of electrodeposited zinc-nickel coatings has significantly increased, mainly because of their superior corrosion resistance as compared with zinc. An additional strength of the process is that the proportion of the two metals, and thus the coating properties, can be varied. Initially, these alloy deposits were relatively brittle, with a tendency to crack-formation. More recently, ductile coatings have been developed. Now, as in the past, the emphasis has been on the cathodic corrosion protection which these coatings provide. Their properties can be further enhanced by post-treatment where additional developments have taken place. (orig.)

  8. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lucas, T.C. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cairns, A.B.; Funnell, N.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Tucker, M.G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kleppe, A.K. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hriljac, J.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Goodwin, A.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN){sub 2}. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN){sub 2} does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  9. Understanding CO-stripping mechanism from Ni{sub UPD}/Pt(1 1 0) in view of the measured nickel formal partial charge number upon underpotential deposition on platinum surfaces in sulphate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, Marian [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@lepmi.inpg.fr; Soldo-Olivier, Yvonne; Chainet, Eric; Faure, Rene [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2007-12-01

    {sub Ni} = 2. In consequence, upon underpotential deposition on platinum surfaces, nickel cations discharge and then undergo additional charge exchange processes, such as anion (or water) adsorption, resulting in apparent partial nickel cation discharge. Moreover, Ni{sub UPD}/Pt(1 1 0) surface displays high activity towards CO{sub ad} oxidation reaction. We explain such positive effect by the possible existence of a bifunctional mechanism in which oxygenated-species-covered Ni{sub UPD} adatoms provide the oxygen atom to CO{sub ad}...Pt species, enabling its facile oxidation.

  10. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  11. Solidification phenomena in nickel base brazes containing boron and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, S.K.; Lim, L.C.; Lai, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressants are used extensively in the repair and joining of aero-engine hot-section components. These melting point depressants form hard and brittle intermetallic compounds with nickel which are detrimental to the mechanical properties of brazed joints. The present investigation studied the microstructural evolution in nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressant(s) in simple systems using nickel as the base metal. The basic metallurgical reactions and formation of intermetallic compounds uncovered in these systems will be useful as a guide in predicting the evolution of microstructures in similar brazes in more complex systems involving base metals of nickel base superalloys. The four filler metal systems investigated in this study are: Ni-Cr-Si; Ni-Cr-B; Ni-Si-B and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B

  12. Discharge Characteristics of the Nickel Hydroxide Electrode in 30% KOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin

    1989-01-01

    The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH at 25 .deg. C. Two voltage plateaus are displayed on the discharge curve of C/20. It is shown that the impedance of the nickel hydroxide electrode increases with decrease of the discharge potential. The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH indicating the reduction of the β-NiOOH to the β-Ni(OH) 2 by proton diffusion process and hence the electronic conductivity change of the nickel hydroxide electrode. Furthermore, the γ-NiOOH, produced by prolonged oxidation of the β-NiOOH in 30% KOH, discharges at a slightly lower potential than the β-Ni(OH) 2 that could result in the life-limiting factor of several alkaline electrolyte storage batteries using the nickel hydroxide electrode as the positive plate

  13. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  14. Chemical nickel plating in tartrate solutions with borohydride reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plokhov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the influence of various factors on the rate of chemical nickel plating in strongly alkaline tartrate solutions with a borohydride reducing agent. After 30 min of the process of nickel plating, the final concentration of sodium borohydride decreases to 0.26 g/liter, leading to stoppage of the process. The nickel plating process can be intensified by increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the solution, suppressing hydrolysis of borohydride, and also by introducing additives which suppress hydrolysis of borohydride. For chemical deposition of nickel-boron coatings from tartrate solutions the authors recommend the following composition (g/liter): nickel chloride 15-25, Rochelle salt 450-550, sodium hydroxide 140-160, sodium borohydride 0.8-1.0, thallium nitrate 0.003-0.008. The process temperature is 92-95 C, and the deposition rate is 4-6 um/h

  15. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nickel recovery from electric arc furnace slag by magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaroglou Marianna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the pyrometallurgical treatment of the nickel-bearing laterite in the plant of G.M.M. S.A. LARCO, slag is produced after treatment in electric-arc furnace (EAF that contains 0.10 to 0.20 % Ni. Taking into account the great quantity of slag produced per year, the recovery of nickel from the EAF slag will add benefits to the entire process. The target of the current work is to investigate the possibility of nickel recovery from EAF slag by magnetic separation. To meet the target, the effect of the following parameters was studied: grain size, magnetic field intensity, thickness of slag layer, moisture content, and re-grinding of the coarser slag particles. The results show that it is possible to obtain a magnetic product with nickel grade close to that of the primary raw material or even better, with sufficient nickel recovery.

  17. Developing detection efficiency standards for atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosa, Ty J.; Geiser, Brian P.; Lawrence, Dan; Olson, David; Larson, David J.

    2014-08-01

    Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is a near-atomic-scale analytical technique which, due to recent advances in instrumentation and sample preparation techniques, is being used on a variety of 3D applications. Total system detection efficiency is a key parameter for obtaining accurate spatial reconstruction of atomic coordinates from detected ions, but experimental determination of efficiency can be difficult. This work explores new ways to measure total system detection efficiency as well as the specimen characteristics necessary for such measurements. Composite specimens composed of a nickel/chromium multilayer core, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2135c, encapsulated with silver, silicon, or nickel were used to demonstrate the suitability of this approach for providing a direct measurement of APT efficiency. Efficiency measurements based on this multilayer encapsulated in nickel are reported.

  18. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  19. Crystallization induced of amorphous silicon by nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A; Rinaldi, P; Budini, N; Arce, R; Buitrago, R.H

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) deposited on glass substrates is a very promising material for the production of different electronic devices, like thin film transistors, active matrices or solar cells. The crystallization of the amorphous silicon to obtain pc-Si can be achieved with different processes, among which nickel-induced crystallization is because it requires low concentrations of the metal and low annealing temperatures. Nucleation and growth of crystalline silicon are measured by the formation of silicide NiSi 2 , which has a lattice constant very similar to that of Si, and acts as a seed upon which crystalline grains can develop. The size of the pc-Si final grain depends on many factors, such as the initial concentration of Ni, the annealing time and temperature, and the presence of other atoms in the Si structure. This work presents a study on the influence of these parameters on the silicon crystallization process induced by Ni. We deposited a series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples (a-Si:H) on glass substrates, using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method (PE-CVD) with silane gas (SiH 4 ). The deposition temperature was 200 o C, and we prepared intrinsic samples (i), lightly doped with boron (p), heavily doped with boron (p + ) and heavily doped with phosphorous (n + ). Each sample was divided into eight portions, depositing different concentrations of Ni into each one using the cathodic sputtering method. The concentration of Ni was determined by atomic adsorption spectroscopy, and included from 1.5 1 0 15 to 1.5 1 0 16 at/cm 2 . Later the samples were submitted to different thermal treatments in a circulating nitrogen atmosphere. In order to avoid violent dehydrogenation of the a-Si:H that damages the samples, the annealing was carried out gradually. In a first stage the samples were heated at a velocity of 0.5 o C /min up to 400 o C, holding them for 24 hrs at this temperature in order to reach hydrogen effusion. Heating

  20. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  1. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  2. Nickel sensitization in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Tosetti, Cesare; Benedetto, Edoardo; Condoluci, Mario; De Bastiani, Rudi; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Mastronuzzi, Tecla; De Polo, Manuela; Di Mita, Francesco; Napoli, Luigi; Ubaldi, Enzo; Nebiacolombo, Cristina; Cottone, Carmelo; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Zamparella, Maria; Baldi, Elisabetta; Sanna, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) leads to frequent medical visits, and available therapies fail in up to 40% of patients. Food allergies may be involved in GERD pathogenesis; however, allergens other than food have received little attention. Nickel allergy is common in the general population and some high-nickel foods are associated with GERD. However, the potential relationship between nickel allergy and GERD remains unaddressed. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with and without GERD and to compare clinical and demographic features. This prospective, multicenter study included 210 adult GERD patients and 140 patients without GERD who presented at the general practitioner. All GERD patients had undergone treatment with proton pump inhibitors and upper digestive endoscopy within the previous five years. Demographic and clinical data were collected by questionnaire and patients underwent a nickel patch allergy test. Patients with and without GERD presented similar characteristics, with the exception of nickel sensitization, which was significantly more prevalent among GERD patients than controls (39.5% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.001). Nickel-positive GERD patients were more frequently female (90.4% vs. 65.4%, p = 0.003) and asthmatic (18.1% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.038), compared to nickel-negative GERD patients. At six-month follow-up, most of the patients, with or without nickel sensitization, reported improved symptoms without differences in drug prescription. Nickel sensitization is particularly prevalent in GERD patients seen in general practice. Whether allergies other than food allergy play a role in GERD remains to be elucidated.

  3. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  4. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  5. Determination of iron, nickel, and chromium in the Masurca simulation rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Pierdet, S.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the iron, nickel and chromium content of sintered ternary oxide rods designed to simulate structural elements in the reactor Masurca. During this work a calculation was made of the conditional constant of the Fe-EDTA complex in a formic buffer solution, and of that, of the Ni-EDTA complex in an ammoniacal buffer. From these two values it appears that it is not possible to carry out the iron and nickel determinations with a standard EDTA solution when these two elements are present simultaneously. That is the reason for which, in this case, a separation of the Fe and Ni is carried out in 8 N HCl solution on an anion exchange resin. Each element is then dosed by titricolorimetry. Chromium is determined by the same technique without prior separation. The reproducibility of the method has been calculated for each of the three elements. The relative accuracy is: 0.58 per cent for the iron; 1.41 per cent for the nickel; 0.39 per cent for the chromium. (authors) [fr

  6. Nitrogen atom transfer mediated by a new PN3P-pincer nickel core via a putative nitrido nickel intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Changguang

    2018-02-13

    A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.

  7. Producing bio-filter for absorbing and separating stable nickel and feasibility study to separate radioactive nickel by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Rabbani, M.; Naseri, Y.; Sadeghi, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this research work, bio absorption of nickel has been investigated by new 16 various bacterial strains isolated from Ramsar warm springs. As the obtained results show a strain of gram negative cocobacilluse bacteria is highly capable to take up nickel in optimum pH about 6. The effect of nickel solution concentrations in 20-200 ppm have been studied. Uptake capacity of bacterial biomass regarding to concentrations below 150 ppm is most highly and nearly constant, but it will be decreased over 150 ppm, and in 200 ppm absorption of nickel reaches to near zero. No nickel was taken up by bacterial biomass. Further studies showed that after 60 minutes of contact time, Nickel uptake reaches maximum by 53%. Considering the uptake mechanism revealed that bio sorption was very limited and the uptake mainly occurs through a accumulation dependent on metabolic activities. Also the results show that the presence of the other cations such as Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ is ineffective to biological uptake of nickel. Nickel taken up by biomass can be easily recovered by HNO 3 with the concentration of 0.1 M

  8. Nitrogen atom transfer mediated by a new PN3P-pincer nickel core via a putative nitrido nickel intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Changguang; Wang, Xiufang; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-01

    A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.

  9. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2014-01-01

    -lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. OBJECTIVE: To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. METHODS: Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation...... was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. RESULTS: Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization...... of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. CONCLUSION: This new model for nickel allergy that reflects...

  10. Study on the influences of reduction temperature on nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anode using nickel oxide-film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenjun; Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the reduction processes of nickel oxide at different temperatures were investigated using nickel-film anode to study the influences of reduction temperature on the initial performances and stability of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia anode. Compared to conventional nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia composite cermet anode, nickel-film anode has the advantage of direct observation at nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface. The microstructural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The reduction process of nickel oxide is considered to be determined by the competition between the mechanisms of volume reduction in nickel oxide-nickel reaction and nickel sintering. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to analyze the time variation of the nickel-film anode electrochemical characteristics. The anode performances and microstructural changes before and after 100 hours discharging and open circuit operations were analyzed. The degradation of nickel-film anode is considered to be determined by the co-effect between the nickel sintering and the change of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface bonding condition.

  11. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.; Vitiello, V.; Casals, E.; Puntes, V.F.; Iamunno, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Changwen, W.; Benvenuto, G.; Buttino, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl_2 than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl_2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L"−"1 and 1, 5 and 10 mg L"−"1 NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L"−"1 NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC_5_0 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L"−"1) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L"−"1) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC_5_0 of 7.45 mg L"−"1 and 6.97 mg L"−"1 for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl_2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L"−"1, showed EC_5_0 of 0.164 and 0.039 mg L"−"1, respectively

  12. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  13. Nickel brittling by hydrogen. Temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapitz, P.A; Fernandez, S; Alvarez, M.G

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of different variables on the susceptibility to brittling by hydrogen and the velocity of propagation of fissures in nickel wire (99.7% purity) are described. The hydrogen load was carried out by cathodic polarization in H 2 SO 4 0.5m solution. The susceptibility to brittling by hydrogen was determined with traction tests at slow deformation speed and constant cathodic potential, and the later observation of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy. The variables studied were: applied cathodic overpower, speed of initial deformation and temperature. The results showed that the speed of fissure propagation in the nickel by brittleness from hydrogen is a function of the applied potential and the speed of deformation used. Without tension, the hydrogen load by cathodic polarization at room temperature leads to the formation of cavities similar to those observed when the hydrogenation is performed in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at high pressure and temperature (CW)

  14. Joining of boron carbide using nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosughi, A.; Hadian, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbide ceramics such as boron carbide due to their unique properties such as low density, high refractoriness, and high strength to weight ratio have many applications in different industries. This study focuses on direct bonding of boron carbide for high temperature applications using nickel interlayer. The process variables such as bonding time, temperature, and pressure have been investigated. The microstructure of the joint area was studied using electron scanning microscope technique. At all the bonding temperatures ranging from 1150 to 1300 d eg C a reaction layer formed across the ceramic/metal interface. The thickness of the reaction layer increased by increasing temperature. The strength of the bonded samples was measured using shear testing method. The highest strength value obtained was about 100 MPa and belonged to the samples bonded at 1250 for 75 min bonding time. The strength of the joints decreased by increasing the bonding temperature above 1250 d eg C . The results of this study showed that direct bonding technique along with nickel interlayer can be successfully utilized for bonding boron carbide ceramic to itself. This method may be used for bonding boron carbide to metals as well.

  15. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Hulka, K.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 1100 0 C to 1300 0 C and of finish rolling temperatures between 710 0 C and 930 0 C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author) [pt

  16. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P.

    1958-01-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  17. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions. the displacement of zinc-nickel complexes with quantitative determination of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Saiki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper presents a method for the determination of small quantities of nickel radioactive tracers. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetrachloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1 μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences is also investigated and an attempt is made in order to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals. (Author) [pt

  18. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S; Schneider, T [Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P; Maximilien, R [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A [Centre Rhone-Alpes d` Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  19. Nickel and binary metal mixture responses in Daphnia magna: Molecular fingerprints and (sub)organismal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbrouck, Tine; Soetaert, Anneleen; Ven, Karlijn van der; Blust, Ronny; Coen, Wim de

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of a custom cDNA microarray platform for one of the standard organisms in aquatic toxicology, Daphnia magna, opened up new ways to mechanistic insights of toxicological responses. In this study, the mRNA expression of several genes and (sub)organismal responses (Cellular Energy Allocation, growth) were assayed after short-term waterborne metal exposure. Microarray analysis of Ni-exposed daphnids revealed several affected functional gene classes, of which the largest ones were involved in different metabolic processes (mainly protein and chitin related processes), cuticula turnover, transport and signal transduction. Furthermore, transcription of genes involved in oxygen transport and heme metabolism (haemoglobin, δ-aminolevilunate synthase) was down-regulated. Applying a Partial Least Squares regression on nickel fingerprints and biochemical (sub)organismal parameters revealed a set of co-varying genes (haemoglobin, RNA terminal phosphate cyclase, a ribosomal protein and an 'unknown' gene fragment). An inverse relationship was seen between the mRNA expression levels of different cuticula proteins and available energy reserves. In addition to the nickel exposure, daphnids were exposed to binary mixtures of nickel and cadmium or nickel and lead. Using multivariate analysis techniques, the mixture mRNA expression fingerprints (Ni 2+ + Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ + Pb 2+ ) were compared to those of the single metal treatments (Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It was hypothesized that the molecular fingerprints of the mixtures would be additive combinations of the gene transcription profiles of the individual compounds present in the mixture. However, our results clearly showed additionally affected pathways after mixture treatment (e.g. additional affected genes involved in carbohydrate catabolic processes and proteolysis), indicating interactive molecular responses which are not merely the additive sum of the individual metals. These findings, although indicative of

  20. A retrospective analysis of nickel exposure data at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica M; Van Der Merwe, Cornelius J; Linde, Stefan J L; Du Plessis, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze historical soluble nickel exposure data from a South African base metal refinery and to identify trends in the soluble nickel exposure from 1981 until 2014 in the electrowinning department. Exposure data were presented in an exposure matrix, which described exposure profiles for both area and personal exposures inside two tankhouses. Exposure data were standardized by converting total nickel aerosol concentrations to inhalable nickel concentrations (correction factor 3.0). One-way analyses of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to identify significant differences in log-transformed area and personal exposures from 1982 until 2014, and the trends were assessed with linear regression. Differences were evaluated in area exposure between sections inside the tankhouses, i.e., East, West, and Center bays and in personal exposure between occupations, i.e., cell workers, crane drivers, and supervisors. Area exposure in Tankhouse 1 declined significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) between 1982 and 1986 with a factor of 29. However, after 1986 no significant downward trend in area exposure was evident in Tankhouse 1. Personal exposures in Tankhouse 1 significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) decreased with a factor of three between 1991 and 2014. No significant trends were evident in area and personal exposure in Tankhouse 2. Downward exposure trends were evident in Tankhouse 1 and may be ascribed to the implementation of various control measures and process changes, e.g., increasing polypropylene bead load. Limited data were available for Tankhouse 2, therefore, no trend in exposure could be established. Retrospective analyses may be used to identify trends and anomalies in exposure which might not have been identified during daily exposure monitoring.

  1. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, C K; Abdullah, K; MatJafri, M Z; Lim, H S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  3. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  4. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  5. The solubility and sorption of nickel and niobium under high pH conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, N.J.; Stone, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilities of nickel and niobium were measured in a range of cement-equilibrated waters. For nickel the effects of cellulose degradation products and of chloride were examined and the dependence of nickel solubility on pH was measured. The sorption of nickel and niobium on to cement representative of the ''near field'' of a radioactive waste repository was also measured. (author)

  6. Nickel deposition effects on the growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celebi, S.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth has been achieved on carbon paper fibers via two nickel deposition routes: i. nickel nanoparticle-ethanol suspension casting, and ii. homogenous deposition precipitation (HDP) of nickel onto carbon paper. Nickel nanoparticles created regular tubular CNF whereas HDP of

  7. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  8. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  9. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  10. Bioadsorption of nickel Mining Company by residual biomass Phyllanthus Orbicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Díaz-Puig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic parameters for the adsorption of nickel were studied in the waste CalcinationPlant Company Ernesto Che Guevara biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis synthetic and industrial waste Calcination Plant enterprise solutions. The results showed that the major factors influencing the adsorption capacity of the biomass increases with increasing pH and the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent and is reduced by increasing the biomass concentration. Meanwhile, the removal efficiency of residual nickel increases with increasing pH and concentration of biomass and reduced when the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent increases. The adsorption capacity nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis from synthetic solutions and industrial waste Calcination Plant Company Nickel "Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara" was 44,05 and 26,25 mg/g respectively. The adsorption process nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis follows kinetics pseudo-second order and according to the values of free energy of adsorption obtained through model-RadushkevichDubinin was 267,26 kJ/mol, this nature demonstrates that corresponds to a process mediated by chemical adsorption where the formation of stable bonds between the functional groups present in the biomass and the metal ions predominates.

  11. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets. The hydroxide nanosheets of approximately 0.7nm thickness were prepared by delamination of layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide lactate in water and formed transparent colloids that were stable for months. The nanosheets were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by spin coating, and their electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Our method of electrode preparation allows for studying the electrochemistry of nanosheets where the majority of the active centers can participate in the charge transfer reaction. The observed electrochemical response was ascribed to mutual compensation of the cobalt and nickel response via electron sharing between these metals in the hydroxide nanosheets, a process that differentiates the behavior of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets from single nickel hydroxide or cobalt hydroxide nanosheets or their physical mixture. The presence of cobalt in the nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets apparently decreases the time of electrochemical activation of the nanosheet layer, which for the nickel hydroxide nanosheets alone requires more potential sweeps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  13. Specification and prediction of nickel mobilization using artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raoof; Ziaii, Mansour; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Maleki, Shahoo

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater and soil pollution from pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage generation, and release and transport of toxic metals are common environmental problems associated with the mining industry. Nickel is one toxic metal considered to be a key pollutant in some mining setting; to date, its formation mechanism has not yet been fully evaluated. The goals of this study are 1) to describe the process of nickel mobilization in waste dumps by introducing a novel conceptual model, and 2) to predict nickel concentration using two algorithms, namely the support vector machine (SVM) and the general regression neural network (GRNN). The results obtained from this study have shown that considerable amount of nickel concentration can be arrived into the water flow system during the oxidation of pyrite and subsequent Acid Drainage (AMD) generation. It was concluded that pyrite, water, and oxygen are the most important factors for nickel pollution generation while pH condition, SO4, HCO3, TDS, EC, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu are measured quantities playing significant role in nickel mobilization. SVM and GRNN have predicted nickel concentration with a high degree of accuracy. Hence, SVM and GRNN can be considered as appropriate tools for environmental risk assessment.

  14. Oxidation mechanism and passive behaviour of nickel in molten carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, J.P.T. (ECN Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)); Ament, P.C.H.; De Wit, J.H.W. (Div. of Corrosion, Lab. for Maaterials Sceince, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands))

    1994-07-01

    The oxidation and passivation mechanism and the passive behaviour of nickel in molten carbonate have been investigated with impedance measurements. The oxidation of nickel proceeds according to a dissolution and reprecipitation process. The slowest steps in the reaction sequence are the dissociation reaction of the carbonate and the diffusion of the formed NiO to the metal surface. In the passive range, dissolution of Ni[sup 2+] proceeds after diffusion of Ni[sup 2+] through the oxide layer. The Ni[sup 2+] is formed at the metal/oxide interface. The slowest process is the diffusion of bivalent nickel ions through the passive scale. The formation of trivalent nickel ions probably takes place at the oxide/melt interface. This reaction is accompanied by the incorporation of an oxygen ion and a nickel vacancy in the NiO lattice. The trivalent nickel ions and the nickel vacancy diffuse to the bulk of the oxide scale. The slowest step in this sequence is the dissociation of the carbonate ions and the incorporation of the oxygen ion in the NiO lattice. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  15. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  16. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  17. Nickel Oxide and Nickel Co-doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanocomposites and its Octylphenol Sensing Application

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Wanyun

    2015-11-16

    Nickel oxide and nickel co-doped graphitic carbon nitride (NiO-Ni-GCN) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by thermal treatment of melamine and NiCl2 6H2O. NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites showed superior electrochemical catalytic activity for the oxidation of octylphenol to pure GCN. A detection method of octylphenol in environmental water samples was developed based at NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites modified electrode under infrared light irradiation. Differential pulse voltammetry was used as the analytic technique of octylphenol, exhibiting stable and specific concentration-dependent oxidation signal in the presence of octylphenol in the range of 10nM to 1μM and 1μM to 50μM, with a detection limit of 3.3nM (3S/N). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  19. Nickel Oxide and Nickel Co-doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanocomposites and its Octylphenol Sensing Application

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Wanyun; Zou, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-01-01

    Nickel oxide and nickel co-doped graphitic carbon nitride (NiO-Ni-GCN) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by thermal treatment of melamine and NiCl2 6H2O. NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites showed superior electrochemical catalytic activity for the oxidation of octylphenol to pure GCN. A detection method of octylphenol in environmental water samples was developed based at NiO-Ni-GCN nanocomposites modified electrode under infrared light irradiation. Differential pulse voltammetry was used as the analytic technique of octylphenol, exhibiting stable and specific concentration-dependent oxidation signal in the presence of octylphenol in the range of 10nM to 1μM and 1μM to 50μM, with a detection limit of 3.3nM (3S/N). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Surface effects on the magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrites and nickel ferrite-polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathani, H.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization studies on nanocrystalline nickel ferrite as powder particles, and as diluted dispersion (10 wt.%) in polymer matrix (polymer nanocomposites) are presented. The two polymer-based nanocomposites were prepared via ball-milling and in situ polymerization, respectively. The magnetization measurements provide strong evidence of surface effects to magnetization, which explains the non-saturation of magnetization at high fields. The differences in the magnetization behavior of nickel ferrite as powder particles and in the ball-milled nanocomposite and the nanocomposite prepared via in situ polymerization are attributed to the different extent of interparticle interactions between the particles and the preparation route. The magnetization versus applied field behavior of the three ferrite systems show a similar jump in the initial part of the magnetization curve in all the cases which implies the existence of a core-shell like morphology of the particles over a large temperature range and its dominance over the interparticle interaction effects between the particles

  1. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  2. Impedances of nickel electrodes cycled in various KOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret A.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent tests at Hughes have shown that Ni/H2 cells cycled in 26 percent KOH have much longer lives than those cycled in other concentrations. As part of an ongoing program to try to correlate the impedances of nickel electrodes with their life and performance, impedances were measured of a number of electrodes from these tests that had been cycled in concentrations from 21 to 36 percent KOH. These had ranged from about 1000 to 40,000 cycles. After cycling ten times to reduce possible changes due to storage, impedances were measured at five voltages corresponding to low states of charge. The results were analyzed using a standard circuit model including Warburg impedance term. Lower kinetic resistances and Warburg slopes were found for several electrodes which had been cycled in 26 percent KOH even though they had been cycled for a much longer time than the others. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the fact that the cycle lives, storage times, and failure mechanisms varied. Several other circuit models have also been examined, but the best correlations with life were found with parameters obtained from the simple model.

  3. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  4. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  5. Texture Formation of Electroplated Nickel and Nickel Alloy on Cu Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Sun Wang; Kim, Ho Jin

    2006-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-tungsten alloy were electroplated on a cold rolled and heat treated copper(Cu) substrate. 4 mm-thick high purity commercial grade Cu was rolled to various thicknesses of 50, 70, 100 and 150 micron. High reduction ratio of 30% was applied down to 150 micron. Rolled texture was converted into cube texture via high temperature heat treatment at 400-800 degrees C. Grain size of Cu was about 50 micron which is much smaller compared to >300 micron for the Cu prepared using smaller reduction pass of 5%. 1.5 km-long 150 micron Cu was fabricated with a rolling speed of 33 m/min and texture of Cu was uniform along length. Abnormal grain growth and non-cube texture appeared for the specimen anneal above 900 degrees C. 1-10 micron thick Ni and Ni-W film was electroplated onto an annealed cube-textured Cu or directly on a cold rolled Cu. Both specimens were annealed and the degree of texture was measured. For electroplating of Ni on annealed Cu, Ni layer duplicated the cube-texture of Cu substrate and the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement for annealed Cu layer and electroplated layer was 9.9 degree and 13.4 degree, respectively. But the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement of the specimen which electroplated Ni directly on cold rolled Cu was 8.6 degree, which is better texture than that of nickel electroplated on annealed Cu and it might be caused by the suppression of secondary recrystallization and abnormal grain growth of Cu at high temperature above 900 degrees C by electroplated nickel.

  6. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Shiping; Sun, I.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more positive potential making the electrodeposition of nickel possible. The electrodeposition of nickel, however, requires an overpotential driven nucleation process. Dense and compact nickel deposits with good adherence could be prepared by controlling the deposition potential. X-ray powder diffraction measurements indicated the presence of crystalline nickel deposits. Non-anomalous electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloys was achieved through the underpotential deposition of zinc on the deposited nickel at a potential more negative than that of the deposition of nickel. X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry measurements of the electrodeposits indicated that the composition and the phase types of the nickel-zinc alloys are dependent on the deposition potential. For the Ni-Zn alloy deposits prepared by underpotential deposition of Zn on Ni, the Zn content in the Ni-Zn was always less than 50 atom%

  7. The assessment of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys for ultra high vacuum applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriguet, P.J.-L.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys may create leak-paths under Ultra High Vacuum conditions. This paper shows the application of the ASTM E45 standard to the assessment of these inclusions and gives some design recommendations. Three case-histories encountered at the Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking and a possible explanation of the phenomenon are also presented. (Author)

  8. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  9. Aortic valve replacement in a patient with severe nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusini, Mario; Barbato, Raffaele; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo

    2011-11-01

    Nickel allergy can raise clinical problems in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who require sternal closure with stainless steel wire. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with severe nickel allergy who underwent aortic valve replacement with a nickel-free ON-X prosthesis and sternal closure by Fiberwire # 2 suture without complications. Considering its biocompatibility and its mechanical characteristics including optimal strength and knot resistance, this suture might be a viable alternative in patients in which the use of stainless steel wire is contraindicated. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preparation of self-supporting metallic foils of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in low energy nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-150). An electroplating method has been developed as a dependable and reproducible technique for making self-supporting metallic foils of nickel in the thickness range of 0.5 to 10 mg/cm 2 . The procedures minimized the necessary amount of material so that nickel isotopes could be processed economically. Impurity contamination of the nickel foils during the electroplating process was less than 500 ppm, and the thickness variation in each foil was less than 3% of the central thickness. (auth.)

  11. High-temperature ductility of electro-deposited nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Work done during the past several months on high temperature ductility of electrodeposited nickel is summarized. Data are presented which show that earlier measurements made at NASA-Langley erred on the low side, that strain rate has a marked influence on high temperature ductility, and that codeposition of a small amount of manganese helps to improve high temperature ductility. Influences of a number of other factors on nickel properties were also investigated. They included plating solution temperature, current density, agitation, and elimination of the wetting agent from the plating solution. Repair of a large nozzle section by nickel plating is described.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjizadeh, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghgoo, S. [Center of Quality Control of Drug, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode.

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjizadeh, M.; Jabbari, A.; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Haghgoo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode

  14. Effect of Ni +-ION bombardment on nickel and binary nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roarty, K. B.; Sprague, J. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Smidt, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    Pure nickel and four binary nickel alloys have been subjected to high energy Ni ion bombardment at 675, 625 and 525°C. After irradiation, each specimen was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pure nickel control was found to swell appreciably (1 to 5%) and the Ni-Al and the Ni-Ti samples were found to swell at all temperatures, but to a lesser degree (0.01 to 0.35%). The Ni-Mo contained a significant density of voids only at 525° C, while swelling was suppressed at all temperatures in the Ni-Si alloy. The dislocation structure progressed from loops to tangles as temperature increased in all materials except the Ni-Ti, in which there was an absence of loops at all temperatures. Dislocation densities decreased as temperature increased in all samples. These results do not correlate well with the relative behavior of the same alloys observed after neutron irradiation at 455°C. The differences between these two sets of data appear to be caused by different mechanisms controlling void nucleation in ion and neutron irradiation of these alloys.

  15. Extended solubility and martensitic hcp nickel formation in antimony implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage microstructure and associated disorder have been investigated in antimony implanted nickel crystals using combined RBS and TEM analyses. In crystals implanted at and below room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5x10 20 m -2 , the retained antimony concentration in the implantation zone is approaching 15 at.%, with nearly all the antimony located substitutionally. The associated disorder as seen in the RBS analysis is insignificant. Annealing up to 600 0 C has little influence on the antimony distribution, whilst the dechanneling level is reduced. TEM and diffraction analysis of room temperature implanted samples show that the radiation damage consists of dense distributions of dislocation clusters and tangles, superimposed on a rather homogeneous background of new phase particles, identified as hcp nickel. The particles have a size 0.1-0.2 μm. The high substitutional antimony concentration at and below room temperature, which exceeds the solubility limit, indicates that its formation is thermally diffusionless and rather an effect of radiation enhanced solubility. The diffusionless nature of the microstructure is also indicated from the presence of martensitic hcp nickel, believed to form due to relief of radiation induced internal stress. (Auth.)

  16. 40 CFR 421.306 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Titanium... per million pounds) of titanium produced Chromium (total) 0.474 0.192 Lead 0.359 0.167 Nickel 0.705 0.474 Titanium 0.679 0.295 (h) Chip crushing wet air pollution control. PSNS for the Primary and...

  17. 40 CFR 421.305 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and... per million pounds) of titanium produced Chromium (total) 0.474 0.192 Lead 0.359 0.167 Nickel 0.705 0.474 Titanium 0.679 0.295 (h) Chip crushing wet air pollution control. PSES for the Primary and...

  18. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  19. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  20. Controlled synthesis of size-tunable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; Shankar, Ravi; Mozumdar, Subho; De, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Industrial demands have generated a growing need to synthesize pure metal and metal–oxide nanoparticles of a desired size. We report a novel and convenient method for the synthesis of spherical, size tunable, well dispersed, stable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles by reduction of nickel nitrate at room temperature in a TX-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water system by a reverse microemulsion route. We determined that reduction with alkaline sodium borohydrate in nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of nickel nanoparticles, while the use of hydrazine hydrate in aerobic conditions leads to the formation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. The influence of several reaction parameters on the size of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles were evaluated in detail. It was found that the size can be easily controlled either by changing the molar ratio of water to surfactant or by simply altering the concentration of the reducing agent. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction analysis (EDA) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that synthesized nanoparticles are of high purity and have an average size distribution of 5–100 nm. The nanoparticles prepared by our simple methodology have been successfully used for catalyzing various chemical reactions. (paper)

  1. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi 5 -phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified

  2. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  3. Nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1992-01-01

    Our present design for a common pressure vessel (CPV) battery, a nickel hydrogen battery system to combine all of the cells into a common pressure vessel, uses an open disk which allows the cell to be set into a shallow cavity; subsequent cells are stacked on each other with the total number based on the battery voltage required. This approach not only eliminates the assembly error threat, but also more readily assures equal contact pressure to the heat fin between each cell, which further assures balanced heat transfer. These heat fin dishes with their appropriate cell stacks are held together with tie bars which in turn are connected to the pressure vessel weld rings at each end of the tube.

  4. Reaction of nickel with uranium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselin, F.; Calais, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Passefort, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    UN-Ni system has been investigated in solid phase by diffusion couples UN-Ni or by mixed powders pressed and sintered. Studies have been carried out by micrography, X-rays and microanalysis with a CASTAING microprobe. UN-Ni compatibility is quite good up to 600 C; beyond this temperature diffusion zones corresponding to UNi 5 and U 2 N 3 appear in the couples either reaction : 3 U N + 5 Ni → U 2 N 3 + UNi 5 ; UN + 5 Ni → UNi 5 + 1/2 N 2 takes place from 700 C according to nitrogen pressure involved. For temperatures between 800 and 1000 C nickel solubility in uranium nitride is 1500 ± 500 wt ppm. (authors) [fr

  5. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  6. Nickel-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J A; Arce, R D; Buitrago, R H [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe (Argentina); Budini, N; Rinaldi, P, E-mail: jschmidt@intec.unl.edu.a [FIQ - UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    The nickel-induced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is used to obtain large grained polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates. a-Si:H is deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at 200 deg. C, preparing intrinsic and slightly p-doped samples. Each sample was divided in several pieces, over which increasing Ni concentrations were sputtered. Two crystallization methods are compared, conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The crystallization was followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance measurements in the UV region. The large grain sizes obtained - larger than 100{mu}m for the samples crystallized by CFA - are very encouraging for the preparation of low-cost thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  7. Electrografting of in situ generated pyrrole derivative diazonium salt for the surface modification of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, A.; Devillers, S.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrografting of in situ generated 4-pyrrolylphenyldiazonium (Py-PD) on Ni. • Generation of Py-PD from 4-pyrrolylaniline in 3 acidic conditions followed by UV. • XPS and SEM confirm efficiency, reproducibility and homogeneity of the grafting. • Electrografting process assessed by CV. • Barrier properties of the grafted film evidenced by CV. -- Abstract: This work reports for the first time on the modification of nickel surfaces by cathodic electrografting of in situ generated diazonium. An original diazonium salt (the 4-pyrrolylphenyldiazonium called Py-PD hereafter) was electrografted on nickel after its generation from 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline (Py-A) in presence of three acidic conditions (1, 2 and 10 equiv. of HClO 4 /Py-A) has been investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Results show that the potentiostatic electrografting of Py-PD is concomitant with nickel and proton reduction. This electrografting leads to the formation of multilayered films in each of the studied in situ generation conditions. The use of 1 equiv. of HClO 4 /Py-A for the in situ generation results in the formation of inhomogeneous and irreproducible coatings while 2 and 10 equiv. lead to the formation of highly covering, homogeneous and reproducible films. These films present good electrochemical barrier properties toward the ferri/ferrocyanide couple. The use of gentle stoichiometric acidic conditions for in situ diazonium generation widens the application field of this one-step procedure to the surface modification of oxidizable materials presenting an unstable oxide layer

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This is the first annual report of progress achieved under ANL Contract 31-109-38-4248. It covers the report period from 15 March 1978 to 15 August 1978. The nickel electrode development program is directed at the optimization of the electrical performance, specifically, in terms of increased cycle life. The work concentrated upon both the development of pilot plant facilities to produce nickel hydroxide and upon optimizing the manufacturing processes to produce nickel hydroxide which has high electrochemical utilization. The primary goal of the zinc electrode studies is to increase the cycle life of this electrode. This effort is primarily concentrating on the effect of additives upon shape change and cycle performance and on the mechanistic processes involved in the shape change. The separator effort has as its major goal the development of a low-cost separator which exhibits stability in the electrolyte, has uniform pores which are of a sufficiently small size to impede the growth of zinc dendrites, and exhibits low electrical resistance and good flexibility. The process itself is now optimized for pilot plant manufacture; hundreds of formulations have been produced and subsequently screened in both the laboratory and in actual cells. Promising formulations are presently being subjected to additional characterization tests and life cycles. The goal of the sealed cell studies is to determine the feasibility of sealed-cell operation. Large numbers of 20-Ah cells have been subjected to accelerated testing. These cells incorporated separator variations, active material additives, and internal design variations. Cycle lives up to 150 deep cycles were achieved. Cell failure modes are analyzed. 51 figures, 20 tables.

  9. Nb effect in the nickel oxide-catalyzed low-temperature oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    A method for the preparation of NiO and Nb-NiO nanocomposites is developed, based on the slow oxidation of a nickel-rich Nb-Ni gel obtained in citric acid. The resulting materials have higher surface areas than those obtained by the classical evaporation method from nickel nitrate and ammonium niobium oxalate. These consist in NiO nanocrystallites (7-13 nm) associated, at Nb contents >3 at.%., with an amorphous thin layer (1-2 nm) of a niobium-rich mixed oxide with a structure similar to that of NiNb 2O 6. Unlike bulk nickel oxides, the activity of these nanooxides for low-temperature ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) has been related to their redox properties. In addition to limiting the size of NiO crystallites, the presence of the Nb-rich phase also inhibits NiO reducibility. At Nb content >5 at.%, Nb-NiO composites are thus less active for ethane ODH but more selective, indicating that the Nb-rich phase probably covers part of the unselective, non-stoichiometric, active oxygen species of NiO. This geometric effect is supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations. The close interaction between NiO and the thin Nb-rich mixed oxide layer, combined with possible restructuration of the nanocomposite under ODH conditions, leads to significant catalyst deactivation at high Nb loadings. Hence, the most efficient ODH catalysts obtained by this method are those containing 3-4 at.% Nb, which combine high activity, selectivity, and stability. The impact of the preparation method on the structural and catalytic properties of Nb-NiO nanocomposites suggests that further improvement in NiO-catalyzed ethane ODH can be expected upon optimization of the catalyst. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy reflector experiments composed of carbon steel and nickel in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Silva, Graciete Simoes de Andrade e; Mura, Luis Felipe; Jerez, Rogerio; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson; Fuga, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The heavy reflector experiments performed in the IPEN/Mb-01 research reactor facility comprise a set of critical configurations employing the standard 28x26-fuel-rod configuration. The heavy reflector either, carbon steel or nickel plates was placed at one of the faces of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Criticality is achieved by inserting the control banks BC1 and BC2 to the critical position. 32 plates around 0.3 mm thick were used in all the experiment. The chosen distance between last fuel rod row and the first laminate for all types of laminates was 5.5 mm. Considering initially the carbon steel case, the experimental data reveal that the reactivity decreases up to the fifth plate and after that it increases, becomes nearly zero (which was equivalent to initial zero excess reactivity with zero plates) for the 28 plates case and reaches a value of 42.73 pcm when the whole set of 32 plates are inserted in the reflector. This is a very striking result because it demonstrates that when all 32 plates are inserted in the reflector there is a net gain of reactivity. The reactivity behavior demonstrates all the physics events already mentioned in this work. When the number of plates are small (around 5), the neutron absorption in the plates is more important than the neutron reflection and the reactivity decreases. This condition holds up to a point where the neutron reflection becomes more important than the neutron absorption in the plates and the reactivity increases. The experimental data for the nickel case shows the main features of the carbon steel case, but for the carbon steel case the reactivity gain is small, thus demonstrating that carbon steel or essentially iron has not the reflector capability as the nickel laminates do. The measured data of nickel plates show a higher reactivity gain, thus demonstrating that nickel is a better reflector than iron. The theoretical analysis employing MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 show that the calculated results have good results up to

  11. On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ... (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed columnar morphology with voided boundaries for ..... compound phase formation by performing the deposition.

  12. Nickel nanoparticles: A highly efficient catalyst for one pot synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and KANIKA VIJ. Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India ... Keywords. PVP-stabilized Ni nanoparticles; ethylene glycol; tetraketones; biscoumarins; ... ing interest in using nickel nanoparticles in organic synthesis ...

  13. Saturation volume changes and resistivity changes in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    Saturation defect concentrations generated by thermal neutron irradiation of 235 U doped nickel at liquid helium temperature were measured by changes in electrical resistivity and volume. The experimental procedure is described

  14. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MURUGAN SUBARAMANIAN

    Nickel catalysis; alcohol; paraformaldehyde; ether; solvent-free condition. 1. Introduction ..... oxidation and Dopamine Release with Protective Effects. Against Central ... P, Ghosh A, Saha R and Saha B 2016 A Review on the. Advancement of ...

  15. Electro-deposition of nickel, on reactor seal discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernekar, R.B.; Bhide, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of plating variables, acidity, current density and temperature on hardness of nickel deposited from purified nickel sulfamate bath has been investigated and optimum conditions for electrodeposition of nickel plating of hardness 160-170 VHN on reactor seal discs are established. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as a wetting agent to the bath to overcome pitting tendency of the deposit. Factors affecting hydrogen absorption by electrodeposited nickel are also discussed. It is observed that : (1) at a pH 3.5 - 4.0 the decomposition rate of sulfamate salt is almost negligible and is the best value for bath operation, (2) at 15 A/dm 2 the hardness value is consistently around 160-170 VHN, (3) the temperatures less than 50 0 C give harder deposits and the bath is best operated at temperature 50-60 0 C and (4) annealing of the plated discs substantially reduces the hardness. (M.G.B.)

  16. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  17. Plasma spheroidization of nickel powders in a plasma reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and size of the particles are among critical parameters ... shape components, which helps to conserve scarce raw materials. There are several methods of producing rapidly solidi- ... spherical nickel powders using the d.c. plasma reactor is.

  18. On the rational alloying of structural chromium-nickel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of chromium nickel, phosphorus on the critical brittleness temperature of Cr-Ni-Mo-V structural steels. It is shown that the critical brittleness temperature of these steels increases at chromium content more over than 2% and nickel content more than 2% in the result of carbide transformations during tempering. Increase of nickel content in Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels strengthens the tendency to embrittlement during slow cooling, from tempering temperature owing to development of process of phosphorus grain-boundary segregation. Two mentioned mechanisms of embrittlement determine principles of rational steel alloying. The extreme dependence of the critical brittleness temperature on chromium and nickel content, which enables to choose the optimum composition of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels, was established

  19. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES NixCO3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degree of crystallinity give rise to reversible nickel incorporation. Pellets ... are of interest in solid oxide fuel cell and this is one of the features which make them attractive ... oxide system can only be obtained in a limited composition extent.

  20. Chromium, Nickel and Zinc Induced Histopathological Alterations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    fish, Labeo rohita to chlorides of chromium, nickel and zinc for 30 days. However ... toxicants such as salts of heavy metals, acids, organic matter ... nutritional supply becomes excessive. ... action), petrochemicals, and fertilizers and in steam.