WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard cover form

  1. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  2. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  3. A standard form for generalized CP transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of general CP transformations leads to transformations of the form U → W T UW with unitary matrices U, W. It is shown that a basis for weak eigenstates can always be chosen such that W T UW has a certain real standard form. (Author)

  4. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  5. Standard rules for liability and cover for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.; Kuckuck, B.

    1980-01-01

    To afford full protection for possible victims, the authors of this article are in favour of doing away with the limitation of liability of nuclear operators presently provided under the German Atomic Energy Act, the principle of which is based on the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. In support of this argument reference is made to the recent accident at Three Mile Island, trends in other national legislation towards unlimited liability as well as high safety standards in German nuclear plants. Finally, possible ways of providing unlimited liability are proposed, in particular increased insurance cover and the constitution of an interest-bearing fund in addition to State intervention in case of a major nuclear incident. (NEA) [fr

  6. Primary hafnium metal sponge and other forms, approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A specification is presented covering virgin hafnium metal commonly designated as sponge because of its porous, sponge-like texture; it may also be in other forms such as chunklets. The specification does not cover crystal bar

  7. Frequency of Verbal Forms and Language Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur I. Galeev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the description of a modern experiment, which gives the possibility of complex information extraction about the cognitive structure of the linguistic evolution of Language Standart (Norm. The study was conducted using the Google Books Corpus, which provides unprecedented opportunities for linguistic studies. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the patterns of competing forms evolution within the center of the verbal paradigm (3Sg and 3Pl on the basis of the data concerning the frequency of their use. The study was conducted on the material of excess verb forms with the variability of a/o vowels in a root (обусловливать/обуславливать. The graphs for variable word form competition clearly illustrate that the process of norm change consists of stages, each of which has numerical characteristics of two competing word form use. The chronological frameworks for an inflectional model change are established with the accuracy of up to 10 years. The graphs obtained as the result of the experiment make it possible to conclude that almost half of the verbs were not variative, although they previously considered. During the discussion of the obtained empirical data, a conclusion is made about the morphemic structure of a word, in which a root vowel changes. Possessing the information about similar processes in other verb paradigms, researchers are able to predict a possible change of inflectional models in the future and, as a consequence, the fixing of a new norm in lexicographical, orthographic and orthoepic sources.

  8. Disconnected forms of the standard group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, B.

    1996-10-01

    Recent work in quantum gravity has led to a revival of interest in the concept of disconnected gauge groups. Here we explain how to classify all of the (non-trivial) groups which have the same Lie algebra as the ''standard group'', SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1), without requiring connectedness. The number of possibilities is surprisingly large. We also discuss the geometry of the ''Kiskis effect'', the ambiguity induced by non-trivial spacetime topology in such gauge theories. (author). 12 refs

  9. NON-STANDARD FORMS OF EMPLOYMENT IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Chekanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence and development of non-standard forms of employment and flexible working. The causes of their use reflects the results of research conducted in the workplace. Non-standard forms of employment and attractive today as they allow to expand the circle of the workforce.

  10. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  11. Release of Phosphorus Forms from Cover Crop Residues in Agroecological No-Till Onion Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops grown alone or in association can take up different amounts of phosphorus (P from the soil and accumulate it in different P-forms in plant tissue. Cover crop residues with a higher content of readily decomposed forms may release P more quickly for the next onion crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of P forms from residues of single and mixed cover crops in agroecological no-till onion (Allium cepa L. production. The experiment was conducted in Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, in an Inceptisol, with the following treatments: weeds, black oat (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L., oilseed radish + black oat, and oilseed radish + rye. Cover crops were sown in April 2013. In July 2013, plant shoots were cut close to the soil surface and part of the material was placed in litterbags. The bags were placed on the soil surface and residues were collected at 0, 15, and 45 days after deposition (DAD. Residues were dried and ground and P in the plant tissue was determined through chemical fractionation. The release of P contained in the tissue of cover crops depends not only on total P content in the tissue, but also on the accumulation of P forms and the quality of the residue in decomposition. The highest accumulation of P in cover crops occurred in the soluble inorganic P fraction, which is the fraction of fastest release in plants. Black oat had the highest initial release rate of soluble inorganic P, which became equal to the release rate of other cover crop residues at 45 DAD. Weeds released only half the amount of soluble inorganic P in the same period, despite accumulating a considerable amount of P in their biomass. The mixtures of oilseed radish + rye and oilseed radish + black oat showed higher release of P associated with RNA at 45 DAD in comparison to the single treatments.

  12. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  13. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...... spatial configuration with rectangular parcels contained significantly more vegetation and less impervious surfaces per parcel than newer Radburn-inspired configurations with more quadratic parcels. Correlation analysis showed size of paved access ways to be positively correlated with distance from road...

  14. 41 CFR 101-1.4901 - Standard forms. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standard forms. [Reserved] 101-1.4901 Section 101-1.4901 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.49-Illustrations of Forms...

  15. Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic Covered with Patient's Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Zigiotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months. Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, M; F and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes. There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.

  16. Diskette-based database covering standards etc. of relevance to the construction of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The project concerns the development of the database ''Diskettebaseret database med vindmoellestandarder'' (diskette-based database containing wind turbine standards), which contains information about standards, recommendations and other technical documents of relevance for the design, construction and approval of wind mills. The information in the database covers data from Denmark, UK, Germany, Holland and USA together with data from internationally recognized standards and recommendations. The database is contained on a single PC-diskette, which also contains the purpose-built userfriendly serchsoftware. About 5500 records are included in the database. The last edition of the database was updated January 1994. (au)

  17. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  18. 48 CFR 53.301-1427 - Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A-Construction Sheet (Metals in Mill Product Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A-Construction Sheet (Metals in Mill Product Form). 53.301-1427 Section 53.301-1427... Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1427 Standard Form 1427, Inventory Schedule A—Construction Sheet (Metals in Mill...

  19. Breast composition measurements using retrospective standard mammogram form (SMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highnam, R; Pan, X; Warren, R; Jeffreys, M; Smith, G Davey; Brady, M

    2006-01-01

    The standard mammogram form (SMF) representation of an x-ray mammogram is a standardized, quantitative representation of the breast from which the volume of non-fat tissue and breast density can be easily estimated, both of which are of significant interest in determining breast cancer risk. Previous theoretical analysis of SMF had suggested that a complete and substantial set of calibration data (such as mAs and kVp) would be needed to generate realistic breast composition measures and yet there are many interesting trials that have retrospectively collected images with no calibration data. The main contribution of this paper is to revisit our previous theoretical analysis of SMF with respect to errors in the calibration data and to show how and why that theoretical analysis did not match the results from the practical implementations of SMF. In particular, we show how by estimating breast thickness for every image we are, effectively, compensating for any errors in the calibration data. To illustrate our findings, the current implementation of SMF (version 2.2β) was run over 4028 digitized film-screen mammograms taken from six sites over the years 1988-2002 with and without using the known calibration data. Results show that the SMF implementation running without any calibration data at all generates results which display a strong relationship with when running with a complete set of calibration data, and, most importantly, to an expert's visual assessment of breast composition using established techniques. SMF shows considerable promise in being of major use in large epidemiological studies related to breast cancer which require the automated analysis of large numbers of films from many years previously where little or no calibration data is available

  20. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  1. Virginia Standards of Learning (Grades 6 through 12) That Are Covered When Students Attend Live Performances of Shakespeare's Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper outlines Standards of Learning for grades 6-12 students in Virginia that are covered when they attend live performances of William Shakespeare's plays. The paper details separate standards for each grade in English, subdivided into standards which fulfill requirements in Oral Language, Reading/Literature, Writing, and Research, along…

  2. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. 46 CFR 308.409 - Standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Policy, Form MA-283. 308.409 Section 308.409 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283. The standard form of War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance Policy, Form MA-283 may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.80 - Prescribed standard forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The national stock number of the SF 702 is 7540-01-213-7900. (6) SF 703, TOP SECRET Cover Sheet: The SF 703 serves as a shield to protect Top Secret classified information from inadvertent disclosure and to alert observers that Top Secret information is attached to it. If an agency determines, as part...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.30 - List of telecommunications standard contract forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of telecommunications standard contract forms... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.30 List of telecommunications standard contract forms. (a...

  6. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  7. Chern–Simons–Antoniadis–Savvidy forms and standard supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, F., E-mail: fizaurie@udec.cl; Salgado, P., E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl; Salgado, S., E-mail: sesalgado@udec.cl

    2017-04-10

    In the context of the so called the Chern–Simons–Antoniadis–Savvidy (ChSAS) forms, we use the methods for FDA decomposition in 1-forms to construct a four-dimensional ChSAS supergravity action for the Maxwell superalgebra. On the another hand, we use the Extended Cartan Homotopy Formula to find a method that allows the separation of the ChSAS action into bulk and boundary contributions and permits the splitting of the bulk Lagrangian into pieces that reflect the particular subspace structure of the gauge algebra.

  8. Performance on a Stage IV Object-Permanence Task with Standard and Nonstandard Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Rader, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Examined the role of perceptual-motor development in a typical Stage IV task. The performance of ten infants was compared on a Stage IV object permanence task when a cloth cover was used and when a small card cover was used. (JMB)

  9. Standard land-cover classification scheme for remote-sensing applications in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For large areas, satellite remote-sensing techniques have now become the single most effective method for land-cover and land-use data acquisition. However, the majority of land-cover (and land-use) classification schemes used have been developed...

  10. 41 CFR 102-194.5 - What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.5 Section 102-194.5 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.5 What is the Standard and Optional...

  11. Comparative analysis of JKR Sarawak form of contract and Malaysia Standard form of building contract (PWD203A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A. I. A.; Muhammad, W. M. N. W.; Saaid, M. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Standard form of contract is normally being used in Malaysia construction industry in establishing legal relation between contracting parties. Generally, most of Malaysia federal government construction project used PWD203A which is a standard form of contract to be used where Bills of Quantities Form Part of the Contract and it is issued by Public Works Department (PWD/JKR). On the other hand in Sarawak, the largest state in Malaysia, the state government has issued their own standard form of contract namely JKR Sarawak Form of Contract 2006. Even both forms have been used widely in construction industry; there is still lack of understanding on both forms. The aim of this paper is to identify significant provision on both forms of contract. Document analysis has been adopted in conducting an in-depth review on both forms. It is found that, both forms of contracts have differences and similarities on several provisions specifically matters to definitions and general; execution of the works; payments, completion and final account; and delay, dispute resolution and determination.

  12. Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 · °C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 ·° C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

  13. 7 CFR 28.123 - Costs of practical forms of cotton standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs of practical forms of cotton standards. 28.123 Section 28.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  14. The processing of polyelectrolyte-covered magnetite nanoparticles in the form of nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Valéria S.; Martins, Marccus Victor A.; Souza, José A.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Crespilho, Frank N.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising for a variety of applications, such as biomedical devices, spin electronics, magnetic data storage media, to name a few. However, these goals may only be reached if stable and organized structures are fabricated. In this article, we report on a single-step synthetic route with the coprecipitation method, in which iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) were stabilized in aqueous media using the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) polyelectrolyte. The Fe 3 O 4 NPs had a diameter of ca. 5 nm, according to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, being arranged in an inverse spinel structure typical of magnetite. An investigation with infrared spectroscopy indicated that the mechanisms of stabilization in the polymer matrix were based on the interaction between quaternary amide groups from PDAC and the nanoparticle surface. The Fe 3 O 4 -PDAC NPs exhibited considerable magnetic susceptibility, with a monotonic increase in the magnetization with decreasing temperature. These Fe 3 O 4 -PDAC NPs were immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films, being alternated with layers of poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (PVS). The LbL films were much rougher than typical films made with polyelectrolytes, and Fe 3 O 4 -PDAC NPs have been responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction, with an overpotential shift of 0.69 V. Overall, the stability, magnetic properties and film-forming ability indicate that the Fe 3 O 4 -PDAC NPs may be used for nanoelectronics and bioelectrochemical devices requiring reversible and magnetic redox materials.

  15. 77 FR 593 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... standards include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity standards, requirements for overall risk management (including establishing a risk committee), single-counterparty credit limits...-counterparty credit limits; (iv) overall risk management and risk committees; (v) stress tests; and (vi) a debt...

  16. Improved overall delivery documentation following implementation of a standardized shoulder dystocia delivery form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Craparo, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate whether using a standardized shoulder dystocia delivery form improved documentation. A standardized delivery form was added to our institution’s obstetrical record in August 2003. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted comparing 100 vaginal deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia before, and 81 after implementation of the standardized delivery form. The two groups were compared in terms of obstetric characteristics, neonatal outcomes and documentation components. Results Charts that included the standardized delivery form were more likely to contain documentation of estimated fetal weight (82.7% vs. 39.0% without the form, Pdystocia, and second stage duration. Conclusions Inclusion of a standardized form in the delivery record improves the rate of documentation of both shoulder dystocia-specific and general delivery components. PMID:22017330

  17. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. 22.6 Section 22.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the Act. The standard flood hazard determination form may be used in a printed, computerized, or...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.4901 - Obtaining standard and optional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.49-Forms § 101-39.4901 Obtaining standard and optional... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining standard and optional forms. 101-39.4901 Section 101-39.4901 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. 76 FR 44965 - Notice of Revision of Standard Forms 39 and 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Notice of Revision of Standard Forms 39 and 39-A AGENCY: U.S... Management (OPM) has revised Standard Form (SF) 39, Request For Referral Of Eligibles, and SF 39-A, Request... part 332. The SF 39 outlines instructions to be used by hiring officials to request a list of eligible...

  20. Bio-based biodegradable film to replace the standard polyethylene cover for silage conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Giorgio; Tabacco, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The research was aimed at studying whether the polyethylene (PE) film currently used to cover maize silage could be replaced with bio-based biodegradable films, and at determining the effects on the fermentative and microbiological quality of the resulting silages in laboratory silo conditions. Biodegradable plastic film made in 2 different formulations, MB1 and MB2, was compared with a conventional 120-μm-thick PE film. A whole maize crop was chopped; ensiled in MB1, MB2, and PE plastic bags, 12.5kg of fresh weight per bag; and opened after 170d of conservation. At silo opening, the microbial and fermentative quality of the silage was analyzed in the uppermost layer (0 to 50mm from the surface) and in the whole mass of the silo. All the silages were well fermented with little differences in fermentative quality between the treatments, although differences in the mold count and aerobic stability were observed in trial 1 for the MB1 silage. These results have shown the possibility of successfully developing a biodegradable cover for silage for up to 6mo after ensiling. The MB2 film allowed a good silage quality to be obtained even in the uppermost part of the silage close to the plastic film up to 170d of conservation, with similar results to those obtained with the PE film. The promising results of this experiment indicate that the development of new degradable materials to cover silage till 6mo after ensiling could be possible. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  2. Analysis of approaches to classification of forms of non-standard employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dorokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently becoming more widespread non-standard forms of employment. If this is not clear approach to the definition and maintenance of non-standard employment. In the article the analysis of diverse interpretations of the concept, on what basis, the author makes a conclusion about the complexity and contradictory nature of precarious employment as an economic category. It examines different approaches to classification of forms of precarious employment. The main forms of precarious employment such as flexible working year, flexible working week, flexible working hours, remote work, employees on call, shift forwarding; Agency employment, self-employment, negotiator, underemployment, over employment, employment on the basis of fixed-term contracts employment based on contract of civil-legal nature, one-time employment, casual employment, temporary employment, secondary employment and part-time. The author’s approach to classification of non-standard forms of employment, based on identifying the impact of atypical employment on the development of human potential. For the purpose of classification of non-standard employment forms from the standpoint of their impact on human development as the criteria of classification proposed in the following: working conditions, wages and social guarantees, possibility of workers ' participation in management, personal development and self-employment stability. Depending on what value each of these criteria, some form of non-standard employment can be attributed to the progressive or regressive. Classification of non-standard forms of employment should be the basis of the state policy of employment management.

  3. Oblique projections and standard-form transformations for discrete inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial paper considers a specific computational tool for the numerical solution of discrete inverse problems, known as the standard-form transformation, by which we can treat general Tikhonov regularization problems efficiently. In the tradition of B. N. Datta's expositions of numerical li...... linear algebra, we use the close relationship between oblique projections, pseudoinverses, and matrix computations to derive a simple geometric motivation and algebraic formulation of the standard-form transformation....

  4. The Making of a History Standards Wiki: "Covering", "Uncovering", and "Discovering" Curriculum Frameworks Using a Highly Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.; Poirier, Michelle; Smith, Hilary K.; Edwards, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores using a wiki, one of the newest forms of interactive computer-based technology, as a resource for teaching the Massachusetts K-12 History and Social Science Curriculum Framework, a set of state-mandated learning standards. Wikis are web pages that can be easily edited by multiple authors. They invite active involvement by…

  5. Zirconium sponge and other forms of virgin metal for nuclear applications - approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    This specification covers virgin zirconium metal commonly designated as sponge because of its porous, sponge-like texture, but it may also take other forms such as chunklets. One grade is described which is designated as reactor grade R-1, suitable for use in nuclear applications. The most important characteristic of the reactor grade is its low nuclear cross section as achieved by removal of hafnium and careful quality control in manufacturing procedures to prevent contamination with other high cross section materials

  6. Syntactic Dependencies and Verbal Inflection: Complementisers and Verbal Forms in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the syntactic dependency between complementisers and verbal forms in Standard Arabic and provides a new analysis of this dependency. The imperfective verb in this language surfaces with three different forms, where each form is indicated by a different suffixal marker attached to the end of the verb as (-u, (-a, or (-Ø. The occurrence of each suffixal marker on the verb corresponds to the co-occurrence of a particular type of Comp-elements in the C/T domain. I argue that these morphological markers on the three verbal forms are the manifestation of an Agree relation between an interpretable unvalued finiteness feature [Fin] on C and an uninterpretable but valued instance of the same feature on v, assuming feature transfer and feature sharing between C/T and v (Pesetsky & Torrego 2007; Chomsky 2008. I also argue that the different verbal forms in Standard Arabic are dictated by the co-occurrence of three types of Comp-elements: i C-elements; ii T-elements which ultimately move to C; and iii imperative/negative elements. Keywords: feature transfer/sharing, verbal forms, complementisers, finiteness, syntactic dependency, Standard Arabic

  7. Informed consent for clinical trials: a comparative study of standard versus simplified forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T C; Holcombe, R F; Berkel, H J; Pramanik, S; Divers, S G

    1998-05-06

    A high level of reading skill and comprehension is necessary to understand and complete most consent forms that are required for participation in clinical research studies. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a simplified consent form would be less intimidating and more easily understood by individuals with low-to-marginal reading skills. During July 1996, 183 adults (53 patients with cancer or another medical condition and 130 apparently healthy participants) were tested for reading ability and then asked to read either the standard Southwestern Oncology Group (SWOG) consent form (16th grade level) or a simplified form (7th grade level) developed at Louisiana State University Medical Center-Shreveport (LSU). Participants were interviewed to assess their attitudes toward and comprehension of the form read. Then they were given the alternate consent form and asked which one they preferred and why. Overall, participants preferred the LSU form (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 54.8%-69.2%) over the SWOG form (38%; 95% CI = 30.8%-45.2%) (P = .0033). Nearly all participants thought that the LSU form was easier to read (97%; 95% CI = 93.1%-99.9%) than the SWOG form (75%; 95% CI = 65.1%-85.7%) (Pinformed consent documents for the substantial proportion of Americans with low-to-marginal literacy skills.

  8. 48 CFR 53.301-252 - Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 252, Architect-Engineer Contract. 53.301-252 Section 53.301-252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL..., Architect-Engineer Contract. EC01MY91.035 EC01MY91.036 ...

  9. Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2012-08-01

    Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.

  10. 33 CFR Appendix - List of FPC Standard Articles Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of FPC Standard Articles Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects The following FPC standard articles Forms...

  11. Perubahan Lingkungan Mikro pada Berbagai Penutupan Lahan Hasil Revegetasi (Micro Environmental Change in Various Form Land Cover Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadan Mulyana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of land rehabilitation (revegetation activities is necessary for measuring the extent of success of the ongoing activities in rehabilitating and recovering degraded lands. One way for evaluating the success of land rehabilitation (revegetation is by determining the changes of micro enviroment.  The objective of this research was to study the changes of micro environment in  various types of revegetated land cover, including scrub/bush land (SB, agricultural land (TP, monoculture teak (JM and mixed crops (TC in Ciliwung upper watershed. Research results showed that the highest air temperature and soil temperature were  obtained at SB, respectively at 32.8 0C and 26.5 0C, and the lowest at TC, respectively at 28.1 0C and 20.7 0C. Relative humidity and soil moisture were highest at TC (72.3% and 96% and lowest at SB (60.8%, and the lowest soil moisture occurred at JM (45%.  The highest infiltration rate occurred on TP (475.5 mm h-1, very rapid, followed by JM (117 mmh-1, fast and TC (80 mm h-1, and the lowest at SB (17.65 mm h-1, medium slow.  Erosion reductions occurred after 6 years of the revegetation activities with the following  results:TC  (96,676.1 ton year-1 ha-1, JM (10,790 ton year-1 ha-1, TP and SB (52,867.9 ton year-1 ha-1 and 24,612.6 ton year-1 ha-1.  The micro environments for all land cover types were better after revegetation activities.Keywords: micro environment, land cover, erosion, infiltration, upper watershed

  12. Plant life form based habitat monitoring in a European landscape framework for early warning of changes in land cover and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin; Bloch-Petersen, Margit

    and habitat composition and quality. The focus on essential features of the habitat that can be expressed easily and quantitatively for identification and mapping of small but significant changes at a landscape level has resulted in the reintroduction of Raunkiaers plant life form concept from 1907...... of agricultural land use, general land cover and tree and shrub cover of small biotopes), it has not been difficult to integrate the BioHab framework in the SBMP-monitoring system, thus permitting the monitoring system to deliver an additional important European perspective with only very limited extra resources...

  13. Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

  14. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency head... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.30 Section 102-194.30 Public...

  15. 41 CFR 304-6.5 - What guidelines must we follow when using the Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS 6-PAYMENT GUIDELINES Reports § 304-6.5 What guidelines must we follow when using the Standard Form... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What guidelines must we follow when using the Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.5 Section 304-6.5 Public Contracts and Property...

  16. Standard forms and entanglement engineering of multimode Gaussian states under local operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the action of local unitary operations on multimode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states and single out the minimal number of locally invariant parameters which completely characterize the covariance matrix of such states. For pure Gaussian states, central resources for continuous-variable quantum information, we investigate separately the parameter reduction due to the additional constraint of global purity, and the one following by the local-unitary freedom. Counting arguments and insights from the phase-space Schmidt decomposition and in general from the framework of symplectic analysis, accompany our description of the standard form of pure n-mode Gaussian states. In particular, we clarify why only in pure states with n ≤ 3 modes all the direct correlations between position and momentum operators can be set to zero by local unitary operations. For any n, the emerging minimal set of parameters contains complete information about all forms of entanglement in the corresponding states. An efficient state engineering scheme (able to encode direct correlations between position and momentum operators as well) is proposed to produce entangled multimode Gaussian resources, its number of optical elements matching the minimal number of locally invariant degrees of freedom of general pure n-mode Gaussian states. Finally, we demonstrate that so-called 'block-diagonal' Gaussian states, without direct correlations between position and momentum, are systematically less entangled, on average, than arbitrary pure Gaussian states

  17. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO2 carbonation of standard portland cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.; Taylor, C.M.V.

    1997-01-01

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented

  18. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  19. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.4901-149 - Standard Form 149, U.S. Government National Credit Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standard Form 149, U.S. Government National Credit Card. 101-26.4901-149 Section 101-26.4901-149 Public Contracts and Property... 149, U.S. Government National Credit Card. Note: The form illustrated in § 101-26.4901-149 is filed as...

  1. Mine waste disposal leads to lower coral cover, reduced species richness and a predominance of simple coral growth forms on a fringing coral reef in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M D E; Dennis, D; Thomson, D P; Pillans, R D

    2016-04-01

    A large gold mine has been operating at the Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea since 1997. The mine disposes of waste rock in nearshore waters, impacting nearby coral communities. During 2010, 2012 we conducted photographic surveys at 73 sites within 40 km of the mine to document impacts of mining operations on the hard coral communities. Coral communities close to the mine (∼2 km to the north and south of the mine) were depaurperate, but surprisingly, coral cover and community composition beyond this range appeared to be relatively similar, suggesting that the mine impacts were limited spatially. In particular, we found mining operations have resulted in a significant decrease in coral cover (4.4% 1.48 km from the disposal site c.f. 66.9% 10.36 km from the disposal site), decreased species richness and a predominance of less complex growth forms within ∼2 km to the north and south of the mine waste disposal site. In contrast to the two 'snapshot' surveys of corals performed in 2010 and 2012, long term data (1999-2012) based on visual estimates of coral cover suggested that impacts on coral communities may have been more extensive than this. With global pressures on the world's coral reefs increasing, it is vital that local, direct anthropogenic pressures are reduced, in order to help offset the impacts of climate change, disease and predation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A case study: forming an effective quality management system according to ISO 9000 standards

    OpenAIRE

    Zağyapan, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    Ankara : The Faculty of Management and the Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1995. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1995. Includes bibliographical references leaves 87-88 In today's world, companies which adopt themselves to certain internationally recognized standards are one step ahead of their competitors. ISO 9000 Quality System Standards captured the most attention among all. The aim of the standard is to provide an international bench...

  3. Adherence to a Standardized Order Form for Gastric Cancer in a Referral Chemotherapy Teaching Hospital, Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Asgarian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized forms for prescription and medication administration are one solution to reduce medication errors in the chemotherapy process. Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. In this study, we have attempted to design and validate a standard printed chemotherapy form and evaluate adherence by oncologists and nurses to this form. Methods: We performed this cross-sectional study in a Mashhad, Iran teaching hospital from August 2015 until January 2016. A clinical pharmacist designed the chemotherapy form that included various demographic and clinical parameters and approved chemotherapy regimens for gastric cancer. Clinical oncologists that worked in this center validated the form. We included all eligible patients. A pharmacy student identified adherence by the oncologists and nurses to this form and probable medication errors. Results are mean ± standard deviation or number (percentages for nominal variables. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 statistical package. Results:We evaluated 54 patients and a total of 249 chemotherapy courses. In 146 (58.63% chemotherapy sessions, the administered regimens lacked compatibility with the standard form. Approximately 66% of recorded errors occurred in the prescription phase and the remainder during the administration phase. The most common errors included improper dose (61% and wrong infusion time (34%. We observed that 37 dose calculation errors occurred in 32 chemotherapy sessions. Conclusions: In general, adherence by oncologists and nurses with the developed form for chemotherapy treatment of gastric cancer was not acceptable. These findings indicated the necessity for a standardized order sheet to simplify the chemotherapy process for the clinicians, and reduce prescription and administration errors.

  4. The Standard Model in noncommutative geometry: fundamental fermions as internal forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Ludwik; D'Andrea, Francesco; Sitarz, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    Given the algebra, Hilbert space H, grading and real structure of the finite spectral triple of the Standard Model, we classify all possible Dirac operators such that H is a self-Morita equivalence bimodule for the associated Clifford algebra.

  5. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  6. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  7. Using open technical e-learning standards and service-orientation to support new forms of e-assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Tattersall, Colin; Schoonenboom, Judith; Stevanov, Krassen; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Miao, Y., Tattersall, C., Schoonenboom, J., Stevanov, K., & Aleksieva-Petrova, A. (2007). Using open technical e-learning standards and service-orientation to support new forms of e-assessment. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the second TENCompetence Open Workshop on

  8. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, P.J.; Sider, L.; Silverman, J.M.; Dahlgren, J.; Harber, P.; Bunn, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that although the International Labour Office (ILO) standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT (HRTC) readings for screening of pneumoconiosis. An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT. Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were interpreted by using an ILO-based standard form developed by the authors for this project. With the newly developed HRCT form, individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency

  9. Development of Abbreviated Nine-Item Forms of the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Warren B.; Hansen, John A.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2012-01-01

    The Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) is a 60-item test for measuring abstract reasoning, considered a nonverbal estimate of fluid intelligence, and often included in clinical assessment batteries and research on patients with cognitive deficits. The goal was to develop and apply a predictive model approach to reduce the number of items…

  10. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    .... generally accepted accounting principles (``U.S. GAAP''). Statement No. 168 became effective for financial... Codification'' is a registered trademark of the Financial Accounting Foundation. DATES: Effective Date: August... accounting principles established by a standard-setting body that meets specified criteria. On April 25, 2003...

  11. Standard test method for splitting tensile strength for brittle nuclear waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to measure the static splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of brittle nuclear waste forms. It provides splitting tensile-strength data that can be used to compare the strength of waste forms when tests are done on one size of specimen. 1.2 The test method is applicable to glass, ceramic, and concrete waste forms that are sufficiently homogeneous (Note 1) but not to coated-particle, metal-matrix, bituminous, or plastic waste forms, or concretes with large-scale heterogeneities. Cementitious waste forms with heterogeneities >1 to 2 mm and 5 mm can be tested using this procedure provided the specimen size is increased from the reference size of 12.7 mm diameter by 6 mm length, to 51 mm diameter by 100 mm length, as recommended in Test Method C 496 and Practice C 192. Note 1—Generally, the specimen structural or microstructural heterogeneities must be less than about one-tenth the diameter of the specimen. 1.3 This test method can be used as a quality control chec...

  12. 7 CFR 1724.70 - Standard forms of contracts for borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required to use in the planning, design, and construction of their electric systems. Borrowers are not required to use these guidance contract forms in the absence of an agreement to do so. [63 FR 58284, Oct... construction, procurement, engineering services, and architectural services financed by a loan made or...

  13. The impact of a standardized consultation form for facial trauma on billing and evaluation and management levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Andre Y; Tauber, David M; Lee, Johnson C; Rodriguez-Feliz, Jose R; Chao, Jerome D

    2014-02-01

    Facial trauma is among the most frequent consultations encountered by plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the reimbursement from these consultations can be low, and qualified plastic surgeons may exclude facial trauma from their practice. An audit of our records found insufficient documentation to justify higher evaluation and management (EM) levels of service resulting in lower reimbursement. Utilizing a standardized consultation form can improve documentation resulting in higher billing and EM levels. A facial trauma consultation form was developed in conjunction with the billing department. Three plastic surgery residents completed 30 consultations without the aid of the consult form followed by 30 consultations with the aid of the form. The EM levels and billing data for each consultation were obtained from the billing department for analysis. The 2 groups were compared using χ2 analysis and t tests to determine statistical significance. Using our standardized consultation form, the mean EM level increased from 2.97 to 3.60 (P = 0.002). In addition, the mean billed amount increased from $391 to $501 per consult (P = 0.051) representing a 28% increase in billing. In our institution, the development and implementation of a facial trauma consultation form has resulted in more complete documentation and a subsequent increase in EM level and billed services.

  14. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures <100°C under low specimen surface- area-to-leachant volume (S/V) ratio conditions. 1.2 This test method can be used to characterize the dissolution or leaching behaviors of various simulated or radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <100°C. 1.3 The test is conducted under static conditions in a constant solution volume and at a constant temperature. The reactivity of the test specimen is determined from the amounts of components released and accumulated in the solution over the test duration. A wide range of test conditions can be used to study material behavior, includin...

  16. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  17. Intercoder Reliability of Mapping Between Pharmaceutical Dose Forms in the German Medication Plan and EDQM Standard Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Julian; Becker, Kim; Ludmann, Dominik; Pantazoglou, Elisabeth; Dewenter, Heike; Thun, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    A nationally uniform medication plan has recently been part of German legislation. The specification for the German medication plan was developed in cooperation between various stakeholders of the healthcare system. Its' goal is to enhance usability and interoperability while also providing patients and physicians with the necessary information they require for a safe and high-quality therapy. Within the research and development project named Medication Plan PLUS, the specification of the medication plan was tested and reviewed for semantic interoperability in particular. In this study, the list of pharmaceutical dose forms provided in the specification was mapped to the standard terms of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare by different coders. The level of agreement between coders was calculated using Cohen's Kappa (κ). Results show that less than half of the dose forms could be coded with EDQM standard terms. In addition to that Kappa was found to be moderate, which means rather unconvincing agreement among coders. In conclusion, there is still vast room for improvement in utilization of standardized international vocabulary and unused potential considering cross-border eHealth implementations in the future.

  18. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  19. Parallel Computation on Multicore Processors Using Explicit Form of the Finite Element Method and C++ Standard Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rek Václav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the form of modifications of the existing sequential code written in C or C++ programming language for the calculation of various kind of structures using the explicit form of the Finite Element Method (Dynamic Relaxation Method, Explicit Dynamics in the NEXX system is introduced. The NEXX system is the core of engineering software NEXIS, Scia Engineer, RFEM and RENEX. It has the possibilities of multithreaded running, which can now be supported at the level of native C++ programming language using standard libraries. Thanks to the high degree of abstraction that a contemporary C++ programming language provides, a respective library created in this way can be very generalized for other purposes of usage of parallelism in computational mechanics.

  20. The effectiveness of Microsoft Project in assessing extension of time under PAM 2006 standard form of contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, S. K.; Wong, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    Time is equal to money; and it is applies in the construction industry where time is very important. Most of the standard form of contracts provide contractual clauses to ascertain time and money related to the scenarios while Extension of Time (EOT) is one of them. Under circumstance and delays, contractor is allow to apply EOT in order to complete the works on a later completion date without Liquidated Damages (LD) imposed to the claimant. However, both claimants and assessors encountered problems in assessing the EOT. The aim of this research is to recommend the usage of Microsoft Project as a tool in assessing EOT associated with the standard form of contract, PAM 2006. A quantitative method is applied towards the respondents that consisted of architects and quantity surveyors (QS) in order to collect data on challenges in assessing EOT claims and the effectiveness of Microsoft Project as a tool. The finding of this research highlighted that Microsoft Project can serve as a basis to perform EOT tasks as this software can be used as a data bank to store handy information which crucial for preparing and evaluating EOT.

  1. Composite Reliability and Standard Errors of Measurement for a Seven-Subtest Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretlen, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Composite reliability and standard errors of measurement were computed for prorated Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Results with 1,880 adults (standardization sample) indicate that this form is as reliable as the complete test.…

  2. A Generalized Form of Context-Dependent Psychophysiological Interactions (gPPI): A Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Donald G.; Ries, Michele L.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) allows one to study task-related regional responses and task-dependent connectivity analysis using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) methods. The latter affords the additional opportunity to understand how brain regions interact in a task-dependent manner. The current implementation of PPI in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) is configured primarily to assess connectivity differences between two task conditions, when in practice fMRI tasks frequently employ more than two conditions. Here we evaluate how a generalized form of context-dependent PPI (gPPI; http://www.nitrc.org/projects/gppi), which is configured to automatically accommodate more than two task conditions in the same PPI model by spanning the entire experimental space, compares to the standard implementation in SPM8. These comparisons are made using both simulations and an empirical dataset. In the simulated dataset, we compare the interaction beta estimates to their expected values and model fit using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We found that interaction beta estimates in gPPI were robust to different simulated data models, were not different from the expected beta value, and had better model fits than when using standard PPI (sPPI) methods. In the empirical dataset, we compare the model fit of the gPPI approach to sPPI. We found that the gPPI approach improved model fit compared to sPPI. There were several regions that became non-significant with gPPI. These regions all showed significantly better model fits with gPPI. Also, there were several regions where task-dependent connectivity was only detected using gPPI methods, also with improved model fit. Regions that were detected with all methods had more similar model fits. These results suggest that gPPI may have greater sensitivity and specificity than standard implementation in SPM. This notion is tempered slightly as there is no gold standard; however, data simulations with a known outcome support our

  3. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  4. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  5. Microarc oxidation coating covered Ti implants with micro-scale gouges formed by a multi-step treatment for improving osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yixin; Zhou, Rui; Cao, Jianyun; Wei, Daqing; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2017-07-01

    The sub-microporous microarc oxidation (MAO) coating covered Ti implant with micro-scale gouges has been fabricated via a multi-step MAO process to overcome the compromised bone-implant integration. The as-prepared implant has been further mediated by post-heat treatment to compare the effects of -OH functional group and the nano-scale orange peel-like morphology on osseointegration. The bone regeneration, bone-implant contact interface, and biomechanical push-out force of the modified Ti implant have been discussed thoroughly in this work. The greatly improved push-out force for the MAO coated Ti implants with micro-scale gouges could be attributed to the excellent mechanical interlocking effect between implants and biologically meshed bone tissues. Attributed to the -OH functional group which promotes synostosis between the biologically meshed bone and the gouge surface of implant, the multi-step MAO process could be an effective strategy to improve the osseointegration of Ti implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (-1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggiatoa spp., being closely related (up...

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the US consumer form of the short Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT): the Korean consumer form of the short PCAT (KC PCAT) and the Korean standard form of the short PCAT (KS PCAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Yeob

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that countries with well-structured primary care have better health outcomes, better health equity and reduced healthcare costs. This study aimed to culturally modify and validate the US consumer form of the short Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) in primary care in the Republic of Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea). The Korean consumer form of the short PCAT (KC PCAT) was cross-culturally modified from the original version using a standardised transcultural adaptation method. A pre-test version of the KC PCAT was formulated by replacement of four items and modification of a further four items from the 37 items of the original consumer form of the short PCAT at face value evaluation meetings. Pilot testing was done with a convenience sample of 15 responders at two different sites. Test-retest showed high reliability. To validate the KC PCAT, 606 clients participated in a survey carried out in Korea between February and May 2006. Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and factor analysis were conducted in order to test validity. Psychometric testing was carried out on 37 items of the KC PCAT to make the KS PCAT which has 30 items and has seven principal domains: first contact utilisation, first contact accessibility, ongoing accountable care (ongoing care and coordinated rapport care), integrated care (patient-centred care with integration between primary and specialty care or between different specialties), comprehensive care, community-oriented care and culturally-oriented care. Component factors of the verified KS PCAT explained 58.28% of the total variance in the total item scores of primary care. The verified KS PCAT has been characterised by the seven classic domains of primary care with minor modifications. This may provide clues concerning differences in expectations for primary care in the Korean population as compared with that of the US. The KS PCAT is a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of the quality of

  8. 16 CFR 1031.6 - Extent and form of Commission involvement in the development of voluntary standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., engineering support, and information and education programs) and administrative assistance (e.g., travel costs... SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY... goals and objectives with regard to voluntary standards and improved consumer product safety; responding...

  9. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  10. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  11. Adubação nitrogenada para milho com o uso de plantas de cobertura e modos de aplicação de calcário Forms of lime application, cover crops and nitrogen rates in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo José Freitas Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema plantio direto (SPD é uma realidade na região dos Cerrados, mas alguns questionamentos persistem nesse tipo de manejo como o modo de realização da calagem e a dose de nitrogênio (N a ser adotada em cultura comercial, em relação às culturas precedentes. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar modos de aplicar o calcário na implantação do SPD e o efeito de culturas de cobertura precedentes sobre a necessidade de adubação nitrogenada da cultura do milho, durante diferentes anos agrícolas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (modos de aplicação do calcário x culturas de cobertura e posterior divisão em três subparcelas, referentes às doses de N (0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1. Foram avaliados quatro modos de aplicação de calcário: incorporado a 0-0,2 m, em out./2001; dose total em superfície aplicada, em out./2001; aplicação de 1/2 da dose, em out./2001, e 1/2, em ago./2002, na superfície; e aplicação de 1/3 da dose recomendada, em mar./2001, + 1/3, em out./2001, e 1/3, em ago./2002, também em superfície. Além de um tratamento testemunha (sem calcário e duas culturas de cobertura, crotalária e milheto. Os diferentes modos de calagem não alteraram a produtividade de grãos de milho. O cultivo de milho após crotalária apresentou melhor desempenho e menor demanda de adubação nitrogenada, quando comparado ao cultivado após milheto.The no-tillage (NT management is widely used in the Cerrado region, but some questions remain unanswered, for example about the need of liming and adequate nitrogen rates for commercial crops when preceded by cover crops. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of precedent cover crops on the maize demand for nitrogen fertilization and forms of liming preceding the adoption of no-tillage management (NT in different growing seasons. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block factorial design 5 x 2 (liming forms x cover crops and

  12. Patient Recall of Informed Consent at 4 Weeks After Total Hip Replacement With Standardized Versus Procedure-Specific Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Eoghan; Shaarani, Shahril; Kenyon, Robert; Cashman, James

    2017-08-25

    Informed consent plays a pivotal role in the operative process, and surgeons have an ethical and legal obligation to provide patients with information to allow for shared decision-making. Unfortunately, patient recall after the consent process is frequently poor. This study aims to evaluate the effect of procedure-specific consent forms on patient's recall four weeks after total hip replacement (THR). This is a prospective study using a posttest-only control group design. Sixty adult patients undergoing total hip replacement were allocated to be consented using either the generic or the surgery-specific consent form. Four weeks after surgery, a phone interview was conducted to assess patient's recall of risk of surgical complications. Patient demographic characteristics and educational attainment were similar in both groups. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean number of risks recalled in the study group at 1.43 compared with 0.67 in the control group (P = 0.0131). Consent is a complex process, and obtaining informed consent is far from straightforward. A statistically significant improvement in patient's recall with the use of procedure-specific consent forms was identified, and based on this, we would advocate their use. However, overall patient recall in both groups was poor. We believe that improving the quality of informed consent may require the sum of small gains, and the use of procedure-specific consent forms may aid in this regard.

  13. The MMPI-2-Restructured Form and the Standard MMPI-2 Clinical Scales in Relation to DSM-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.T. van der; Egger, J.I.M.; Rossi, G.M.P.; Grundel, G.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    In a Dutch sample of psychiatric outpatients (N = 94), we linked the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al., 2001) Clinical scales and MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) Higher-Order (H-O) scales, Restructured Clinical (RC) scales and

  14. Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive waste forms (International Standard Publication ISO 6961:1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processes are developed for the immobilization of radionuclides by solidification of radioactive wastes. The resulting solidification products are characterized by strong resistance to leaching aimed at low release rates of the radionuclides to the environment. To measure this resistance to leaching of the solidified materials: glass, glass-ceramics, bitumen, cement, concrete, plastics, a long-term leach test is presented. The long-term leach test is aimed at: a) the comparison of different kinds or compositions of solidified waste forms; b) the intercomparison between leach test results from different laboratories on one product; c) the intercomparison between leach test results on products from different processes

  15. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches and 1.2g (permanent grass cover of set-aside in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the monitoring carried out in three hilly farms of the MONACO project in order to verify the effectiveness of the Standard 1.1 (commitment a (temporary ditches and Standard 1.2 (commitment g (Vegetation cover throughout the year in set-aside land in the reduction in soil erosion, contained in Rule 1: ‘minimum land management that meets specific conditions’ of the decree Mipaaf 2009 and following modifications, until the recent decree No. 180 of January 23, 2015. In addition, the assessment of the competitiveness gap was done. That is the evaluation of the additional costs borne by the beneficiary of the single payment determined from agronomic commitments. Monitoring has also compared the erosion actually observed in the field with that predicted by RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Renard et al., 1997 in the two situations: with and without the presence of temporary ditches, i.e. assuming Factual (compliance rules and in that Counterfactual (infringement. This comparison was made in view of the fact that the RUSLE model was chosen by the 'European Evaluation Network for Rural Development (EEN, 2013 as a forecasting tool for the quantification of' Common Indicator ‘soil erosion by water’. The results of soil erosion survey carried out by using a new  UAV-GIS methodology  on two monitoring farms in two years of observations have shown that temporary ditches were effective in decreasing erosion, on average, by 42.5%, from 36. 59 t ha-1 to 21.05 t ha-1 during the monitoring period. It was also evaluated the effectiveness of grass strips (at variance with the commitment of temporary ditches. The results showed a strong, highly significant, reduction in erosion by about 35% times respect soil erosion observed in bare soil and also a significant reduction in the volume of runoff water.  With regard to Standard 1.2 (commitment g the statistical analysis shows a strong and highly significant

  16. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  17. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  18. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  19. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  1. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  2. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  3. 75 FR 54232 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Importers (Form-8947) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form-8947, Report of Covered Pharmaceutical...: Title: Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Importers. OMB Number: 1545-XXXX. Form Number...

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  5. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  6. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  7. Development and inter-rater reliability of a standardized verbal instruction manual for the Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale-short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M T P; Ho, T P; Ho, M Y; Yu, C S; Wong, Y H; Lee, S Y

    2002-05-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a common screening tool for elderly depression in Hong Kong. This study aimed at (1) developing a standardized manual for the verbal administration and scoring of the GDS-SF, and (2) comparing the inter-rater reliability between the standardized and non-standardized verbal administration of GDS-SF. Two studies were reported. In Study 1, the process of developing the manual was described. In Study 2, we compared the inter-rater reliabilities of GDS-SF scores using the standardized verbal instructions and the traditional non-standardized administration. Results of Study 2 indicated that the standardized procedure in verbal administration and scoring improved the inter-rater reliabilities of GDS-SF. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  12. Standards to open and interoperable digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Sayão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability is one of the main issues in creating a networked system of digital libraries. However, the interoperability as the way to accomplish data exchange and service collaboration requires adoption of a set of open standards covering all digital repository processes. The aim of this document is to revise the most important standards, protocols and the best pratices that form the framework to an open and fully interoperable digital library.

  13. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  14. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  15. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  16. Variation in standards of research compensation and child assent practices: a comparison of 69 institutional review board-approved informed permission and assent forms for 3 multicenter pediatric clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, Michael B; Hoehn, K Sarah; Feudtner, Chris; Nelson, Robert M; Schreiner, Mark

    2006-05-01

    To systematically compare standards for compensation and child participant assent in informed permission, assent, and consent forms (IP-A-CFs) approved by 55 local institutional review boards (IRBs) reviewing 3 standardized multicenter research protocols. Sixty-nine principal investigators participating in any of 3 national, multicenter clinical trials submitted standardized research protocols for their trials to their local IRBs for approval. Copies of the subsequently IRB-approved IP-A-CFs were then forwarded to an academic clinical research organization. This collection of IRB-approved forms allowed for a quasiexperimental retrospective evaluation of the variation in informed permission, assent, and consent standards operationalized by the local IRBs. Standards for compensation and child participant assent varied substantially across 69 IRB-approved IP-A-CFs. Among the 48 IP-A-CFs offering compensation, monetary compensation was offered by 33 as reimbursement for travel, parking, or food expenses, whereas monetary or material compensation was offered by 22 for subject inconvenience and by 13 for subject time. Compensation ranged widely within and across studies (study 1, $180-1425; study 2, $0-500; and study 3, $0-100). Regarding child participant assent, among the 57 IP-A-CFs that included a form of assent documentation, 33 included a line for assent on the informed permission or consent form, whereas 35 included a separate form written in simplified language. Of the IP-A-CFs that stipulated the documentation of assent, 31 specified > or =1 age ranges for obtaining assent. Informed permission or consent forms were addressed either to parents or child participants. In response to identical clinical trial protocols, local IRBs generate IP-A-CFs that vary considerably regarding compensation and child participant assent.

  17. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  18. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  19. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  20. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  1. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production methodology was applied. Thirty land cover classes were discerned. Most extended land cover types were pastures (231), arable land (211) and complex cultivation patterns (242). Between 1986 and 2000 aroun...

  3. A mercury programme (autocode programme 5675) for transforming data on the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons to one standard form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.C.

    1964-04-01

    Data on the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons are reported in one or another of a variety of different forms. The Mercury autocode programme 5675 transforms the data into a tabular representation of the form (cosθ, p (cosθ)) where p(cosθ) is the normalised probability distribution and θ is the scattering angle in the centre of mass frame of reference. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K.A.E.A. nuclear data library is optional. (author)

  4. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  5. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  6. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  7. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  8. A clearer view of the insect brain – combining bleaching with standard whole-mount immunocytochemistry allows confocal imaging of pigment-covered brain areas for 3D reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Stöckl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of insect neuroanatomy, three-dimensional reconstructions of neurons and neuropils have become a standard technique. As images have to be obtained from whole-mount brain preparations, pigmentation on the brain surface poses a serious challenge to imaging. In insects, this is a major problematic in the first visual neuropil of the optic lobe, the lamina, which is obstructed by the pigment of the retina as well as by the pigmented fenestration layer. This has prevented inclusion of this major processing center of the insect visual system into most neuroanatomical brain atlases and hinders imaging of neurons within the lamina by confocal microscopy. It has recently been shown that hydrogen peroxide bleaching is compatible with immunohistochemical labeling in insect brains, and we therefore developed a simple technique for removal of pigments on the surface of insect brains by chemical bleaching. We show that our technique enables imaging of the pigment-obstructed regions of insect brains when combined with standard protocols for both anti-synapsin-labeled as well as neurobiotin-injected samples. This method can be combined with different fixation procedures, as well as different fluorophore excitation wavelengths without negative effects on staining quality. It can therefore serve as an effective addition to most standard histology protocols used in insect neuroanatomy.

  9. Identification of different shapes, colors and sizes of standard oral dosage forms in diabetes type 2 patients-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven; Riedl, Regina; Sourij, Harald

    2017-01-30

    The clear identification of drug products by the patients is essential for a safe and effective medication management. In order to understand the impact of shape, size and color on medication identification a study was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ten model drugs differentiated by shape, size and color were evaluated using a mixed method of medication schedule preparation by the participants followed by a semi-structured interview. Detection times were fastest for the large round tablet shape and the bi-chromatic forms. Larger size was easier to identify than the smaller sizes except for the bi-chromatic forms. The shape was the major source of errors, followed by the size and the color dimension. The results from this study suggests that color as a single dimension are perceived more effectively by subjects with T2D compared to shape and size, which requires a more demanding processing of three dimension and is dependent on the perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Specifies of the formed fast cover silica diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorban A. N.,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have investigated the dependence of the current recovery time trr on the diode structures annealing parameters after irradiation by electrons е– with the energy of 4 and 10 MeV, and the fluence of 6•1015 and 8•1014 cm–2, respectively. Diodes with minimal time trr and maximum shape factor of the reduction current Krr are obtained by annealing of structures after irradiation by е– with the energy of 4 MeV and fluence 6•1015 cm–2. Time trr decreases with the increase of ratio of recombination centers concentration with energy level E3(0,37 to the concentration of other defects. At the same time, for silicon, doped with transmutation nuclear reactions, it is necessary to increase the annealing temperature as compared with the silicon, produced by the Czochralski method and zone melting method.

  11. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  12. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  13. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  14. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  15. Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1999-01-01

    This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

  16. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    T he algebra of congruences is easy to construct, as the congruence sym ... possess solutions; the form er congruence has solutions x ´ § 1 (m od 3),the ... for this habit of his! An easily proved ..... ing the summer break of 2006. I would also like ...

  17. Res Cover Aug 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the von N eum ann m odel,program s and data reside in ... larger boxes. In its purest form , data in a functional program °ows ... T he basic types in H askellcorrespond to those in m any .... instance, for values of type Bool, the operator && de-.

  18. Object-Based Mapping of the Circumpolar Taiga-Tundra Ecotone with MODIS Tree Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K. J.; Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R.

    2011-01-01

    The circumpolar taiga tundra ecotone was delineated using an image-segmentation-based mapping approach with multi-annual MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover data. Circumpolar tree canopy cover (TCC) throughout the ecotone was derived by averaging MODIS VCF data from 2000 to 2005 and adjusting the averaged values using linear equations relating MODIS TCC to Quickbird-derived tree cover estimates. The adjustment helped mitigate VCF's overestimation of tree cover in lightly forested regions. An image segmentation procedure was used to group pixels representing similar tree cover into polygonal features (segmentation objects) that form the map of the transition zone. Each polygon represents an area much larger than the 500 m MODIS pixel and characterizes the patterns of sparse forest patches on a regional scale. Those polygons near the boreal/tundra interface with either (1) mean adjusted TCC values from5 to 20%, or (2) mean adjusted TCC values greater than 5% but with a standard deviation less than 5% were used to identify the ecotone. Comparisons of the adjusted average tree cover data were made with (1) two existing tree line definitions aggregated for each 1 degree longitudinal interval in North America and Eurasia, (2) Landsat-derived Canadian proportion of forest cover for Canada, and (3) with canopy cover estimates extracted from airborne profiling lidar data that transected 1238 of the TCC polygons. The adjusted TCC from MODIS VCF shows, on average, less than 12% TCC for all but one regional zone at the intersection with independently delineated tree lines. Adjusted values track closely with Canadian proportion of forest cover data in areas of low tree cover. A comparison of the 1238 TCC polygons with profiling lidar measurements yielded an overall accuracy of 67.7%.

  19. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Buying a franchise is a complex investment. The information in this disclosure document can help you make up your mind. More information on franchising, such as “A Consumer's Guide to Buying a Franchise... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in...

  20. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  1. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  2. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  3. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lontok

    Full Text Available Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  4. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  5. Science on form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Shozo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Takaki, Ryuji; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to discuss interdisciplinal science aspects of form. 'Form' depends on the material and the changes. But, it is the form that appears evident at once and endures. Form is absorbed from every field as media of information. One part of the work covers the description of non-periodic phenomena, morphogenesis or evolution. Irreducible stubborn facts as diseases or social problems, or whatever else that could not be analyzed are integrally challenged to be systematized by computer simulation. The other part covers the finding of laws for determining how systems behave. Attention should be paid to pattern recognition, image processing and pattern formation. The Symposium proceeded with no parallel sessions, and participants from various fields made exciting discussions in an interdisciplinal atmosphere. (Auth.)

  6. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  7. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  8. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  9. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  10. Covering of the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    In this article it is sought to deepen more in the topic of the covering of the electric power service, especially in the related with the mechanisms that could facilitate their amplification. In the new market outline, in the one that the participation of the agents is encouraged in all the activities of the chain of services in which the state is not direct lender of the same one, it is confused the form like a covering will be achieved that is of agreement with the goals that intend in the national plan of development and in the sub sectorial plans. Although the rules of the market one comes consolidating, the process of linking of the private capital, especially in the distribution activity, it evidences the importance of to settle down and to define responsibilities and explicit mechanisms in the topic of expansion of the covering. A first interpretation of the ruled indicates the obligation of the state of extending the covering to 100% and of assuming the projects that don't undertake the matters. This would be the reading from the traditional mentality. However, the regulation of you public services of electricity don't demand a total covering, but rather it covers to the users that have the capacity to assume, with their own resources, the efficient costs of benefit. The service will also be lent to residential users that don't have payment capacity, when there are contribution resources or fiscal resources for subsidiary

  11. Covering the Standards: Astronomy Teachers' Preparation and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Zahm, Valerie M.

    2010-01-01

    An online survey of science teachers and interviews with curriculum directors were used to investigate the coverage of astronomy in middle and high schools in the greater Philadelphia region. Our analysis looked beyond astronomy elective courses to uncover all sources of astronomy education in secondary schools. We focused on coverage of state…

  12. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  13. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  14. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  15. Integration of multiple, excess, backup, and expected covering models

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; K Hogan; C ReVelle

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of multiple, excess, backup, and expected coverage are defined. Model formulations using these constructs are reviewed and contrasted to illustrate the relationships between them. Several new formulations are presented as is a new derivation of the expected covering model which indicates more clearly the relationship of the model to other multi-state covering models. An expected covering model with multiple time standards is also presented.

  16. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production

  17. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    All uses of HTML forms may benefit from validation of the specified input field values. Simple validation matches individual values against specified formats, while more advanced validation may involve interdependencies of form fields. There is currently no standard for specifying or implementing...

  18. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  19. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  20. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  1. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  2. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  3. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  4. Natural analogs of the long-term performance of engineered covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.; Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The unprecedented legislative demand that in-situ waste-disposal facilities effectively persist indefinitely requires a performance assessment approach that exceeds standard engineering practices and incorporates possible long-term changes in site hydrology, geology, and ecology. Even in relatively arid regions, over time, buried waste will be vulnerable to transport via rainwater percolation, gas diffusion, erosion, and intrusion by plant roots, burrowing animals, and humans. Standard models and field tests of engineered covers designed to impede these pathways implicitly and erroneously assume that initial conditions of many key determinants will persist indefinitely. Evidence from natural, archaeological, and engineered analogs is needed (1) to identify and understand emergent system attributes that cannot be captured with computer models or short-term experiments, and (2) to develop modeling and field tests that reasonably bound possible future changes in waste-site environments. Analogs of local responses to future global climate change exist as proxy ecological and archaeological records of similar paleoclimates. Future pedogenic influences can be inferred form measurements of key soil properties in natural and archaeological soil profiles analogous to engineered covers. Many cover designs depend on water extraction by plants. Influences of vegetation change can be inferred by measuring water extraction parameters in plant communities representing successional chronosequences. Habitats similar to those created on waste sites provide evidence of the potential for biological intrusion. Recent and ancient man-made structures provide evidence of the future stability of waste-site covers and of features that may discourage human intrusion. 108 refs., 4 figs

  5. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  6. A compiler for variational forms

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Robert C.; Logg, Anders

    2011-01-01

    As a key step towards a complete automation of the finite element method, we present a new algorithm for automatic and efficient evaluation of multilinear variational forms. The algorithm has been implemented in the form of a compiler, the FEniCS Form Compiler FFC. We present benchmark results for a series of standard variational forms, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and linear elasticity. The speedup compared to the standard quadrature-based approach is impressive; in s...

  7. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  8. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  9. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  11. Environmental monitoring standardization of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mili

    1993-01-01

    China has established some environmental monitoring standards of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Up to date 33 standards have been issued; 10 to be issued; 11 in drafting. These standards cover sampling, gross activities measurement, analytical methods and management rules and so on. They involve with almost all nuclear fuel cycle facilities and have formed a complete standards system. By the end of the century, we attempt to draft a series of analytical and determination standards in various environmental various medium, they include 36 radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (3 tabs.)

  12. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  13. Physical forms of MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  14. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  15. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  16. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  17. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, C K; Abdullah, K; MatJafri, M Z; Lim, H S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  18. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  19. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  20. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  1. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  2. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  3. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  4. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    The Taylor coefficients of weight k Eisenstein series wrt. SL2(Z) are related to values of L-functions for Hecke characters in the point k. We show some congruences for Taylor coefficients of Eisenstein series of weight 4 and 6 and use them to establish congruences for values of L......-functions for Hecke characters in the points 4 and 6. It is well known, that all zeros of the Eisenstein series Ek wrt. SL2(Z) in the standard fundamental domain has modulus 1. We show that this is also true for #n Ek, where # is a certain differential operator. We then proceed to study logarithms of multiplier...

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  7. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  8. Influence of cover defects on the attenuation of radon with earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical evaluations of radon flux through laboratory-scale defective soil columns are presented together with a survey of literature on the formation and prevention of defects in soil covers. This report focuses on air-filled, centimeter-scale defects that are most probable in earthen covers for attenuating radon emission from uranium-mill tailings. Examples include shirnkage and erosion cracks, erosion piping, animal burrows and air channels formed by the biodegradation of vegetation roots. Calculations based on mathematical models indicate that collections of defects which could increase the radon flux from an earthen cover by a factor of two would be easily detected by visual inspection. However, these models ignore air-turbulence in the defect and drying of the soil around the defect. Laboratory measurements showed that turbulent diffusion of radon occurred through defects as narrow as 0.3 cm when subjected to a transverse air velocity of 1 to 6 miles per hour at the surface. Both turbulence and more-rapid drying of soil can accelerate radon flux to the cover surface. Consequently, recommended methods to inhibit defect formation should be applied. 29 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  9. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  10. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  11. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroulard, M.G.

    2007-04-01

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  12. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  13. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  14. Braids and coverings selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1989-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course taught by the author at the University of Maryland, USA. The lecture notes have been revised and augmented by examples. The work falls into two strands. The first two chapters develop the elementary theory of Artin Braid groups both geometrically and via homotopy theory, and discuss the link between knot theory and the combinatorics of braid groups through Markov's Theorem. The final two chapters give a detailed investigation of polynomial covering maps, which may be viewed as a homomorphism of the fundamental group of the base space into the Artin braid

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Transvision: A light transmission measurement system for greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: For determining the optical performance of greenhouse covering materials other than standard float glass the current Dutch NEN 2675 norm is no longer appropriate. The emergence of a new generation of materials (diffuse, layered) resulted in a new measuring protocol developed by TNO and

  17. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  18. PROTECTIVELY COVERED ARTICLE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plott, R.F.

    1958-10-28

    A method of casting a protective jacket about a ura nium fuel element that will bond completely to the uranium without the use of stringers or supports that would ordinarily produce gaps in the cast metal coating and bond is presented. Preformed endcaps of alumlnum alloyed with 13% silicon are placed on the ends of the uranium fuel element. These caps will support the fuel element when placed in a mold. The mold is kept at a ing alloy but below that of uranium so the cast metal jacket will fuse with the endcaps forming a complete covering and bond to the fuel element, which would otherwise oxidize at the gaps or discontinuities lefi in the coating by previous casting methods.

  19. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Front Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards CHAPTER 4: Pulse Code Modulation Standards CHAPTER 5: Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard CHAPTER 6...Transfer Standard Chapter 9, Appendix 9-A Appendix I, Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard Cover Sheet Chapter 9, Appendix 9-B Telemetry Standards...Derived Parameter Specification Chapter 9, Appendix 9-E Appendix Q, Extended Binary Golay Code Chapter 7, Appendix 7-A Appendix R, Low-Density Parity

  20. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  1. Conceptual Foundations of Improving the Living Standards of Territorial Community Based on the Introduction and Development of New Forms of Innovation and Investment Cooperation Between Regional Authorities and the Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadynets, V.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions have been formulated for elaboration, implementation and development of the regional target programs based on new methodological and financial resources and realization of sales of the most significant products of regional companies and organizations for the sustainable improvement of the local community living standards.

  2. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  3. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  4. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  5. Enhanced Cover Assessment Project:Soil Manipulation and Revegetation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W. Joseph [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Albright, Dr. Bill [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Benson, Dr. Craig [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating methods to enhance natural changes that are essentially converting conventional disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings into water balance covers. Conventional covers rely on a layer of compacted clayey soil to limit exhalation of radon gas and percolation of rainwater. Water balance covers rely on a less compacted soil “sponge” to store rainwater, and on soil evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration) to remove stored water and thereby limit percolation. Over time, natural soil-forming and ecological processes are changing conventional covers by increasing hydraulic conductivity, loosening compaction, and increasing evapotranspiration. The rock armor on conventional covers creates a favorable habitat for vegetation by slowing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping dust and organic matter, thereby providing the water and nutrients needed for plant germination, survival, and sustainable transpiration. Goals and Objectives Our overall goal is to determine if allowing or enhancing these natural changes could improve cover performance and reduce maintenance costs over the long term. This test pad study focuses on cover soil hydrology and ecology. Companion studies are evaluating effects of natural and enhanced changes in covers on radon attenuation, erosion, and biointrusion. We constructed a test cover at the Grand Junction disposal site to evaluate soil manipulation and revegetation methods. The engineering design, construction, and properties of the test cover match the upper three layers of the nearby disposal cell cover: a 1-foot armoring of rock riprap, a 6-inch bedding layer of coarse sand and gravel, and a 2-foot protection layer of compacted fine soil. The test cover does not have a radon barrier—cover enhancement tests leave the radon barrier intact. We tested furrowing and ripping as means for creating depressions parallel to the slope

  6. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  7. Moessbauer Study of Discoloration of Synthetic Resin Covered Electric Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Muzsay, I.; Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A.

    2002-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate brown discoloration and sediments formed on the surface of synthetic resin product covered electronic switches. The Moessbauer measurement revealed that alloyed steels and iron-containing corrosion products are associated with the discolored layers. Iron, and iron corrosion products were shown by both MS and XRD in the sediments formed eventually during the finishing of the synthetic resin products after machining and washing with water solution.

  8. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  9. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  10. 27 CFR 73.10 - What does subpart B cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.10 Section 73.10 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.10 What does subpart B cover? This subpart provides the...

  11. 27 CFR 73.30 - What does subpart C cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.30 Section 73.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.30 What does subpart C cover? This subpart...

  12. Print and supply of envelopes and file covers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    “Tender for Supply of Printed Envelopes and File Covers". Tender ... Twenty Five Thousand Only) in the form of Demand Draft drawn on any Nationalized. Bank and .... m) The finalized contract shall be interpreted under Indian Laws. In case of ...

  13. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  14. PARAMETRIC INSURANCE COVER FOR NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Margulescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With economic losses of over USD 370 bn caused by 325 catastrophic events, 2011 ranks as the worst ever year in terms of costs to society due to natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. Inthe same time, 2011 is the second most expensive year in the history for the insurance industry, with insured losses from catastrophic events amounting to USD 116 bn. Both the high level of damages and insured losses, as well as the unprecedented gap between the two values, made insurers and reinsurers worldwide to understand that some risks had so far been underestimated and they have to be better integrated in the catastrophes modelling.On the other hand, governments have to protect themselves against the financial impact of natural catastrophes and new forms of cooperation between the public and private sectors can help countries finance disaster risks. Viewed in a country’s wider risk management context, the purchase of parametric insurance cover, which transfers natural catastrophe risk to the private sector using an index- based trigger, is a necessary shift towards a pre-emptive risk management strategy. This kind of approach can be pursued by central governments or at the level of provincial or municipal governments, and a number of case studies included in the publication “Closing the financial gap” by Swiss Re (2011 illustrates how new forms of parametric insurance can help countries finance disaster risks.

  15. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  16. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  17. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  18. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  19. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  20. Statistical Monitoring of Changes to Land Cover

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Accurate detection of changes in land cover leads to better understanding of the dynamics of landscapes. This letter reports the development of a reliable approach to detecting changes in land cover based on remote sensing and radiometric data

  1. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  2. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  3. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  4. Pós-colheita de pêssegos (Prunus pérsica L. Bastsch revestidos com filmes a base de amido como alternativa à cera comercial Postharvest of peaches (Prunus persica L. Bastsch covered with film-forming of cassava starch as alternative to the commercial wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvares de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou prolongar a conservação póscolheita de pêssegos, armazenando-os à temperatura ambiente. Inicialmente selecionou-se uma microemulsão à base de fécula de mandioca e cera de abelha. Posteriormente ela foi testada, aplicando-a na superfície dos frutos em comparação com "Fruit wax" (cera comercial, com o intuito de se verificar o efeito dos diferentes tratamentos na composição química, física e físico-química dos mesmos. Utilizaram-se pêssegos 'Biuti' colhidos manualmente em 14/01/1999, ao atingirem o ponto de maturação fisiológica. Do lote colhido foram selecionados 120 frutos sendo os mesmos analisados quanto a perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, textura, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH, a cada 3 dias. Os frutos receberam os tratamentos: Testemunha, "Fruit Wax", Fécula e Microemulsão. Os tratamentos "Fruit Wax" e "Microemulsão" proporcionaram melhor eficiência em relação à perda de massa fresca que os frutos dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula. Quanto à taxa de respiração, verificou-se picos da ordem de 40mg de CO2.kg-1.h-1 . Quanto aos açúcares, verificou-se que a sacarose foi o açúcar encontrado em maior quantidade, com apenas traços de glicose e frutose em algumas amostras. Quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, os frutos tratados com "Fruit Wax" apresentaram valores inferiores aos do tratamento Testemunha. O efeito da Microemulsão mostrou-se similar ao da cera "Fruit Wax" em todos os atributos e, superior ao dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula na redução da perda de massa fresca.The main objective of this work was to prolong the shelf life of peaches at ambient conditions. Initially, the studies were to get a film forming of cassava starch and bee wax with similar properties of commercial waxes. The second pass was apply in the surface of the fruits, commercial wax (" Fruit wax" or film-forming of cassava starch and bee wax. The

  5. Climatological determinants of woody cover in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence the distribution of woody vegetation cover and resolving the sensitivity of woody vegetation cover to shifts in environmental forcing are critical steps necessary to predict continental-scale responses of dryland ecosystems to climate change. We use a 6-year satellite data record of fractional woody vegetation cover and an 11-year daily precipitation record to investigate the climatological controls on woody vegetation cover across the African continent....

  6. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  7. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree; E. Gregory McPherson; Susan M. Sisinni; Esther R. Kirkmann; Jack C. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of city tree cover can aid in urban vegetation planning, management, and research by revealing characteristics of vegetation across a city. Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California, to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two important factors that affect the amount of urban tree cover are the natural environment and land...

  8. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  9. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  10. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  11. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  12. A NEW HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR VERTEX COVER PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    UĞURLU, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The minimum vertex cover  problem belongs to the  class  of  NP-compl ete  graph  theoretical problems. This paper presents a hybrid genetic algorithm to solve minimum ver tex cover problem. In this paper, it has been shown that when local optimization technique is added t o genetic algorithm to form hybrid genetic algorithm, it gives more quality solution than simple genet ic algorithm. Also, anew mutation operator has been developed especially for minimum verte...

  13. The national standards program for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 a standards committee called ANS-15 was established by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) to prepare appropriate standards for research reactors. In addition, ANS acts as Secretariat for a national standards committee N17 which is responsible to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for the national consensus efforts for standards related to research reactors. To date ANS-15 has completed or is working on 14 standards covering all aspects of the operation of research reactors. Of the 11 research reactor standards submitted to the ANSI N17 Committee since its inception, six have been issued as National standards, and the remaining are still in the process of review. (author)

  14. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  15. Forming engineers' sociocultural competence: Engineering ethics at tomsk polytechnic university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, E.; Dulzon, A.; Schwab, A.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to discuss Tomsk Polytechnic University in respect of forming engineers’ sociocultural competence and teaching engineering ethics. Today international standards of training engineers cover efficient communication skills, ability to understand societal and environment context, professional and ethical responsibility. This article deals with the problem of contradiction between the need to form engineers’ sociocultural competence in Russian higher education institutions in order to meet the requirements of international accreditation organizations and the real capabilities of existing engineering curricula. We have described ethics teaching experience of TPU, studied the engineering master programs of TPU to see how the planned results are achieved. We have also given our recommendations to alter the structure of TPU educational curricula, which can also be applied in other higher education institutions.

  16. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  17. Contrast of Korean industrial standard and overseas standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    2006-12-01

    This book introduces Korean Industrial Standard and Overseas Standard, which deals with furniture, plasticizers, valcaning agents, gaskets, steel pipes and tubes. It covers wooden furniture for offices, washing dresser, children crib, chairs and desks for students, chairs and desks made from synthetic resins, tricresyl phosphate, dibutyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, phtalic acid dieptil, V packing, vulcanization accelerator CBS(CZ), vulcanization accelerator MBT(M), vulcanization accelerator Zn BDC, steel pipe for heating furnace and carbon steel pope for high voltage piping.

  18. Standards for Education Reporters: Skills, Knowledge, Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Experienced school reporters know plenty about standards. The struggle to set standards that define what students should know and be able to do at various stages of their education has been at the heart of school reform since the late 1980s. So if journalists are going to understand the value of standards, it will be those covering schools. It is…

  19. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  20. Fluorine-enhanced low-temperature wafer bonding of native-oxide covered Si wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Q.-Y.; Gan, Q.; Fountain, G.; Enquist, P.; Scholz, R.; Gösele, U.

    2004-10-01

    The bonding energy of bonded native-oxide-covered silicon wafers treated in the HNO3/H2O/HF or the HNO3/HF solution prior to room-temperature contact is significantly higher than bonded standard RCA1 cleaned wafer pairs after low-temperature annealing. The bonding energy reaches over 2000mJ/m2 after annealing at 100 °C. The very slight etching and fluorine in the chemically grown oxide are believed to be the main contributors to the enhanced bonding energy. Transmission-electron-microscopic images have shown that the chemically formed native oxide at bonding interface is embedded with many flake-like cavities. The cavities can absorb the by-products of the interfacial reactions that result in covalent bond formation at low temperatures allowing the strong bond to be retained.

  1. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  2. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  3. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  4. Cover estimation and payload location using Markov random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-02-01

    Payload location is an approach to find the message bits hidden in steganographic images, but not necessarily their logical order. Its success relies primarily on the accuracy of the underlying cover estimators and can be improved if more estimators are used. This paper presents an approach based on Markov random field to estimate the cover image given a stego image. It uses pairwise constraints to capture the natural two-dimensional statistics of cover images and forms a basis for more sophisticated models. Experimental results show that it is competitive against current state-of-the-art estimators and can locate payload embedded by simple LSB steganography and group-parity steganography. Furthermore, when combined with existing estimators, payload location accuracy improves significantly.

  5. Self-stabilizing Synchronization in Mobile Sensor Networks with Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauquier, Joffroy; Burman, Janna

    Synchronization is widely considered as an important service in distributed systems which may simplify protocol design. Phase clock is a general synchronization tool that provides a form of a logical time. This paper presents a self-stabilizing (a tolerating state-corrupting transient faults) phase clock algorithm suited to the model of population protocols with covering. This model has been proposed recently for sensor networks with a very large, possibly unknown number of anonymous mobile agents having small memory. Agents interact in pairs in an asynchronous way subject to the constraints expressed in terms of the cover times of agents. The cover time expresses the "frequency" of an agent to communicate with all the others and abstracts agent's communication characteristics (e.g. moving speed/patterns, transmitting/receiving capabilities). We show that a phase clock is impossible in the model with only constant-state agents. Hence, we assume an existence of resource-unlimited agent - the base station.

  6. Effect of freezing and thawing on UMTRA covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rager, R.; Smith, G.; Brody, R.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapor exiting the embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration. The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce seepage from the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Analyses of infiltration barriers covered with rock erosion protection show that the infiltration barriers may become saturated. Accordingly, it is necessary to assure that freezing and thawing of the infiltration barrier materials do not affect the performance of the embankment. A study has been conducted to determine if the hydraulic conductivity of fine-grained clayey soils used or proposed for use in radon/infiltration barriers is affected by repeated freezing and thawing cycles. In addition, a procedure for determining the depth of frost penetration has been developed. Laboratory freeze-thaw tests were undertaken in order to determine if the saturated hydraulic conductivity of clay soils used in UMTRA Project radon/infiltration barriers was affected. The results indicate that an increase of an order of magnitude or more in saturated hydraulic conductivity may occur during repeated freeze-thaw cycles

  7. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased

  8. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  9. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  10. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) High Resolution Land Cover and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized high resolution land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S....

  18. 49 CFR 192.901 - What do the regulations in this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... pipeline covered under this part. For gas transmission pipelines constructed of plastic, only the...

  19. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  20. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  1. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  2. Practical support for Lean Six Sigma software process definition using IEEE software engineering standards

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Susan K; Walz, John W

    2012-01-01

    Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo

  3. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Office 37 CFR Part 42 Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents--Definitions of Covered... Business Method Patents-- Definitions of Covered Business Method Patent and Technological Invention AGENCY... forth in detail the definitions of the terms ``covered business method patent'' and ``technological...

  4. DIN 51003: the standard of TXRF basics and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the world-wide effort to standardize analytical methods, a team of TXRF users has elaborated the draft of a new DIN standard (German Industry Standard) on basic terms and definitions related to TXRF analysis. This draft ('yellow-print') is now open for discussion, and its structure and principal contents will be presented here. The new standard is subdivided into the following subjects: introduction, scope of application and normative remarks; general terms (in x-ray spectroscopy); physics, of TXRF; x-ray sources; conditioning of the primary x-ray beam; measurement of x-ray fluorescence with energy-dispersive spectrometers; samples; measurement and evaluation of data; traceability; applications of TXRF. The more important items will be discussed in the present paper. It should be pointed out that this standard is meant primarily to give a common basis for physical terms and general denotations to be used in TXRF analysis, i.e. it does not include specific working prescriptions for analytical tasks. However, such prescriptions will be given - in a more generalized form - in a number of appendices to the main document, thus covering the major fields of application of TXRF. In order to enable acceptance of the standard on an international basis, an ISO standard is also in preparation. (author)

  5. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  6. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  7. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  8. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  9. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  10. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  11. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  12. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  13. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  14. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  15. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor

    1998-01-01

    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  16. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  17. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  18. 19 CFR 212.03 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 212.03 Section 212.03 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 212.03 Proceedings covered. (a) The Act...

  19. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section 633.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the...

  20. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For purpose of these regulations, the following terms are hereby defined. (1) Mail cover is the... criminal law. (3) When time is of the essence, the Chief Postal Inspector, or designee, may act upon an... furnish information as defined in § 233.3(c)(1) to any person, except as authorized by a mail cover order...

  1. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  2. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

  3. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  4. Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: a nonparametric classification tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yen

    2014-01-01

    A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole to allow traffic to pass over the manhole and to prevent people from falling in. Because most manhole covers are placed in roadway traffic lanes, if these manhole covers are not appropriately installed or maintained, they can represent unexpected hazards on the road, especially for motorcycle drivers. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of manhole cover characteristics as well as driver factors and traffic and roadway conditions on motorcycle driver maneuvers. A video camera was used to record motorcycle drivers' maneuvers when they encountered an inappropriately installed or maintained manhole cover. Information on 3059 drivers' maneuver decisions was recorded. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were applied to explore factors that can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers when passing a manhole cover. Nearly 50 percent of the motorcycle drivers decelerated or changed their driving path to reduce the effects of the manhole cover. The manhole cover characteristics including the level difference between manhole cover and pavement, the pavement condition over the manhole cover, and the size of the manhole cover can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers. Other factors, including traffic conditions, lane width, motorcycle speed, and loading conditions, also have significant effects on motorcycle driver maneuvers. To reduce the effects and potential risks from the manhole covers, highway authorities not only need to make sure that any newly installed manhole covers are as level as possible but also need to regularly maintain all the manhole covers to ensure that they are in good condition. In the long run, the size of manhole covers should be kept as small as possible so that the impact of manhole covers on motorcycle drivers can be effectively reduced. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher

  5. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  6. Guide for In-Place Treatment of Covered and Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Grant Kirker; Robert White; Terry Amburgey; H. Michael Barnes; Michael Sanders; Jeff Morrell

    2012-01-01

    Historic covered bridges and current timber bridges can be vulnerable to damage from biodeterioration or fire. This guide describes procedures for selecting and applying in-place treatments to prevent or arrest these forms of degradation. Vulnerable areas for biodeterioration in covered bridges include members contacting abutments, members near the ends of bridges...

  7. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements covering... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-06 Financial statements covering a period of nine...

  8. Case study of a full-scale evapotranspiration cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick E.; Andraski, Brian J.; Archibald, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance analyses of a 6.1ha evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover at the semiarid U.S. Army Fort Carson site, near Colorado Springs, Colo. are presented. Initial water-balance model simulations, using literature reported soil hydraulic data, aided selection of borrow-source soil type(s) that resulted in predictions of negligible annual drainage (⩽1mm∕year). Final construction design was based on refined water-balance simulations using laboratory determined soil hydraulic values from borrow area natural soil horizons that were described with USDA soil classification methods. Cover design components included a 122cmthick clay loam (USDA), compaction ⩽80% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density (dry bulk density ∼1.3Mg∕m3), erosion control measures, top soil amended with biosolids, and seeding with native grasses. Favorable hydrologic performance for a 5year period was documented by lysimeter-measured and Richards’-based calculations of annual drainage that were all <0.4mm∕year. Water potential data suggest that ET removed water that infiltrated the cover and contributed to a persistent driving force for upward flow and removal of water from below the base of the cover.

  9. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  10. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  11. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  12. Climatological determinants of woody cover in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Caylor, Kelly K

    2011-03-22

    Determining the factors that influence the distribution of woody vegetation cover and resolving the sensitivity of woody vegetation cover to shifts in environmental forcing are critical steps necessary to predict continental-scale responses of dryland ecosystems to climate change. We use a 6-year satellite data record of fractional woody vegetation cover and an 11-year daily precipitation record to investigate the climatological controls on woody vegetation cover across the African continent. We find that-as opposed to a relationship with only mean annual rainfall-the upper limit of fractional woody vegetation cover is strongly influenced by both the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. Using a set of statistics derived from the seasonal distribution of rainfall, we show that areas with similar seasonal rainfall totals have higher fractional woody cover if the local rainfall climatology consists of frequent, less intense precipitation events. Based on these observations, we develop a generalized response surface between rainfall climatology and maximum woody vegetation cover across the African continent. The normalized local gradient of this response surface is used as an estimator of ecosystem vegetation sensitivity to climatological variation. A comparison between predicted climate sensitivity patterns and observed shifts in both rainfall and vegetation during 2009 reveals both the importance of rainfall climatology in governing how ecosystems respond to interannual fluctuations in climate and the utility of our framework as a means to forecast continental-scale patterns of vegetation shifts in response to future climate change.

  13. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, U [European Community, General Directorate XVII, ALTERNER Program, Bruxelles (Belgium); Demange, J [BRGM, Orleans (France)

    1997-12-01

    The development of geothermal energy can contribute significantly to the growth of NRE (new and renewable energies that are non-nuclear and non-combustible) within the European Community and within Europe as a whole. However, the `mining risk` related to this type of operation still constitutes a major obstacle to its development. Operators find it difficult to raise the necessary financing without a guarantee against the risk of failure during the drilling stage. Standard insurance companies will not cover this type of risk, due to its very nature. We must thus therefore find a specific solution. As a result of the oil crises during the 1970s, the French Government decided promote the use of renewable energies in France. The support provided to these energies, or at least to geothermal energy, was to set up a scheme whereby the resource is guaranteed. Thus the operator, by subscribing to the scheme, benefits from a guarantee of the resource. The insurance works at two level: - in the first place, it covers the mining risk during the drilling stage, i.e. should the resource prove to be insufficient, whether in discharge or temperature, for an economically viable operation, then the totality of the costs are reimbursed, apart form the premium and any government subsidy that might have been received. - A second level of guarantee covers the risk of change in the resource`s parameters over a period of 15 years (a study is in progress to consider the possibility of extending this period to 25 years). (orig.)

  14. Forms of memory in Andean queros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cordiviola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In colonial times, queros were used to drink chicha and to formalize pacts in ritual ceremonies by the indigenous Andean elites. They had been manufactured for centuries, long before the Incas dominated the region, and continued to be made after Spanish domination and compulsory evangelization had been established. During the Inca empire, the surface of the queros was covered just with incisions and geometric forms; in the viceroyalty of Peru they were covered instead with figurative images. In this work we analyze the evolution of these forms and the different ways in which these ceremonial vessels were used to evoke the Andean pasts.

  15. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  16. Memorandum on standards for environmental hygiene 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document on the influence of the memorandum on Standards for Environmental Hygiene 1976. It is a result of discussions between the Committee for Radiation Hygiene and the Commission for Toxicology. The environmental hygiene standards are defined and the difference between 150 standards and legal standards explained. Comments are given on the concepts that the memorandum covers and advice is given on the enforcement of such standards. This document deals with air and surface water pollution, radiation effects and toxicological standards. The difficulty in fixing maximum permissible doses for specific damaging agents is discussed. (C.F.)

  17. Guidelines for selection of radiological protective head covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, G.R. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The hood is recognized throughout the nuclear industry as the standard radiological protective head covering for use in radioactively contaminated work environments. As of June 15, 1995, hoods were required for all activities performed in contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant. The use of hoods had historically been limited to those radiological activities with a high potential for personnel contamination. Due to the large size of many posted contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant, and compounding safety factors, requirements for the use of hoods are being reevaluated. The purpose of the evaluation is to develop technically sound guidelines for the selection of hoods when prescribing radiological protective head covering. This report presents the guidelines for selection of radiological protective hoods

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.302 - Standard and optional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been approved by GSA (KMPS) to be stocked and distributed by the promulgating agency or to be... purposes of economy, existing stocks are depleted prior to issuance of revisions unless the promulgating...

  19. On standard forms for transport equations and fluxes: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1990-03-01

    Quasilinear expressions for anomalous particle and energy fluxes arising from electrostatic plasma turbulence in a tokamak are reviewed yet again. Further clarifications are made, and the position taken in a previous report is modified. There, the total energy flux, Q j , and the conductive heat flux, q j , were correctly defined, and the anomalous Q j was correctly calculated. It was shown that the anomalous energy transport can be correctly described by ∇·Q* j , where Q* j = 3/5 Q j , with all remaining source terms such as left-angle p j ∇·Vj} cancelling. Here, a revised discussion is given of the identification of the anomalous conductive flux, q j , in which the distinction between Q j and Q* j is reconsidered. It is shown that there is more than one consistent way to define q j . Transport calculations involving only theoretical electrostatic turbulent fluxes are unaffected by these distinctions since Q j or Q* j , rather than q j , is the quantity naturally calculated in the theory. However, an ambiguity remains in experimental transport analysis if the measured particle flux Γ j = n j V j is to be used in the energy equation. This is because we cannot be sure how properly to treat the source terms p j ∇·V j or { p j ∇·V j }. 17 refs

  20. 78 FR 65489 - Standard Claims and Appeals Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephanie Caucutt Li, Chief, Regulations Staff (211D... rule enunciated in the main text of paragraphs (a) and (b) applies in certain scenarios. A...

  1. The metabolomics standards initiative (MSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiehn, O.; Robertson, D.; Griffin, J.; Werf, M. van der; Nikolau, B.; Morrison, N.; Sumner, L.W.; Goodacre, R.; Hardy, N.W.; Taylor, C.; Fostel, J.; Kristal, B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, R.; Mendes, P.; Ommen, B. van; Lindon, J.C.; Sansone, S.-A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative has been formed. An outline and general introduction is provided to inform about the history, structure, working plan and intentions of this initiative. Comments on any of the suggested minimal reporting standards are welcome to be sent to the open

  2. Standard model without Higgs particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs

  3. Mean species cover: a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iciar Alberdi; Sonia Condés; Ronald E. Mcroberts; Susanne Winter

    2018-01-01

    Because shrub cover is related to many forest ecosystem functions, it is one of the most relevant variables for describing these communities. Nevertheless, a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for large-scale reporting is lacking. The aims of the study were threefold: to define a shrub indicator that can be used by European countries for harmonized shrub cover...

  4. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  5. General philosophy of safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety standards should be related to the form and magnitude of the risk they aim to limit. Because of the lack of direct information at the exposure levels experienced, radiation protection standards have to be based on risk assumptions that, while plausible, are not proven. The pressure for standards has come as much from public perceptions and fears as from the reality of the risk. (author)

  6. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  7. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  8. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  9. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  10. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  11. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  12. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  13. Statistical Monitoring of Changes to Land Cover

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2018-04-06

    Accurate detection of changes in land cover leads to better understanding of the dynamics of landscapes. This letter reports the development of a reliable approach to detecting changes in land cover based on remote sensing and radiometric data. This approach integrates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) chart with support vector machines (SVMs) for accurate and reliable detection of changes to land cover. Here, we utilize the MEWMA scheme to identify features corresponding to changed regions. Unfortunately, MEWMA schemes cannot discriminate between real changes and false changes. If a change is detected by the MEWMA algorithm, then we execute the SVM algorithm that is based on features corresponding to detected pixels to identify the type of change. We assess the effectiveness of this approach by using the remote-sensing change detection database and the SZTAKI AirChange benchmark data set. Our results show the capacity of our approach to detect changes to land cover.

  14. Nielsen number of a covering map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierski Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering over a compact polyhedron and a map admitting a lift . We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.

  15. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  16. LHC Availability 2017: Standard Proton Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period from restart to the end of standard proton physics in 2017. This covers the whole standard proton physics production period. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  17. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  18. Standard classification of resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of heat-treatable Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This classification covers alphabetical ratings of the relative resistance to SCC of various mill product forms of the wrought 2XXX, 6XXX, and 7XXX series heat-treated aluminum alloys and the procedure for determining the ratings. 1.2 The ratings do not apply to metal in which the metallurgical structure has been altered by welding, forming, or other fabrication processes. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover

  20. Covered by lines and Conic connected varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Massarenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of an embedded variety covered by lines and give a numerical criterion ensuring the existence of a singular conic through two of its general points. We show that our criterion is sharp. Conic-connected, covered by lines, QEL, LQEL, prime Fano, defective, and dual defective varieties are closely related. We study some relations between the above mentioned classes of objects using basic results by Ein and Zak.

  1. Vacuum-plasma coverings on the aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvetsov, V.D.; Teksin, Eh.K.; Lysyak, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the article are considered the perspectives of vacuum-plasma coverings using for engine components protection. The influence of operating factors on the durability of components which has the vacuum-plasma coverings is show.Leads in using the concept of informational parameter of quality.The recommendation about organization of engine with abolished components maintenance by methods of flyable conditions or reliability level are given

  2. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  3. The IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  4. Scenarios of land cover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian Xiang; Fan, Ze Meng; Liu, Ji Yuan

    2007-02-01

    A method for surface modeling of land cover change (SMLC) is developed on the basis of establishing transition probability matrixes between land cover types and HLZ types. SMLC is used to simulate land cover scenarios of China for the years 2039, 2069 and 2099, for which HLZ scenarios are first simulated in terms of HadCM3 climatic scenarios that are downscaled in zonal model of spatial climate change in China. This paper also analyzes spatial distribution of land cover types, area change and mean center shift of each land cover type, ecotope diversity, and patch connectivity under the land cover scenarios. The results show that cultivated land would decrease and woodland would expand greatly with climatic change, which coincides with consequences expected by implementation of Grain-for-Green policy. Nival area would shrink, and desertification area would expand at a comparatively slow rate in future 100 years. Climate change would generally cause less ecotope diversity and more patch connectivity. Ecosystems in China would have a pattern of beneficial cycle after efficient ecological conservation and restoration. However, if human activities would exceed regulation capacity of ecosystems themselves, the ecosystems in China might deteriorate more seriously.

  5. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  6. Silicone covered vs. Non- covered endotracheal self expandable metallic stent: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Soo Ah; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Dae Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate pathologic changes of the trachea and the lung after insertion of silicone covered and non covered Gianturco stent in the trachea of dog. Silicone covered(covered) and non covered(bare) Gianturco stent, six in each, were inserted into the tracheal lumen of six consecutive dogs. After 1-10 weeks observation, the dogs were sacrificed and their tracheas and lungs were examined grossly and histopathologically. Serial chest radiographs were performed to evaluate pneumonia and stent migration every 3-5 days. Pneumonia was observed in one of bare stent group and five of covered stent group. Stent migration was noted in three of covered stent group. In bare stent group, the epithelium of the trachea was markedly thickened by hyperplasia and stent was covered by granulation tissue from 6 weeks after stent insertion. Inflammation was focal at contact site between the stent and the trachea. In covered stent group, the epithelium was denuded at multiple areas and there were multifocal squamous metaplasia of the mucosa. Inflammatory reaction of the trachea was diffuse. Inflammatory reaction was more severe and stent migration was more frequent in covered stent group. The use of covered stent in the trachea should be studied further.

  7. Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    All matter around us is made of elementary particles, the building blocks of matter. These particles occur in two basic types called quarks and leptons. Each group consists of six particles, which are related in pairs, or “generations”. The lightest and most stable particles make up the first generation, whereas the heavier and less stable particles belong to the second and third generations. All stable matter in the universe is made from particles that belong to the first generation; any heavier particles quickly decay to the next most stable level. The six quarks are paired in the three generations – the “up quark” and the “down quark” form the first generation, followed by the “charm quark” and “strange quark”, then the “top quark” and “bottom (or beauty) quark”. Quarks also come in three different “colours” and only mix in such ways as to form colourless objects. The six leptons are similarly arranged in three generations – the “electron” and the “electron neutrin...

  8. Exploration of the Karvinskiy formation covering in Beskidakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakoa, Z

    1980-01-01

    The Karvinskiy formation of coal-bearing carbon in the Upper Silesian basin was established by drilling wells in 1965 under the tectonic covers in Beskidakh. It forms a large eroded residual rock of 600 km/sup 2/ with industrial layers of rock coal. Work over the last few years has established the area over which the strata in the south are distributed, the position of the base, the new oil phenomena, the tectonic data of the southern region of the Upper Silesian basin. The rock coal fields were explored to define the borders of the mine fields of West Frenshtadt and East Frenshtadt. Eighteen coal layers were identified in the Karvinskiy formation. These belonged to 7 layer groups in the stratigraphy of the continental formations of Upper Silesian carbon, numbered 40 to 33. In the same mine fields, continental coal-bearing deposits of timber strata covering the Karvinskiy depression were discovered.

  9. A Simulated Annealing method to solve a generalized maximal covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed Jabalameli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximal covering location problem (MCLP seeks to locate a predefined number of facilities in order to maximize the number of covered demand points. In a classical sense, MCLP has three main implicit assumptions: all or nothing coverage, individual coverage, and fixed coverage radius. By relaxing these assumptions, three classes of modelling formulations are extended: the gradual cover models, the cooperative cover models, and the variable radius models. In this paper, we develop a special form of MCLP which combines the characteristics of gradual cover models, cooperative cover models, and variable radius models. The proposed problem has many applications such as locating cell phone towers. The model is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP. In addition, a simulated annealing algorithm is used to solve the resulted problem and the performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a set of randomly generated problems.

  10. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  11. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, Mats; Gibb, Heloise; Hjältén, Joakim

    2010-10-07

    Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD) and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log), and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation). The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover), potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover). Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many species.

  12. Historical baselines of coral cover on tropical reefs as estimated by expert opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Eddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are important habitats that represent global marine biodiversity hotspots and provide important benefits to people in many tropical regions. However, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change, overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. Historical baselines of coral cover are important to understand how much coral cover has been lost, e.g., to avoid the ‘shifting baseline syndrome’. There are few quantitative observations of coral reef cover prior to the industrial revolution, and therefore baselines of coral reef cover are difficult to estimate. Here, we use expert and ocean-user opinion surveys to estimate baselines of global coral reef cover. The overall mean estimated baseline coral cover was 59% (±19% standard deviation, compared to an average of 58% (±18% standard deviation estimated by professional scientists. We did not find evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome, whereby respondents who first observed coral reefs more recently report lower estimates of baseline coral cover. These estimates of historical coral reef baseline cover are important for scientists, policy makers, and managers to understand the extent to which coral reefs have become depleted and to set appropriate recovery targets.

  13. Historical baselines of coral cover on tropical reefs as estimated by expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Tyler D; Cheung, William W L; Bruno, John F

    2018-01-01

    Coral reefs are important habitats that represent global marine biodiversity hotspots and provide important benefits to people in many tropical regions. However, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change, overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. Historical baselines of coral cover are important to understand how much coral cover has been lost, e.g., to avoid the 'shifting baseline syndrome'. There are few quantitative observations of coral reef cover prior to the industrial revolution, and therefore baselines of coral reef cover are difficult to estimate. Here, we use expert and ocean-user opinion surveys to estimate baselines of global coral reef cover. The overall mean estimated baseline coral cover was 59% (±19% standard deviation), compared to an average of 58% (±18% standard deviation) estimated by professional scientists. We did not find evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome, whereby respondents who first observed coral reefs more recently report lower estimates of baseline coral cover. These estimates of historical coral reef baseline cover are important for scientists, policy makers, and managers to understand the extent to which coral reefs have become depleted and to set appropriate recovery targets.

  14. Decommissioning standards: the radioactive waste impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.; Crofford, W.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several considerations are important in establishing standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities, sites and materials. The review includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions, and low-level radioactive waste. Decommissioning appears more closely related to radiation protection than to waste management, although it is often carried under waste management programs or activities. Basically, decommissioning is the removal of radioactive contamination from facilities, sites and materials so that they can be returned to unrestricted use or other actions designed to minimize radiation exposure of the public. It is the removed material that is the waste and, as such, it must be managed and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. It is important to make this distinction even though, for programmatic purposes, decommissioning may be carried under waste management activities. It was concluded that the waste disposal problem from decommissioning activities is significant in that it may produce volumes comparable to volumes produced during the total operating life of a reactor. However, this volume does not appear to place an inordinate demand on shallow land burial capacity. It appears that the greater problems will be associated with occupational exposures and costs, both of which are sensitive to the timing of decommissioning actions

  15. Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.

    1990-01-01

    In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)

  16. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass M A in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  17. The GOFC-GOLD/CEOS Land Cover Harmonization and Validation Initiative: Technical Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.; Stehman, S.; Nightingale, J.; Friedl, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2010-12-01

    A global effort to assess the accuracy of existing and future land cover products derived from a variety of satellite sensors over a range of spatial resolutions is being led by the Land Cover Implementation Team (LC-IT) of GOFC/GOLD (Global Observation of Land Cover Dynamics) in conjunction with the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) WGCV (Working Group on Calibration and Validation) LPV (Land Product Validation) subgroup. The first phase of this effort is complete and culminated in a publication of community consensus "best practices" for validation of global land cover datasets (2). The next phase is to implement the recommendations outlined in the "best practices" document. A "living database" of global randomized sample sites will form the basis of accuracy assessment for a host of global land cover products (GLC2000, MODIS land cover, GLOBCOVER, United Nation's Forest Resource Assessment (FRA2010), and the Mid-Decadal Global Land Survey. This "living dataset" will also be a community resource available for use in validation of regional or national mapping efforts using LCCS (UN FAO's Land Cover Classification System). Based on the known accuracy of existing land cover products, GOFC/GOLD will to develop and update a "best currently available" global land cover map. Individual geographic regions may be selected from different land cover products (global, national or regional), or they may be combined in various ways

  18. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  19. Controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    RENA is a research programm into the controllable forms of natural background radiation, which cover the activities originating from the naturally occurring radionuclides enhanced by human intervention. In the RENA-program emphasis lays upon the policy aspects of environmental-hygienic, economical and governmental character. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  1. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, Robert J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Le, Roux X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bucini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ???650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered 'stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ???650 mm, savannas are 'unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation 6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  3. VIERS Electronic Form Submission Service (EFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The D2D EFSS (Inc 1 and 2) provides a common access point to standardize, centralize, and integrate the universal collection of Benefit Claim Forms and supporting...

  4. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  5. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  6. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  7. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  8. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  9. Smart cover glass for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang Kug

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a smart cover glass based on electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation for automotive applications. It can remove water droplets in a wide range of sizes to allow the camera's lens to get clean at any time. The proposed cover glass offers a simple design structure to be easily installed on any device but provides a fast and energy efficient droplet cleaning operation. As proof of concept, a real imaging test is carried out using a mobile smartphone camera and landscape photography. When water droplets with different volumes are on the camera cover glass, the image of landscape photography is distorted with blurred spots. However, the distorted image is restored by removing the droplets through EWOD actuation.

  10. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  11. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    2005-01-01

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478).......We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478)....

  12. Coatings and floor covers for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.

    1998-01-01

    To prevent damage to, or even the destruction of, components of very sensitive electrical equipment in rooms in which unsealed radioactive emitters are handled, floors must be antistatic and capable of being decontaminated. Conductive additives to the cover compounds achieve the desired leakage resistance of 5.10 4 to 10 6 Ω. Investigations have shown the decontamination capability of all floor covers and coatings to be excellent in most cases, and good in a few cases. Except for one coating, the coatings examined after radiation exposure also meet the requirements applying to nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  13. On some covering graphs of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariefuddin Pirzada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For a graph $G$ with vertex set $V(G=\\{v_1, v_2, \\dots, v_n\\}$, let $S$ be the covering set of $G$ having the maximum degree over all the minimum covering sets of $G$. Let $N_S[v]=\\{u\\in S : uv \\in E(G \\}\\cup \\{v\\}$ be the closed neighbourhood of the vertex $v$ with respect to $S.$ We define a square matrix $A_S(G= (a_{ij},$ by $a_{ij}=1,$ if $\\left |N_S[v_i]\\cap N_S[v_j] \\right| \\geq 1, i\

  14. 48 CFR 1913.505-2 - Board order forms in lieu of Optional and Standard Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SMALL PURCHASES AND OTHER SIMPLIFIED... services as script writers, translators, narrators, etc. [50 FR 13205, Apr. 3, 1985] ...

  15. 78 FR 69086 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Preaward Survey Forms (Standard Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    .../or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis... of the information collection would violate the fundamental purposes of the Paperwork Reduction Act... statistics) that were over the simplified acquisition threshold and that did not use FAR part 12 commercial...

  16. Colored polyethylene soil covers and grafting effects on cucumber flowering and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Inês Cristina de Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most cultivated vegetable crops in plastic greenhouses in Brazil because of the short cycle and its high economic value in off-season harvests. To better understand this management technique the effect of different colored polyethylene soil covers was evaluated in relation to flowering and yield of the hybrid cucumber 'Yoshinari' grafted or not on the hybrid squash 'Ikky'. The polyethylene cover colors were black, white on black and green plus a control without cover. Covered but not grafted crops had a more uniform flowering distribution. The number of flowers was greater for the white/black grafted treatment. All the polyethylene covers favored flowering for the non grafted plants. Grafting reduced flowering for the black or green polyethylene covers treatments. The fruit set increased with the use of polyethylene cover but was not influenced by grafting. The uniform distribution of flowering remained during fruiting only for grafted plants and soil covered with black or green polyethylene. Both polyethylene cover and grafting favored early harvesting. The 'Yoshinari'/'Ikky' graft caused taller plants but fruit were thicker and smaller and did not meet the commercial standard. The best quality fruit and highest yields were obtained in the black and white/black treatments, without grafting.

  17. Three Global Land Cover and Use Stage considering Environmental Condition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, C.; Moon, J.; Ryu, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between around 30° - 60° latitude. This zone is a home to over more than 50% of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal regions which host most of the global problems related to development and poverty. Mid-Latitude region and its ecotone demands in-depth analysis, however, latitudinal approach has not been widely recognized, considering that many of natural resources and environment indicators, as well as social and economic indicators are based on administrative basis or by country and regional boundaries. This study sets the land cover change and use stage based on environmental condition and economic development. Because various land cover and use among the regions, form vegetated parts of East Asia and Mediterranean to deserted parts of Central Asia, the forest area was varied between countries. In addition, some nations such as North Korea, Afghanistan, Pakistan showed decreasing trends in forest area whereas some nations showed increasing trends in forest area. The economic capacity for environmental activities and policies for restoration were different among countries. By adopting the standard from IMF or World Bank, developing and developed counties were classified. Based on the classification, this study suggested the land cover and use stages as degradation, restoration, and sustainability. As the degradation stage, the nations which had decreasing forest area with less environmental restoration capacity based on economic size were selected. As the restoration stage, the nation which had increasing forest area or restoration capacity were selected. In the case of the sustainability, the nation which had enough restoration capacity with increasing forest area or small ratio in forest area decreasing were selected. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that regions of Mid-Latitudes are facing, grouping by

  18. MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GROUND COVER CLUMPINESS: SCALING FROM FIELD TO SENTINEL-2 COVER ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the development of cover data and derived products based on remotely sensed fractional cover information and field data across Australia, and these cover data sets are now used for quantifying and monitoring grazing land condition. The availability of a dense time-series of nearly 30 years of cover data to describe the spatial and temporal patterns in landscape changes over time can help with monitoring the effectiveness of grazing land management practice change. With the advent of higher spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the Copernicus Sentinel 2 series of satellites, we can look beyond reporting purely on cover amount and more closely at the operational monitoring and reporting on spatial arrangement of cover and its links with land condition. We collected high spatial resolution cover transects at 20 cm intervals over the Wambiana grazing trials in the Burdekin catchment in Queensland, Australia. Spatial variance analysis was used to determine the cover autocorrelation at various support intervals. Coincident Sentinel-2 imagery was collected and processed over all the sites providing imagery to link with the field data. We show that the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of cover are important indicators of grazing land condition for both productivity and water quality outcomes. The metrics and products derived from this research will assist land managers to prioritize investment and practice change strategies for long term sustainability and improved water quality, particularly in the Great Barrier Reef catchments.

  19. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992–2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, Michael; Homer, Collin G.; Meyer, Debra K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  20. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  1. Evaluation of pulse-oximetry oxygen saturation taken through skin protective covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jyotsna; Tiwari, Lokesh; Upadhyay, Pramod; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Bhambhani, Vikas; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2006-01-01

    Background The hard edges of adult finger clip probes of the pulse oximetry oxygen saturation (POOS) monitor can cause skin damage if used for prolonged periods in a neonate. Covering the skin under the probe with Micropore surgical tape or a gauze piece might prevent such injury. The study was done to see if the protective covering would affect the accuracy of the readings. Methods POOS was studied in 50 full-term neonates in the first week of life. After obtaining consent from their parents the neonates had POOS readings taken directly (standard technique) and through the protective covering. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the new method with the standard technique. A test of repeatability for each method was also performed. Results The Bland-Altman plots suggest that there is no significant loss of accuracy when readings are taken through the protective covering. The mean difference was 0.06 (SD of 1.39) and 0.04 (SD 1.3) with Micropore and gauze respectively compared to the standard method. The mean difference was 0.22 (SD 0.23) on testing repeatability with the standard method. Conclusion Interposing Micropore or gauze does not significantly affect the accuracy of the POOS reading. The difference between the standard method and the new method was less than the difference seen on testing repeatability of the standard method. PMID:16677394

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  3. Biological and microbiological attributes in Oxisol managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of winter cover crops and fertilization with nitrogen to the soil can have an effect on their biological and microbiological attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and microbiological attributes in soil under different winter cover crops and nitrogen doses. The experiment was conducted at the Frederico Westphalen-RS campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM in a Rhodic Hapludox soil. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement (2 x 10: 10 winter cover crops systems (Fallow [control], black oats, white oats, ryegrass, forage turnip, vetch, white lupine; black oat + forage turnip; black oat + vetch and black oat + vetch + fodder turnip, and two nitrogen rates in the form of urea applied in successive crops of beans common and maize, with four replications. We assessed the biological attributes (Margalef’s richness, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity and abundance of organisms and microbiological (carbon and nitrogen microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient of the soil. The fallow with wild species and white lupine showed greater Simpson’s dominance and abundance of organisms due to the increase in the number of individuals of the order Collembola. Vetch improved the biological attributes of the soil with increase in Collembola abundance and diversity of organisms of soil fauna. The application of nitrogen favored the microbial biomass carbon and reduced the metabolic quotient.

  4. Quantization of noncompact coverings and its physical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankov, Petr

    2018-02-01

    A rigorous algebraic definition of noncommutative coverings is developed. In the case of commutative algebras this definition is equivalent to the classical definition of topological coverings of locally compact spaces. The theory has following nontrivial applications: • Coverings of continuous trace algebras, • Coverings of noncommutative tori, • Coverings of the quantum SU(2) group, • Coverings of foliations, • Coverings of isospectral deformations of Spin - manifolds. The theory supplies the rigorous definition of noncommutative Wilson lines.

  5. Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

    2014-08-01

    This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

  6. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  7. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  8. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both Medicare...

  9. Focusing on Concepts by Covering Them Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Pete

    2017-01-01

    "Parallel" pedagogy covers the four mechanics concepts of momentum, energy, forces, and kinematics simultaneously instead of building each concept on an understanding of the previous one. Course content is delivered through interactive videos, allowing class time for group work and student-centered activities. We start with simple…

  10. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  11. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  12. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  13. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... future rate or is primarily rule-making is not covered. Proceedings to grant or renew licenses are also... Administration: (i) Proceedings under the Workforce Investment Act at 29 U.S.C. 2936, where the Department... implementing regulations. (ii) Conformity and compliance under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act at 26 U.S.C...

  14. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., salary, part-time, seasonal, or migrant workers. You also must record the recordable injuries and... partners are not considered employees for recordkeeping purposes. (b) Implementation—(1) If a self-employed... illness? No, self-employed individuals are not covered by the OSH Act or this regulation. (2) If I obtain...

  15. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person. ...

  16. 29 CFR 2204.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... covered are the following proceedings under section 10(c), 29 U.S.C. 659(c), of the OSH Act: (a) Contests...

  17. State financial cover for nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Some States have introduced systems of compensation out of public funds in case the compensation under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention is insufficient to cover the damage caused by a nuclear incident. The systems are described in this paper as well as that in Switzerland, which is not Party to these Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  18. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  19. Covered Storage. Design Manual 32.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    laboratories, snack bars, stairways, etc., are covered in the PBS Mechanical and Elec’rical Engineering Handbook and/or the Illuminating Engineering...laid. Scuttles shall be gasketed and fitted with inside and outside locks. d. Doors. Active cargo doors shall be gasketed by means of extruded

  20. Commensuration and Legitimacy in Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    This paper claims that commensuration is a form of valuation crucial for the legitimacy of standards. It is thus far poorly understood how standards are constructed in a legitimate manner, let alone the role of commensuration, the micro-process of converting qualities into measurable quantities...... for the purpose of comparison. The aim is to show how commensuration affects legitimacy at different phases of a standard's formation and diffusion. In order to do this, the lens is placed upon the relationship between the commensuration processes and input and output legitimacies. Research on the Active House...... legitimacy in different stages, either technical for the standard's specifications or contextual for the standard's implementation. Based on these findings, the paper offers a model of the commensurative development undergone in order to develop the legitimacy of a standard....

  1. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  2. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  3. Liquid-Phase Packaging of a Glucose Oxidase Solution with Parylene Direct Encapsulation and an Ultraviolet Curing Adhesive Cover for Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Takamatsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a package for disposable glucose sensor chips using Parylene encapsulation of a glucose oxidase solution in the liquid phase and a cover structure made of an ultraviolet (UV curable adhesive. Parylene was directly deposited onto a small volume (1 μL of glucose oxidase solution through chemical vapor deposition. The cover and reaction chamber were constructed on Parylene film using a UV-curable adhesive and photolithography. The package was processed at room temperature to avoid denaturation of the glucose oxidase. The glucose oxidase solution was encapsulated and unsealed. Glucose sensing was demonstrated using standard amperometric detection at glucose concentrations between 0.1 and 100 mM, which covers the glucose concentration range of diabetic patients. Our proposed Parylene encapsulation and UV-adhesive cover form a liquid phase glucose-oxidase package that has the advantages of room temperature processing and direct liquid encapsulation of a small volume solution without use of conventional solidifying chemicals.

  4. Problems in the theory of modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .

  5. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  6. Conference L-Functions and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnen, Winfried; LAF

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a collection of carefully refereed research articles and lecture notes stemming from the Conference "Automorphic Forms and L-Functions", held at the University of Heidelberg in 2016.  The theory of automorphic forms and their associated L-functions is one of the central research areas in modern number theory, linking number theory, arithmetic geometry, representation theory, and complex analysis in many profound ways.  The 19 papers cover a wide range of topics within the scope of the conference, including automorphic L-functions and their special values, p-adic modular forms, Eisenstein series, Borcherds products, automorphic periods, and many more.

  7. Epoxy blanket protects milled part during explosive forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Epoxy blanket protects chemically milled or machined sections of large, complex structural parts during explosive forming. The blanket uniformly covers all exposed surfaces and fills any voids to support and protect the entire part.

  8. State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.; Turcotte, R.P.; Gray, W.J.; Merz, M.D.; Roberts, F.P.; Weber, W.J.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Clark, D.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2005 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. Effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhao

    Full Text Available We studied the diel expression pattern of PAX6 (a structural gene that is commonly involved in the eye development and photoreception of eye forming animals and the effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. We confirmed that aphotic condition significantly reduced covering behavior in S. intermedius. The diel expression pattern of PAX6 was significantly different in S. intermedius under photic and aphotic conditions. The gene expression of PAX6 significantly deceased in covered S. intermedius both under natural light and in darkness. The present finding provides valuable insight into the probable link between covering and PAX6 expression of sea urchins. Further studies are required to investigate the detailed expression network of light detection involved genes in order to fully reveal the molecular mechanism of the light-induced covering behavior of sea urchins.

  3. Against Logical Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Johnson-Laird

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.

  4. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  5. Forms Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish EPA’s Forms Management Program; to describe the requisite roles, responsibilities, and procedures necessary for the successful management of EPA forms; and to more clearly fulfill EPA’s obligations in this regard.

  6. Perspectives in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Hill, C.T.; Lykken, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Particle physics is an experimentally based science, with a need for the best theorists to make contact with data and to enlarge and enhance their theoretical descriptions as the subject evolves. The authors felt it imperative that the TASI (Theoretical Advanced Study Institute) program reflect this need. The goal of this conference, was to provide the students with a comprehensive look at the current understanding of the standard model, as well as the techniques which promise to advance that understanding in the future. Topics covered include: symmetry breaking in the standard model; physics beyond the standard model; chiral effective Lagrangians; semi-classical string theory; renormalization of electroweak gauge interactions; electroweak experiments at LEP; the CKM matrix and CP violation; axion searches; lattice QCD; perturbative QCD; heavy quark effective field theory; heavy flavor physics on the lattice; and neutrinos. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 papers in this conference

  7. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  8. Silica-covered star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles as new electromagnetic nanoresonators for Raman characterisation of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Pietrasik, Sylwia; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-15

    One of the tools used for determining the composition of surfaces of various materials is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). SHINERS is a modification of "standard" surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in which, before Raman spectra are recorded, the surfaces analysed are covered with a layer of plasmonic nanoparticles protected by a very thin layer of a transparent dielectric. The plasmonic cores of the core-shell nanoparticles used in SHINERS measurements generate a local enhancement of the electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation, whereas the transparent coatings prevent the metal cores from coming into direct contact with the material being analysed. In this contribution, we propose a new type of SHINERS nanoresonators that contain spiky, star-shaped metal cores (produced from a gold/silver alloy). These spiky, star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles have been covered by a layer of silica. The small radii of the ends of the tips of the spikes of these plasmonic nanostructures make it possible to generate a very large enhancement of the electromagnetic field there, with the result that such SHINERS nanoresonators are significantly more efficient than the standard semi-spherical nanostructures. The Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of a solution containing silver nitrate and chloroauric acid by ascorbic acid. The final geometry of the nanostructures thus formed was controlled by changing the ratio between the concentrations of AuCl 4 - and Ag + ions. The shape of the synthesised star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly during the two standard procedures for depositing a layer of silica (by the decomposition of sodium silicate or the decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silica-covered star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles as new electromagnetic nanoresonators for Raman characterisation of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Pietrasik, Sylwia; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One of the tools used for determining the composition of surfaces of various materials is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). SHINERS is a modification of "standard" surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in which, before Raman spectra are recorded, the surfaces analysed are covered with a layer of plasmonic nanoparticles protected by a very thin layer of a transparent dielectric. The plasmonic cores of the core-shell nanoparticles used in SHINERS measurements generate a local enhancement of the electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation, whereas the transparent coatings prevent the metal cores from coming into direct contact with the material being analysed. In this contribution, we propose a new type of SHINERS nanoresonators that contain spiky, star-shaped metal cores (produced from a gold/silver alloy). These spiky, star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles have been covered by a layer of silica. The small radii of the ends of the tips of the spikes of these plasmonic nanostructures make it possible to generate a very large enhancement of the electromagnetic field there, with the result that such SHINERS nanoresonators are significantly more efficient than the standard semi-spherical nanostructures. The Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of a solution containing silver nitrate and chloroauric acid by ascorbic acid. The final geometry of the nanostructures thus formed was controlled by changing the ratio between the concentrations of AuCl4- and Ag+ ions. The shape of the synthesised star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly during the two standard procedures for depositing a layer of silica (by the decomposition of sodium silicate or the decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate).

  10. Fully covered stents versus partially covered stents for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Lárraga, J O; Flores Carmona, D Y; Hernández Guerrero, A; Ramírez Solís, M E; de la Mora Levy, J G; Sánchez Del Monte, J C

    2018-02-26

    Malignant dysphagia is difficulty swallowing resulting from esophageal obstruction due to cancer. The goal of palliative treatment is to reduce the dysphagia and improve oral dietary intake. Self-expandable metallic stents are the current treatment of choice, given that they enable the immediate restoration of oral intake. The aim of the present study was to describe the results of using totally covered and partially covered esophageal stents for palliating esophageal cancer. A retrospective study was conducted on patients with inoperable esophageal cancer treated with self-expandable metallic stents. The 2 groups formed were: group A, which consisted of patients with a fully covered self-expandable stent (SX-ELLA ® ), and group B, which was made up of patients with a partially covered self-expandable stent (Ultraflex ® ). Of the 69-patient total, 50 were included in the study. Group A had 19 men and 2 women and their mean age was 63.6 years (range 41-84). Technical success was achieved in 100% (n=21) of the cases and clinical success in 90.4% (n=19). Group B had 24 men and 5 women and their mean age was 67.5 years (range 43-92). Technical success was achieved in 100% (n=29) of the cases and clinical success in 89.6% (n=26). Complications were similar in both groups (33.3 vs. 51.7%). There was no difference between the 2 types of stent for the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer with respect to technical success, clinical success, or complications. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Unified form language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Martin S.; Logg, Anders; Ølgaard, Kristian Breum

    2014-01-01

    We present the Unied Form Language (UFL), which is a domain-specic language for representing weak formulations of partial dierential equations with a view to numerical approximation. Features of UFL include support for variational forms and functionals, automatic dierentiation of forms and expres...... libraries to generate concrete low-level implementations. Some application examples are presented and libraries that support UFL are highlighted....

  12. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  13. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  14. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  15. Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. RELAXATION HEURISTICS FOR THE SET COVERING PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Umetani, Shunji; Yagiura, Mutsunori; 柳浦, 睦憲

    2007-01-01

    The set covering problem (SCP) is one of representative combinatorial optimization problems, which has many practical applications. The continuous development of mathematical programming has derived a number of impressive heuristic algorithms as well as exact branch-and-bound algorithms, which can solve huge SCP instances of bus, railway and airline crew scheduling problems. We survey heuristic algorithms for SCP focusing mainly on contributions of mathematical programming techniques to heuri...

  18. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  19. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  20. Concrete quantum logics with covering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Vladimir; Pták, Pavel; Tkadlec, Josef

    1992-05-01

    Let L be a concrete (=set-representable) quantum logic. Let n be a natural number (or, more generally, a cardinal). We say that L admits intrinsic coverings of the order n, and write L∈ C n , if for any pair A, B∈L we can find a collection { C i ∶ i∈ I}, where card IJauch-Piron states). We then consider conditions on which a class of concrete logics reduce to Boolean algebras. We conclude with some open questions.

  1. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  3. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Front Cover Photograph & Interview for FREEYE Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Matthew Murray Front Cover Photograph & Interview for FREEYE Magazine - Dutch Quarterly For Exceptional International Photography, Holland.\\ud The article focuses on Murray's practice, his personal work, commissioned work, advertising, gallery and exhibition work along with his methodology. Looking at Murray's inspirations and how they feed into his personal projects and how this personal work feeds into shooting above the line advertising campaigns. Murray's work blurs the lines between pers...

  5. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  6. Nuclei in high forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Z.; Berger, J.F.; Heenen, P.H.; Heyde, K.; Haas, B.; Janssens, R.; Paya, D.; Gogny, D.; Huber, G.; Bjoernholm, S.; Brack, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of 1991 Joliot-Curie Summer School is to review the most advances in the understanding of the nuclei physics after the considerable progress in gamma spectroscopy. It covers the following topics: Highly and super-deformed nuclei, nuclear structures, mean-field approach and beyond, fission isomers, nuclear excitations with long lifetime and metal clusters

  7. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  9. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas ... Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to find the suitable ... cover are important factors for human activities,.

  10. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  11. Cover gas purification experience at KNK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, H; Stade, K Ch [Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H., Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stamm, H H [Institute of Radiochemistry, Nuclear Research Center, Karsruhe (Germany)

    1987-07-01

    KNK II is an experimental, sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The reactor was operated until 1974 with a thermal core (KNK I). The plant was converted into a fast breeder reactor (KNK II) from 1974 to 1977. The commissioning of KNK II was started in October 1977 with the first fast core KNK 11/1. After 400 effective full power days (EFPD) the reactor was shut down in August 1982. After replacing the complete core by the second fast core KNK 11/2, the plant went into operation again in August 1983. In August 1986 nearly 400 EFPD were achieved with the second fast core. Argon is used as cover gas in the primary and secondary sodium systems of KNK. In former times fresh argon was supplied by a bundle of gas cylinders. Later on a liquid argon supply was installed. Purification of cover gas is done by flushing only. During KNK I operation no fuel failures occurred. The primary cover gas activity was characterized by the formation of Ar-41, only small quantities of fission gas were measured, released from 'tramp uranium'. Therefore, no problems existed during KNK I operation with regard to radioactive gas disposal. However, after start-up of KNK II, several fuel elements failed. Until August 1986, five fuel failures were observed, two in KNK 11/1, and three in KNK 11/2. Sometimes, operation with defective fuel pins caused problems when fission gases leaked into the containment atmosphere, and the access had to be restricted. The purging rate of the primary cover gas was limited by the capacity of the charcoal filters in the delay line. Of all non-radioactive impurities, hydrogen (H{sub z}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were of most importance in the primary cover gas. Main source of both impurities was the ingress of air and atmospheric moisture during handling operations in shutdown periods. An other possible source for hydrogen might be a release from the steel-clad zirconium hydride, used as moderator in the moderated driver fuel elements. Additional nitrogen may diffuse

  12. Standard Practice for the Selection and Application of Marine Deck Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    generally 4 to 6 inches high. Material is installed in areas where sports such as basketball, volleyball, badminton and similar activities are played...specifications referenced. 5. AREAS OF GENERAL USE Gymnasiums Volleyball courts Jogging Track Tennis Courts Badminton Courts Calisthenics Activities -186

  13. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  14. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  15. US Topo Product Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital topographic map. This map series, named “US Topo,” is modeled on what is referred to as the standard USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) topographic map series that was created during the period from 1947 to approximately 1992. The US Topo map product has the same extent, scale, and general layout as the older standard topographic maps. However, unlike the previous maps, US Topo maps are published using Adobe Systems Inc. Portable Document Format (PDF) with a geospatial extension that is called Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF), patented by TerraGo Technologies. In addition, the US Topo map products incorporate an orthorectified image along with data that was included in the standard 7.5-minute topographic maps. US Topo maps are intended to serve conventional map users by providing Geographic Information System (GIS) information in symbolized form in the customary topographic map layout. The maps are not intended for GIS analysis applications.

  16. Searches for Beyond Standard Model Physics with ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Rompotis, Nikolaos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of the high energy frontier with ATLAS and CMS experiments provides one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I review the motivation, the strategy and some recent results related to beyond Standard Model physics from these experiments. The review will cover beyond Standard Model Higgs boson searches, supersymmetry and searches for exotic particles.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Silver Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  18. Carbon Assessment of Hawaii Land Cover Map (CAH_LandCover)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — While there have been many maps produced that depict vegetation for the state of Hawai‘i only a few of these display land cover for all of the main Hawaiian Islands,...

  19. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  20. Simulation of Forest Cover Dynamics for Eastern Eurasian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H.; Yan, X.; Zhang, N.; Isaev, A. S.; Shuman, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing and testing a boreal zone forest dynamics model capable of simulating the forest cover dynamics of the Eurasian boreal forest, a major biospheric ecosystem with potentially large roles in the planetary carbon cycle and in the feedback between terrestrial surface and the atmosphere. In appreciating the role of this region in the coupling between atmosphere and terrestrial surface, on must understand the interactions between CO2 source/sink relationships (associated with growing or clearing forests) and the albedo effects (from changes in terrestrial surface cover). There is some evidence that in the Eurasian Boreal zone, the Carbon budget effects from forest change may oppose the albedo changes. This creates complex feedbacks between surface and atmosphere and motivates the need for a forest dynamics model that simultaneous represents forest vegetation and carbon storage and release. A forest dynamics model applied to Eastern Eurasia, FAREAST, has been tested using three types of information: 1. Direct species composition comparisons between simulated and observed mature forests at the same locations; 2. Forest type comparisons between simulated and observed forests along altitudinal gradients of several different mountains; 3. Comparison with forest stands in different succession stages of simulated forests. Model comparisons with independent data indicate the FAREAST model is capable of representing many of the broad features of the forests of Northeastern China. After model validation in the Northeast China region, model applications were developed for the forests of the Russian Far East. Continental-scale forest cover can be simulated to a relatively realistic degree using a forest gap model with standard representations of individual-plant processes. It appears that such a model, validated relatively locally in this case, in Northeastern China, can then be applied over a much larger region and under conditions of climatic change.

  1. A Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Zittel, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming beginning with the first thought of forming metal by using an electromagnetic impulse to today, whereby High Speed Metal Forming is an accepted production process. Although this paper will briefly cover the basic physics of the process, it will not dwell on it. It will rather show how the industrial acceptance of High Speed Metal Forming is tightly connected to the knowledge acquired from many applications studies. These ...

  2. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  3. Covering Resilience: A Recent Development for Binomial Checkpointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-09-12

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, required, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algorithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We describe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding implementation and discuss first numerical results.

  4. Ka-Band Slot-Microstrip-Covered and Waveguide-Cavity-Backed Monopulse Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A slot-microstrip-covered and waveguide-cavity-backed monopulse antenna array is proposed for high-resolution tracking applications at Ka-band. The monopulse antenna array is designed with a microstrip with 2×32 slots, a waveguide cavity, and a waveguide monopulse comparator, to make the structure simple, reduce the feeding network loss, and increase the frequency bandwidth. The 2×32 slot-microstrip elements are formed by a metal clad dielectric substrate and slots etched in the metal using the standard printed circuit board (PCB process with dimensions of 230 mm  ×  10 mm. The proposed monopulse antenna array not only maintains the advantages of the traditional waveguide slot antenna array, but also has the characteristics of wide bandwidth, high consistence, easy of fabrication, and low cost. From the measured results, it exhibits good monopulse characteristics, including the following: the maximum gains of sum pattern are greater than 24 dB, the 3 dB beamwidth of sum pattern is about 2.2 degrees, the sidelobe levels of the sum pattern are less than −18 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than −25 dB within the operating bandwidth between 33.65 GHz and 34.35 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2.

  5. Review of Land Use and Land Cover Change research progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yue; Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Pei

    2018-02-01

    Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) can reflect the pattern of human land use in a region, and plays an important role in space soil and water conservation. The study on the change of land use patterns in the world is of great significance to cope with global climate change and sustainable development. This paper reviews the main research progress of LUCC at home and abroad, and suggests that land use change has been shifted from land use planning and management to land use change impact and driving factors. The development of remote sensing technology provides the basis and data for LUCC with dynamic monitoring and quantitative analysis. However, there is no uniform standard for land use classification at present, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the collection and analysis of land cover data. Globeland30 is an important milestone contribution to the study of international LUCC system. More attention should be paid to the accuracy and results contrasting test of land use classification obtained by remote sensing technology.

  6. Forms of Life, Forms of Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio Donatelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores aspects of the notion of forms of life in the Wittgensteinian tradition especially following Iris Murdoch’s lead. On the one hand, the notion signals the hardness and inexhaustible character of reality, as the background needed in order to make sense of our lives in various ways. On the other, the hardness of reality is the object of a moral work of apprehension and deepening to the point at which its distinctive character dissolves into the family of connections we have gained for ourselves. The two movements of thought are connected and necessary.

  7. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  8. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  9. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Majumdar, Sucheta; Mali, Mahendra; Shah, Nabha

    2017-01-01

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  10. Three forms of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The physical sense of three forms of the relativity is discussed. The first - instant from - respects in fact the traditional approach based on the concept of instant distance. The normal form corresponds the radar formulation which is based on the light or retarded distances. The front form in the special case is characterized by 'observable' variables, and the known method of k-coefficient is its obvious expression. 16 refs

  11. Neutron electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Madey, R.; Eden, T.; Markowitz, P.; Rutt, P.M.; Beard, K.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Keane, D.; Manley, D.M.; Watson, J.W.; Zhang, W.M.; Kowalski, S.; Bertozzi, W.; Dodson, G.; Farkhondeh, M.; Dow, K.; Korsch, W.; Tieger, D.; Turchinetz, W.; Weinstein, L.; Gross, F.; Mougey, J.; Ulmer, P.; Whitney, R.; Reichelt, T.; Chang, C.C.; Kelly, J.J.; Payerle, T.; Cameron, J.; Ni, B.; Spraker, M.; Barkhuff, D.; Lourie, R.; Verst, S.V.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Jiang, W.-D.; Flanders, B.; Pella, P.; Arenhoevel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon form factors provide fundamental input for nuclear structure and quark models. Current knowledge of neutron form factors, particularly the electric form factor of the neutron, is insufficient to meet these needs. Developments of high-duty-factor accelerators and polarization-transfer techniques permit new experiments that promise results with small sensitivities to nuclear models. We review the current status of the field, our own work at the MIT/Bates linear accelerator, and future experimental efforts

  12. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Sudarshan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Brink, Lars [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Physics & Applied Physics,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Majumdar, Sucheta [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Mali, Mahendra [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum 695016 (India); Shah, Nabha [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-31

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  13. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  14. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  15. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  16. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  17. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M.J.; Bueno, M.I.M.S.; Lima, T.A.; Lopes, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil) using EDXRF technique. The XRF system used in this work consists in a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC, with resolution of 180 eV, at 5.9 keV, and a mini X-ray tube with Mo anode. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to evaluated the provenance of the samples

  18. Nielsen number of a covering map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jezierski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering pH:X˜H→X over a compact polyhedron and a map f:X→X admitting a lift f˜:X˜H→X˜H. We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number N(f as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.

  19. 75 FR 28777 - Information Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Request... currently approved information collection; Financial Information Security Request Form. DATES: Comments must... Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Information Security...

  20. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  1. Identification and quantification of nitrogen cycling processes in cryptogamic covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Wu, Dianming; Lenhart, Katharina; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Clough, Tim; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Behrendt, Thomas; Büdel, Burkhard; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul; Keppler, Frank; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Cryptogamic covers (CC) comprise communities of photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens, algae, and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, microfungi, and archaea in varying proportions. Depending on their habitat, cryptogamic rock covers, cryptogamic plant covers, and cryptogamic soil covers are distinguished. The latter comprise biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which globally occur under dryland conditions. In a first assessment of their global role, we quantified that CC fix ˜49 Tg of nitrogen (N) per year (Elbert et al., 2013), corresponding to ˜1/2 of the maximum terrestrial biological N fixation determined in the latest IPCC report. The fixed N is used for biomass formation and partially leached into the ground, where it can be taken up by plants or transformed into N oxides, being emitted into the atmosphere. We show that biocrusts release nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO), which are key species in the global cycling of nitrogen and in the production of ozone and hydroxyl radicals, regulating the oxidizing power and self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere. Based on laboratory, field and satellite measurement data, we obtained a best estimate of 1.1 Tg a-1 of NO-N and 0.6 Tg a-1 of HONO-N being globally emitted by biocrusts, corresponding to ˜20% of the global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation (Weber et al., 2015). During full wetting and drying cycles, emissions peaked at low water contents suggesting NO- and HONO-formation under aerobic conditions during nitrification. Other measurements revealed that cryptogamic organisms release nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas of crucial importance for climate change. The emission rates varied with temperature, humidity, and N deposition, but divided by respiratory CO2 emission they formed an almost constant ratio, which allowed upscaling on the global scale. We estimated annual N2O emissions of 0.3 - 0.6 Tg by cryptogams, accounting for 4-9% of the global N2O

  2. An autocorrelation analysis approach to detecting land cover change using hyper-temporal time-series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human settlement expansion is one of the most pervasive forms of land cover change in the Gauteng province of South Africa. A method for detecting new settlement developments in areas that are typically covered by natural vegetation using 500m MODIS...

  3. 40 CFR 80.606 - What national security exemption applies to fuels covered under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What national security exemption... national security exemption applies to fuels covered under this subpart? (a) The standards of all the fuels..., including locomotive and marine, having an EPA national security exemption from the motor vehicle emission...

  4. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for Public... for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake... operating criteria for MSWLFs, including landfill location restrictions, operating standards, design...

  5. Features of the standard evaluation of agricultural land in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Опара

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Normative pecuniary valuation of land belongs to important economic regulators of land relations in Ukraine. Indicators of monetary valuation of land plots are used to determine the size of the land tax, the State duty at exchange, inheritance and the donation of land rent for land plots of the state and communal property, loss of agricultural and forestry production, as well as in the development of indicators and economic mechanisms to stimulate rational use and protection of lands. Normative monetary valuation of agricultural land is defined according to the standards of capitalized rent income on land for agricultural purposes and indicators of soils bonitet by drafting evaluation scales of agroindustrial groups of soils in natural agricultural areas. Index of standard capitalized rent on income reflects the profitability of a business. The soil differences appear on soil maps and they are the main target of the regulatory evaluation. The main source of information about the soil cover of agricultural land should actually be made by Derzhgeocadastr archives and its subordinate State enterprises according to the results of standard evaluation of a single agricultural land plot under the territorial authority of Derzhgeocadastr through administrative services at the location of the land. An extract from the technical documentation about the regulatory assessments of land must be published in time not exceeding three working days from the date of receipt of the corresponding application. The introduction of new methodological approach to the standard evaluation of agricultural lands involves the simplification of access of landowners and land users to data evaluation, based on possible continuous evaluation of administrative districts and providing information about the assessment of the particular land plot in the form of extract from the technical documentation of the standard evaluation, which will be determined on the basis of standard

  6. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  7. The Regional Land Cover Monitoring System: Building regional capacity through innovative land cover mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Tenneson, K.; Hanh, Q. N.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Aung, K. S.; Goldstein, J.; Cutter, P. G.; Maus, P.; Markert, K. N.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Ate, P.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Vadrevu, K.; Potapov, P.; Phongsapan, K.; Chishtie, F.; Clinton, N.; Ganz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, products, and services are vital to support the environmental decision making by governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and the general public. At the heart of environmental decision making is the monitoring land cover and land use change (LCLUC) for land resource planning and for ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and resilience to climate change. A major challenge for monitoring LCLUC in developing regions, such as Southeast Asia, is inconsistent data products at inconsistent intervals that have different typologies across the region and are typically made in without stakeholder engagement or input. Here we present the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (RLCMS), a novel land cover mapping effort for Southeast Asia, implemented by SERVIR-Mekong, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries. The RLCMS focuses on mapping biophysical variables (e.g. canopy cover, tree height, or percent surface water) at an annual interval and in turn using those biophysical variables to develop land cover maps based on stakeholder definitions of land cover classes. This allows for flexible and consistent land cover classifications that can meet the needs of different institutions across the region. Another component of the RLCMS production is the stake-holder engagement through co-development. Institutions that directly benefit from this system have helped drive the development for regional needs leading to services for their specific uses. Examples of services for regional stakeholders include using the RLCMS to develop maps using the IPCC classification scheme for GHG emission reporting and developing custom annual maps as an input to hydrologic modeling/flood forecasting systems. In addition to the implementation of this system and the service stemming from the RLCMS in Southeast Asia, it is

  8. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  9. Glass microspheres covering film: first field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, G.; Filippi, F.

    2006-01-01

    A trial was carried out to evaluate, in the North-Centre of Italy, the behaviour in field of a new plastic covering film, prepared with the inclusion of empty glass microspheres (Solex). The trial was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The new film was compared to a covering film with the same optical (diffuse light) and constitutional (co-extruded three layers EVA-WPE) characteristics. Since the first results, the innovative film showed a better behaviour than the control one. It presented light and thermal conditions (lower temperature during the day and slightly higher temperature in the night, compared to the control film) that allowed a better growth and yield than the control film. The growth analysis of tomato showed that plants grown under glass microsphere film had an higher growth rate (dry weight/days) and thickness of leaves compared to the control one. The yield of tomato and eggplant presented an increase in plants cultivated under the innovative film, especially for number and weight of fruits. The commercial quality did not show any differences between the films, except for the flesh hardness of tomato: this could be explained with the fact that the glass microspheres film provides environmental conditions avoiding plant stress during some stages of its cycle [it

  10. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  11. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  12. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  13. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  14. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  15. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  16. 488-D Ash Basin Vegetative Cover Treatibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Don; Blake, John; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon-Jun; Czapka, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The 488-D Ash Basin is an unlined containment basin that received ash and coal reject material from the operation of a powerhouse at the USDOE's Savannah River Site, SC. They pyretic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage (AD), which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatens biota in down gradient wetlands. Establishment of a vegetative cover was examined as a remedial alternative for reducing AD generation within this system by enhanced utilization of rainwater and subsequent non-point source water pollution control. The low nutrient content, high acidity, and high salinity of the basin material, however, was deleterious to plant survivability. As such, studies to identify suitable plant species and potential adaptations, and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and/or chemical stabilization were needed. A randomized block design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five duplicated surface amendments (treatments) was developed. One hundred inoculated pine trees were planted on each plot. Herbaceous species were also planted on half of the plots in duplicated 1-m2 beds. After two growing seasons, deep ripping, subsurface amendments and surface covers were shown to be essential for the successful establishment of vegetation on the basin. This is the final report of the study.

  17. Method for forming materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  18. Infinity-Norm Permutation Covering Codes from Cyclic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Karni, Ronen; Schwartz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    We study covering codes of permutations with the $\\ell_\\infty$-metric. We provide a general code construction, which uses smaller building-block codes. We study cyclic transitive groups as building blocks, determining their exact covering radius, and showing linear-time algorithms for finding a covering codeword. We also bound the covering radius of relabeled cyclic transitive groups under conjugation.

  19. Modeling percent tree canopy cover: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen G. Moisen; Barry T. Wilson; Mark V. Finco; Warren B. Cohen; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover is a fundamental component of the landscape, and the amount of cover influences fire behavior, air pollution mitigation, and carbon storage. As such, efforts to empirically model percent tree canopy cover across the United States are a critical area of research. The 2001 national-scale canopy cover modeling and mapping effort was completed in 2006,...

  20. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  1. On the Structure of Covers of Sofic Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rune

    2011-01-01

    A canonical cover generalizing the left Fischer cover to arbitrary sofic shifts is introduced and used to prove that the left Krieger cover and the past set cover of a sofic shift can be divided into natural layers. These results are used to find the range of a flow-invariant and to investigate t...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a...

  3. Fuel element transport container with a removable cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannehl, G.; Fink, W.; Haenle, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cover of the fuel element transport container is removably fixed with screws on a flange as mechanical loads have to be expected during the transfer to the disposal plant. A ring-shaped or star-shaped clamping device grips over the cover. It has a clamp claw to lock the cover and permits unscrewing without unlocking the cover. (DG) [de

  4. 48 CFR 49.602-2 - Inventory forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory forms. 49.602-2... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Forms and Formats 49.602-2 Inventory forms. Standard Form (SF) 1428, Inventory Disposal Schedule, and SF 1429, Inventory Disposal Schedule—Continuation Sheet, shall...

  5. 25 CFR 571.12 - Audit standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall conform to generally accepted accounting principles and the annual audit shall conform to... INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.12 Audit standards. (a) Each tribe shall prepare comparative financial statements covering all financial activities of each class II and class III gaming operation on the tribe's Indian...

  6. Metaheuristic algorithms for building Covering Arrays: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Adriana Timaná-Peña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Covering Arrays (CA are mathematical objects used in the functional testing of software components. They enable the testing of all interactions of a given size of input parameters in a procedure, function, or logical unit in general, using the minimum number of test cases. Building CA is a complex task (NP-complete problem that involves lengthy execution times and high computational loads. The most effective methods for building CAs are algebraic, Greedy, and metaheuristic-based. The latter have reported the best results to date. This paper presents a description of the major contributions made by a selection of different metaheuristics, including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, particle swarm algorithms, and harmony search algorithms. It is worth noting that simulated annealing-based algorithms have evolved as the most competitive, and currently form the state of the art.

  7. Cost-covering remuneration - wind and solar energy skinned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the details of Switzerland's cost-covering remuneration scheme for electrical energy from renewable resources are discussed. Several experts from the renewable energies area express their opinions on the scheme's tariffs for the remuneration of electrical energy fed into the public mains. Wind energy is quoted as being 'skinned', with a lower tariff than before and solar energy is quoted as being promoted 'with the hand brake still on'. Geothermal energy and power from biomass power stations is quoted as being 'undamaged' by the new remuneration system. In general, the opinion is expressed that small investors and producers have, once more, been put at a disadvantage. The situation in Switzerland is briefly compared with that in Germany, France, Spain and Italy. An overview of the tariffs is presented in tabular form

  8. Hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Karlberg, Gustav; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of electrochemical hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd is presented. The size and shape of monoatomically high Pd islands formed on the Au(111) surface are determined using Monte Carlo simulations, for Pd coverages varying from 0.02 to 0.95 ML....... The energetics of adsorption and desorption of hydrogen on/from different types of sites on the Pd-Au(111) surface are assessed by means of density functional theory calculations combined with thermodynamic modeling. Based on the density functional and Monte Carlo data, the hydrogen evolution activity...... is evaluated with a micro-kinetic model. The analysis reproduces measured Pd-coverage-dependent activities for Pd submonolayers exceeding similar to 0.15 ML and enables the relative contributions from different types of electrocatalytically active sites to be determined. Finally, the implications of surface...

  9. Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The present paper reports some early results of an experimental investigation of edge scour in currents. Two kinds of measurements are made (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of secondary currents that take place near a junction between the stone cover and the sand bed in a clear......-water experiment; and (2) scour measurements in actual scour experiment in the live-bed regime. The early results indicate that edge scour in a steady current propagating in-line with a stone layer is caused by the combined action of two effects; (1) Primary flow and (2) Secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up...... the sediment and puts into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming adjacent to the toe of the stone layer....

  10. Research reactor standards and their impact on the TRIGA reactor community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society has established a standards committee devoted to writing standards for research reactors. This committee was formed in 1971 and has since that time written over 15 standards that cover all aspects of research reactor operation. The committee has representation from virtually every group concerned with research reactors and their operation. This organization includes University reactors, National laboratory reactors, Nuclear Regulatory commission, Department of Energy and private nuclear companies and insurers. Since its beginning the committee has developed standards in the following areas: Standard for the development of technical specifications for research reactors; Quality control for plate-type uranium-aluminium fuel elements; Records and reports for research reactors; Selection and training of personnel for research reactors; Review of experiments for research reactors; Research reactor site evaluation; Quality assurance program requirements for research reactors; Decommissioning of research reactors; Radiological control at research reactor facilities; Design objectives for and monitoring of systems controlling research reactor effluents; Physical security for research reactor facilities; Criteria for the reactor safety systems of research reactors; Emergency planning for research reactors; Fire protection program requirements for research reactors; Standard for administrative controls for research reactors. Besides writing the above standards, the committee is very active in using communications with the nuclear regulatory commission on proposed rules or positions which will affect the research reactor community

  11. Webinar: Simplifying Sustainable Purchasing Through Guidelines and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar will cover EPA’s effort to simplify green purchasing through recommendations of specifications, standards, and ecolabels. EPA’s work in this area is intended to help federal purchasers identify and procure environmentally sustainable products.

  12. Analysis of radon protection cover on uranium tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhe

    1993-01-01

    The average radon emanation rate of the whole surface over one year was used for evaluating the radon release of uranium tailings pile. The effective of radon protection cover depends on the shape and property of the tailings pile, the properties of covering and the control of air vadose in the pile. It was indicated that the covering with low diffusion coefficient, small porosity and bad permeability was suitable to cover the pile. The analytical formula of the covering layer thickness was given

  13. Weed Control with Cover Crops in Irrigated Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    G.H. Mehring; J.E. Stenger; H.M. Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments at Oakes, ND, USA in 2010 and Carrington, ND, USA in 2011 were conducted to evaluate the potential for cover crops grown in the Northern Great Plains, USA in order to reduce weed emergence and density in irrigated potatoes. Treatments included five cover crop treatments and three cover crop termination treatments. Termination of cover crops was done with glyphosate, disk-till, and roto-till. Cover crop biomass accumulation was greatest for rye/canola and triticale at Oakes, ...

  14. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes. More Information: Fact Sheet Image of a report cover | Presentation Image of a report cover for A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits State policymakers, public utilities commissions, and

  15. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  16. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  17. An Examination of Undefined Forms of Proof in Academic Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Willard A.

    Although texts on debate and argumentation deal with accepted forms of evidence, reasoning, and logical methods of proof, they do not cover adequately the "undefined" forms of proof. Criteria of evidence found in forensic literature are not always followed strictly by judges, in courtroom or classroom. Many debate judges allow imprecise, vague, or…

  18. Editorial: Journal article reporting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E

    2018-01-01

    In this editorial, the author notes that this issue of American Psychologist features a pair of important articles related to newly updated standards for reporting research in psychology in scientific journals, covering both quantitative (Appelbaum et al., 2018) and qualitative (Levitt et al., 2018) research. The increasing breadth and complexity of research, and the importance of communicating it effectively, requires user-friendly resources that can be applied widely to scientific studies. These two articles are intended to serve that purpose, and to encourage thoroughness and accuracy in research reporting, for psychologists and other scientists in broader academic communities. The articles, known as the Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) reports, are based on the work of a task force appointed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Publications and Communications Board in 2015. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambell, R.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The work reported was carried out during the first year of the Commission of the European Community's programme on the characterization of low and medium level waste forms. Ten reference waste forms plus others of special national interest have been identified covering PWR, BWR, GCR and reprocessing wastes. The immobilising media include the three main matrices: cement, polymers and bitumen, and a glass. Characterization is viewed as one input to quality assurance of the waste form and covers: waste-matrix compatibility, radiation effects, leaching, microbiological attack, shrinkage and swelling, ageing processes and thermal effects. The aim is a balanced programme of comparative data, predictive modelling and an undserstanding of basic mechanisms

  20. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined