WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard code practices

  1. C++ Coding Standards 101 Rules, Guidelines, and Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, Herb

    2005-01-01

    Consistent, high-quality coding standards improve software quality, reduce time-to-market, promote teamwork, eliminate time wasted on inconsequential matters, and simplify maintenance. Now, two of the world's most respected C++ experts distill the rich collective experience of the global C++ community into a set of coding standards that every developer and development team can understand and use as a basis for their own coding standards.

  2. Development of standards, codes of practice and guidelines at the national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Standards, codes of practice and guidelines are defined and their different roles in radiation protection specified. The work of the major bodies that develop such documents in Australia - the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Standards Association of Australia - is discussed. The codes of practice prepared under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act, 1978, an act of the Australian Federal Parliament, are described and the guidelines associated with them outlined. 5 refs

  3. Safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation in the UK, Europe and internationally. Management of health and safety in the UK is discussed, and the characteristics of phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are described. Fuel cell power plant standards and manufacture in the UK, design and operational considerations, end of life disposal, automotive fuel cell system, and fuelling and vehicular concerns are explored, and standards, legislation and codes of practice are explained in the appendix.

  4. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  5. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  6. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and

  7. Views of Evidence-Based Practice: Social Workers' Code of Ethics and Accreditation Standards as Guides for Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Different views of evidence-based practice (EBP) include defining it as the use of empirically-validated treatments and practice guidelines (i.e., the EBPs approach) in contrast to the broad philosophy and related evolving process described by the originators. Social workers can draw on their code of ethics and accreditation standards both to…

  8. The Teaching of the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educator Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Marvin; Thompson, J. Ray; Templeton, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative research study was to answer three basic informational questions: (1) To what extent ethics training, as stipulated in Texas Administrative Code Chapter 247, was included in the EPP curriculum; (2) To what extent Texas public universities with approved EPP programs provided faculty opportunities for…

  9. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Colin; Hone, Christopher; Nowlan, N.V.

    1984-05-01

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  10. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  11. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  12. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  13. Effective enforcement of the forest practices code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The British Columbia Forest Practices Code establishes a scheme to guide and direct forest harvesting and other forest uses in concert with other related acts. The Code is made up of the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act, regulations, standards, and guidebooks. This document provides information on Code enforcement. It reviews the roles of the three provincial resource ministries and the Attorney General in enforcing the code, the various activities undertaken to ensure compliance (including inspections, investigations, and responses to noncompliance), and the role of the public in helping to enforce the Code. The appendix contains a list of Ministry of Forests office locations and telephone numbers.

  14. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  15. Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. An international code of practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1987 an International Code of Practice entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS-277)), recommending procedures to obtain the absorbed dose in water from measurements made with an ionization chamber in external beam radiotherapy. A second edition of TRS-277 was published in 1997 updating the dosimetry of photon beams, mainly kilovoltage X rays. Another International Code of Practice for radiotherapy dosimetry entitled 'The Use of Plane-Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381 (TRS-381)) was published in 1997 to further update TRS-277 and complement it with respect to the area of parallel-plate ionization chambers. Both codes have proven extremely valuable for users involved in the dosimetry of the radiation beams used in radiotherapy. In TRS-277 the calibration of the ionization chambers was based on primary standards of air kerma; this procedure was also used in TRS-381, but the new trend of calibrating ionization chambers directly in a water phantom in terms of absorbed dose to water was introduced. The development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams, and improvements in radiation dosimetry concepts, offer the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage X rays, as well as that of proton and heavy ion beams, interest in which has grown considerably in recent years, can also be based on these standards. Thus a coherent dosimetry system based on standards of absorbed dose to water is possible for practically all radiotherapy beams. Many Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) already provide calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water at the radiation quality of 60 Co gamma rays. Some laboratories have extended calibrations to high energy photon and

  16. Rulemaking efforts on codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millman, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Section 50.55a of the NRC regulations provides a mechanism for incorporating national codes and standards into the regulatory process. It incorporates by reference ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B and PV Code) Section 3 rules for construction and Section 11 rules for inservice inspection and inservice testing. The regulation is periodically amended to update these references. The rulemaking process, as applied to Section 50.55a amendments, is overviewed to familiarize users with associated internal activities of the NRC staff and the manner in which public comments are integrated into the process. The four ongoing rulemaking actions that would individually amend Section 50.55a are summarized. Two of the actions would directly impact requirements for inservice testing. Benefits accrued with NRC endorsement of the ASME B and PV Code, and possible future endorsement of the ASME Operations and Maintenance Code (ASME OM Code), are identified. Emphasis is placed on the need for code writing committees to be especially sensitive to user feedback on code rules incorporated into the regulatory process to ensure that the rules are complete, technically accurate, clear, practical, and enforceable

  17. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  18. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  19. Code of practice for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo Boo Huat

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the use of ionizing radiation in Malaysia was governed by the Radioactive Substances Act of 1968. After 1984, its use came under the control of Act 304, called the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984. Under powers vested by the Act, the Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standards) Regulations 1988 were formulated to regulate its use. These Acts do not provide information on proper working procedures. With the publication of the codes of Practice by The Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), the users are now able to follow proper guidelines and use ionizing radiation safely and beneficially. This paper discusses the relevant sections in the following codes: 1. Code of Practice for Radiation Protection (Medical X-ray Diagnosis) MS 838:1983. 2. Code of Practice for Safety in Laboratories Part 4: Ionizing radiation MS 1042: Part 4: 1992. (author)

  20. Code of practice for food handler activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Kanas, R P; McCoubrey, I A; Belton, M E

    2005-08-01

    The food industry regulates various aspects of food handler activities, according to legislation and customer expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a code of practice which delineates a set of working standards for food handler hygiene, handwashing, use of protective equipment, wearing of jewellery and body piercing. The code was developed by a working group of occupational physicians with expertise in both food manufacturing and retail, using a risk assessment approach. Views were also obtained from other occupational physicians working within the food industry and the relevant regulatory bodies. The final version of the code (available in full as Supplementary data in Occupational Medicine Online) therefore represents a broad consensus of opinion. The code of practice represents a set of minimum standards for food handler suitability and activities, based on a practical assessment of risk, for application in food businesses. It aims to provide useful working advice to food businesses of all sizes.

  1. Ethics Standards Impacting Test Development and Use: A Review of 31 Ethics Codes Impacting Practices in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Mark M.; Oakland, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Ethics codes are designed to protect the public by prescribing behaviors professionals are expected to exhibit. Although test use is universal, albeit reflecting strong Western influences, previous studies that examine the degree issues pertaining to test development and use and that are addressed in ethics codes of national psychological…

  2. Data Representation, Coding, and Communication Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Milon; Dhir, Rajiv

    2015-06-01

    The immense volume of cases signed out by surgical pathologists on a daily basis gives little time to think about exactly how data are stored. An understanding of the basics of data representation has implications that affect a pathologist's daily practice. This article covers the basics of data representation and its importance in the design of electronic medical record systems. Coding in surgical pathology is also discussed. Finally, a summary of communication standards in surgical pathology is presented, including suggested resources that establish standards for select aspects of pathology reporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality assurance requirements in various codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; EL-Sayed, A.; Aly, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The quality assurance requirements in various countries and according to various international codes and standards are presented, compared and critically discussed. Cases of developing countries are also discussed, and the use of IAEA code of practice and other codes for quality assurance in these countries is reviewed. Recommendations are made regarding the quality assurance system to be applied for Egypt's nuclear power plants

  4. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving......Mobile robots often use a distributed architecture in which software components are deployed to heterogeneous hardware modules. Ensuring the consistency with the designed architecture is a complex task, notably if functional safety requirements have to be fulfilled. We propose to use a domain...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  5. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  6. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  7. Nondestructive testing standards and the ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanner, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) requirements and standards are an important part of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In this paper, the evolution of these requirements and standards is reviewed in the context of the unique technical and legal stature of the ASME Code. The coherent and consistent manner by which the ASME Code rules are organized is described, and the interrelationship between the various ASME Code sections, the piping codes, and the ASTM Standards is discussed. Significant changes occurred in ASME Sections 5 and 11 during the 1980s, and these are highlighted along with projections and comments regarding future trends and changes in these important documents. 4 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  9. Electrical, instrumentation, and control codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranning, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    During recent years numerous documents in the form of codes and standards have been developed and published to provide design, fabrication and construction rules and criteria applicable to instrumentation, control and power distribution facilities for nuclear power plants. The contents of this LTR were prepared by NUS Corporation under Subcontract K5108 and provide a consolidated index and listing of the documents selected for their application to procurement of materials and design of modifications and new construction at the LOFT facility. These codes and standards should be applied together with the National Electrical Code, the ID Engineering Standards and LOFT Specifications to all LOFT instrument and electrical design activities

  10. The IPEM code of practice for determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on the NPL air kerma standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidmead, A M; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F; Locks, S M; Lee, C D; Aird, E G A; Flynn, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the recommendations of the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy working party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a Code of Practice (COP) for the UK for measuring the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. In 2004, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) commissioned a primary standard for the realization of RAKR of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. This has meant that it is now possible to calibrate ionization chambers directly traceable to an air kerma standard using an 192 Ir source (Sander and Nutbrown 2006 NPL Report DQL-RD 004 (Teddington: NPL) http://publications.npl.co.uk). In order to use the source specification in terms of either RAKR, .K R (ICRU 1985 ICRU Report No 38 (Washington, DC: ICRU); ICRU 1997 ICRU Report No 58 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)), or air kerma strength, S K (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34), it has been necessary to develop algorithms that can calculate the dose at any point around brachytherapy sources within the patient tissues. The AAPM TG-43 protocol (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34) and the 2004 update TG-43U1 (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633-74) have been developed more fully than any other protocol and are widely used in commercial treatment planning systems. Since the TG-43 formalism uses the quantity air kerma strength, whereas this COP uses RAKR, a unit conversion from RAKR to air kerma strength was included in the appendix to this COP. It is recommended that the measured RAKR determined with a calibrated well chamber traceable to the NPL 192 Ir primary standard is used in the treatment planning system. The measurement uncertainty in the source calibration based on the system described in this COP has been reduced considerably compared to other methods based on interpolation techniques.

  11. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  12. Recent activities on nuclear codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi; Ishimoto, Shozaburo; Honjin, Masao

    2000-01-01

    The technical codes and standards relating to the nuclear power stations in Japan are prepared by shapes of laws (ministerial ordinances and bulletins) issued by the government and obliged to comply with by 'the Law concerning the Regulations of Nuclear Material Substances, Nuclear Fuel Substances and Nuclear Reactors' and 'the Electricity Business Act' and of guides defined by the Nuclear Safety Commission, and further some private standards have been issued at a shape of complement of these laws and guides by receiving national recommendation. On the other hand, in the fields of electricity and heat facilities except atomic energy, simplification and feature stipulation of the national technical codes and standards was recently carried out, by which a system usable for the private standards in and out of Japan were prepared through approval of the private Japan Electrotechnical Standards and Codes Committee (JESC). As the nuclear field was now excepted from simultaneous transfer to the private standard and the standard application system, it is expected in future to realize similar transfer if possible and preparation of the private standards is now being advanced. Here were introduced on present state on technical codes and standards relating to the nuclear power generation facilities and recent trends on their private standardization. (G.K.)

  13. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimba, B.W. Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

    1996-01-01

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  14. The Code of Ethics and Editorial Code of Practice of the Royal Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Whilst the Royal Astronomical Society has got by for more than 100 years without a written code of ethics, modern standards of governance suggested that such a code could be useful in the resolution of disputes. In 2005, the RAS adopted the Universal Code of Ethics for Science that had been formulated by the Royal Society of London. At the same time and for similar reasons the RAS adopted an Editorial Code of Practice.

  15. The status of Korean nuclear codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namha Kim; Jong-Hae Kim

    2005-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Industry Code (KEPIC), a set of integrated standards applicable to the design, construction and operation of electric power facilities including nuclear power plants, has been developed on the basis of referring to the prevailing U.S. codes and standards which had been applied to the electric power facilities in Korea. Being the developing and managing organization of KEPIC, Korea Electric Association (KEA) published its first edition in 1995, the second in 200,0 and is expected to publish the 2005 edition. KEPIC was applied to the construction of Ulchin Nuclear Units 5 and 6 in 1997, and will be applicable to the construction of forthcoming nuclear power plants in Korea. Along with the effectuation of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) in 1995, the international trend related to codes and standards is changing rapidly. The KEA is, therefore, making its utmost efforts so as for KEPIC to keep abreast with the changing environment in international arena. KEA notified ISO/IEC Information Centre of its acceptance of the Code of Good Practice in the Agreement on TBT. The 2005 KEPIC edition will be retrofitted according to the ISO/IEC Guide 21- Adoption of International Standards as regional or national standards. KEA's efforts will help KEPIC correspond with international standards such as ISO/IEC standards, and internationally recognized standards such as ASME codes and standards. (authors)

  16. QR CODE IN LIBRARY PRACTICE SOME EXAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Shanker Mishra*, Sachin Kumar Umre, Pavan Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) code is one such technology which can cater to the user demand of providing access to resources through mobile. The main objective of this article to review the concept of Quick Response Code (QR code) and describe the practice of reading and generating QR codes. Research paper attempt to the basic concept, structure, technological pros and cons of the QR code. The literature is filled with potential uses for Quick Response (QR) codes in the library practices like e-resour...

  17. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  18. Practicing the Code of Ethics, finding the image of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for Nurses gives a professional obligation to practice in a compassionate and respectful way that is unaffected by the attributes of the patient. This article explores the concept "made in the image of God" and the complexities inherent in caring for those perceived as exhibiting distorted images of God. While the Code provides a professional standard consistent with a biblical worldview, human nature impacts the ability to consistently act congruently with the Code. Strategies and nursing interventions that support development of practice from a biblical worldview and the Code of Ethics for Nurses are presented.

  19. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  20. Globalization of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, Rick; Erler, Bryan A.

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization of the nuclear industry, it is clear that the reactor suppliers are based in many countries around the world (such as United States, France, Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa) and they will be marketing their reactors to many countries around the world (such as US, China, South Korea, France, Canada, Finland, Taiwan). They will also be fabricating their components in many different countries around the world. With this situation, it is clear that the requirements of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards need to be adjusted to accommodate the regulations, fabricating processes, and technology of various countries around the world. It is also very important for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to be able to assure that products meeting the applicable ASME Code requirements will provide the same level of safety and quality assurance as those products currently fabricated under the ASME accreditation process. To do this, many countries are in the process of establishing or changing their regulations, and it is important for ASME to interface with the appropriate organizations in those countries, in order to ensure there is effective use of ASME Codes and standards around the world. (authors)

  1. Improving coding accuracy in an academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana; O'Mara, Heather; Powell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Practice management has become an increasingly important component of graduate medical education. This applies to every practice environment; private, academic, and military. One of the most critical aspects of practice management is documentation and coding for physician services, as they directly affect the financial success of any practice. Our quality improvement project aimed to implement a new and innovative method for teaching billing and coding in a longitudinal fashion in a family medicine residency. We hypothesized that implementation of a new teaching strategy would increase coding accuracy rates among residents and faculty. Design: single group, pretest-posttest. military family medicine residency clinic. Study populations: 7 faculty physicians and 18 resident physicians participated as learners in the project. Educational intervention: monthly structured coding learning sessions in the academic curriculum that involved learner-presented cases, small group case review, and large group discussion. overall coding accuracy (compliance) percentage and coding accuracy per year group for the subjects that were able to participate longitudinally. Statistical tests used: average coding accuracy for population; paired t test to assess improvement between 2 intervention periods, both aggregate and by year group. Overall coding accuracy rates remained stable over the course of time regardless of the modality of the educational intervention. A paired t test was conducted to compare coding accuracy rates at baseline (mean (M)=26.4%, SD=10%) to accuracy rates after all educational interventions were complete (M=26.8%, SD=12%); t24=-0.127, P=.90. Didactic teaching and small group discussion sessions did not improve overall coding accuracy in a residency practice. Future interventions could focus on educating providers at the individual level.

  2. TOWARDS ENERGY-AWARE CODING PRACTICES FOR ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João SARAIVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the use of different coding practices when developing Android applications influence energy consumption. We consider two common Java/Android programming practices, namely string operations and (non cached image loading, and we show the energy profile of different coding practices for doing them. With string operations, we compare the performance of the usage of the standard String class to the usage of the StringBuilder class, while with our second practice we evaluate the benefits of image caching with asynchronous loading. We externally measure energy consumption of the example applications using the Trepn profiler application by Qualcomm. Our preliminary results show that selected coding practices do significantly affect energy consumption, in the particular cases of our practice selection, this difference varies between 20% and 50%.

  3. Merits and difficulties in adopting codes, standards and nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Saiedi, A.F.; Morsy, S.; Mariy, A.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries planning for introducing nuclear power plants as a source of energy have to develop or adopt sound regulatory practices. These are necessary to help governmental authorities to assess the safety of nuclear power plants and to perform inspections needed to confirm the established safe and sound limits. The first requirement is to form an independent regulatory body capable of setting up and enforcing proper safety regulations. The formation of this body is governed by several considerations related to local conditions in the developing countries, which may not always be favourable. It is quite impractical for countries with limited experience in the nuclear power field to develop their own codes, standards and regulations required for the nuclear regulatory body to perform its tasks. A practical way is to adopt codes, standards and regulations of a well-developed country. This has merits as well as drawbacks. The latter are related to problems of personnel, software, equipment and facilities. The difficulties involved in forming a nuclear regulatory body, and the merits and difficulties in adopting foreign codes, standards and regulations required for such body to perform its tasks, are discussed in this paper. Discussions are applicable to many developing countries and particular emphasis is given to the conditions and practices in Egypt. (author)

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    resources linked below help project developers and code officials prepare and review code-compliant projects , storage, and infrastructure. The following charts show the SDOs responsible for these alternative fuel codes and standards. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Electric Vehicle and

  5. Review of codes, standards, and regulations for natural gas locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report identified, collected, and summarized relevant international codes, standards, and regulations with potential : applicability to the use of natural gas as a locomotive fuel. Few international or country-specific codes, standards, and regu...

  6. Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

  7. Code of Practice containing definitions for Safety Codes of Practice for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Code provides definitions of the technical terms used in the licensing applications to be submitted to the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC), in accordance with national licensing regulations. The Code is based mainly on the International Atomic Energy Agency's Code of Practice on the subject. (NEA) [fr

  8. AD codes of practice 'pressure vessels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefe, G.

    1978-01-01

    Within the AD-Regelwerk, a manual of regulations, the AD codes of practice HP1 and HP20 have been published for the first time. In contrast to the already existing codes of practice of the series HP, these leaflets do not mainly contain changes in the test details and the course of the procedure, but, in a summarized form, that which has been practiced for years. Comments on the new codes concentrate mainly on those things, which are really new, or which might appear to be new. Furthermore, control lists and proposals for printed forms, addressed to designers and supervisors on the side of the manufacturers, are to contribute to the tests being carried out economically. (orig./RW) [de

  9. Development of a national code of practice for structural masonry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems and constraints faced by most developing countries, particularly Ghana, in developing codes of practice for structural masonry are highlighted. The steps that must be undertaken through the coordinated efforts of the National Standards Boards, Research Institutions, Universities and Professional Bodies in the ...

  10. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  11. Review and comparison of WWER and LWR Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, D.; Tashkinov, A.; Brynda, J.; Davies, L.M.; Cueto-Felgeueroso, C.; Detroux, P.; Bieniussa, K.; Guinovart, J.

    2003-01-01

    The results of work on a collaborative project on comparison of Codes and Standards used for safety related components of the WWER and LWR type reactors is presented. This work was performed on behalf of the European Commission, Working Group Codes and Standards and considers areas such as rules, criteria and provisions, failure mechanisms , derivation and understanding behind the fatigue curves, piping, materials and aging, manufacturing and ISI. WWERs are essentially designed and constructed using the Russian PNAE Code together with special provisions in a few countries (e.g. Czech Republic) from national standards. The LWR Codes have a strong dependence on the ASME Code. Also within Western Europe other codes are used including RCC-M, KTA and British Standards. A comparison of procedures used in all these codes and standards have been made to investigate the potential for equivalencies between the codes and any grounds for future cooperation between eastern and western experts in this field. (author)

  12. Development of a code of practice for deep geothermal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, J.D.; Bolton, R.S.; Dench, N.D.; Fooks, L.

    1990-01-01

    Recent and on-going changes to the structure of the New Zealand geothermal industry has shifted responsibility for the development of geothermal resources from central government to private enterprise. The need for a code of practice for deep geothermal wells was identified by the Geothermal Inspectorate of the Ministry of Commerce to maintain adequate standards of health and safety and to assist with industry deregulation. This paper reports that the Code contains details of methods, procedures, formulae and design data necessary to attain those standards, and includes information which drilling engineers having experience only in the oil industry could not be expected to be familiar with

  13. International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mervin R.

    1989-01-01

    ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

  14. Coding Military Command as a Promiscuous Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashcraft, Karen Lee; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2018-01-01

    by translating the vague promise of queering leadership into a tangible method distinguished by specific habits. The article formulates this analytical practice out of empirical provocations encountered by the authors: namely, a striking mismatch between their experiences in military fields and the dominant......Despite abundant scholarship addressed to gender equity in leadership, much leadership literature remains invested in gender binaries. Metaphors of leadership are especially dependent on gender oppositions, and this article treats the scholarly practice of coding leadership through gendered...... metaphor as a consequential practice of leadership unto itself. Drawing on queer theory, the article develops a mode of analysis, called ‘promiscuous coding’, conducive to disrupting the gender divisions that currently anchor most leadership metaphors. Promiscuous coding can assist leadership scholars...

  15. Code of practice in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karma, S. E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research is to developing a draft for a new radiation protection code of practice in industrial radiography without ignoring that one issued in 1998 and meet the current international recommendation. Another aim of this study was to assess the current situation of radiation protection in some of the industrial radiography department in Sudan. To achieve the aims of this study, a draft of a code of practice has been developed which is based on international and local relevant recommendations. The developed code includes the following main issues: regulatory responsibilities, radiation protection program and design of radiation installation. The practical part of this study includes scientific visits to two of industrial radiography departments in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of that department with what state in the developed code. The result of each scientific visits revealed that most of the department do not have an effective radiation protection program and that could lead to exposure workers and public to unnecessary dose. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in industrial radiography department. (Author)

  16. Running code as part of an open standards policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rajiv; Kesan, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Governments around the world are considering implementing or even mandating open standards policies. They believe these policies will provide economic, socio-political, and technical benefits. In this article, we analyze the failure of the Massachusetts’s open standards policy as applied to document formats. We argue it failed due to the lack of running code. Running code refers to multiple independent, interoperable implementations of an open standard. With running code, users have choice ...

  17. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Chapter 4, Pulse Code Modulation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A-4 Appendix 4-B. Citations ...investigation can be found in a paper by J. L. Maury, Jr. and J. Styles , “Development of Optimum Frame Synchronization Codes for Goddard Space Flight Center...Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 4, July 2017 B-1 APPENDIX 4-B Citations Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer

  18. Grid Standards and Codes | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    photovoltaics (PV) adoption have given a sense of urgency to the standards development process. The Accelerating Systems Integration Standards team is addressing this urgency by providing leadership and direction for

  19. Final Report. An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Andrew [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The DOE grant, “An Integrated Partnership to Create and Lead the Solar Codes and Standards Working Group,” to New Mexico State University created the Solar America Board for Codes and Standards (Solar ABCs). From 2007 – 2013 with funding from this grant, Solar ABCs identified current issues, established a dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzed appropriate activities to support the development of codes and standards that facilitated the installation of high quality, safe photovoltaic systems. Solar ABCs brought the following resources to the PV stakeholder community; Formal coordination in the planning or revision of interrelated codes and standards removing “stove pipes” that have only roofing experts working on roofing codes, PV experts on PV codes, fire enforcement experts working on fire codes, etc.; A conduit through which all interested stakeholders were able to see the steps being taken in the development or modification of codes and standards and participate directly in the processes; A central clearing house for new documents, standards, proposed standards, analytical studies, and recommendations of best practices available to the PV community; A forum of experts that invites and welcomes all interested parties into the process of performing studies, evaluating results, and building consensus on standards and code-related topics that affect all aspects of the market; and A biennial gap analysis to formally survey the PV community to identify needs that are unmet and inhibiting the market and necessary technical developments.

  20. Lossless Coding Standards for Space Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    The International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is preparing to issue its first recommendation for a digital data compression standard. Because the space data systems of primary interest are employed to support scientific investigations requiring accurate representation, this initial standard will be restricted to lossless compression.

  1. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Bohlander, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program (SRP-UDP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. The SRP-UDP has been completed and the SRP-Maintenance Program (SRP-MP) is now maintaining this listing. Besides updating previous information, Revision 3 adds approximately 80 citations. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC's Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Enforcement Manual, Generic Letters, Inspection Manual, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, Standard Technical Specifications and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800)

  2. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Bohlander, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program (SRP-UDP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. The SRP-UDP has been completed and the SRP-Maintenance Program (SRP-MP) is now maintaining this listing. Besides updating previous information, Revision 3 adds approximately 80 citations. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC`s Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Enforcement Manual, Generic Letters, Inspection Manual, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, Standard Technical Specifications and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800).

  3. Representation mutations from standard genetic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisah, I.; Suyudi, M.; Carnia, E.; Suhendi; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Graph is widely used in everyday life especially to describe model problem and describe it concretely and clearly. In addition graph is also used to facilitate solve various kinds of problems that are difficult to be solved by calculation. In Biology, graph can be used to describe the process of protein synthesis in DNA. Protein has an important role for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid). Proteins are composed of amino acids. In this study, amino acids are related to genetics, especially the genetic code. The genetic code is also known as the triplet or codon code which is a three-letter arrangement of DNA nitrogen base. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). While on RNA thymine (T) is replaced with Urasil (U). The set of all Nitrogen bases in RNA is denoted by N = {C U, A, G}. This codon works at the time of protein synthesis inside the cell. This codon also encodes the stop signal as a sign of the stop of protein synthesis process. This paper will examine the process of protein synthesis through mathematical studies and present it in three-dimensional space or graph. The study begins by analysing the set of all codons denoted by NNN such that to obtain geometric representations. At this stage there is a matching between the sets of all nitrogen bases N with Z 2 × Z 2; C=(\\overline{0},\\overline{0}),{{U}}=(\\overline{0},\\overline{1}),{{A}}=(\\overline{1},\\overline{0}),{{G}}=(\\overline{1},\\overline{1}). By matching the algebraic structure will be obtained such as group, group Klein-4,Quotien group etc. With the help of Geogebra software, the set of all codons denoted by NNN can be presented in a three-dimensional space as a multicube NNN and also can be represented as a graph, so that can easily see relationship between the codon.

  4. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia in relation to the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency based on discussions with the authorities and other organizations and through a fiscal transparency questionnaire. It also provides recommendations for improving fisca...

  5. Comparison of codes and standards for radiographic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingoeldag, M. M.; Aksu, M.; Akguen, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    This report compares the procedurel requirements and acceptance criteria for radiographic inspections specified in the relevant national and international codes and standards. In particular, detailed analysis of inspection conditions such as exposure arrangements, and contrast requirements are given

  6. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  7. Standard problems for structural computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    BNL is investigating the ranges of validity of the analytical methods used to predict the behavior of nuclear safety related structures under accidental and extreme environmental loadings. During FY 85, the investigations were concentrated on special problems that can significantly influence the outcome of the soil structure interaction evaluation process. Specially, limitations and applicability of the standard interaction methods when dealing with lift-off, layering and water table effects, were investigated. This paper describes the work and the results obtained during FY 85 from the studies on lift-off, layering and water-table effects in soil-structure interaction

  8. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Private Fire Protection. P NFPA 36 Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants P NFPA 52 Vehicular Gaseous Fuel Systems Code P NFPA 67 Guideline on Explosion Protection for Gaseous N Mixtures in Pipe Systems. NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration P Venting. NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical...

  9. ASME nuclear codes and standards risk management strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, several risk-informed initiatives have been completed or are under development within the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organization. In order to better manage the numerous initiatives in the future, the ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards has recently developed and approved a Risk Management Strategic Plan. This paper presents the latest approved version of the plan beginning with a background of applications completed to date, including the recent issuance of the ASME Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Nuclear Power Plant Applications. The paper discusses potential applications within ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards that may require expansion of the PRA Standard, such as for new generation reactors, or the development of new PRA Standards. A long-term vision for the potential development and evolution to a nuclear systems code that adopts a risk-informed approach across a facility life-cycle (design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure) is summarized. Finally, near term and long term actions are defined across the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organizations related to risk management, and related U.S. regulatory activities are also summarized. (author)

  10. 76 FR 22383 - National Fire Codes: Request for Proposals for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Chemical Extinguishing Systems. NFPA 22-2008 Standard for Water 5/23/2011 Tanks for Private Fire Protection... Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1925-2008 Standard on Marine Fire- 5/23/2011 Fighting Vessels... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  11. On Code Parameters and Coding Vector Representation for Practical RLNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    RLNC provides a theoretically efficient method for coding. The drawbacks associated with it are the complexity of the decoding and the overhead resulting from the encoding vector. Increasing the field size and generation size presents a fundamental trade-off between packet-based throughput...... to higher energy consumption. Therefore, the optimal trade-off is system and topology dependent, as it depends on the cost in energy of performing coding operations versus transmitting data. We show that moderate field sizes are the correct choice when trade-offs are considered. The results show that sparse...

  12. Implementing Home Health Standards in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    In 1986, the American Nurses Association (ANA) published the first Standards of Home Health Practice. Revised in 1992 and expanded in 1999 to become Home Health Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, it was revised in 2008 and again in 2014. In the 2014 edition, there are 6 standards of home healthcare nursing practice and 10 standards of professional performance for home healthcare nursing. The focus of this article is to describe the home healthcare standards and to provide guidance for implementation in clinical practice. It is strongly encouraged that home healthcare administrators, educators, and staff obtain a copy of the standards and fully read this essential home healthcare resource.

  13. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Karen I.

    2007-05-12

    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  14. ASME nuclear codes and standards risk management strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.; Erler, Bryan A.; Wesley Rowley, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is prepared in honor and in memory of the late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada to recognize his contributions to ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards initiatives, particularly those related to risk-informed technology and System Based Code developments. For nearly two decades, numerous risk-informed initiatives have been completed or are under development within the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organization. In order to properly manage the numerous initiatives currently underway or planned for the future, the ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) has an established Risk Management Strategic Plan (Plan) that is maintained and updated by the ASME BNCS Risk Management Task Group. This paper presents the latest approved version of the plan beginning with a background of applications completed to date, including the recent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standards developments for nuclear power plant applications. The paper discusses planned applications within ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards that will require expansion of the ASME PRA Standard to support new advanced light water reactor and next generation reactor developments, such as for high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Emerging regulatory developments related to risk-informed, performance- based approaches are summarized. A long-term vision for the potential development and evolution to a nuclear systems code that adopts a risk-informed approach across a facility life-cycle (design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure) is also summarized. Finally, near term and long term actions are defined across the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organizations related to risk management, including related U.S. regulatory activities. (author)

  15. Building climate change into infrastructure codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, H.; Klaasen, J.; Morris, R.; Fernandez, S.; MacIver, D.; Bernstein, D.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Building codes and standards and the climatic design values embedded within these legal to semi-legal documents have profound safety, health and economic implications for Canada's infrastructure systems. The climatic design values that have been used for the design of almost all of today's more than $5.5 Trillion in infrastructure are based on historical climate data and assume that the extremes of the past will represent future conditions. Since new infrastructure based on codes and standards will be built to survive for decades to come, it is critically important that existing climatic design information be as accurate and up-to-date as possible, that the changing climate be monitored to detect and highlight vulnerabilities of existing infrastructure, that forensic studies of climate-related failures be undertaken and that codes and standards processes incorporate future climates and extremes as much as possible. Uncertainties in the current climate change models and their scenarios currently challenge our ability to project future extremes regionally and locally. Improvements to the spatial and temporal resolution of these climate change scenarios, along with improved methodologies to treat model biases and localize results, will allow future codes and standards to better reflect the extremes and weathering conditions expected over the lifespan of structures. In the meantime, other information and code processes can be used to incorporate changing climate conditions into upcoming infrastructure codes and standards, to “bridge” the model uncertainty gap and to complement the state of existing projections. This presentation will outline some of the varied information and processes that will be used to incorporate climate change adaptation into the next development cycle of the National Building Code of Canada and numerous other national CSA infrastructure standards. (author)

  16. Code of practice for clinical proton dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vynckier, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this document is to make recommendations for the determination of absorbed dose to tissue for clinical proton beams and to achieve uniformity in proton dosimetry. A Code of Practice (CoP) has been chosen, providing specific guidelines for the choice of the detector and the method of determination of absorbed dose for proton beams only. This CoP is confined specifically to the determination of absorbed dose and is not concerned with the biological effects of proton beams. It is recommended that dosimeters be calibrated by comparison with a calorimeter. If this is not available, a Faraday cup, or alter-natively, an ionization chamber, with a 60 Co calibration factor should be used. Physical parameters for determining the dose from tissue-equivalent ionization chamber measurements are given together with a worksheet. It is recommended that calibrations be carried out in water at the centre of the spread-out-Bragg-peak and that dose distributions be measured in a water phantom. It is estimated that the error in the calibrations will be less than +-5 per cent (1 S.D.) in all cases. Adoption and implementation of this CoP will facilitate the exchange of clinical information. (author). 34 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. 1995 building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    During the spring of 1995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted four two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the US. Workshops were held in Chicago, Denver, Rhode Island, and Atlanta. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing building energy codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about residential and commercial building energy codes and standards, the role of the US Department of Energy and the Building Standards and Guidelines Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. Participants heard success stories, got tips on enforcement training, and received technical support materials. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants had an opportunity to provide input on code adoption issues, building industry training issues, building design issues, and exemplary programs across the US. This paper documents the workshop planning, findings, and follow-up processes.

  18. Codes, standards, and requirements for DOE facilities: natural phenomena design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The basic requirements for codes, standards, and requirements are found in DOE Orders 5480.1A, 5480.4, and 6430.1. The type of DOE facility to be built and the hazards which it presents will determine the criteria to be applied for natural phenomena design. Mandatory criteria are established in the DOE orders for certain designs but more often recommended guidance is given. National codes and standards form a great body of experience from which the project engineer may draw. Examples of three kinds of facilities and the applicable codes and standards are discussed. The safety program planning approach to project management used at Westinghouse Hanford is outlined. 5 figures, 2 tables

  19. Lightening protection, techniques, applied codes and standards. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.; Shaaban, H.; Lamey, S.

    1996-01-01

    Lightening is the only natural disaster that protection against is highly effective. Therefore for the safety of critical installations specifically nuclear, an effective lightening protection system (LPS) is required. The design and installation of LPS's have been addressed by many international codes and standards. In this paper, the various LPS's are discussed and compared, including radioactive air terminals, ionizing air terminals, and terminals equipped with electrical trigging devices. Also, the so-called dissipation array systems are discussed and compared to other systems technically and economically. Moreover, the available international codes and standards related to the lightening protection are discussed. such standards include those published by the national fire protection association (NFPA), lightening protection institute (LPI), underwriters laboratories (UL), and british standards Finally, the possibility of developing an egyptian national standards is discussed

  20. 78 FR 24725 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). NFPA 61--2013 Standard for the 7/6/2015... Nitrate Film. NFPA 51--2013 Standard for the Design 7/6/2015 and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems... Charging Plants. NFPA 52--2013 Vehicular Gaseous Fuel 1/3/2014 Systems Code. NFPA 53--2011 Recommended...

  1. 77 FR 67340 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Water Mist Fire P Protection Systems. NFPA 921 Guide for Fire and Explosion P Investigations. NFPA 1005 Standard for Professional P Qualifications for Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1192... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  2. Medical devices regulations, standards and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wang, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Medical Devices and Regulations: Standards and Practices will shed light on the importance of regulations and standards among all stakeholders, bioengineering designers, biomaterial scientists and researchers to enable development of future medical devices. Based on the authors' practical experience, this book provides a concise, practical guide on key issues and processes in developing new medical devices to meet international regulatory requirements and standards. Provides readers with a global perspective on medical device regulationsConcise and comprehensive information on how to desig

  3. Code of practice for radiological protection in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code of Practice applies to all those involved in the practice of dentistry and is designed to minimise radiation doses to patients, dental staff and the public from the use of dental radiographic equipment

  4. Effective coding with VHDL principles and best practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jasinski, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    A guide to applying software design principles and coding practices to VHDL to improve the readability, maintainability, and quality of VHDL code. This book addresses an often-neglected aspect of the creation of VHDL designs. A VHDL description is also source code, and VHDL designers can use the best practices of software development to write high-quality code and to organize it in a design. This book presents this unique set of skills, teaching VHDL designers of all experience levels how to apply the best design principles and coding practices from the software world to the world of hardware. The concepts introduced here will help readers write code that is easier to understand and more likely to be correct, with improved readability, maintainability, and overall quality. After a brief review of VHDL, the book presents fundamental design principles for writing code, discussing such topics as design, quality, architecture, modularity, abstraction, and hierarchy. Building on these concepts, the book then int...

  5. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  6. CSA guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian wind energy sector has become one of the fastest-growing wind energy markets in the world. Growth of the industry has been supported by various government agencies. However, many projects have experienced cost over-runs or cancellations as a result of unclear regulatory requirements, and wind energy developers are currently subject to a variety of approval processes involving several different authorities. This Canadian Standards Association (CSA) guide provided general information on codes and standards related to the design, approval, installation, operation, and maintenance of wind turbines in Canada. CSA codes and standards were developed by considering 5 new standards adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee on Wind Turbines. The standards described in this document related to acoustic noise measurement techniques; power performance measurements of electricity-producing wind turbines; lightning protection for wind turbine generator systems; design requirements for turbines; and design requirements for small wind turbines. The guide addressed specific subject areas related to the development of wind energy projects that involve formal or regulatory approval processes. Subject areas included issues related to safety, environmental design considerations, site selection, and mechanical systems. Information on associated standards and codes was also included

  7. Passport of global nuclear business. ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Terajima, Makoto; Anami, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    There are possibilities of Japanese nuclear industries to participate in global business such as new and additional construction of nuclear power plants in US and also Asian and other developing countries in the world. It is requisite to acquire ASME code certificate for global business participation, just as passport. This article consists of five papers on present status of ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices of nuclear components vendors in the area of Japanese nuclear business. Activities of JSME Committee on Power Generation Facility Codes to make JSME codes corresponded to ASME nuclear codes and standards for their international deployment are also described. (T. Tanaka)

  8. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... for Solvent 5/23/2011 Extraction Plants. NFPA 51--2007 Standard for the Design and 11/23/2010... Practice for a 5/23/2011 Field Flame Test for Textiles and Films. NFPA 909--2010 Code for the Protection of...

  9. Cape Verde Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing financial reporting infrastructure that underpins financial accounting and auditing practices in Cape Verde. The assessment focuses on six pillars of financial reporting infrastructure: statutory framework, professional education and training, accountancy profe...

  10. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  11. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electronphoton transport problems

  12. Comparison of the General Electric BWR/6 standard plant design to the IAEA NUSS codes and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ardenne, W.H.; Sherwood, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds current requirements of published International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) codes and guides. This conclusion is based on a review of the NUSS codes and guides by General Electric and by the co-ordinated US review of the NUSS codes and guides during their development. General Electric compared the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides with the General Electric design. The applicability of each code and guide to the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design was determined. Each code or guide was reviewed by a General Electric engineer knowledgeable about the structures, systems and components addressed and the technical area covered by that code or guide. The results of this review show that the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the applicable requirements of the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides. The co-ordinated US review of the IAEA NUSS codes and guides corroborates the General Electric review. In the co-ordinated US review, the USNRC and US industry organizations (including General Electric) review the NUSS codes and guides during their development. This review ensures that the NUSS codes and guides are consistent with the current US government regulations, guidance and regulatory practices, US voluntary industry codes and standards, and accepted US industry design, construction and operational practices. If any inconsistencies are identified, comments are submitted to the IAEA by the USNRC. All US concerns submitted to the IAEA have been resolved. General Electric design reviews and the Final Design Approval (FDA) issued by the USNRC have verified that the General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the current US requirements, guidance and practices. Since these requirements, guidance and practices meet or exceed those of the NUSS codes and guides, so does the General Electric design. (author)

  13. Japanese national project for establishment of codes and standards for stationary PEFC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, S.; Ohmura, T.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kikuzawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose of practical utilization of the PEFC cogeneration system, we are promoting the national projects of the 'Establishment of Codes and Standards for Stationary PEFC System'. The objective is to prepare the software platforms for wide spreading use, which are required in the introduction stage of the PEFC cogeneration systems, such as code and standards for safety, reliability, performance and so on. For this objective, using test samples of the systems and the stacks, developments of test and evaluation devices, collection of various kinds of data and establishment of test and evaluation methods are under way. (author)

  14. Future direction of ASME nuclear codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, Kevin; Sheehan, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    While the nuclear power industry in the US is in a period of stasis, there continues to be a great deal of activity in the ASME nuclear standards development arena. As plants age, the need for new approaches in standardization changes with the changing needs of the industry. New tools are becoming available in the form of risk analysis, and this is finding its way into more and more of ASME's standards activities. This paper will take a look at the direction that ASME nuclear Codes and Standards are heading in this and other areas, as well as taking a look at some advance reactor concepts and plans for standards to address new technologies

  15. Diabetes Mellitus Coding Training for Family Practice Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urse, Geraldine N

    2015-07-01

    Although physicians regularly use numeric coding systems such as the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to describe patient encounters, coding errors are common. One of the most complicated diagnoses to code is diabetes mellitus. The ICD-9-CM currently has 39 separate codes for diabetes mellitus; this number will be expanded to more than 50 with the introduction of ICD-10-CM in October 2015. To assess the effect of a 1-hour focused presentation on ICD-9-CM codes on diabetes mellitus coding. A 1-hour focused lecture on the correct use of diabetes mellitus codes for patient visits was presented to family practice residents at Doctors Hospital Family Practice in Columbus, Ohio. To assess resident knowledge of the topic, a pretest and posttest were given to residents before and after the lecture, respectively. Medical records of all patients with diabetes mellitus who were cared for at the hospital 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after the lecture were reviewed and compared for the use of diabetes mellitus ICD-9 codes. Eighteen residents attended the lecture and completed the pretest and posttest. The mean (SD) percentage of correct answers was 72.8% (17.1%) for the pretest and 84.4% (14.6%) for the posttest, for an improvement of 11.6 percentage points (P≤.035). The percentage of total available codes used did not substantially change from before to after the lecture, but the use of the generic ICD-9-CM code for diabetes mellitus type II controlled (250.00) declined (58 of 176 [33%] to 102 of 393 [26%]) and the use of other codes increased, indicating a greater variety in codes used after the focused lecture. After a focused lecture on diabetes mellitus coding, resident coding knowledge improved. Review of medical record data did not reveal an overall change in the number of diabetic codes used after the lecture but did reveal a greater variety in the codes used.

  16. Code of practice for radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C

    2002-11-01

    This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)

  17. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Recent technical initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Although nuclear power construction is currently in a hiatus in the US, ASME and its volunteer committees remain committed to continual improvements in the technical requirements in its nuclear codes. This paper provides an overview of several significant recent revisions to ASME' s nuclear codes. Additionally, other important initiatives currently being addressed by ASME committees will be described. With the largest population of operating light water nuclear plants in the world and worldwide use of its nuclear codes, ASME continues to support technical advancements in its nuclear codes and standards. While revisions of various magnitude are an ongoing process, several recent revisions embody significant changes based on state of the art design philosophy and substantial industry experience. In the design area, a significant revisions has recently been approved which will significantly reduce conservatisms in seismic piping design as well as provide simplified design rules. Major revisions have also been made to the requirements for nuclear material manufacturers and suppliers, which should result in clearer understanding of this difficult administrative area of the code. In the area of Section XI inservice rules, substantial studies are underway to investigate the application of probabilistic, risked based inspection in lieu of the current deterministic inspection philosophy. While much work still is required in this area, it is an important potential application of the emerging field of risk based inspection

  18. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  19. Code of practice on radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This Code was formulated under provisions of the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978 in close consultation with the Governments of the States and the Northern Territory. It is a major revision of the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1980), incorporating changes flowing from advances in internationally agreed radiation protection philosophy, and experience gained in Australia in uranium mining and milling operations and the extraction of monazite from mineral sands. The Code specifies the standards, practices, procedures, and measures to prevent or limit risk to employees and to the public from uranium mining and milling, mineral sands operations and extraction of radioactive ores. To assist the industry in meeting the requirements and responsibilities imposed by the Code, guidelines to the former Code will be reviewed and, if appropriate, revised. New guidelines to assist compliance with changed requirements will also be prepared. The Act provides for the revision of codes of practice. The Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1987) will be reviewed from time to time and revised if necessary to ensure that the highest standards of radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores are maintained.

  20. Code of practice on radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Code was formulated under provisions of the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978 in close consultation with the Governments of the States and the Northern Territory. It is a major revision of the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1980), incorporating changes flowing from advances in internationally agreed radiation protection philosophy, and experience gained in Australia in uranium mining and milling operations and the extraction of monazite from mineral sands. The Code specifies the standards, practices, procedures, and measures to prevent or limit risk to employees and to the public from uranium mining and milling, mineral sands operations and extraction of radioactive ores. To assist the industry in meeting the requirements and responsibilities imposed by the Code, guidelines to the former Code will be reviewed and, if appropriate, revised. New guidelines to assist compliance with changed requirements will also be prepared. The Act provides for the revision of codes of practice. The Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1987) will be reviewed from time to time and revised if necessary to ensure that the highest standards of radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores are maintained

  1. Code of practice for safety in laboratory - non ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli Jaya; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Khoo Boo Huat; Khatijah Hashim

    1995-01-01

    The code identifies the non-ionizing radiation encountered in laboratories and the associated hazards. The code is intended as a laboratory standard reference document for general information on safety requirements relating to the usage of non-ionizing radiations in laboratories. The nonionizing radiations cover in this code, namely, are ultraviolet radiation, visible light, radio-frequency radiation, lasers, sound waves and ultrasonic radiation. (author)

  2. Characterizing Mathematics Classroom Practice: Impact of Observation and Coding Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale observational measures of classroom practice increasingly focus on opportunities for student participation as an indicator of instructional quality. Each observational measure necessitates making design and coding choices on how to best measure student participation. This study investigated variations of coding approaches that may be…

  3. Variation in clinical coding lists in UK general practice: a barrier to consistent data entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tracy Waize; Anandarajah, Sobanna; Dhoul, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Routinely collected general practice computer data are used for quality improvement; poor data quality including inconsistent coding can reduce their usefulness. To document the diversity of data entry systems currently in use in UK general practice and highlight possible implications for data quality. General practice volunteers provided screen shots of the clinical coding screen they would use to code a diagnosis or problem title in the clinical consultation. The six clinical conditions examined were: depression, cystitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sore throat, tired all the time, and myocardial infarction. We looked at the picking lists generated for these problem titles in EMIS, IPS, GPASS and iSOFT general practice clinical computer systems, using the Triset browser as a gold standard for comparison. A mean of 19.3 codes is offered in the picking list after entering a diagnosis or problem title. EMIS produced the longest picking lists and GPASS the shortest, with a mean number of choices of 35.2 and 12.7, respectively. Approximately three-quarters (73.5%) of codes are diagnoses, one-eighth (12.5%) symptom codes, and the remainder come from a range of Read chapters. There was no readily detectable consistent order in which codes were displayed. Velocity coding, whereby commonly-used codes are placed higher in the picking list, results in variation between practices even where they have the same brand of computer system. Current systems for clinical coding promote diversity rather than consistency of clinical coding. As the UK moves towards an integrated health IT system consistency of coding will become more important. A standardised, limited list of codes for primary care might help address this need.

  4. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  5. Good Practice Standards – a Regulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the considerations weighed in regulation with good practice standards. In this article, potential due process problems with regulation via legal standards are identified and compared to other considerations, which this regulation technique meets....

  6. Ethical and professional standards compliance among practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated ethical and professional standards compliance among practicing librariansin university libraries in Benue State. The purpose of the study was todetermine the extent to which librarians in university libraries comply with ethics and professional standards in librarianship. The study adopted a descriptive ...

  7. ASME Section XI trends in developing nuclear codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedden, O.F.

    1995-01-01

    When the author began working on nuclear power many years ago, he knew that perfection was the only acceptable technical standard. Unfortunately, this became an obsession with perfection that has had unfavorable consequences in some of the non-technical areas of work in ASME nuclear power Codes and Standards. However, the economic problems of the nuclear power industry now demand a more pragmatic approach if the industry is to continue. Not only does each item considered for action need to be evaluated to criteria that may in some cases be less than perfection, but one needs to consider whether it contributes tangibly to either safety or to reduction in technical or administrative burden. These should be the governing, criteria. The introduction of risk-based inspection methodologies will certainly be an important element in doing this successfully. One needs to consider these criteria collectively, as one discusses each item at the committee level, and individually, as one votes on each item. In the past, the author has been concerned that the industry was not acting quickly enough in taking advantage of opportunities offered by the Code to increase safety or to reduce cost. While he still has some concern, he thinks communication channels have been greatly improved. Now he is becoming more concerned with both the collective and individual actions that delay beneficial changes. The second part of the author's talk has to do with the relevance of the code committees in the nuclear power industry regulatory process

  8. Improving a Power Line Communications Standard with LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Christine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a power line communications (PLC scheme that could be used to enhance the HomePlug 1.0 standard, specifically its ROBO mode which provides modest throughput for the worst case PLC channel. The scheme is based on using a low-density parity-check (LDPC code, in lieu of the concatenated Reed-Solomon and convolutional codes in ROBO mode. The PLC channel is modeled with multipath fading and Middleton's class A noise. Clipping is introduced to mitigate the effect of impulsive noise. A simple and effective method is devised to estimate the variance of the clipped noise for LDPC decoding. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the HomePlug 1.0 ROBO mode and has lower computational complexity. The proposed scheme also dispenses with the repetition of information bits in ROBO mode to gain time diversity, resulting in 4-fold increase in physical layer throughput.

  9. End-of-life decisions in Malaysia: Adequacies of ethical codes and developing legal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.

  10. Practices around Customization of Standard Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    More and more software systems are developed by customizing a standard product that provide the major part of the functionality. The customization of Enterprise Resource Planning systems is such a product based software development practice. Little empirical research on the specificities...... of these software development practices is available. We present an empirical study on customization practices based on video recordings, interviews and a survey. The observed and reported practices challenge some of the principles of software engineering. Based on the analysis, we discuss the specificity...

  11. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  12. The radiation protection code of practice in teletherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. S. M.

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to provide a document (code) for the standard practice in teletherapy facilities to be a reference and guide for establishing new teletherapy facilities or mending an existing one, another aim was to evaluated the teletherapy facilities with regard to their compliance to the recommendations and guides mentioned in this document. This document includes: safety specifications for teletherapy equipment, facility planning and shielding design, radiation protection and work practice, quality assurance and personnel requirements and responsibilities. In order to assess the degree of compliance of the two centers in the country with what was stated in the developed document IAEA inspection checklist was utilized and made some radiation measurement were made around the treatment rooms. The results of such inspection mission revealed that the current status of radiation protection in both of inspected centers is almost similar and both are not satisfactory as many of the essential items of radiation protection as stipulated in this document were not followed, which lead to unnecessary, radiation exposure to patients and staff. Finally, some recommendations that may help to improve the status of radiation protection in radiotherapy departments in Sudan are given. (Author)

  13. Electronic health record standards, coding systems, frameworks, and infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Pradeep K; Bendale, Prashant; Mantri, Manisha; Dande, Atreya

    2013-01-01

    Discover How Electronic Health Records Are Built to Drive the Next Generation of Healthcare Delivery The increased role of IT in the healthcare sector has led to the coining of a new phrase ""health informatics,"" which deals with the use of IT for better healthcare services. Health informatics applications often involve maintaining the health records of individuals, in digital form, which is referred to as an Electronic Health Record (EHR). Building and implementing an EHR infrastructure requires an understanding of healthcare standards, coding systems, and frameworks. This book provides an

  14. Standardizing the practice of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of human reliability analysis (HRA) within the nuclear industry varies greatly in terms of posited mechanisms that shape human performance, methods of characterizing and analytically modeling human behavior, and the techniques that are employed to estimate the frequency with which human error occurs. This variation has been a source of contention among HRA practitioners regarding the validity of results obtained from different HRA methods. It has also resulted in attempts to develop standard methods and procedures for conducting HRAs. For many of the same reasons, the practice of HRA has not been standardized or has been standardized only to the extent that individual analysts have developed heuristics and consistent approaches in their practice of HRA. From the standpoint of consumers and regulators, this has resulted in a lack of clear acceptance criteria for the assumptions, modeling, and quantification of human errors in probabilistic risk assessments

  15. Code of safe practice for the use of x-rays in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this Code of Safe Practice for the Use of X-rays in Dentistry is to provide criteria for working procedures, x-ray equipment and protective materials necessary for the use of x-rays in dental diagnosis according to currently accepted standards of safety. Conformity with this code may be taken as a primary indication of compliance with radiation protection legislation. 7 refs., 1 ill

  16. Radiation protection code of practice in academic and research institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to establish a code of practice on radiation protection for safe control of radiation sources used in academic and research institutes, another aim of this study was to assess the current situation of radiation protection in some of the academic and research institutes.To achieve the aims of this study, a draft of a code of practice has been developed which is based on international and local relevant recommendation. The developed code includes the following main issues: regulatory responsibilities, radiation protection program and design of radiation installations. The second aim had been accomplished by conducting inspection visits to five (A, B, C, D and E) academic and to four (F, G, H and I ) research institutes. Eight of such institutes are located in Khartoum State and the ninth one is in Madani city (Aljazeera State). The inspection activities have been carried out using a standard inspection check list developed by the regulatory authority of the Sudan. The inspection missions to the above mentioned institutes involved also evaluation of radiation levels around the premises and storage areas of radiation sources. The dose rate measurement around radiation sources locations were found to be quite low. This mainly is due to the fact that the activities of most radionuclides that are used in these institutes are quite low ( in the range of micro curies). Also ,most the x-ray machines that were found in use for scientific academic and research purposes work at low k Vp of maximum 60 k Vp. None of the radiation workers in the inspected institutes has a personal radiation monitoring device, therefor staff dose levels have not been assessed. However it was noted that in most of the academic/ research studies radiation workers are only exposed to very low levels of radiation and for a very short time that dose not exceed 1 minute, therefore the expected occupational exposure of the staff is very low. Radiation measurement in public

  17. Regulatory Endorsement Activities for ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    The ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) has formed a Task Group on Regulatory Endorsement (TG-RE) that is currently in discussions with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to look at suggestions and recommendations that can be used to help with the endorsement of new and revised ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards (NC and S). With the coming of new reactors in the USA in the very near future we need to look at both the regulations and all the ASME NC and S to determine where we need to make changes to support these new plants. At the same time it is important that we maintain our operating plants while addressing ageing management needs of our existing reactors. This is going to take new thinking, time, resources, and money. For all this to take place the regulations and requirements that we use must be clear concise and necessary for safety and to that end both the NRC and ASME are working together to make this happen. Because of the influence that the USA has in the world in dealing with these issues, this paper is written to inform the international nuclear engineering community about the issues and what actions are being addressed under this effort. (author)

  18. Practical moral codes in the transgenic organism debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, D R; Goreham, Gary; Youngs, George A

    2004-01-01

    In one study funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, people from North Dakota were interviewed to discover which moral principles they use in evaluating the morality of transgenic organisms and their introduction into markets. It was found that although the moral codes the human subjects employed were very similar, their views on transgenics were vastly different. In this paper, the codes that were used by the respondents are developed, compared to that of the academically composed Belmont Report, and then modified to create the more practical Common Moral Code. At the end, it is shown that the Common Moral Code has inherent inconsistency flaws that might be resolvable, but would require extensive work on the definition of terms and principles. However, the effort is worthwhile, especially if it results in a common moral code that all those involved in the debate are willing to use in negotiating a resolution to their differences.

  19. A Case for Standards of Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A mature counseling profession has entered the decade of the 1990s. Several factors including professionalism, accountability, health care consumerism, credentialism, and public demands for quality mental health care indicate a need for more definitive statements on standards of practice in counseling. In response to this need, an eight-point…

  20. Standardization of computer programs - basis of the Czechoslovak library of nuclear codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, M.

    1987-01-01

    A standardized form of computer code documentation has been established in the CSSR in the field of reactor safety. Structure and content of the documentation are described and codes already subject to this process are mentioned. The formation of a Czechoslovak nuclear code library and facilitated discussion of safety reports containing results of standardized codes are aimed at

  1. Up to code: does your company's conduct meet world-class standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Lynn; Deshpandé, Rohit; Margolis, Joshua D; Bettcher, Kim Eric

    2005-12-01

    Codes of conduct have long been a feature of corporate life. Today, they are arguably a legal necessity--at least for public companies with a presence in the United States. But the issue goes beyond U.S. legal and regulatory requirements. Sparked by corruption and excess of various types, dozens of industry, government, investor, and multisector groups worldwide have proposed codes and guidelines to govern corporate behavior. These initiatives reflect an increasingly global debate on the nature of corporate legitimacy. Given the legal, organizational, reputational, and strategic considerations, few companies will want to be without a code. But what should it say? Apart from a handful of essentials spelled out in Sarbanes-Oxley regulations and NYSE rules, authoritative guidance is sorely lacking. In search of some reference points for managers, the authors undertook a systematic analysis of a select group of codes. In this article, they present their findings in the form of a "codex," a reference source on code content. The Global Business Standards Codex contains a set of overarching principles as well as a set of conduct standards for putting those principles into practice. The GBS Codex is not intended to be adopted as is, but is meant to be used as a benchmark by those wishing to create their own world-class code. The provisions of the codex must be customized to a company's specific business and situation; individual companies' codes will include their own distinctive elements as well. What the codex provides is a starting point grounded in ethical fundamentals and aligned with an emerging global consensus on basic standards of corporate behavior.

  2. Preventing another Chernobyl: Codes, practices, and the role of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter deals with preventice measures to be taken in the context of technology. The author describes the codes of practice and safety standards established to ensure nuclear power plant safety and suggests that they be improved and made binding on states through legislation or agreements (NEA) [fr

  3. Practical application of standards in special libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Češnovar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Special libraries in Slovenia represent an important part of information infrastructure.They operate in the spheres of economy, culture, politics, health, and others.Although they perform an important role in the process of professional training of the employees they are too often set aside.Our government is undoubtedly aware of the deficiency of normative regulation in these areas; however, passing of certain acts is often delayed because there is no direct damage to the state itself if they are not passed. New standards for special libraries regulating their operation have been prepared. Their practical application will be tested in practice. Several years of experience as a counsellor to special libraries enable the author an insight into the use of standards. Standards are certainly an indispensable "reading" for special libraries although they are certainly not perfect.

  4. Fifty years of progress in speech coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, speech coding has taken root worldwide. Early applications were for the military and transmission for telephone networks. The military gave equal priority to intelligibility and low bit rate. The telephone network gave priority to high quality and low delay. These illustrate three of the four areas in which requirements must be set for any speech coder application: bit rate, quality, delay, and complexity. While the military could afford relatively expensive terminal equipment for secure communications, the telephone network needed low cost for massive deployment in switches and transmission equipment worldwide. Today speech coders are at the heart of the wireless phones and telephone answering systems we use every day. In addition to the technology and technical invention that has occurred, standards make it possible for all these different systems to interoperate. The primary areas of standardization are the public switched telephone network, wireless telephony, and secure telephony for government and military applications. With the advent of IP telephony there are additional standardization efforts and challenges. In this talk the progress in all areas is reviewed as well as a reflection on Jim Flanagan's impact on this field during the past half century.

  5. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are comparable with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electron-photon transport problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down (CSD) portion and elastic-scattering portion of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion

  6. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages to using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g., immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and synthetic radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT, and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electron-photon transport problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down and elastic-scattering portions of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion

  7. Analyses to support development of risk-informed separation distances for hydrogen codes and standards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Houf, William G. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA; Fluer, Larry (Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA); Middleton, Bobby

    2009-03-01

    The development of a set of safety codes and standards for hydrogen facilities is necessary to ensure they are designed and operated safely. To help ensure that a hydrogen facility meets an acceptable level of risk, code and standard development organizations are tilizing risk-informed concepts in developing hydrogen codes and standards.

  8. Are industry codes and standards a valid cost containment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.; Simpson, G.T.; Young, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear industry has historically concentrated on safety design features for many years, but recently has been shifting to the reliability of the operating systems and components. The Navy has already gone through this transition and has found that Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is an invaluable tool to improve the reliability of components, systems, ships, and classes of ships. There is a close correlation of Navy ships and equipment to commercial nuclear power plants and equipment. The Navy has a central engineering and configuration management organization (Naval Sea Systems Command) for over 500 ships, where as the over 100 commercial nuclear power plants and 52 nuclear utilities represent a fragmented owner/management structure. This paper suggests that the results of the application of RCM in the Navy can be duplicated to a large degree in the commercial nuclear power industry by the development and utilization of nuclear codes and standards

  9. Code of practice on the international transboundary movement of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This Code of Practice should serve as guidelines of the IAEA to the States for the development and harmonization of policies and laws on the international transboundary movement of radioactive wastes. It relies on international standards for the safe transport of radioactive material and the physical protection of nuclear material, as well as the standards for basic nuclear safety and radiation protection and radioactive waste management; it does not establish separate guidance in these areas. Furthermore, this Code, which is advisory, does not affect in any way existing and future arrangements among States which relate to matters covered by it and are compatible with its objectives

  10. About the Code of Practice of the European Mathematical Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    The Executive Committee of the European Mathematical Society created an Ethics Committee in the Spring of 2010. The first task of the Committee was to prepare a Code of Practice. This task was completed in the Spring of 2012 and went into effect on 1 November 2012. Arne Jensen, author...... of this article, is Chair of the EMS Ethics Committee...

  11. A Practical View on Tunable Sparse Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Shahbaz Badr, Arash; Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) constitutes a promising concept for trading off computational complexity and delay performance. This paper advocates for the use of judicious feedback as a key not only to make TSNC practical, but also to deliver a highly consistent and controlled delay perfor...

  12. Japanese standard method for safety evaluation using best estimate code based on uncertainty and scaling analyses with statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, Shinya; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kudo, Yoshiro; Yonehara, Tadashi; Watada, Masayuki; Sakaba, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Current licensing practice in Japan consists of using conservative boundary and initial conditions(BIC), assumptions and analytical codes. The safety analyses for licensing purpose are inherently deterministic. Therefore, conservative BIC and assumptions, such as single failure, must be employed for the analyses. However, using conservative analytical codes are not considered essential. The standard committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan(AESJ) has drawn up the standard for using best estimate codes for safety analyses in 2008 after three-years of discussions reflecting domestic and international recent findings. (author)

  13. Code of practice for the safe use of industrial radiography equipment (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This code supersedes the Code of Practice for the control and safe handling of sealed radioactive sources use din industrial radiography, published by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 1968. It differs significantly from the former code because radiation protection practice and recommended standards have changed. The code covers the design, construction and requirements for the safe use of X-radiography equipment and gamma-radiography equipment. It provides illustrative working rules, detailed emergency procedures and comprehensive responsibilities and duties for all personnel involved in supplying and using industrial radiography equipment. The code details those equipment requirements, personnel requirements and work practices that the NHMRC considers necessary to keep exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable. Some equipment and facilities currently in use may not meet all of the mandatory requirements of this code. These requirements have been included in the code to encourage progress towards future compliance in the expectation that, in the interim, statutory authorities will apply them with discretion. 9 refs., tabs., ills

  14. Code of practice for the safe use of industrial radiography equipment (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This code supersedes the Code of practice for the control and safe handling of sealed radioactive sources used in industrial radiography, published by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 1968. It differs significantly from the former code because radiation protection practice and recommended standards have changed. The code covers the design, construction and requirements for the safe use of X-radiography equipment and gamma-radiography equipment. It provides illustrative working rules, detailed emergency procedures and comprehensive responsibilities and duties for all personnel involved in supplying and using industrial radiography equipment. The code details those equipment requirements, personnel requirements and work practices that the NHMRC considers necessary to keep exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable. Some equipment and facilities currently in use may not meet all of the mandatory requirements of this code. These requirements have been included in the code to encourage progress towards future compliance in the expectation that, in the interim, statutory authorities will apply them with discretion

  15. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gagliardi, Mario [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); F4E, Fusion for Energy, Joint Undertaking, Barcelona (Spain); Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  16. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeh, Peter; Aiello, Gaetano; Gagliardi, Mario; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Weinhorst, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  17. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Code of practice : safe use of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is used extensively in the field of scientific research. The risk of uncontrolled exposure to both the worker and the environment is ever present. The purpose of this Code is to set out practices considered by the CSIRO Health and Safety Committee to be appropriate for CSIRO staff and, if followed, they will result in appropriate protection for research staff and the environment. The Code does not cover sources of non-ionizing radiation such as microwave ovens, RF generators and laser sources

  19. The use of diagnostic coding in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testern, Cecilie D; Hestbæk, Lise; French, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic coding has several potential benefits, including improving the feasibility of data collection for research and clinical audits and providing a common language to improve interdisciplinary collaboration. The primary aim of this study was to determine the views and perspectives......-2 PLUS) provided the 14 chiropractors with some experience in diagnostic coding, followed by an interview on the topic. The interviews were analysed thematically. The participating chiropractors and an independent coder applied ICPC-2 PLUS terms to the diagnoses of 10 patients. Then the level...... of agreement between the chiropractors and the coder was determined and Cohen's Kappa was used to determine the agreement beyond that expected by chance. RESULTS: From the interviews the three emerging themes were: 1) Advantages and disadvantages of using a clinical coding system in chiropractic practice, 2...

  20. Safety in nuclear power plant siting. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is brought out within the framework of establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides for nuclear power plants: NUSS programme. The scope of the document encompasses site and site-plant interaction factors related to operational states and accident conditions. The purpose of the Code is to give criteria and procedures to be applied as appropriate to operational states and accident conditions, including those which could lead to emergency situations. This Code is mainly concerned with severe events of low probability which relate to the siting of nuclear power plants and have to be considered in designing a particular nuclear power plant. Annex: Examples of natural and man-made events relevant for design basis evaluation

  1. Health physics source document for codes of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.W.; Meggitt, G.C.

    1989-05-01

    Personnel preparing codes of practice often require basic Health Physics information or advice relating to radiological protection problems and this document is written primarily to supply such information. Certain technical terms used in the text are explained in the extensive glossary. Due to the pace of change in the field of radiological protection it is difficult to produce an up-to-date document. This document was compiled during 1988 however, and therefore contains the principle changes brought about by the introduction of the Ionising Radiations Regulations (1985). The paper covers the nature of ionising radiation, its biological effects and the principles of control. It is hoped that the document will provide a useful source of information for both codes of practice and wider areas and stimulate readers to study radiological protection issues in greater depth. (author)

  2. Code of practice for radiation protection in dentistry (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This code is intended as a guide to safe practices and lays down detailed requirements for the following protective measures : allocation of responsibility and need for clinical assessment of the indications for radiography; provision of appropriate equipment, film and processing facilities; adoption of procedures to minimise exposure to radiation. This code deals with radiographic procedures commonly used in general and specialist dental practice. These entail : intra-oral radiography: periapical, bitewing and occlusal views; panoramic radiography: intra-oral tube radiography and panoramic tomography; radiography of the complete skull or certain parts of the dento-maxillo-facial region; hand and wrist radiography for the sole purpose of the determination of the bone age

  3. Code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The present work aims at developing and updating a code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges that comply with current international recommendations. The work also intended to evaluate the current radiation protection situation in two selected companies using nuclear gauges in Sudan. A draft of the code is proposed which includes the basic principle of protection such as source construction and gauges radiation monitoring, storage maintenance and leak testing as well as specific issues related to nuclear gauges. The practical part of this study included investigation of radiation protection in the comparisons using nuclear gauges for level detection, to evaluate the level of radiation protection and the compliance to the regulatory authority regulations. The result revealed that the two companies do not have an effective radiation protection program and that can lead to exposure of workers to unnecessary doses. Some recommendations were stated, if implemented they could improve the status of radiation protection in those companies. (Author)

  4. Codes and standards an European point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Corsi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The first part of this paper is related to the European situation in which Construction Codes for FBR components are developed. Attention is given to the different agreements between European Countries. After a description of the present state of Codes development, indications are given on the future work in this field. Several appendix are devoted to the state of Codes in different European Countries and to the action of European Commission

  5. Verification of thermal-hydraulic computer codes against standard problems for WWER reflooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander D Efanov; Vladimir N Vinogradov; Victor V Sergeev; Oleg A Sudnitsyn

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The computational assessment of reactor core components behavior under accident conditions is impossible without knowledge of the thermal-hydraulic processes occurring in this case. The adequacy of the results obtained using the computer codes to the real processes is verified by carrying out a number of standard problems. In 2000-2003, the fulfillment of three Russian standard problems on WWER core reflooding was arranged using the experiments on full-height electrically heated WWER 37-rod bundle model cooldown in regimes of bottom (SP-1), top (SP-2) and combined (SP-3) reflooding. The representatives from the eight MINATOM's organizations took part in this work, in the course of which the 'blind' and posttest calculations were performed using various versions of the RELAP5, ATHLET, CATHARE, COBRA-TF, TRAP, KORSAR computer codes. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility, test section, test scenarios and conditions as well as the basic results of computational analysis of the experiments. The analysis of the test data revealed a significantly non-one-dimensional nature of cooldown and rewetting of heater rods heated up to a high temperature in a model bundle. This was most pronounced at top and combined reflooding. The verification of the model reflooding computer codes showed that most of computer codes fairly predict the peak rod temperature and the time of bundle cooldown. The exception is provided by the results of calculations with the ATHLET and CATHARE codes. The nature and rate of rewetting front advance in the lower half of the bundle are fairly predicted practically by all computer codes. The disagreement between the calculations and experimental results for the upper half of the bundle is caused by the difficulties of computational simulation of multidimensional effects by 1-D computer codes. In this regard, a quasi-two-dimensional computer code COBRA-TF offers certain advantages. Overall, the closest

  6. Does a code make a difference – assessing the English code of practice on international recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah Kwadwo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper draws from research completed in 2007 to assess the effect of the Department of Health, England, Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. The Department of Health in England introduced a Code of Practice for international recruitment for National Health Service employers in 2001. The Code required National Health Service employers not to actively recruit from low-income countries, unless there was government-to-government agreement. The Code was updated in 2004. Methods The paper examines trends in inflow of health professionals to the United Kingdom from other countries, using professional registration data and data on applications for work permits. The paper also provides more detailed information from two country case studies in Ghana and Kenya. Results Available data show a considerable reduction in inflow of health professionals, from the peak years up to 2002 (for nurses and 2004 (for doctors. There are multiple causes for this decline, including declining demand in the United Kingdom. In Ghana and Kenya it was found that active recruitment was perceived to have reduced significantly from the United Kingdom, but it is not clear the extent to which the Code was influential in this, or whether other factors such as a lack of vacancies in the United Kingdom explains it. Conclusion Active international recruitment of health professionals was an explicit policy intervention by the Department of Health in England, as one key element in achieving rapid staffing growth, particularly in the period 2000 to 2005, but the level of international recruitment has dropped significantly since early 2006. Regulatory and education changes in the United Kingdom in recent years have also made international entry more difficult. The potential to assess the effect of the Code in England is constrained by the limitations in available databases. This is a crucial lesson for those considering a

  7. Code of practice for conducting radiation work at PINSTECH (revised 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Atta, M.A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary objective of this code is to achieve standard of radiation protection and safety set by Pakistan Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (PNSRP) ordinance 1984 and PNSRP regulations 1990. Secondary objective remains to make all best efforts to implement latest ICRP recommendations. The revised code of practice sets forth the objective of adequate system radiological safety of radiation workers, environment and general public. The code provides the guidance to persons and authorities who are responsible for the protection of workers and those who are concerned with the planning and management of personnel monitoring services. The procedures set forth in the code are mandatory and in no case should any of them be deviated under normal conditions. All those supervising and performing any kind of radiation work are required to study and adhere to those procedures and shell make all possible efforts to keep the exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), social and economic factor being taken into account. (author)

  8. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE-prescribed or OSHA-referenced industrial safety codes and standards is presented. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is listed

  9. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...

  10. Standard interface files and procedures for reactor physics codes. Version IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.

    1977-09-01

    Standards, procedures, and recommendations of the Committee on Computer Code Coordination for promoting the exchange of reactor physics codes are updated to Version IV status. Standards and procedures covering general programming, program structure, standard interface files, and file management and handling subroutines are included

  11. Standard practice for instrumented indentation testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice defines the basic steps of Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) and establishes the requirements, accuracies, and capabilities needed by an instrument to successfully perform the test and produce the data that can be used for the determination of indentation hardness and other material characteristics. IIT is a mechanical test that measures the response of a material to the imposed stress and strain of a shaped indenter by forcing the indenter into a material and monitoring the force on, and displacement of, the indenter as a function of time during the full loading-unloading test cycle. 1.2 The operational features of an IIT instrument, as well as requirements for Instrument Verification Annex A1), Standardized Reference Blocks (Annex A2) and Indenter Requirements (Annex A3) are defined. This practice is not intended to be a complete purchase specification for an IIT instrument. 1.3 With the exception of the non-mandatory Appendix X4, this practice does not define the analysis necessary...

  12. Code of practice for the use of sealed radioactive sources in borehole logging (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this code is to establish working practices, procedures and protective measures which will aid in keeping doses, arising from the use of borehole logging equipment containing sealed radioactive sources, to as low as reasonably achievable and to ensure that the dose-equivalent limits specified in the National Health and Medical Research Council s radiation protection standards, are not exceeded. This code applies to all situations and practices where a sealed radioactive source or sources are used through wireline logging for investigating the physical properties of the geological sequence, or any fluids contained in the geological sequence, or the properties of the borehole itself, whether casing, mudcake or borehole fluids. The radiation protection standards specify dose-equivalent limits for two categories: radiation workers and members of the public. 3 refs., tabs., ills

  13. Code of practice against radiation hazards at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, M.A.; Javed, M.; Ahmad, S.

    1982-10-01

    It is the radiation safety policy of PAEC/PINSTECH that all radiation exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A code of practice against radiation hazards at PINSTECH was written in 1972 which regulated the conduct of radiation work at PINSTECH. Since the radiation work at PINSTECH has greatly increased, it was considered necessary to revise the code so as to incorporate the new concepts in this field as well as to help meet the present requirements of radiation protection. The procedures set forth in this code are mandatory and in no case should any of them be deviated except under an emergency situation which may be handled according to procedures laid down in a separate manual ''Emergency Procedures at PARR-PINSTECH'' (PINSTECH/HP--19). All those supervising or performing any kind of radiation work are required to study and adhere to these procedures. Copy of this code should be kept in every radiation laboratory for ready reference. (author)

  14. Safe operation of critical assemblies and research reactors. Code of practice and Technical appendix. 1971 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.

    1971-01-01

    This book is in two parts. The first is a Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Critical Assemblies and Research Reactors, prepared as a result of a meeting of experts which took place in Vienna on 20-24 May 1968. The Code has been prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the World Health Organization, and its publication is sponsored by both organizations. In addition, the Code was approved by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 16 December 1968 as part of the Agency's safety standards, which are applied to operations undertaken by Member States with the assistance of the Agency. The Board, in approving the publication of the present book, also recommended Member States to take the Code into account in the formulation of national regulations and recommendations. The second part of the book is a Technical Appendix to give information and illustrative samples that would be helpful in implementing the Code of Practice. This second part, although published under the same cover, is not part of the Code. An extensive Bibliography, amplifying the Technical Appendix, is included at the end.

  15. Quality assurance for safety in nuclear power plants. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Code of Practice is a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards), for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. The documents are based on documentation and experience from various national systems and practices. The present document provides the recommended principles and objectives for the establishment and implementation of a quality assurance programme during design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation of structures, system and components important to safety. They are applicable by all those responsible for the power plant, by plant designers, suppliers, architect-engineers, plant constructors, plant operators and other organizations participating in activities affecting quality. The Lists of relevant definition and the Provisional List of NUSS Programme Titles are given

  16. Software and the Scientist: Coding and Citation Practices in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Lorraine; Fish, Allison; Soito, Laura; Smith, MacKenzie; Kellogg, Louise H.

    2017-11-01

    In geodynamics as in other scientific areas, computation has become a core component of research, complementing field observation, laboratory analysis, experiment, and theory. Computational tools for data analysis, mapping, visualization, modeling, and simulation are essential for all aspects of the scientific workflow. Specialized scientific software is often developed by geodynamicists for their own use, and this effort represents a distinctive intellectual contribution. Drawing on a geodynamics community that focuses on developing and disseminating scientific software, we assess the current practices of software development and attribution, as well as attitudes about the need and best practices for software citation. We analyzed publications by participants in the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and conducted mixed method surveys of the solid earth geophysics community. From this we learned that coding skills are typically learned informally. Participants considered good code as trusted, reusable, readable, and not overly complex and considered a good coder as one that participates in the community in an open and reasonable manor contributing to both long- and short-term community projects. Participants strongly supported citing software reflected by the high rate a software package was named in the literature and the high rate of citations in the references. However, lacking are clear instructions from developers on how to cite and education of users on what to cite. In addition, citations did not always lead to discoverability of the resource. A unique identifier to the software package itself, community education, and citation tools would contribute to better attribution practices.

  17. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Cross-Index volume is the 1981 compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE prescribed or OSHA referenced industrial safety codes and standards and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section (pages C to L) of this volume. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing

  18. The Codex standard and code for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief background on the work by the Codex Alimentarius Commission on irradiated foods is given. An Australian model food standard for irradiated foods, based on the Codex standard, is being developed

  19. The Usage of 2D Codes in Marketing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Podmanicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barcodes, which are used for the labelling and identification of products, have been used as the foundation for the development of new symbols, two-dimensional barcodes (usually called 2D codes. These codes are capable of receiving large amounts of data in a small area, and data stored in them can be read by means of mobile devices. They usually contain information such as web addresses, text, contacts and similar data that encourage users to interact in order to obtain the desired information, entertainment, discount, reservation, and even do their shopping. The possibility of connecting the physical and digital world by means of 2D codes has led marketing professionals to face new challenges in the development of strategies in mobile marketing. Many companies recognized the potential of the above technology very early, in its initial phase, and they use it now in their activities. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of knowing this technology and its advantages by providing examples in marketing practices.

  20. Phenotypic Graphs and Evolution Unfold the Standard Genetic Code as the Optimal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Gabriel S.; José, Marco V.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we explicitly consider the evolution of the Standard Genetic Code (SGC) by assuming two evolutionary stages, to wit, the primeval RNY code and two intermediate codes in between. We used network theory and graph theory to measure the connectivity of each phenotypic graph. The connectivity values are compared to the values of the codes under different randomization scenarios. An error-correcting optimal code is one in which the algebraic connectivity is minimized. We show that the SGC is optimal in regard to its robustness and error-tolerance when compared to all random codes under different assumptions.

  1. Code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, M. I.

    2010-05-01

    In aim of this study was to develop a draft for a new code practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine that meets the current relevant international recommendation. The draft includes the following main fields: methods of radiation protection for workers, patients and public. Also, the principles of safe design of nuclear medicine departments, quality assurance program, proper manipulation of radiation sources including radioactive waste and emergency preparedness and response. The practical part of this study includes inspections of three nuclear medicine departments available in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of those departments with what is stated in this code. The inspection missions have been conducted using a checklist that addresses all items that may affect radiation raincoat issues in addition to per formin area radiation monitoring around the installation of the radioactive sources. The results of this revealed that most of the departments do not have effective radiation protection program which in turn could lead to unnecessary exposure to patients, public and workers. Finally, some recommendations are given that - if implemented - could improve the status of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. (Author)

  2. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. Code of Practice and Technical Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This book is in two parts. The first is a Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the second part is a compilation of technical appendices. Its object is to give information and illustrative examples that would be helpful in implementing the Code of Practice. This second part, although published under the same cover, is not part of the Code. Safe operation of a nuclear power plant postulates suitable siting and proper design, construction and management of the plant. Under the present Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, those intending to operate the plant are recommended to prepare documentation which would deal with its operation and include safety analyses. The documentation in question would be reviewed by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization; operation would be authorized on the understanding that it would comply with limits and conditions designed to ensure safety. The Code may be subject to revision in the light of experience. The Appendices provide additional information together with some examples relating to certain topics dealt with in the Code; it must be emphasized that they are included as examples for information only and are not part of any recommendation. Purpose and scope: The recommendations in the Code are designed to protect the general public and the operating personnel from radiation hazards, and the Code forms part of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Code, which should be used in conjunction with the Agency's other Safety Standards, provides guidance and information to persons and authorities responsible for the operation of stationary nuclear power plants whose main function is the generation of thermal, mechanical or electrical power; it is not intended to apply to reactors used solely for experimental or research purposes. It sets forth minimum requirements which, it is believed, in the light of experience, must be met in order to achieve safe operation of a

  3. OECD International Standard Problem number 34. Falcon code comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    ISP-34 is the first ISP to address fission product transport issues and has been strongly supported by a large number of different countries and organisations. The ISP is based on two experiments, FAL-ISP-1 and FAL-ISP-2, which were conducted in AEA's Falcon facility. Specific features of the experiments include quantification of chemical effects and aerosol behaviour. In particular, multi-component aerosol effects and vapour-aerosol interactions can all be investigated in the Falcon facility. Important parameters for participants to predict were the deposition profiles and composition, key chemical species and reactions, evolution of suspended material concentrations, and the effects of steam condensation onto aerosols and particle hygroscopicity. The results of the Falcon ISP support the belief that aerosol physics is generally well modelled in primary circuit codes, but the chemistry models in many of the codes need to be improved, since chemical speciation is one of the main factors which controls transport and deposition behaviour. The importance of chemical speciation, aerosol nucleation, and the role of multi-component aerosols in determining transport and deposition behaviour are evident. The role of re-vaporization in these Falcon experiments is not clear; it is not possible to compare those codes which predicted re-vaporization with quantitative data. The evidence from this ISP exercise indicates that the containment codes can predict thermal-hydraulics conditions satisfactorily. However, the differences in the predicted aerosol locations in the Falcon tests had shown that aerosol behaviour was very susceptible to parameters such as particle size distribution

  4. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.; Nickolaus, J.; Vinther, R.; Maguire-Moffitt, N.; Hammer, J.; Sherfey, L.; Warner, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. In addition to updating previous information, Revision 1 adds citations from the NRC Inspection Manual and the Improved Standard Technical Specifications. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC`s Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Generic Letters, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800).

  5. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.; Nickolaus, J.; Vinther, R.; Maguire-Moffitt, N.; Hammer, J.; Sherfey, L.; Warner, R.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. In addition to updating previous information, Revision 1 adds citations from the NRC Inspection Manual and the Improved Standard Technical Specifications. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC's Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Generic Letters, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800)

  6. 77 FR 34020 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    .... (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment. NFPA 790--2012 Standard for Competency of Third-Party Field 6/22... Health-Related Fitness Programs for 1/4/2013. Fire Department Members. NFPA 1584--2008 Standard on the...

  7. Standards of analgesic treatment versus hospital practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain remedying is a fundamental patient law. Modern medicine is acknowledging the mechanism and the warp of pain, commanding more efficient therapeutic means allowing to control the pain.  Multidirectional pain therapy uses variable techniques and medicines which enables to maximize the analgesic effect during the reduction of side effects of each method. Objective: Evaluation of applying standards of analgesic treatment in hospital practice. Material and methods: There were 100 people with severe pain who underwent surgical and orthopedic treatment, as well as, the ones with chronic pain, staying in neurological ward who took part in the examination. Choice of examined patients was random and embraced hospitals patients in the Podkarpackie voivodeship with “Szpital bez Bólu” (eng.: Hospital without pain certificate.  Examined group comprised of : 57% of women and 44% of men, living in rural (56% and urban (44% area. Research methods used in the examinations, were diagnostic opinion poll, records analysis and pain measurements. Results: 42 % of patients can feel the pain intermittently, 37% is not able to estimate how often do pain ailments occur, however, 21% of people suffer from chronic pain ailments. Patients have estimated their pain as follows: severe (26%, difficult to determine (20%, shooting (16%, burning (15%, radiating (10%, dull (8%, stinging (3% and the one which appears when touched (2%. Having estimated the pain intensity, 53% of respondents claimed that they feel medium pain intensity and 33% claimed to have felt great pain. Nurses in the post-op (54% and anesthesiologist (26% are the one, to inform patient about possibilities and eventual methods of post-operative pain management. Conclusions: Pain limits physical functioning of patient. Five-stage scales included in the examination, were VAS and VRS which are sufficient in prophylaxis and pain alleviation but not entirely readable and understandable for all

  8. Codes of medical ethics: traditional foundations and contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, P; Bassford, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A.

  9. French administrative practice and design codes for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    French regulations on boilers and pressure vessels have prevailed for a very long time, the first measure having been promulgated on 29 October 1823. Restraining the attention to nuclear pressure vessels it must be pointed out regulations and enforcement by public authorities are more stringent than they are for conventional pressure vessels. The first part of this paper will be devoted to regulations with a special attention to the decree of 26 February 1974 and to the practice of public authorities in this field with special attention given to the Bureau de Controle de la Construction Nucleaire (BCCN = Bureau of Inspection of Nuclear Design and Manufacturing). The second part of this paper will deal with the French construction codes for nuclear components RCC-M (water reactors) and RCC-MR (elevated temperature design)

  10. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: current clinical practice, coding, and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Boyd, Kayla V; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique for providing life support for patients experiencing both pulmonary and cardiac failure by maintaining oxygenation and perfusion until native organ function is restored. ECMO is used routinely at many specialized hospitals for infants and less commonly for children with respiratory or cardiac failure from a variety of causes. Its usage is more controversial in adults, but select medical centers have reported favorable findings in patients with ARDS and other causes of severe pulmonary failure. ECMO is also rarely used as a rescue therapy in a small subset of adult patients with cardiac failure. This article will review the current uses and techniques of ECMO in the critical care setting as well as the evidence supporting its usage. In addition, current practice management related to coding and reimbursement for this intensive therapy will be discussed.

  11. Numerical analysis and nuclear standard code application to thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    1992-01-01

    The present work describes the Joint Research Centre Ispra contribution to the IAEA benchmark exercise 'Lifetime Behaviour of the First Wall of Fusion Machines'. The results of the numerical analysis of the reference thermal fatigue experiment are presented. Then a discussion on the numerical analysis of thermal stress is tackled, pointing out its particular aspects in view of their influence on the stress field evaluation. As far as the design-allowable number of cycles are concerned the American nuclear code ASME and the French code RCC-MR are applied and the reasons for the different results obtained are investigated. As regards a realistic fatigue lifetime evaluation, the main problems to be solved are brought out. This work, is intended as a preliminary basis for a discussion focusing on the main characteristics of the thermal fatigue problem from both a numerical and a lifetime assessment point of view. In fact the present margin of discretion left to the analyst may cause undue discrepancies in the results obtained. A sensitivity analysis of the main parameters involved is desirable and more precise design procedures should be stated

  12. 40 CFR 63.306 - Work practice standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work practice standards. 63.306 Section 63.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.306 Work practice standards. (a) Work practice plan. On or before...

  13. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271... Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic facility must use management practices to prevent pests, including but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest...

  14. Cross-Index to DOE-prescribed industrial safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Cross-Index volume is the 1980 compilation of detailed information from more than two hundred and ninety Department of Energy (DOE) prescribed or Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) referenced industrial safety codes and standards. The compilation of this material was conceived and initiated in 1973, and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph, and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph, and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing. Simplified How to Use directions are listed. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents, whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is included

  15. 77 FR 67628 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Standard on Fire and 7/8/2013 Life Safety in Animal Housing Facilities. NFPA 160--2011 Standard for the Use... five years in Revision Cycles that begin twice each year and take approximately two years to complete. Each Revision Cycle proceeds according to a published schedule that includes final dates for all major...

  16. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Commercial Cooking Operations. NFPA 99--2012 Health Care Facilities Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 99B--2010 Standard... Explosion Investigations..... 1/4/2012 NFPA 1005--2007 Standard for Professional Qualifications for 1/4/2012 Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1021--2009 Standard for Fire Officer Professional...

  17. Interband coding extension of the new lossless JPEG standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Nasir D.; Wu, Xiaolin; Sippy, V.; Miller, G.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the perceived inadequacy of current standards for lossless image compression, the JPEG committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO) has been developing a new standard. A baseline algorithm, called JPEG-LS, has already been completed and is awaiting approval by national bodies. The JPEG-LS baseline algorithm despite being simple is surprisingly efficient, and provides compression performance that is within a few percent of the best and more sophisticated techniques reported in the literature. Extensive experimentations performed by the authors seem to indicate that an overall improvement by more than 10 percent in compression performance will be difficult to obtain even at the cost of great complexity; at least not with traditional approaches to lossless image compression. However, if we allow inter-band decorrelation and modeling in the baseline algorithm, nearly 30 percent improvement in compression gains for specific images in the test set become possible with a modest computational cost. In this paper we propose and investigate a few techniques for exploiting inter-band correlations in multi-band images. These techniques have been designed within the framework of the baseline algorithm, and require minimal changes to the basic architecture of the baseline, retaining its essential simplicity.

  18. Code for ethical international recruitment practices: the CGFNS alliance case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin A; Bakhshi, Mukul; Dutka, Julia To; Phillips, Janice

    2016-06-30

    Projections indicate a global workforce shortage of approximately 4.3 million across the health professions. The need to ensure an adequate supply of health workers worldwide has created a context for the increased global migration of these professionals. The global trend in the migration of health professionals has given rise to the international recruitment industry to facilitate the passage of health workers from source to destination countries. This is particularly the case in the United States, where the majority of immigrant health professionals have come by way of the recruiting industry. This industry is largely unregulated in the United States as well as in many other countries, for which voluntary codes have been used as a means to increase transparency of the recruitment process, shape professional conduct, and mitigate harm to foreign-educated health workers. The CGFNS Alliance case study presented herein describes a multi-stakeholder effort in the United States to promote ethical recruitment practices. Such codes not only complement the WHO Global Code of Practice but are necessary to maximize the impact of these global standards on local settings. This case study offers both a historical perspective and a conceptual framework for examining the multiplicity of factors affecting the migration of human resources for health. The lessons learned provide critical insights into the factors pertaining to the relevancy and effectiveness of the WHO Code from the perspectives of both source and destination countries. This study provides a conceptual model for examining the usefulness of the WHO Code as well as how best to ensure its viability, sustainability, relevancy, and effectiveness in the global environment. This case study concludes with recommendations for evolving business models that need to be in place to strengthen the effectiveness of the WHO Code in the marketplace and to ensure its impact on the international recruitment industry in advancing

  19. Oswer integrated health and safety standard operating practices. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy

  20. Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck calculations using standard discrete-ordinates codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equation can be used to describe both neutral and charged-particle transport. Over the past several years, the author and several collaborators have developed methods for representing Fokker-Planck operators with standard multigroup-Legendre cross-section data. When these data are input to a standard S/sub n/ code such as ONETRAN, the code actually solves the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation rather than the Boltzmann equation. This is achieved wihout any modification to the S/sub n/ codes. Because BFP calculations can be more demanding from a numerical viewpoint than standard neutronics calculations, we have found it useful to implement new quadrature methods ad convergence acceleration methods in the standard discrete-ordinates code, ONETRAN. We discuss our BFP cross-section representation techniques, our improved quadrature and acceleration techniques, and present results from BFP coupled electron-photon transport calculations performed with ONETRAN. 19 refs., 7 figs

  1. Hydrogen Codes and Standards: An Overview of U.S. DOE Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James M Ohi

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with the help of leading standards and model code development organizations, other national laboratories, and key stakeholders, are developing a coordinated and collaborative government-industry effort to prepare, review, and promulgate hydrogen codes and standards needed to expedite hydrogen infrastructure development. The focus of this effort is to put in place a coordinated and comprehensive hydrogen codes and standards program at the national and international levels. This paper updates an overview of the U.S. program to facilitate and coordinate the development of hydrogen codes and standards that was presented by the author at WHEC 15. (authors)

  2. Guidelines on Active Content and Mobile Code: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    .... One such category of technologies is active content. Broadly speaking, active content refers to electronic documents that, unlike past character documents based on the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII...

  3. Licensing procedure, nuclear codes and standards in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with legal background of licensing in nuclear technology and atomic energy use, licensing procedures for nuclear power plants and with codes, standards and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./RW)

  4. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  5. Benefits and risks of adopting the global code of practice for recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Beard, T. Douglas; Cooke, Steven J.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Recreational fishing constitutes the dominant or sole use of many fish stocks, particularly in freshwater ecosystems in Western industrialized countries. However, despite their social and economic importance, recreational fisheries are generally guided by local or regional norms and standards, with few comprehensive policy and development frameworks existing across jurisdictions. We argue that adoption of a recently developed Global Code of Practice (CoP) for Recreational Fisheries can provide benefits for moving recreational fisheries toward sustainability on a global scale. The CoP is a voluntary document, specifically framed toward recreational fisheries practices and issues, thereby complementing and extending the United Nation's Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries by the Food and Agricultural Organization. The CoP for Recreational Fisheries describes the minimum standards of environmentally friendly, ethically appropriate, and—depending on local situations—socially acceptable recreational fishing and its management. Although many, if not all, of the provisions presented in the CoP are already addressed through national fisheries legislation and state-based fisheries management regulations in North America, adopting a common framework for best practices in recreational fisheries across multiple jurisdictions would further promote their long-term viability in the face of interjurisdictional angler movements and some expanding threats to the activity related to shifting sociopolitical norms.

  6. Increasing asthma mortality in Denmark 1969-88 not a result of a changed coding practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Pedersen, P A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied asthma mortality in Denmark from 1969 to 1988. Age standardized mortality rates calculated in three age groups, 10-34, 35-59, and greater than or equal to 60 years, disclosed similar trends. Increasing mortality from asthma in the mid-1970s to 1988 was seen in all three age groups...... with higher mortality in 1979-88 as compared with 1969-78 of 95%, 55%, and 69%, respectively. Since the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD8) was used in Denmark over the entire 20-year period, changes in coding practice due to change of classification system cannot explain...

  7. NATIONAL EXPERIENCES REGARDING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PROPER PRACTICE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgheu Liliana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the principles of proper governance codes, which even tough have blossomed in all parts of the world for more than a decade, the degree in which companies adopt the codes vary in different countries, and the decision to adopt a certain code does not automatically guarranty efficient corporate governance. The paper trys to identify the mechanisms needed for implementing the codes and that will lead to higher efficiency.

  8. IAEA Workshop (Training Course) on Codes and Standards for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The training course consisted of lectures and Q&A sessions. The lectures dealt with the history of the development of Design Codes and Standards for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in the respective country, the detailed description of the current design Codes and Standards for SFRs and their application to ongoing Fast Reactor design projects, as well as the ongoing development work and plans for the future in this area. Annex 1 contains the detailed Workshop program

  9. Standard problems to evaluate soil structure interaction computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic response of nuclear power plant structures is often calculated using lumped parameter methods. A finite element model of the structure is coupled to the soil with a spring-dashpot system used to represent the interaction process. The parameters of the interaction model are based on analytic solutions to simple problems which are idealizations of the actual problems of interest. The objective of the work reported in this paper is to compare predicted responses using the standard lumped parameter models with experimental data. These comparisons are shown to be good for a fairly uniform soil system and for loadings which do not result in nonlinear interaction effects such as liftoff. 7 references, 7 figures

  10. Standard practice for leaks using ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Practice A, Pressurization—This practice covers procedures for calibration of ultrasonic instruments, location, and estimated measurements of gas leakage to atmosphere by the airborne ultrasonic technique. 1.2 In general practice this should be limited to leaks detected by two classifications of instruments, Class I and Class II. Class I instruments should have a minimum detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−7 mol/s (1.5 × 10−2 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Class II instruments should have a minimal detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−6 mol/s (1.5 × 10−1 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Refer to Guide E432 for additional information. 1.3 Practice B, Ultrasonic Transmitter—For object under test not capable of being pressurized but capable of having ultrasonic tone placed/injected into the test area to act as an ultrasonic leak trace source. 1.3.1 This practice is limited to leaks producing leakage o...

  11. Standard Practice for Quality Management Systems for Nondestructive Testing Agencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers general requirements for the establishment and maintenance of a quality management system for agencies engaged in nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 This practice utilizes criteria contained in Practice E 543. 1.3 This practice utilizes criteria contained in American National Standard ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001–2000, Quality management systems—Requirements. 1.4 This practice recognizes the importance of establishing minimum safety criteria. 1.5 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combinations thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.6 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Variation in National ACGME Case Log Data for Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellowships: Are Fellow Coding Practices Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Woiczik, Marcella; Karol, Lori; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    The introduction of the 80-hour work week for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited fellowship programs initiated many efforts to optimize surgical training. One particular area of interest is on recording and tracking surgical experiences. The current standard is logging cases based on Current Procedural Terminology codes, which are primarily designed for billing. Proposed guidelines from the ACGME regarding logging exist, but their implementation is unknown, as is the variation in case volume across fellowship programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate variability in the national case log data, and explore potential sources of variation using fellow surveys. National ACGME case log data for pediatric orthopaedic fellowships from 2012 to 2015 were reviewed, with particular attention to the domains of spine, pelvis/hip, arthroscopy, trauma, and other (which includes clubfoot casting). To explore potential sources of case log variability, a survey on case logging behavior was distributed to all pediatric orthopaedic fellows for the academic year 2015 to 2016. Reported experiences based on ACGME case logs varied widely between fellows with percentage difference of up to 100% in all areas. Similarly, wide variability is present in coding practices of pediatric orthopaedic fellows, who often lack formal education on the topic of appropriate coding/logging. In the survey, hypothetical case scenarios had an absolute difference in recorded codes of up to 13 and a percentage difference of up to 100%. ACGME case log data for pediatric orthopaedic fellowships demonstrates wide variability in reported surgical experiences. This variability may be due, in part, to differences in logging practices by individual fellows. This observation makes meaningful interpretation of national data on surgical volume challenging. Proposed surgical experience minimums should be interpreted in light of these data, and may not be advisable unless

  13. Synoptic meteorology manual of standard practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.E.

    1954-03-22

    This report, dated March 22, 1954 details work procedures for the 200- West Area at HAPO. Topics discussed include emergency procedures, safety and housekeeping practices, policies and procedures, instruments and equipment located at the 622 tower, instruments and equipment located offsite, observational procedures, form entries, and card punching, and weather forecasting.

  14. 40 CFR 60.103a - Work practice standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work practice standards. 60.103a... Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.103a Work practice standards. (a) Each owner or operator that operates a flare that is subject to this...

  15. Practical reference - radiation standards in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    In developing a policy that will require licensees to calibrate their radiation dose measuring devices and trace such calibrations to approved reference standards, the AECB has consulted recognized experts. This document presents the experts' reports and recommendations which will be considered in finalizing the policy

  16. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do accounting academicians integrate new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards to their lectures?”, “How does modern accounting education methodology and technology coincides with the teaching of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do universities offer mandatory and elective courses which cover the new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?” and “If such courses are offered, what are their names, percentage in the curriculum and degree of coverage?”Research contributes to the literature in several ways. Firstly, new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards are current significant topics for the accounting profession. Furthermore, the accounting education provides a basis for the implementations in public and private sector. Besides, one of the intentions of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards is to foster transparency. That is definitely a critical concept also in terms of mergers, acquisitions and investments. Stakeholders of today’s business world such as investors, shareholders, entrepreneurs, auditors and government are in need of more standardized global accounting principles Thus, revision and redesigning of accounting educations plays an important role. Emphasized points also clearly prove the necessity and functionality of this research.

  17. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  18. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States

  19. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States [fr

  20. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-14

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States.

  1. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-15

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States.

  2. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States

  3. Review of ASME nuclear codes and standards- subcommittee on repairs, replacements, and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    As requested by the ASME board on Nuclear Codes and Standards, the Pressure Vessel Research Committee initiated a project to review Sections III and XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for the purposes of improving, clarifying, providing transition, consistency, compatibility, and simplifying code requirements. The project was organized with six subcommittees to address various Code activities: design; tests and examinations; documentation; quality assurance; repair, replacement and modification; and general requirements. This paper discusses how the subcommittee on repair, replacement and modification was organized to review the repair, replacement and modification requirements of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section III and Section XI for Class 1, 2, and 3 and MC components and their supports, and other documents of the nuclear industry related to the repair, replacement and modification requirements of the ASME code

  4. Application of the new International Code of Practice for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology to conventional exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, A.; Cardenas Herrera, J.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Machado, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the recent years, a policy for updating and installation of the X-ray equipment, specialized as well as conventional, have been carrying out, in Cuba. Conventional equipment has reached almost the whole primary level. Considering this situation, the quality control programs and clinical dosimetry have become even more important. Regarding the last one, an International Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology had been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to been used as a guide and to standardize the methodologies used to evaluate the patient exposure in radiodiagnostic. Taken into consideration the above reasons, an assessment of the aforementioned code of practice was done in order to choose the most feasible methodology to implement in the country. The evaluation was performed considering the lack of dosimetric equipment and medical physicists in this practice, in the interests of increasing the measurements scope to a large number of services as well as to standardize the methodology on a national scale. The present work shows the results obtained from the application of the new code of practice to conventional radiology exams in some medical institutions. Out of 3 on patients measurements methodologies described in the code of practice, the one of measurement of the incident air kerma was chosen. This methodology allow to the physicist to focus on the diagnostic equipment tests and to delegate the collection of the patient and exposure parameters data to the technicians, which make the increased of the patient and diagnostic departments sample, possible. The measurements were carried out in 2 hospital of the capital. The exams involved in the assessments were thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine LAT. In every diagnostic service, 25 patients were chosen on each projection. The weight and height average of the patient sample were 68 kg and 167 cm respectively. In the assessment were considered only

  5. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  6. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J.; Ewig, F.; Dickenson, S.; Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L.; Rydl, A.; Royen, J.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I - concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  7. The development of professional practice standards for Australian general practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Stephens, Moira; Bryce, Julianne; Foley, Elizabeth; Ashley, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the current role of general practice nurses and the scope of nursing practice to inform the development of national professional practice standards for Australian general practice nurses. Increasing numbers of nurses have been employed in Australian general practice to meet the growing demand for primary care services. This has brought significant changes to the nursing role. Competency standards for nurses working in general practice were first developed in Australia in 2005, but limited attention has been placed on articulating the contemporary scope of practice for nurses in this setting. Concurrent mixed methods design. Data collection was conducted during 2013-2014 and involved two online surveys of Registered and Enrolled Nurses currently working in general practice, a series of 14 focus groups across Australia and a series of consultations with key experts. Data collection enabled the development of 22 Practice Standards separated into four domains: (i) Professional Practice; (ii) Nursing Care; (iii) General Practice Environment and (iv) Collaborative Practice. To differentiate the variations in enacting these Standards, performance indicators for the Enrolled Nurse, Registered Nurse and Registered Nurse Advanced Practice are provided under each Standard. The development of national professional practice standards for nurses working in Australian general practice will support ongoing workforce development. These Standards are also an important means of articulating the role and scope of the nurses' practice for both consumers and other health professionals, as well as being a guide for curriculum development and measurement of performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of practicality of ASME code, Section XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattu, R.K.; Lauderdale, J.R.; Liu, S.N.; Lance, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants have found that it is impractical or unduly burdensome to comply with some ASME Boiler and Pressure Code provisions and have sought relief from those provisions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) project is evaluating such Code provisions and alternatives to them that will meet the safety intent of the Code with less burden on utilities. The methodology is to extract data from an on-line data base of relief requests since 1980, analyse the data to identify burdensome provisions for which there are satisfactory alternatives, and recommend changes in the Code to the ASME. (author)

  9. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFleur, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Marchi, Chris San [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project addresses the following technical barriers from the Safety, Codes and Standards section of the 2012 Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (section 3.8): (A) Safety data and information: limited access and availability (F) Enabling national and international markets requires consistent RCS (G) Insufficient technical data to revise standards.

  10. Development of an international code of practice for dosimetry in X-ray diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Carlsson, G.A.; Dance, D.R.; DeWerd, L.A.; Kramer, H.-M.; Ng, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    Medical x-ray examinations contribute greatly to the population dose from man-made radiation sources. There is a need to control this dose and therefore to optimise the design and use of x-ray imaging systems. A key stage in this process is the standardisation of the procedures for dose measurement in the clinic. The Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section of the IAEA has a number of activities to further advance the standards for x-ray diagnostics. One of these activities is the coordination of a working group to develop a code of practice, which will facilitate the IAEA calibration activities, TLD intercomparisons and audits, educational activities, and technical assistance to Member States. The code of practice will aid in the standardisation of various dosimetric techniques in x-ray diagnostic radiology. The CoP working group has had an initial meeting to review the current status of dosimetry for conventional radiology, fluoroscopy, mammography, computed tomography and dental radiology. The CoP will include the establishment of standards and calibrations at the SSDLs, phantom and patient measurements and procedures for dosimetry in the clinic. (author)

  11. Review and Implementation of the Emerging CCSDS Recommended Standard for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Lossless Image Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Auge, Estanislau; Santalo, Josep; Blanes, Ian; Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Kiely, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A new standard for image coding is being developed by the MHDC working group of the CCSDS, targeting onboard compression of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery captured by aircraft and satellites. The proposed standard is based on the "Fast Lossless" adaptive linear predictive compressor, and is adapted to better overcome issues of onboard scenarios. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art in this field, and provide an experimental comparison of the coding performance of the emerging standard in relation to other state-of-the-art coding techniques. Our own independent implementation of the MHDC Recommended Standard, as well as of some of the other techniques, has been used to provide extensive results over the vast corpus of test images from the CCSDS-MHDC.

  12. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown that ...

  13. The Lambert Code: Can We Define Best Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the proposals put forward in the Lambert Report for reforms in university governance. It compares the recommendation for a Code with the analogue Combined Code which regulates corporate governance in companies and draws a distinction between attempts, from the Cadbury Report in 1992 to the Higgs Review in 2003, to create board…

  14. Code of practice and design principles for installed radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    For some years there has been comprehensive guidance documentation for Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation, but apparently no corresponding guide for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation. A small group of instrumentation engineers discussed this lack of a suitable guide, and they examined the main points on which it should be based. This document attempts to present a comprehensive and detailed review of these points. It is intended to give an overall coverage and serve as a reference document for specific points; it should also be of value to the newcomer to the Radiological Protection Instrumentation field. This Code of Practice represents a standard of good practice and takes the form of recommendations only. Each installation must be assessed individually, and agreement on its suitability must be reached locally by the designers and the officers responsible for safety and operation. (author)

  15. The UK Nuclear Industry Code of Practice on Clearances and Exemptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the major nuclear organisations in the United Kingdom started development of a document that would identify and facilitate consistent the application of good practice within the industry for clearing and sentencing of articles, substances and wastes which may be clean, or radioactive at very low levels below thresholds of regulatory control. The document includes: (i) Clarification of the industry's interpretation of legislation associated with the clearance and sentencing of articles, substances and wastes which are or have the potential to have been contaminated by radioactivity or activated by nuclear radiations; (ii) Industry agreement on what is considered to be the good practice where legislation is imprecise or unclear, (iii) A standard management framework, adopted by all organisations within the nuclear industry, that should justify safe and efficient clearance of potentially radioactive articles, substances and wastes; and (IV) Agreed guidance on the principles, processes and practices which should be followed for clearances and sentencing The Document mandates a system that allows articles and substances to be released from further control, where this is appropriate, using robust radiological protection principles. The need to avoid sentencing of clean materials as radioactive waste where this is not appropriate, the primacy of bulk, rather than surface radioactivity clearance criteria, and the need to disallow such clearances until all relevant legislation has been satisfied, are all clear principles contained within the document. An interim issue of the Code of Practice was issued in May 2003. This version has been formally adopted by all of the major users of radioactive material in the United Kingdom, and has two main objectives: -Trial use of the concepts at the working level, and - As a basis for further discussion with interested stakeholders. The paper summarises: - How the interim version of the Code of Practice was developed; - The

  16. Towards a European draft code of practice in creep crack growth testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikbin, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Crack growth and initiation models as well as defect assessment codes need reliable and verifiable material properties data for use in their predictive methodologies. These data consist of uniaxial, multiaxial and crack initiation and growth data under static and cyclic loading at the relevant temperatures. International collaboration for developing standards in this field started in 1987 under the auspices of the VAMAS (Versailles Agreement for MAterials and Standards). Two technical Working Areas TWA11 and TWA19 committees ending 1998 have made substantial progress in unifying and standardising the methods for obtaining the relevant data. This collaboration has resulted in the development of ASTM E1457 creep crack growth testing standard. The European collaborative programme CRETE (see Acknowledgements), which began in 1999, is following up this valuable research in order to develop a European Code of Practice for elevated temperature crack growth which is planned to have a wider field of application. A Round Robin experimental, analytical and verification programme in CRETE will include testing a type 316 LN stainless steel at 550 degC and a Carbon-Manganese steel at 400 degC consisting of seven different geometries. The paper reviews the methods of analysis used for laboratory creep crack growth data and their relevance to long term crack initiation and growth in components. In addition, since design and life assessment and material properties under creep are an integral part of this project a short review of the models available for predicting creep and fatigue crack growth is presented. (author)

  17. Recent development in the ASME O and M committee codes, standards, and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The ASME O and M Committee continues to expand and update its code, standards, and guides as contained in the ASME OM Code and the ASME OM Standards/Guides. This paper will describe recent changes to these two ASME documents, including technical inquiries, code cases, and the major reformat of the ASME OM Code 1998 Edition. Also two new Parts to the ASME OM S/G will be discussed: OM Part 23 and OM Part 24, which are close to being initially published. A third new Part to the ASME OM S/G has been authorized and has recently started to get organized: Part 26, 'Thermal Calibration of RTDs'. In addition this paper will describe the future plans for these two documents as provided in the O and M Committee Strategic Plan. (author)

  18. A repository of codes of ethics and technical standards in health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository.

  19. MARS-KS code validation activity through the atlas domestic standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, K. H.; Park, H. S.; Cho, S.

    2012-01-01

    The 2 nd Domestic Standard Problem (DSP-02) exercise using the ATLAS integral effect test data was executed to transfer the integral effect test data to domestic nuclear industries and to contribute to improving the safety analysis methodology for PWRs. A small break loss of coolant accident of a 6-inch break at the cold leg was determined as a target scenario by considering its technical importance and by incorporating interests from participants. Ten calculation results using MARS-KS code were collected, major prediction results were described qualitatively and code prediction accuracy was assessed quantitatively using the FFTBM. In addition, special code assessment activities were carried out to find out the area where the model improvement is required in the MARS-KS code. The lessons from this DSP-02 and recommendations to code developers are described in this paper. (authors)

  20. PERTV: A standard file version of the PERT-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The PERT-V code, used in two-dimensional perturbation theory, fast reactor analysis, has been modified to accept input data from standard files ISOTXS, GEODST, ZNATDN, NDXSRF, DLAYXS, RTFLUX, and ATFLUX. This modification has greatly reduced the additional input that must be supplied by the user. The new version of PERT-V, PERTV, has all the options of the original code including a plotting capability. 10 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Contributions of the ORNL piping program to nuclear piping design codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.

    1975-11-01

    The ORNL Piping Program was conceived and established to develop basic information on the structural behavior of nuclear power plant piping components and to prepare this information in forms suitable for use in design analysis and codes and standards. One of the objectives was to develop and qualify stress indices and flexibility factors for direct use in Code-prescribed design analysis methods. Progress in this area is described

  2. Final Technical Report for GO17004 Regulatory Logic: Codes and Standards for the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakarado, Gary L. [Regulatory Logic LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to: develop a robust supporting research and development program to provide critical hydrogen behavior data and a detailed understanding of hydrogen combustion and safety across a range of scenarios, needed to establish setback distances in building codes and minimize the overall data gaps in code development; support and facilitate the completion of technical specifications by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for gaseous hydrogen refueling (TS 20012) and standards for on-board liquid (ISO 13985) and gaseous or gaseous blend (ISO 15869) hydrogen storage by 2007; support and facilitate the effort, led by the NFPA, to complete the draft Hydrogen Technologies Code (NFPA 2) by 2008; with experimental data and input from Technology Validation Program element activities, support and facilitate the completion of standards for bulk hydrogen storage (e.g., NFPA 55) by 2008; facilitate the adoption of the most recently available model codes (e.g., from the International Code Council [ICC]) in key regions; complete preliminary research and development on hydrogen release scenarios to support the establishment of setback distances in building codes and provide a sound basis for model code development and adoption; support and facilitate the development of Global Technical Regulations (GTRs) by 2010 for hydrogen vehicle systems under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations and Working Party on Pollution and Energy Program (ECE-WP29/GRPE); and to Support and facilitate the completion by 2012 of necessary codes and standards needed for the early commercialization and market entry of hydrogen energy technologies.

  3. Disposal of Pesticide Wastes as Implemented in A Proposed Code of Practice in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif El-Hamady, E.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study , an Egyptian Code of Practice for the safe use of pesticides on farms and holdings is suggested. The Code has to be issued for the purpose of providing practical guidance to citizens especially farmers and growers engaged in crop production or to the authorities of companies and plants manufacturing and formulating pesticides in Egypt

  4. The Interplay Between the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Codes of Conduct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlotte Pavillon (C.M.D.S.)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ At the heart of this paper lies the reciprocal influence between codes of conduct and the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (UCPD). It assesses to what extent self-regulatory practice both affects and is affected by the directive. The codes' contribution to

  5. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  6. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  7. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  8. The common core mathematics standards transforming practice through team leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Ted H; Balka, Don S

    2012-01-01

    Transform math instruction with effective CCSS leadership The Common Core State Standards for mathematics describe the "habits of mind" that teachers should develop in their students without which the content standards cannot be successfully implemented. This professional development resource helps principals and math leaders grapple with the changes that must be addressed so that teachers can implement the practices required by the CCSS. Included are: A clear explanation of the CCSS for Mathematical Practice  Techniques to help leadership teams collaboratively implement and maintain the new standards A proficiency matrix with examples of instructional strategies for helping students reach competency in each standard.

  9. CIRSE Standards of Practice Guidelines on Gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, James, E-mail: jasutcliffe@gmail.com; Wigham, Andrew, E-mail: a.wigham@doctors.org.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Mceniff, Niall, E-mail: nmceniff@stjames.ie [St. James’s Hospital, Radiology (DiagIm) (Ireland); Dvorak, Petr, E-mail: petr-dvorak@email.cz [Faculty Hospital Charles University, Radiology Department (Czech Republic); Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: laura.crocetti@med.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplants (Italy); Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: Raman.Uberoi@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeSurgical Gastrostomy has been around since the 19th century but in 1980 the first successful percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was reported. A year later the first successful percutaneous gastrostomy was performed using fluoroscopic guidance. The technique for percutaneous insertion and the equipment used has been refined since then and it is now considered the gold standard for gastrostomy insertion. Here we present guidelines for image-guided enteral feeding tubes in adults.Material and MethodWe performed a review and analysis of the scientific literature, other national and international guidelines and expert opinion.ResultsStudies have shown fluoroscopic techniques have consistently higher success rates with lower rates of major complications than endoscopic techniques. However, the Achilles' heel of many fluoroscopic techniques is the requirement for smaller gastrostomy tube sizes resulting in them being more prone to blockages and thus requiring further intervention.ConclusionRadiological feeding tube insertion is a safe and effective procedure. Success rates are higher, and complication rates lower than PEG or surgical gastrostomy tube placement and innovative techniques for gastric and jejunal access mean that there are very few cases in which RIG is not possible. The principal weakness of radiologically inserted gastrostomies is the limitiation on tube size which leads to a higher rate of tube blockage. Per-oral image-guided gastrostomies have to an extent addressed this but have not been popularised. Currently many centres still consider endoscopic gastrostomies as the first line unless patients are too unwell to undergo this procedure or previous attempts have failed, in which case radioloically inserted gastrostomies are the technique of choice.

  10. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  11. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  12. Development of the private practice management standards for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rebecca; Stokes, David; Littlefield, Lyn; Collins, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing a set of private practice management standards to support Australian psychologists and promote high quality services to the public. A review of the literature was conducted to identify management standards relevant to psychology, which were further developed in consultation with a panel of experts in psychology or in the development of standards. Forty-three psychologists in independent private practice took part in either a survey (n=22) to provide feedback on the relevance of, and their compliance with, the identified standards, or a 6-month pilot study (n=21) in which a web-based self-assessment instrument evaluating the final set of standards and performance indicators was implemented in their practice to investigate self-reported change in management procedures. The pilot study demonstrated good outcomes for practitioners when evaluation of compliance to the standards was operationalized in a self-assessment format. Study results are based on a small sample size. Nevertheless, relevance and utility of the standards was found providing an initial version of management standards that have relevance to the practice of psychology in Australia, along with a system for evaluating psychological service provision to ensure best practice in service delivery. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  13. Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry Health ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Antibiotics use among poultry farmers was motivated by factors such as growth promotion ( x̄ = 2.38), ...

  14. Overview on pre-harmonization studies conducted by the Working Group on Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, J.

    1998-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the Working Group on Codes and Standards (WGCS) has been an Advisory Expert Group of the European Commission and three subgroups were formed to consider manufacture and inspection, structural mechanics and materials topics. The WGCS seeks to promote studies at the pre-harmonisation level, for the clarification and building of consensus in the European Community concerning technical issues of relevance for the integrity of safety-related components. It deals with pre-standardization process regarding industrial codes whose rules are applicable to design, construction and operation of NPP components in European Community

  15. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  17. PHITS code improvements by Regulatory Standard and Research Department Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goko, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    As for the safety analysis to be carried out when a nuclear power company applies for installation permission of facility or equipment, business license, design approval etc., the Regulatory Standard and Research Department Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority continuously conducts safety research for the introduction of various technologies and their improvement in order to evaluate the adequacy of this safety analysis. In the field of the shielding analysis of nuclear fuel transportation materials, this group improved the code to make PHITS applicable to this field, and has been promoting the improvement as a tool used for regulations since FY2013. This paper introduced the history and progress of this safety research. PHITS 2.88, which is the latest version as of November 2016, was equipped with the automatic generation function of variance reduction parameters [T-WWG] etc., and developed as the tool equipped with many effective functions in practical application to nuclear power regulations. In addition, this group conducted the verification analysis against nuclear fuel packages, which showed a good agreement with the analysis by MCNP, which is extensively used worldwide and abundant in actual results. It also shows a relatively good agreement with the measured values, when considering differences in analysis and measurement. (A.O.)

  18. Evaluation on applicability of the rules, regulations, and industrial codes and standards for SMART development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Suhn; Lee, C C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, K.K.; Kim, J.P.; Kim, J.H.; Cho, B.H.; Kang, D J.; Bae, G.H.; Chung, M.; Chang, M.H.

    1999-03-01

    In this report, evaluation on applicability of the rules, regulations, and industrial codes and standards for SMART has been made. As the first step, past-to-present status of licensing structures were reviewed. Then, the rules, regulations, and standards applied to YGN 3-6 were listed and reviewed. Finally, evaluation on applicability of such rules and standards for SMART are made in each design fields. During this step technical evaluations on each items of rules, regulations and standards are made and the possible remedies or comments are suggested. The results are summarized in a tabular form and enclosed as Appendix. (Author). 8 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Practical Realism: Against Standard Scientific Realism and Anti-Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vihalemm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the elaboration of the concept of practical realist philosophy of science which began in the author's previous papers is continued. It is argued that practical realism is opposed to standard scientific realism, on the one hand, and antirealism, on the other. Standard scientific realism is challengeable due to its abstract character, as being isolated from practice. It is based on a metaphysical-ontological presupposition which raises the problem of the God's Eye point of view (as it was called by Hilary Putnam. Joseph Rouse's conception of science as practice, Sami Pihlström's pragmatic realism, and even Ilkka Niiniluoto's critical scientific realism are interpreted as practical realist conceptions. Pihlström suggests that the contemporary scientific realist should be prepared to accept the pragmatically naturalized Kantian transcendental perspective on realism. It is argued, however, that this realistically naturalized Kantianism can be nothing more than practical realism, as originated by Karl Marx.

  20. Narcolepsy and its treatment with stimulants. ASDA standards of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitler, M M; Aldrich, M S; Koob, G F; Zarcone, V P

    1994-06-01

    This review is part of the standards of practice recommendations. It has been commended and reviewed by the Board of the ASDA. It reflects recommendations of the Board for the practice of sleep medicine in North America. The subcommittee is responsible for the presented write-up.

  1. Review of the Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallings, L.O.

    1967-01-01

    The background of the IAEA recommendations for a Code of Practice is outlined. The possibility of laying down broad safety margins based on scientific foresight and detailed advanced planning will serve to guide the rapidly accelerating acceptance of radiosterilization by industry, especially in those firms producing supplies for use in medicine and surgery. Production control should be attuned to the scientific and technological advances, and it is becoming clear that the focus of control should be moved away from sterility testing of the finished products to hygienic and sterile operations during the manufacturing operations themselves. The contamination of the product before sterilization should already have been kept to a minimum, and this pre-sterilization level of contamination should be regularly recorded using bacteriological tests. The choice of dosage should be based on average pre-sterilization counts and the inactivation factors found desirable for die intended use of the product. On commissioning, or whenever an existing process is altered, the efficiency of the irradiation facility must be tested using microbiological reference standards. The margin of safety should be checked by using deliberately contaminated articles. However, the backbone of the control procedures must still be dosimetry. The preparation of a Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products will constitute a challenge to operators working with other sterilizing procedures. (author)

  2. Changing priorities of codes and standards -- quality engineering: Experiences in plant construction, maintenance, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, D.D.; Suleski, P.F.; Meier, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Application of the ASME Code across various fossil and nuclear plants necessitates a Company approach adapted by unique status of each plant. This arises from State Statutes, Federal Regulations and consideration of each plant's as-built history over a broad time frame of design, construction and operation. Additionally, the National Board Inspection Code accompanies Minnesota Statutes for plants owned by Northern States Power Company. This paper addresses some key points on NSP's use of ASME Code as a principal mechanical standard in plant design, construction and operation. A primary resource facilitating review of Code provisions is accurate status on current plant configuration. As plant design changes arise, the Code Edition/Addenda of original construction and installed upgrades or replacements are considered against available options allowed by current standards and dialog with the Jurisdictional Authority. Consistent with the overall goal of safe and reliable plant operation, there are numerous Code details and future needs to be addressed in concert with expected plant economics and planned outages for implementation. The discussion begins in the late 60's with new construction of Monticello and Prairie Island (both nuclear), through Sherburne County Units 1 through 3 (fossil), and their changes, replacements or repairs as operating plants

  3. Mongolia; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in Mongolia against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. This paper analyzes the government's participation in the financial and nonfinancial sectors of the economy. Executive Directors appreciated the achievements, and stressed the need for improvements in the areas of fiscal transparency. They emphasized the need for addressing weaknesses of fiscal data, maintaining a legal framework fo...

  4. Eliminating Undesirable Variation in Neonatal Practice: Balancing Standardization and Customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Raghavan, Aarti; Suresh, Gautham K

    2017-09-01

    Consistency of care and elimination of unnecessary and harmful variation are underemphasized aspects of health care quality. This article describes the prevalence and patterns of practice variation in health care and neonatology; discusses the potential role of standardization as a solution to eliminating wasteful and harmful practice variation, particularly when it is founded on principles of evidence-based medicine; and proposes ways to balance standardization and customization of practice to ultimately improve the quality of neonatal care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis SRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1985-01-01

    SRAC, JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis, developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is for all types of thermal neutron nuclear design and analysis. The code system has undergone extensive verifications to confirm its functions, and has been used in core modification of the research reactor, detailed design of the multi-purpose high temperature gas reactor and analysis of the experiment with a critical assembly. In nuclear calculation with the code system, multi-group lattice calculation is first made with the libraries. Then, with the resultant homogeneous equivalent group constants, reactor core calculation is made. Described are the following: purpose and development of the code system, functions of the SRAC system, bench mark tests and usage state and future development. (Mori, K.)

  6. Standard Practice for Visual Inspections of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and criteria for visual inspections of photovoltaic modules. 1.2 Visual inspections of photovoltaic modules are normally performed before and after modules have been subjected to environmental, electrical, or mechanical stress testing, such as thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, damp heat exposure, ultraviolet exposure, mechanical loading, hail impact testing, outdoor exposure, or other stress testing that may be part of photovoltaic module testing sequence. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  8. Reliability improvement: where do we go from here. The role of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The role of codes and standards in contributing to the future improvement is discussed. The Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System is examined. It is suggested that two systems of the type are needed. One system should focus on component and system reliability while the other should focus on system availability, capacity factor, and fixed outage rate assessment

  9. Adapting Canada's northern infrastructure to climate change: the role of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, P.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides the results of a research project that investigated the use of codes and standards in terms of their potential for fostering adaptation to the future impacts of climate change on built infrastructure in Canada's north. This involved a literature review, undertaking key informant interviews, and a workshop where key stakeholders came together to dialogue on the challenges facing built infrastructure in the north as a result of climate change and the role of codes and standards to help mitigate climate change risk. In this article, attention is given to the topic area of climate data and information requirements related to climate and climate change. This was an important focal area that was identified through this broader research effort since adequate data is essential in allowing codes and standards to meet their ultimate policy objective. A number of priorities have been identified specific to data and information needs in the context of the research topic investigated: There is a need to include northerners in developing the climate and permafrost data required for codes and standards so that these reflect the unique geographical, economic, and cultural realities and variability of the north; Efforts should be undertaken to realign climate design values so that they reflect both present and future risks; There is a need for better information on the rate and extent of permafrost degradation in the north; and, There is a need to improve monitoring of the rate of climate change in the Arctic. (author)

  10. Discrete-ordinates electron transport calculations using standard neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to develop a method for using standard neutron transport codes to perform electron transport calculations. The method is to develop approximate electron cross sections which are sufficiently well-behaved to be treated with standard S/sub n/ methods, but which nonetheless yield flux solutions which are very similar to the exact solutions. The main advantage of this approach is that, once the approximate cross sections are constructed, their multigroup Legendre expansion coefficients can be calculated and input to any standard S/sub n/ code. Discrete-ordinates calculations were performed to determine the accuracy of the flux solutions for problems corresponding to 1.0-MeV electrons incident upon slabs of aluminum and gold. All S/sub n/ calculations were compared with similar calculations performed with an electron Monte Carlo code, considered to be exact. In all cases, the discrete-ordinates solutions for integral flux quantities (i.e., scalar flux, energy deposition profiles, etc.) are generally in agreement with the Monte Carlo solutions to within approximately 5% or less. The central conclusion is that integral electron flux quantities can be efficiently and accurately calculated using standard S/sub n/ codes in conjunction with approximate cross sections. Furthermore, if group structures and approximate cross section construction are optimized, accurate differential flux energy spectra may also be obtainable without having to use an inordinately large number of energy groups. 1 figure

  11. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  12. Harmonization of nuclear codes and standards, pacific nuclear council working and task group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The codes and standards, both at the national and international level, have had a major impact on the industry worldwide and served it well in maintaining the performance and safety of the nuclear reactors and facilities. The codes and standards, in general, are consensus documents and do seek public input at various levels before they are finalized and rolled out for use by the nuclear vendors, consultants, utilities and regulatory bodies. However, the extensive development of prescriptive national standards if unchecked against the global environment and trade agreements (NAFTA, WTO, etc.) can also become barriers and cause difficulties to compete in the world market. During the last decade, the national and international writing standards writing bodies have recognized these issues and are moving more towards the rationalization and harmonization of their standards with the more widely accepted generic standards. The Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC) recognized the need for harmonization of the nuclear codes and standards for its member countries and formed a Task Group to achieve its objectives. The Task Group has a number of members from the PNC member countries. In 2005 PNC further raised the importance of this activity and formed a Working Group to cover a broader scope. The Working Group (WG) mandate is to identify and analyze the different codes and standards introduced to the Pacific Basin region, in order to achieve mutual understanding, harmonization and application in each country. This o requires the WG to develop and encourage the use of reasonably consistent criteria for the design and development, engineering, procurement, fabrication, construction, testing, operations, maintenance, waste management, decommissioning and the management of the commercial nuclear power plants in the Pacific Basin so as to: Promote consistent safety, quality, environmental and management standards for nuclear energy and other peaceful applications of nuclear

  13. Code of practice and design principles, for installed radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.G.

    1980-09-01

    The main points on which a guide for designers and installers of radiological protection instrumentation (RPI) should be based have been examined by a small group of instrumentation engineers. The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive and detailed review of these points. It is intended to give an overall coverage and serve as a reference document for specific points; it should also be of value to newcomers to the RPI field. The code presents a standard of good practice and takes the form of recommendations only. The contents cover: the requirement for RPI; design, availability and reliability, information displays, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, cost, installation, operation, maintenance and documentation. Appendices include: Radon and thoron decay series, air sampling, reliability of component combinations and redundancy. (28 references). (author)

  14. Practical Application of Monte Carlo Code in RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Julia Abdul Karim; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Na'im Syauqi Hamzah; Mark Dennis Anak Usang; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Muhammad Khairul Ariff Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes are widely used in various reactor physics applications in RTP and other related nuclear and radiation research in Nuklear Malaysia. The main advantage of the method is the capability to model geometry and interaction physics without major approximations. The disadvantage is that the modelling of complicated systems is very computing-intensive, which restricts the applications to some extent. The importance of Monte Carlo calculation is likely to increase in the future, along with the development in computer capacities and parallel calculation. This paper presents several calculation activities, its achievements and challenges in using MCNP code for neutronics analysis, nuclide inventory and source term calculation, shielding and dose evaluation. (author)

  15. The uses and implications of standards in general practice consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Maria Laura; Reventlow, Susanne; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2017-01-01

    Quality standards play an increasingly important role in primary care through their inscription in various technologies for improving professional practice. While ‘hard’ biomedical standards have been the most common and debated, current quality development initiatives increasingly seek to include...... as manifestations of an inherent conflict between principles of patient-centredness and formal biomedical quality standards. However, this study suggests that standards on the ‘softer’ aspects of care may just as well interfere with a clinical approach relying on situated and attentive interactions with patients....

  16. Regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Symposium on Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards for Nuclear Power Plants was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany with the objective of providing an international forum for the exchange of information on regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants. The Symposium was held in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, from 7 to 10 November 1988. It was attended by 201 experts from some 32 Member States and 4 international organizations. Fifty-one papers from 19 Member States and 2 international organizations were presented and discussed in 5 technical sessions covering the following subjects: National Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards (14 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Technical Issues (8 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Operational Aspects (8 papers); Developments and Trends in Safety Standards and Practices (11 papers); International Aspects (10 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Harmonization of nuclear codes and standards. Pacific nuclear council working and task group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, Shami

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear codes and standards have been an integral part of the nuclear industry since its inception. As the industry came into the main stream over the 2nd half of the 20th century, a number of national and international standards were developed to support a specific nuclear reactor concept. These codes and standards have been a key component of the industry to maintain its focus on nuclear safety, reliability and quality. Both national and international standards have served the industry well in obtaining public, shareholder and regulatory acceptance. The existing suite of national and international standards is required to support the emerging nuclear renaissance. However as noted above under Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC), Manufacturing Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) and SMiRT discussions, the time has come now for the codes and standards writing bodies and the industry to take the next step to examine the relevance of existing suite in view of current needs and challenges. This review must account for the changing global environment including global supply chain and regulatory framework, resources, deregulation, free trade, and industry need for competitiveness and performance excellence. The Task Group (TG) has made limited progress in this review period as no additional information on the listing of codes and standards have been received from the members. However, TG Chair has been successful in obtaining considerable interest from some additional individuals from the member countries. It is important that PNC management seek additional participation from the member countries and asks for their active engagement in the Working Group (WG) TG activities to achieve its mandate and deliverables. The harmonization of codes and standards is a key area for the emerging nuclear renaissance and as noted by a number of international organizations (refer to MDEP action noted above) that these tasks can not be completed unless we have the right level of resources and

  18. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files

  19. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.

  20. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  1. The applicability of ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC nuclear design code system on Korean standard PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kookjong; Choi, Kie-Yong; Lee, Hae-Chan; Roh, Eun-Rae

    1996-01-01

    For the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) designed based on Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80, the Westinghouse nuclear design code system ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC was applied to the follow-up design of initial and reload core of KSNPP. The follow-up design results of Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, 2 and Yonggwang Unit 4 Cycle 1 have shown good agreements with the measured data. The assemblywise power distributions have shown less than 2% average differences and critical boron concentrations have shown less than 20 ppm differences. All the low power physics test parameters are in good agreement. Consequently, APA design code system can be applied to KNSPP cores. (author)

  2. Developing and modifying behavioral coding schemes in pediatric psychology: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Jill MacLaren; McMurtry, C Meghan; Chambers, Christine T; Bakeman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To provide a concise and practical guide to the development, modification, and use of behavioral coding schemes for observational data in pediatric psychology. This article provides a review of relevant literature and experience in developing and refining behavioral coding schemes. A step-by-step guide to developing and/or modifying behavioral coding schemes is provided. Major steps include refining a research question, developing or refining the coding manual, piloting and refining the coding manual, and implementing the coding scheme. Major tasks within each step are discussed, and pediatric psychology examples are provided throughout. Behavioral coding can be a complex and time-intensive process, but the approach is invaluable in allowing researchers to address clinically relevant research questions in ways that would not otherwise be possible. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of Network Coding on Delay and Throughput in Practical Wireless Chain Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Rein, Stephan Alexander; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a practical evaluation of network coding in a setup consisting of eight nodes deployed in a chain topology. With the tradition pure relaying, delay increases dramatically as the network gets congested, and here network coding helps to moderate this increase ...

  4. Hospital Coding Practice, Data Quality, and DRG-Based Reimbursement under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit

    2011-01-01

    In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…

  5. Implementing the Netherlands Code of Conduct for Scientific Practice : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurbiers, D.; Osseweijer, P.; Kinderlerer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Widespread enthusiasm for establishing scientific codes of conduct notwithstanding, the utility of such codes in influencing scientific practice is not self-evident. It largely depends on the implementation phase following their establishment—a phase which often receives little attention. The aim of

  6. Code of Nursing Practice for Staff Exposed to Ionizing Radiation (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code, published by the National Health and Medical Research Council and intended for nurses and auxiliary staff provides general guidance on radiation protection. The Code is supplementary to radiation control legislation relating to the use of ionizing radiation in medical practice. The principles established by the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been taken into account. (NEA) [fr

  7. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... 59A Standard for the P Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). NFPA 75... Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor Systems. NFPA 385 Standard for Tank P Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. NFPA 497 Recommended Practice P for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or...

  9. Croatia - Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an updated assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Croatia. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire). Croatia has made co...

  10. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  11. Photovoltaic Power Systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-02-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently.

  12. Standard practice for conducting atmospheric corrosion tests on metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and defines conditions for exposure of metals and alloys to the weather. It sets forth the general procedures that should be followed in any atmospheric test. It is presented as an aid in conducting atmospheric corrosion tests so that some of the pitfalls of such testing may be avoided. As such, it is concerned mainly with panel exposures to obtain data for comparison purposes. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Code of practice for the safe use of ionizing radiation in secondary schools (1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The code of practice is intended for schools and indicates the basic philosophy behind the current approach to the control of hazards associated with the use of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this code is to provide guidance on safe and proper practices in the use of radiation. It covers modes of radiation exposure, shielding, dose limits, responsibility, general rules, x-ray generators, general control of radioactive sources, sealed sources and unsealed sources

  14. Standardization of mapping practices in the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M.

    1997-07-01

    Because the British Geological Survey (BGS) has had, since its foundation in 1835, a mandate to produce geological maps for the whole of Great Britain, there is a long history of introducing standard practices in the way rocks and rock units have been named, classified and illustrated on maps. The reasons for the failure of some of these practices are examined and assessed in relation to the needs of computerized systems for holding and disseminating geological information.

  15. The Norwegian system for implementing the IAEA code of practice based on absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) SSDL recommended in 2000 the use of absorbed dose to water as the quality for calibration and code of practice in radiotherapy. The absorbed dose to water standard traceable to BIPM was established in Norway in 1995. The international code of practice, IAEA TRS 398 was under preparation. As a part of the implementation of the new dosimetry system the SSDL went to radiotherapy departments in Norway in 2001. The aim of the visit was to: Prepare and support the users in the implementation of TRS 398 by teaching, discussions and measurements on-site; Gain experience for NRPA in the practical implementation of TRS 398 and perform comparisons between TRS 277 and TRS 398 for different beam qualities; Report experience from implementation of TRS 398 to IAEA. The NRPA 30x30x30 cm 3 water phantom is equal to the BIPM calibration phantom. This was used for the photon measurements in 16 different beams. NRPA used three chambers: NE 2571, NE 2611 and PR06C for the photon measurements. As a quality control the set-up was compared with the Finnish site-visit equipment at University Hospital of Helsinki, and the measured absorbed dose to water agreed within 0.6%. The Finnish SSDL calibrated the Norwegian chambers and the absorbed dose to water calibration factors given by the two SSDLs for the three chambers agreed within 0.3%. The local clinical dosimetry in Norway was based on TRS 277. For the site-visit the absorbed dose to water was determined by NRPA using own equipment including the three chambers and the hospitals reference chamber. The hospital determined the dose the same evening using their local equipment. For the 16 photon beams the deviations between the two absorbed dose to water determinations for TRS 277 were in the range -1,7% to +4.0%. The uncertainty in the measurements was 1% (k=1). The deviation was explained in local implementation of TRS 277, the use of plastic phantoms, no resent calibration of

  16. [Coding in general practice-Will the ICD-11 be a step forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlein, Thomas; Virtanen, Martti; Claus, Christoph; Popert, Uwe; van Boven, Kees

    2018-07-01

    Primary care physicians in Germany don't benefit from coding diagnoses-they are coding for the needs of others. For coding, they mostly are using either the thesaurus of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) or self-made cheat-sheets. Coding quality is low but seems to be sufficient for the main use case of the resulting data, which is the morbidity adjusted risk compensation scheme that distributes financial resources between the many German health insurance companies.Neither the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD-10) nor the German thesaurus as an interface terminology are adequate for coding in primary care. The ICD-11 itself will not recognizably be a step forward from the perspective of primary care. At least the browser database format will be advantageous. An implementation into the 182 different electronic health records (EHR) on the German market would probably standardize the coding process and make code finding easier. This method of coding would still be more cumbersome than the current coding with self-made cheat-sheets.The first steps towards a useful official cheat-sheet for primary care have been taken, awaiting implementation and evaluation. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) already provides an adequate classification standard for primary care that can also be used in combination with ICD-10. A new version of ICPC (ICPC-3) is under development. As the ICPC-2 has already been integrated into the foundation layer of ICD-11 it might easily become the future standard for coding in primary care. Improving communication between the different EHR would make taking over codes from other healthcare providers possible. Another opportunity to improve the coding quality might be creating use cases for the resulting data for the primary care physicians themselves.

  17. Environmental codes of practice for steam electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The Design Phase Code is one of a series of documents being developed for the steam electric power generation industry. This industry includes fossil-fuelled stations (gas, oil and coal-fired boilers), and nuclear-powered stations (CANDU heavy water reactors). In this document, environmental concerns associated with water-related and solid waste activities of steam electric plants are discussed. Design recommendations are presented that will minimize the detrimental environmental effects of once-through cooling water systems, of wastewaters discharged to surface waters and groundwaters, and of solid waste disposal sites. Recommendations are also presented for the design of water-related monitoring systems and programs. Cost estimates associated with the implementation of these recommendations are included. These technical guides for new or modified steam electric stations are the result to consultation with a federal-provincial-industry task force

  18. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  19. Quality assurance of the French nuclear market - IAEA code and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavaux, F.

    1980-06-01

    The fact that Quality Assurance was imported from abroad and our reticence to reach agreement on single and accurate texts explain, if not excuse, the abundance of reference requirements existing on the French nuclear market with respect to Quality Assurance Programmes. But all is not lost, since the IAEA Good Practice Code is perhaps the solution that, in a few years time, will enable all French industrialists to work and be assessed by their customers, according to the same reference text [fr

  20. JJ1017 committee report: image examination order codes--standardized codes for imaging modality, region, and direction with local expansion: an extension of DICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tani, Shigeki; Sakusabe, Takaya; Nakajima, Takashi; Morimura, Shinya; Kabata, Shun

    2002-06-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard includes parts regarding nonimage data information, such as image study ordering data and performed procedure data, and is used for sharing information between HIS/RIS and modality systems, which is essential for IHE. To bring such parts of the DICOM standard into force in Japan, a joint committee of JIRA and JAHIS established the JJ1017 management guideline, specifying, for example, which items are legally required in Japan, while remaining optional in the DICOM standard. In Japan, the contents of orders from referring physicians for radiographic examinations include details of the examination. Such details are not used typically by referring physicians requesting radiographic examinations in the United States, because radiologists in the United States often determine the examination protocol. The DICOM standard has code tables for examination type, region, and direction for image examination orders. However, this investigation found that it does not include items that are detailed sufficiently for use in Japan, because of the above-mentioned reason. To overcome these drawbacks, we have generated the JJ1017 code for these 3 codes for use based on the JJ1017 guidelines. This report introduces the JJ1017 code. These codes (the study type codes in particular) must be expandable to keep up with technical advances in equipment. Expansion has 2 directions: width for covering more categories and depth for specifying the information in more detail (finer categories). The JJ1017 code takes these requirements into consideration and clearly distinguishes between the stem part as the common term and the expansion. The stem part of the JJ1017 code partially utilizes the DICOM codes to remain in line with the DICOM standard. This work is an example of how local requirements can be met by using the DICOM standard and extending it.

  1. Code of Practice for the safe transport of radioactive substances 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Federal Code revises an earlier Code on the same subject issued in 1982 and was formulated under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. The purpose of the Code is to establish uniform safety standards, applicable throughout the Commonwealth of Australia, to provide for the protection of persons and the environment, against any dangers associated with the transport of radioactive substances. The Code uses as a basis the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. This new edition takes into account the 1985 Edition of the Regulations incorporating the 1988 Supplement and provides, furthermore, that radiation protection standards will also be subject to recommendations of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council [fr

  2. Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Post, M.

    2012-11-01

    This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

  3. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  4. Non-standard model for electron heat transport for multidimensional hydrodynamic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Ph.; Busquet, M.; Schurtz, G. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    In simulations of laser-produced plasma, modeling of heat transport requires an artificial limitation of standard Spitzer-Haerm fluxes. To improve heat conduction processing, we have developed a multidimensional model which accounts for non-local features of heat transport and effects of self-generated magnetic fields. This consistent treatment of both mechanisms has been implemented in a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code. First results indicate good agreements between simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  5. Non-standard model for electron heat transport for multidimensional hydrodynamic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, Ph.; Busquet, M.; Schurtz, G.

    2000-01-01

    In simulations of laser-produced plasma, modeling of heat transport requires an artificial limitation of standard Spitzer-Haerm fluxes. To improve heat conduction processing, we have developed a multidimensional model which accounts for non-local features of heat transport and effects of self-generated magnetic fields. This consistent treatment of both mechanisms has been implemented in a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code. First results indicate good agreements between simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  6. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Ayşe Tansel Çetin; Ahmed Bulunmaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commerc...

  7. Introduction to Educational Administration: Standards, Theories, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Organized around the ISLLC standards, this text introduces students to the concepts and theories of educational leadership. The new edition adds coverage of such topics as data usage, ethics, innovative hiring practices, and student discipline. Appearing in the second edition are chapter-ending sections called "Point-Counterpoint" which prompt…

  8. 24 CFR 1720.135 - Standards of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) FORMAL PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... the standards of professional and ethical conduct required by practitioners in the courts of the... improper professional conduct. (c) Contemptuous conduct at any hearing shall be grounds for summary...

  9. Integrating industry nuclear codes and standards into United States Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacox, J.

    1995-02-01

    Recently the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has mandated facilities under their jurisdiction use various industry Codes and Standards developed for civilian power reactors that operate under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission License. While this is a major step forward in putting all our nuclear facilities under common technical standards there are always problems associated with implementing such advances. This paper will discuss some of the advantages and problems experienced to date. These include the universal challenge of educating new users of any technical documents, repeating errors made by the NRC licensed facilities over the years and some unique problems specific to DOE facilities.

  10. Validation of the ASSERT subchannel code for prediction of CHF in standard and non-standard CANDU bundle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiteley, J.C.; Carver, M.B.; Zhou, Q.N.

    1993-01-01

    The ASSERT code has been developed to address the three-dimensional computation of flow and phase distribution and fuel element surface temperatures within the horizontal subchannels of CANDU PHWR fuel channels, and to provide a detailed prediction of critical heat flux distribution throughout the bundle. The ASSERT subchannel code has been validated extensively against a wide repertoire of experiments; its combination of three-dimensional prediction of local flow conditions with a comprehensive method of predicting critical heat flux (CHF) at these local conditions makes it a unique tool for predicting CHF for situations outside the existing experimental data base. In particular, ASSERT is the only tool available to systematically investigate CHF under conditions of local geometric variations, such as pressure tube creep and fuel element strain. This paper discusses the numerical methodology used in ASSERT, the constitutive relationships incorporated, and the CHF assessment methodology. The evolutionary validation plan is discussed, and early validation exercises are summarized. The paper concentrates, however, on more recent validation exercises in standard and non-standard geometries. 28 refs., 12 figs

  11. Validation of the assert subchannel code: Prediction of CHF in standard and non-standard Candu bundle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Kiteley, J.C.; Zhou, R.Q.N.; Junop, S.V.; Rowe, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The ASSERT code has been developed to address the three-dimensional computation of flow and phase distribution and fuel element surface temperatures within the horizontal subchannels of CANDU PHWR fuel channels, and to provide a detailed prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) distribution throughout the bundle. The ASSERT subchannel code has been validated extensively against a wide repertoire of experiments; its combination of three-dimensional prediction of local flow conditions with a comprehensive method of prediting CHF at these local conditions, makes it a unique tool for predicting CHF for situations outside the existing experimental data base. In particular, ASSERT is an appropriate tool to systematically investigate CHF under conditions of local geometric variations, such as pressure tube creep and fuel element strain. This paper discusses the numerical methodology used in ASSERT, the constitutive relationships incorporated, and the CHF assessment methodology. The evolutionary validation plan is discussed, and early validation exercises are summarized. The paper concentrates, however, on more recent validation exercises in standard and non-standard geometries

  12. A qualitative study of DRG coding practice in hospitals under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winch Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Methods Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large, location (urban/rural, and type (public/private. Results Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1 Discharge Summarization, 2 Completeness Checking, 3 Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4 Code Checking, 5 Relative Weight Challenging, 6 Coding Report, and 7 Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1 Internal Dynamics, 2 Management Context, 3 Financial Dependency, 4 Resource and Capacity, and 5 External Factors. Conclusions Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.

  13. A qualitative study of DRG coding practice in hospitals under the Thai Universal Coverage scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit; Walker, Damian G; Winch, Peter J; Robinson, Courtland

    2011-04-08

    In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large), location (urban/rural), and type (public/private). Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1) Discharge Summarization, 2) Completeness Checking, 3) Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4) Code Checking, 5) Relative Weight Challenging, 6) Coding Report, and 7) Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1) Internal Dynamics, 2) Management Context, 3) Financial Dependency, 4) Resource and Capacity, and 5) External Factors. Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.

  14. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. ENDF-UTILITY-CODES, codes to check and standardize data in the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The ENDF Utility Codes include 9 codes to check and standardize data in the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). Four programs of this release, GETMAT, LISTEF, PLOTEF and SETMDC are no more maintained since release 6.13. The suite of ENDF utility codes includes: - CHECKR (version 7.01) is a program for checking that an evaluated data file conforms to the ENDF format. - FIZCON (version 7.02) is a program for checking that an evaluated data file has valid data and conforms to recommended procedures. - GETMAT (version 6.13) is designed to retrieve one or more materials from an ENDF formatted data file. The output will contain only the selected materials. - INTER (version 7.01) calculates thermal cross sections, g-factors, resonance integrals, fission spectrum averaged cross sections and 14.0 MeV (or other energy) cross sections for major reactions in an ENDF-6 or ENDF-5 format data file. - LISTEF (version 6.13) is designed to produce summary and annotated listings of a data file in either ENDF-6 or ENDF-5 format. - PLOTEF (version 6.13) is designed to produce graphical displays of a data file in either ENDF-5 or ENDF-6 format. The form of graphical output depends on the graphical devices available at the installation where this code will be used. - PSYCHE (version 7.02) is a program for checking the physics content of an evaluated data file. It can recognise the difference between ENDF-5 or ENDF-6 formats and performs its tests accordingly. - SETMDC (version 6.13) is a utility program that converts the source decks of programs to different computers (DOS, UNIX, LINUX, VMS, Windows). - STANEF (version 7.01) performs bookkeeping operations on a data file containing one or more material evaluations in ENDF format. The version 7.02 of the ENDF Utility Codes corrects all bugs reported to NNDC as of April 1, 2005 and supersedes all previous releases. Three codes CHECKR, STANEF, and INTER were actually ported from the 7.01 release

  16. CPD Aligned to Competency Standards to Support Quality Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Nash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their professional development. Results of two separately administered surveys (2012 and 2013 were compared to examine the reported continued professional development (CPD practices of Australian pharmacists. Examination of results from both studies enabled a focus on how the competency standards inform CPD practice.In the survey administered in 2012, 91% (n = 253/278 pharmacists reported that they knew their current registration requirements. However, in the survey administered in 2013, only 43% (n = 46/107 reported utilization of the National Competency Standards Framework for Pharmacists in Australia (NCS to self-asses their practice as part of their annual re-registration requirements. Fewer, 23% (n = 25/107, used the NCS to plan their CPD. This may be symptomatic of poor familiarity with the NCS, uncertainty around undertaking self-directed learning as part of a structured learning plan and/or misunderstandings around what CPD should include. This is supported by thematic analysis of pharmacists’ social media comments. Initial and ongoing competence training to support meaningful CPD requires urgent attention in Australia. The competence (knowledge, skills and attributes required to engage in meaningful CPD practice should be introduced and developed prior to entry into practice; other countries may find they are in a similar position.

  17. MDEP Technical Report TR-CSWG-02. Technical Report on Lessons Learnt on Achieving Harmonisation of Codes and Standards for Pressure Boundary Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Multinational Design Evaluation Program's (MDEP's) Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). The primary, long-term goal of MDEP's CSWG is to achieve international harmonisation of codes and standards for pressure-boundary components in nuclear power plants. The CSWG recognised early on that the first step to achieving harmonisation is to understand the extent of similarities and differences amongst the pressure-boundary codes and standards used in various countries. To assist the CSWG in its long-term goals, several standards developing organisations (SDOs) from various countries performed a comparison of their pressure-boundary codes and standards to identify the extent of similarities and differences in code requirements and the reasons for their differences. The results of the code-comparison project provided the CSWG with valuable insights in developing the subsequent actions to take with SDOs and the nuclear industry to pursue harmonisation of codes and standards. The results enabled the CSWG to understand from a global perspective how each country's pressure-boundary code or standard evolved into its current form and content. The CSWG recognised the important fact that each country's pressure-boundary code or standard is a comprehensive, living document that is continually being updated and improved to reflect changing technology and common industry practices unique to each country. The rules in the pressure-boundary codes and standards include comprehensive requirements for the design and construction of nuclear power plant components including design, materials selection, fabrication, examination, testing and overpressure protection. The rules also contain programmatic and administrative requirements such as quality assurance; conformity assessment (e.g., third-party inspection); qualification of welders, welding equipment and welding procedures; non-destructive examination (NDE) practices and

  18. Code of Ethics for Rehabilitation Educators and Counselors: A Call for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burker, Eileen J.; Kazukauskas, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice (EBP) in the 2010 Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors, it has become even more critical for rehabilitation educators and rehabilitation counselors to understand EBP, how to implement it in teaching and in practice, and how to access available EBP resources. This paper defines and…

  19. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice.

  20. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  1. The role of the IAEA codes of practice in the radiation dosimetry dissemination chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: More than 30 years ago the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published on behalf of IAEA, WHO and PAHO its first Code of Practice (CoP) for radiotherapy dosimetry, TRS-110. Aimed at kV x-rays, 60 Co and 137 Cs therapy in developing countries, and based on roentgens and rads, 'old book' readers will still find interesting practical recommendations like QA procedures that include radiographs of the ionization chamber to check that the internal electrode construction has not moved. TRS-110 was also the first and only CoP with the distinction of including the name of the author in its cover, John B Massey, recognizing that IAEA acted solely as a publisher. For the following almost 20 years IAEA dosimetry activities have prioritized the development of a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). In addition to disseminating traceable radiation metrology standards, in some countries the SSDLs have played the important role of compensating the lack of qualified medical physicists. The balance between radiation metrology and medical physics has now shifted towards the first area and the IAEA recommends that SSDLs should not perform the duties of medical physicists except in dire situations. During this long period, there were no updates of TRS-110 or a new IAEA CoP published, even if different generations of national dosimetry protocols had emerged. The absence of IAEA recommendations favoured the arbitrary use of such national protocols, mostly issued in UK and USA, with the result that multiple protocols were used within a given country and there were no practical links between medical physics and SSDLs except for detector calibrations. The publication in 1987 of the TRS-277 Code of Practice established a quantum leap with regard to the Agency's role in harmonizing international radiotherapy dosimetry. A new generation of N K -based national protocols had emerged in the early eighties, and the authors of TRS-277 were chosen among

  2. SRAC: JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Takano, Hideki; Horikami, Kunihiko; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Hara, Toshiharu.

    1983-01-01

    The SRAC (Standard Reactor Analysis Code) is a code system for nuclear reactor analysis and design. It is composed of neutron cross section libraries and auxiliary processing codes, neutron spectrum routines, a variety of transport, 1-, 2- and 3-D diffusion routines, dynamic parameters and cell burn-up routines. By making the best use of the individual code function in the SRAC system, the user can select either the exact method for an accurate estimate of reactor characteristics or the economical method aiming at a shorter computer time, depending on the purpose of study. The user can select cell or core calculation; fixed source or eigenvalue problem; transport (collision probability or Sn) theory or diffusion theory. Moreover, smearing and collapsing of macroscopic cross sections are separately done by the user's selection. And a special attention is paid for double heterogeneity. Various techniques are employed to access the data storage and to optimize the internal data transfer. Benchmark calculations using the SRAC system have been made extensively for the Keff values of various types of critical assemblies (light water, heavy water and graphite moderated systems, and fast reactor systems). The calculated results show good prediction for the experimental Keff values. (author)

  3. TANDA TANGAN DIGITAL MENGGUNAKAN QR CODE DENGAN METODE ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Putra Suratma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanda tangan digital (digital signature adalah sebuah skema matematis yang secara unik mengidentifikasikan seorang pengirim, sekaligus untuk membuktikan keaslian dari pemilik sebuah pesan atau dokumen digital, sehingga sebuah tanda tangan digital yang autentik (sah, sudah cukup menjadi alasan bagi penerima un- tuk percaya bahwa sebuah pesan atau dokumen yang diterima adalah berasal dari pengirim yang telah diketahui. Perkembangan teknologi memungkinkan adanya tanda tangan digital yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan pembuktian secara matematis, sehingga informasi yang didapat oleh satu pihak dari pihak lain dapat diidentifikasi untuk memastikan keaslian informasi yang diterima. Tanda tangan digital merupakan mekanisme otentikasi yang memungkinkan pembuat pesan menambahkan sebuah kode yang bertindak sebagai tanda tangannya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini menerapkan QR Code atau yang dikenal dengan istilah QR (Quick Respon dan Algoritma yang akan ditambahkan yaitu AES (Advanced Encryption Standard sebagai tanda tangan digital sehingga hasil dari penelitian penerapan QR Code menggunakan algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard sebagai tanda tangan digital dapat berfungsi sebagai otentikasi tanda tangan pimpinan serta ve- rivikasi dokumen pengambilan barang yang sah. dari penelitian ini akurasi klasifi- kasi QR Code dengan menggunakan naïve bayes classifier sebesar 90% dengan precision positif sebesar 80% dan precision negatif sebesar 100%.

  4. International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 2: Current perspectives; PVP-Volume 313-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Asada, Yasuhide; Adams, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The topics in this volume include: (1) Recent or imminent changes to Section 3 design sections; (2) Select perspectives of ASME Codes -- Section 3; (3) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- an international outlook; (4) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- ASME Code Sections 3, 8 and 11; (5) Codes and Standards Perspectives for Analysis; (6) Selected design perspectives on flow-accelerated corrosion and pressure vessel design and qualification; (7) Select Codes and Standards perspectives for design and operability; (8) Codes and Standards perspectives for operability; (9) What's new in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?; (10) A look at ongoing activities of ASME Sections 2 and 3; (11) A look at current activities of ASME Section 11; (12) A look at current activities of ASME Codes and Standards; (13) Simplified design methodology and design allowable stresses -- 1 and 2; (14) Introduction to Power Boilers, Section 1 of the ASME Code -- Part 1 and 2. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers

  5. Safe operation of research reactors and critical assemblies. Code of practice and annexes. 1984 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The safe operation of research reactors and critical assemblies (hereafter termed 'reactors') requires proper design, construction, management and supervision. This Code of Practice deals mainly with management and supervision. The provisions of the Code apply to the whole life of the reactor, including modification, updating and upgrading. The Code may be subject to revision in the light of experience and the state of technology. The Code is aimed at defining minimum requirements for the safe operation of reactors. Emphasis is placed on which safety requirements should be met rather than on specifying how these requirements may be met. The Code also provides guidance and information to persons and authorities responsible for the operation of reactors. The Code recommends that documents dealing with the operation of reactors and including safety analyses be prepared and submitted for review and approval to a regulatory body. Operation would be authorized on the understanding that it would comply with limits and conditions designed to ensure safety. The Code covers a wide range of reactor types, which gives rise to a variety of safety issues. Safety issues applicable to specific reactor types only (e.g. fast reactors) are not necessarily covered in this Code. Some of the recommendations in the Code are not directly applicable to critical assemblies. A recommendation may therefore be interpreted according to the type of reactor concerned. In such cases the words 'adequate' and 'appropriate' are used to mean 'adequate' or 'appropriate' for the type of reactor under consideration.

  6. Simulation of international standard problem no. 44 open tests using Melcor computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.M.; Cho, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    MELCOR 1.8.4 code has been employed to simulate the KAEVER test series of K123/K148/K186/K188 that were proposed as open experiments of International Standard Problem No.44 by OECD-CSNI. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the MELCOR aerosol model which calculates the aerosol distribution and settlement in a containment. For this, thermal hydraulic conditions are simulated first for the whole test period and then the behavior of hygroscopic CsOH/CsI and unsoluble Ag aerosols, which are predominant activity carriers in a release into the containment, is compared between the experimental results and the code predictions. The calculation results of vessel atmospheric concentration show a good simulation for dry aerosol but show large difference for wet aerosol due to a data mismatch in vessel humidity and the hygroscopicity. (authors)

  7. Standard practice for leaks using bubble emission techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes accepted procedures for and factors that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests. These factors include specimen preparation, apparatus, test conditions, methods of cleaning specimens, evaluation of results, and calculation and reporting of corrosion rates. This practice also emphasizes the importance of recording all pertinent data and provides a checklist for reporting test data. Other ASTM procedures for laboratory corrosion tests are tabulated in the Appendix. (Warning-In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, assoc...

  8. Standard practice for preparing, cleaning, and evaluating corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers suggested procedures for preparing bare, solid metal specimens for tests, for removing corrosion products after the test has been completed, and for evaluating the corrosion damage that has occurred. Emphasis is placed on procedures related to the evaluation of corrosion by mass loss and pitting measurements. (Warning—In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see 1 and 7.2.

  9. Standards of practice for forensic mental health nurses--identifying contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Trish; Maguire, Tessa; Quinn, Chris; Ryan, Jo; Bawden, Louise; Summers, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Forensic mental health nursing is a recognized field of nursing in most countries. Despite a growing body of literature describing aspects of practice, no publication has been found that captures the core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of forensic mental health nurses. One group of nurses in Australia have pooled their knowledge of relevant literature and their own clinical experience and have written standards of practice for forensic mental health nursing. This paper identifies the need for standards, provides a summary of the standards of practice for forensic mental health nurses, and concludes with how these standards can be used and can articulate to others the desired and achievable level of performance in the specialty area.

  10. Some nonscientific influences on radiation protection standards and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of this lecture is that we have sufficient knowledge about the biomedical effects of ionizing radiation for adequate radiation protection but the problem of controlling radiation uses is complicated by philosophical, sociological, political, economic and moral considerations. The scientific problem of 'thresholds' and some nonscientific factors which may influence protection practices and hence influence the setting of numerical protection standards are discussed. The influence of the media on public opinion and the need for public education is stressed. (U.K.)

  11. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  12. Code of safe practice for the use of x-rays in podiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this code which applies to podiatric diagnostic use of x-rays is to provide criteria for working procedures, x-ray equipment and protective materials necessary for the use of x-rays in podiatric diagnosis according to currently accepted standards of safety. Conformity with this code may be taken as a primary indication of compliance with radiation protection legislation. 5 refs

  13. Practical Salesforce.com development without code customizing salesforce on the Force.com platform

    CERN Document Server

    Weinmeister, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Are you facing a challenging Salesforce.com problem-say, relating to customization, configuration, reporting, dashboards, or formulation-that you can't quite crack? Or maybe you are hoping to infuse some creativity into your solution design strategy to solve problems faster or make solutions more efficient? Practical Salesforce.com Development Without Code shows you how to unlock the power of the Force.com platform to solve real business problems-and all without writing a line of code. Adhering to Salesforce.com's ""Clicks, not code"" mantra, Salesforce.com expert Phil Weinmeister walks you t

  14. Codes of Practice related to Harbour and Coastal Engineering in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Codes of practice for building and civil engineering works have been produced since 1893 by the "Danish Society of Engineers". Among the early codes are: Reinforces concrete structures (1908, 1943), calculation of reinforced concrete structures in harbour works (1926), Harbour Works (1927), Steel...... structures (1941). The codes were based on the principle of allowable stresses. However, already in 1948 a Danish consulting engineer used a partial safety factor concept for a power station design in order to secure satisfactory safety. The concept was in fact old as it was used by Gerber in his design...

  15. A Standard of Knowledge for the Professional Practice of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulla, Janis E; Kinter, Lewis B; Kelman, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    Employers, courts, and the general public judge the credibility of professionals based on credentials such as academic degrees, publications, memberships in professional organizations, board certifications, and professional registrations. However, the relevance and merit of these credentials can be difficult to determine objectively. Board certification can be a reliable indicator of proficiency if the certifying organization demonstrates, through regularly scheduled independent review, that its processes meet established standards and when a certificate holder is required to periodically demonstrate command of a body of knowledge that is essential to current professional practice. We report herein a current Standard of Knowledge in general toxicology compiled from the experience and opinions of 889 certified practicing professional toxicologists. An examination is the most commonly used instrument for testing a certification candidate's command of the body of knowledge. However, an examination-based certification is only creditable when the body of knowledge, to which a certification examination tests, is representative of the current knowledge, skills, and capabilities needed to effectively practice at the professional level. Thus, that body of knowledge must be the current "Standard of Knowledge" for the profession, compiled in a transparent fashion from current practitioners of the profession. This work was conducted toward ensuring the scientific integrity of the products produced by professional toxicologists.

  16. Standard Practice for Sampling for Particulate Contamination by Tape Lift

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for sampling surfaces to determine the presence of particulate contamination, 5 m and larger. The practice consists of the application of a pressure-sensitive tape to the surface followed by the removal of particulate contamination with the removal of the tape. The tape with the adhering particles is then mounted on counting slides. Counting and measuring of particles is done by standard techniques. 1.2 This practice describes the materials and equipment required to perform sampling of surfaces for particle counting and sizing. 1.3 The criteria for acceptance or rejection of a part for conformance to surface cleanliness level requirements shall be determined by the user and are not included in this practice. 1.4 This practice is for use on surfaces that are not damaged by the application of adhesive tape. The use of this practice on any surface of any material not previously tested or for which the susceptibility to damage is unknown is not recommended. In general, metal...

  17. IAEA provisional code of practice on management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This Code of Practice defines the minimum requirements for operations and design of structures, systems and components important for management of wastes from thermal nuclear power plants. It emphasizes what safety requirements shall be met rather than specifies how these requirements can be met; the latter aspect is covered in Safety Guides. The Code defines the need for a Government to assume responsibility for regulating waste management practices in conjunction with the regulation of a nuclear power plant. The Code does not prejudge the organization of the regulatory authority, which may differ from one Member State to another, and may involve more than one body. Similarly, the Code does not deal specifically with the functions of a regulatory authority responsible for such matters, although it may be of value to Member States in providing a basis for consideration of such functions. The Code deals with the entire management system for all wastes from nuclear power plants embodying thermal reactors including PWR, BWR, HWR and HTGR technologies. Topics included are: design, normal and abnormal operation, and regulation of management systems for gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, including decommissioning wastes. The Code includes measures to be taken with regard to the wastes arising from spent fuel management at nuclear power plants. However, the options for further management of spent fuel are only outlined since it is the subject of decisions by individual Member States. The Code does not require that an option(s) be decided upon prior to construction or operation of a nuclear power plant

  18. Radiation dosimetry with plane-parallel ionization chambers: An international (IAEA) code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1996-01-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA Code of Practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has expanded our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber dosimeter, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different national organizations have published, or are in the process of publishing, recommendations on detailed procedures for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspices of the IAEA, first to assess the status and validity of IAEA TRS-277, and second to develop an international Code of Practice for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron and photon beams. The purpose of this work is to describe the forthcoming Code of Practice. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Radiation dosimetry with plane-parallel ionization chambers: An international (IAEA) code of practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreo, P [Lunds Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Radiophysics Dept.; Almond, P R [J.G. Brown Cancer Center, Univ. of Lousville, Lousville, KY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mattsson, O [Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Nahum, A E [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom). Joint Dept. of Physics; Roos, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA Code of Practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has expanded our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber dosimeter, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different national organizations have published, or are in the process of publishing, recommendations on detailed procedures for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspices of the IAEA, first to assess the status and validity of IAEA TRS-277, and second to develop an international Code of Practice for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron and photon beams. The purpose of this work is to describe the forthcoming Code of Practice. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  1. The IAEA Code of Practice on quality assurance, and quality assurance requirements and practices in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1982-01-01

    The IAEA Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and the corresponding Safety Guides are reviewed and compared with quality assurance (QA) practices in the IAEA Member States. The QA requirements stipulated by the Code place on the nuclear power plant owner the responsibility to establish an overall QA programme for the plant. In selecting the QA programme level for specific activities, the Code allows of a flexible approach but does not specify gradation in programme requirements. The Code is placing the burden of quality-achieving and quality-assuring functions on the task-performing organizations, namely the designers, manufacturers, constructors and plant operators. The plant owner provides for the management of the overall QA programme, surveillance of activities and verifications of the effectiveness of the constituent programmes of all project participants through programme audits and evaluations. The Code and the supporting Safety Guides are consistent with existing QA practices in Member States. However, certain differences exist, which are mainly expressed in the different QA functions assigned to the various organizations participating in the overall QA programme. Also, some Member States place more emphasis on redundant verification activities than on quality-achieving functions. Tendencies are also identified to grade the QA requirements in respect of items and activities, in accordance with some pre-established criteria. In an annex to the paper, QA practices in Member States participating in the Agency's Technical Review Committee on Quality Assurance (TRC-QA) are reviewed, indicating their similarities to and differences from the Code

  2. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  3. Standard practice for manufacturing characterization of digital detector arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the evaluation of Digital Detector Arrays (DDAs), and assures that one common standard exists for quantitative comparison of DDAs so that an appropriate DDA is selected to meet NDT requirements. 1.2 This practice is intended for use by manufacturers or integrators of DDAs to provide quantitative results of DDA characteristics for NDT user or purchaser consumption. Some of these tests require specialized test phantoms to assure consistency among results among suppliers or manufacturers. These tests are not intended for users to complete, nor are they intended for long term stability tracking and lifetime measurements. However, they may be used for this purpose, if so desired. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropr...

  4. Review and evaluation of technology, equipment, codes and standards for digitization of industrial radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This reports contains a review and evaluation of the technology, equipment, and codes and standards related to the digitization of industrial radiographic film. The report presents recommendations and equipment-performance specifications that will allow the digitization of radiographic film from nuclear power plant components in order to produce faithful reproductions of flaw images of interest on the films. Justification for the specifications selected are provided. Performance demonstration tests for the digitization process are required and criteria for such tests is presented. Also several comments related to implementation of the technology are presented and discussed

  5. Absorbed dose determination in high energy photon beams using new IAEA TRS - 398 Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyapee, S.; Srimanoroath, S.; Jumpangern, C.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose calibration of 6 and 10 MV X-ray beams from Varian Clinac 1800 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Bangkok, Thailand were performed using cylindrical chamber 0.6 cc NE2571 Serial No. 1633 with graphite wall and Delrin build up cap and lonex Dosemaster NE 2590 Serial No. 223. The absorbed dose determination followed the IAEA code of practice TRS-277. The new IAEA code of practice TRS-398 have been studied to compare the result with the IAEA TRS-277

  6. Coding and Billing in Surgical Education: A Systems-Based Practice Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Kimeya F; Schmidt, Scott T; Drolet, Brian C

    Despite increased emphasis on systems-based practice through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, few studies have examined what surgical residents know about coding and billing. We sought to create and measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted approach to improving resident knowledge and performance of documenting and coding outpatient encounters. We identified knowledge gaps and barriers to documentation and coding in the outpatient setting. We implemented a series of educational and workflow interventions with a group of 12 residents in a surgical clinic at a tertiary care center. To measure the effect of this program, we compared billing codes for 1 year before intervention (FY2012) to prospectively collected data from the postintervention period (FY2013). All related documentation and coding were verified by study-blinded auditors. Interventions took place at the outpatient surgical clinic at Rhode Island Hospital, a tertiary-care center. A cohort of 12 plastic surgery residents ranging from postgraduate year 2 through postgraduate year 6 participated in the interventional sequence. A total of 1285 patient encounters in the preintervention group were compared with 1170 encounters in the postintervention group. Using evaluation and management codes (E&M) as a measure of documentation and coding, we demonstrated a significant and durable increase in billing with supporting clinical documentation after the intervention. For established patient visits, the monthly average E&M code level increased from 2.14 to 3.05 (p coding and billing of outpatient clinic encounters. Using externally audited coding data, we demonstrate significantly increased rates of higher complexity E&M coding in a stable patient population based on improved documentation and billing awareness by the residents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beyond competencies: using a capability framework in developing practice standards for advanced practice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jane; Gardner, Glenn; Coyer, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the application of a capability framework for advanced practice nursing standards/competencies. There is acceptance that competencies are useful and necessary for definition and education of practice-based professions. Competencies have been described as appropriate for practice in stable environments with familiar problems. Increasingly competencies are being designed for use in the health sector for advanced practice such as the nurse practitioner role. Nurse practitioners work in environments and roles that are dynamic and unpredictable necessitating attributes and skills to practice at advanced and extended levels in both familiar and unfamiliar clinical situations. Capability has been described as the combination of skills, knowledge, values and self-esteem which enables individuals to manage change, be flexible and move beyond competency. A discussion paper exploring 'capability' as a framework for advanced nursing practice standards. Data were sourced from electronic databases as described in the background section. As advanced practice nursing becomes more established and formalized, novel ways of teaching and assessing the practice of experienced clinicians beyond competency are imperative for the changing context of health services. Leading researchers into capability in health care state that traditional education and training in health disciplines concentrates mainly on developing competence. To ensure that healthcare delivery keeps pace with increasing demand and a continuously changing context there is a need to embrace capability as a framework for advanced practice and education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  9. Fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.; Wong, A.E.; Wong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the claims of the US Basic patents number 5,084,232; 5,848,377 and 6,430,516 that can be obtained from typing the Patent Numbers into the Box of the Web site http://164.195.100.11/netahtml/srchnum.htm and their associated published technical papers having been presented and published at International Conferences in the last three years and that all these had been sent into US-NRC by E-mail on March 26, 2003 at 2:46 PM., three fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes had been presented at the US-NRC RIC2003 Session W4. 2:15-3:15 PM. at the Washington D.C. Capital Hilton Hotel, Presidential Ballroom on April 16, 2003 in front of more than 800 nuclear professionals from many countries worldwide. The objective and scope of this paper is to invite all nuclear professionals to examine and evaluate all the current computer codes being used in their own countries by means of comparison of numerical data from these three specific openly challenging fundamental problems in order to set up a global safety standard for all nuclear power plants in the world. (authors)

  10. The standard genetic code and its relation to mutational pressure: robustness and equilibrium criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Caceres, Jose Luis; Hong, Rolando; Martinez Ortiz, Carlos; Sautie Castellanos, Miguel; Valdes, Kiria; Guevara Erra, Ramon

    2004-10-01

    Under the assumption of even point mutation pressure on the DNA strand, rates for transitions from one amino acid into another were assessed. Nearly 25% of all mutations were silent. About 48% of the mutations from a given amino acid stream either into the same amino acid or into an amino acid of the same class. These results suggest a great stability of the Standard Genetic Code respect to mutation load. Concepts from chemical equilibrium theory are applicable into this case provided that mutation rate constants are given. It was obtained that unequal synonymic codon usage may lead to changes in the equilibrium concentrations. Data from real biological species showed that several amino acids are close to the respective equilibrium concentration. However in all the cases the concentration of leucine nearly doubled its equilibrium concentration, whereas for the stop command (Term) it was about 10 times lower. The overall distance from equilibrium for a set of species suggests that eukaryotes are closer to equilibrium than prokaryotes, and the HIV virus was closest to equilibrium among 15 species. We obtained that contemporary species are closer to the equilibrium than the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was. Similarly, nonpreserved regions in proteins are closer to equilibrium than the preserved ones. We suggest that this approach can be useful for exploring some aspects of biological evolution in the framework of Standard Genetic Code properties. (author)

  11. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Aiello, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  12. Standard practice for verification and classification of extensometer systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the verification and classification of extensometer systems, but it is not intended to be a complete purchase specification. The practice is applicable only to instruments that indicate or record values that are proportional to changes in length corresponding to either tensile or compressive strain. Extensometer systems are classified on the basis of the magnitude of their errors. 1.2 Because strain is a dimensionless quantity, this document can be used for extensometers based on either SI or US customary units of displacement. Note 1—Bonded resistance strain gauges directly bonded to a specimen cannot be calibrated or verified with the apparatus described in this practice for the verification of extensometers having definite gauge points. (See procedures as described in Test Methods E251.) 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish app...

  13. Standard practice for conducting moist SO2 tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the apparatus and procedure to be used in conducting qualitative assessment tests in accordance with the requirements of material or product specifications by means of specimen exposure to condensed moisture containing sulfur dioxide. 1.2 The exposure conditions may be varied to suit particular requirements and this practice includes provisions for use of different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and for tests either running continuously or in cycles of alternate exposure to the sulfur dioxide containing atmosphere and to the ambient atmosphere. 1.3 The variant of the test to be used, the exposure period required, the type of test specimen, and the criteria of failure are not prescribed by this practice. Such details are provided in appropriate material and product purchase specifications. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety c...

  14. Standardized Testing Practices: Effect on Graduation and NCLEX® Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Pamela K

    The use standardized testing in pre-licensure nursing programs has been accompanied by conflicting reports of effective practices. The purpose of this project was to describe standardized testing practices in one states' nursing programs and discover if the use of a cut score or oversight of remediation had any effect on (a) first time NCLEX® pass rates, (b) on-time graduation (OTG) or (c) the combination of (a) and (b). Administrators of 38 nursing programs in one Southwest state were sent surveys; surveys were returned by 34 programs (89%). Survey responses were compared to each program's NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate; t-tests were conducted for significant differences associated with a required minimum score (cut score) and oversight of remediation. There were no significant differences in NCLEX pass or on-time graduation rates related to establishment of a cut score. There was a significant difference when the NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate were combined (Outcome Index "OI") with significantly higher program outcomes (P=.02.) for programs without cut-scores. There were no differences associated with faculty oversight of remediation. The results of this study do not support establishment of a cut-score when implementing a standardized testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Battelle integrity of nuclear piping program. Summary of results and implications for codes/standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    The BINP(Battelle Integrity of Nuclear Piping) program was proposed by Battelle to elaborate pipe fracture evaluation methods and to improve LBB and in-service flaw evaluation criteria. The program has been conducted from October 1998 to September 2003. In Japan, CRIEPI participated in the program on behalf of electric utilities and fabricators to catch up the technical backgrounds for possible future revision of LBB and in-service flaw evaluation standards and to investigate the issues needed to be reflected to current domestic standards. A series of the results obtained from the program has been well utilized for the new LBB Regulatory Guide Program by USNRC and for proposal of revised in-service flaw evaluation criteria to the ASME Code Committee. The results were assessed whether they had implications for the existing or future domestic standards. As a result, the impact of many of these issues, which were concerned to be adversely affected to LBB approval or allowable flaw sizes in flaw evaluation criteria, was found to be relatively minor under actual plant conditions. At the same time, some issues that needed to be resolved to address advanced and rational standards in the future were specified. (author)

  16. Multilingual Practices in Contemporary and Historical Contexts: Interfaces between Code-Switching and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Leena; Skaffari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to a collection of four articles on multilingual practices in speech and writing, exploring both contemporary and historical sources. It not only introduces the articles but also discusses the scope and definitions of code-switching, attitudes towards multilingual interaction and, most pertinently, the…

  17. Code of practice for the design of laboratories using radioactive substances for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Code has been prepared to supplement the radioactive substances acts and regulations implemented in Australia. It is intended as a guide to safe practices but is not legislation. Areas covered include siting, layout, surface finishes, laboratory furniture and fittings, ventilation, containment and release of airborne effluent and storage of radioactive substances

  18. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste; Code De Bonne Pratique Sur Le Mouvement Transfrontiere International De Dechets Radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-03

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States [French] Le 21 septembre 1990, la Conference generale, par la resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, a adopte le Code de bonne pratique sur le mouvement transfrontiere international de dechets radioactifs et a prie le Directeur general-notamment-de prendre toutes les mesures necessaires pour assurer une large diffusion du Code de bonne pratique aux niveaux tant national qu'international. Le Code de bonne pratique a ete elabore par un groupe d'experts cree en application de la resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adoptee par la Conference generale en 1988. Le texte du Code de bonne pratique est reproduit ci-apres pour l'information de tous les Etats Membres.

  19. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  20. Study of relationship between radioactivity distribution, contamination burden and quality standard, accommodate energy of code river Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani and Muzakky

    2009-01-01

    Study of relationship between distribution, contamination burden of gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water and sediment sample from 11 observation station Code river to quality standard and maximum capacity of Code river have been done. Natural radio nuclides identification and gross β radioactivity measurement of condensed water, dry and homogeneous sediment powder (past through 100 mesh sieve) samples have been done by using spectrometer and GM counter. Radioactivity data was analyzed descriptive with histogram to show the spreading pattern of data. Contamination burden data, quality standard and maximum capacity of river Code was to descriptive analyzed by line diagram to knowing relationship between contamination burden, quality standard, and maximum capacity of Code river. The observation of water and sediment at 11 observation station show that the emitter natural radionuclides: 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 226 Ra, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac and 40 K were detected. The analytical result conclusion was that the pattern spread of average activity gross β and were increase from upstream to downstream of the Code river samples. Contamination burden, quality standard and maximum capacity of radionuclide activity of 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 226 Ra and 228 Ac were more smaller than quality standard of river water according to regulation of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency 02/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 concerning quality standard of radioactivity. It’s mean that Code river still in good contamination burden for the four radionuclides. (author)

  1. Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing : Module B - Institutional Framework for Corporate Financial Reporting, B.9 Auditing Standard-setting

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to gain an understanding of the governance arrangements, procedures, and capacity for setting auditing standards in a jurisdiction, covering: (a) the adoption of International Standards on Auditing (ISA) where applicable, and (b) national auditing standards. The questions are based on examples of good practice followed by international standard-setting bodies....

  2. Validity of the Italian Code of Ethics for everyday nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Paola; Castoldi, Maria Grazia; Alagna, Rosa Anna; Brunoldi, Anna; Pari, Chiara; Gallo, Annamaria; Magri, Miriam; Marioni, Lorena; Muttillo, Giovanni; Passoni, Claudia; Torre, Anna La; Rosa, Debora; Carnevale, Franco A

    2016-12-07

    The research question for this study was as follows: Is the Code of Ethics for Nurses in Italy (Code) a valid or useful decision-making instrument for nurses faced with ethical problems in their daily clinical practice? Focus groups were conducted to analyze specific ethical problems through 11 case studies. The analysis was conducted using sections of the Code as well as other relevant documents. Each focus group had a specific theme and nurses participated freely in the discussions according to their respective clinical competencies. The executive administrative committee of the local nursing licensing council provided approval for conducting this project. Measures were taken to protect the confidentiality of consenting participants. The answer to the research question posed for this investigation was predominantly positive. Many sections of the Code were useful for discussion and identifying possible solutions for the ethical problems presented in the 11 cases. We concluded that the Code of Ethics for Nurses in Italy can be a valuable aid in daily practice in most clinical situations that can give rise to ethical problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  4. Implementation of the International Code of Practice on Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology (TRS 457): Review of Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the IAEA published Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 457). This publication recommends procedures for calibration and dosimetric measurement for the attainment of standardized dosimetry. It also addresses requirements both in standards dosimetry laboratories, especially Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), and in clinical centres for radiology, as found in most hospitals. The implementation of TRS No. 457 decreases the uncertainty in the dosimetry of diagnostic radiology beams and provides Member States with a unified and consistent framework for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, which previously did not exist. A coordinated research project (CRP E2.10.06) was established in order to provide practical guidance to professionals at SSDLs and to clinical medical physicists on the implementation of TRS No. 457. This includes the calibration of radiological dosimetry instrumentation, the dissemination of calibration coefficients to clinical centres and the establishment of dosimetric measurement processes in clinical settings. The main goals of the CRP were to: Test the procedures recommended in TRS No. 457 for calibration of radiation detectors in different types of diagnostic beams and measuring instruments for varying diagnostic X ray modalities; Test the clinical dosimetry procedures, including the use of phantoms and patient dose surveys; Report on the practical implementation of TRS No. 457 at both SSDLs and hospital sites. Testing of TRS No. 457 was performed by a group of medical physicists from hospitals and SSDLs from various institutions worldwide

  5. Comparison of the sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and practical earthquake damage phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Huang, Yahong

    2017-12-01

    Conducting sand liquefaction estimated based on codes is the important content of the geotechnical design. However, the result, sometimes, fails to conform to the practical earthquake damages. Based on the damage of Tangshan earthquake and engineering geological conditions, three typical sites are chosen. Moreover, the sand liquefaction probability was evaluated on the three sites by using the method in the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings and the results were compared with the sand liquefaction phenomenon in the earthquake. The result shows that the difference between sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and the practical earthquake damage is mainly attributed to the following two aspects: The primary reasons include disparity between seismic fortification intensity and practical seismic oscillation, changes of groundwater level, thickness of overlying non-liquefied soil layer, local site effect and personal error. Meanwhile, although the judgment methods in the codes exhibit certain universality, they are another reason causing the above difference due to the limitation of basic data and the qualitative anomaly of the judgment formulas.

  6. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. These crises that have started to alarm governments, supervisory authorities, companies, investors and even the general public because of the fragility of the corporate governance’s system, highlight the need to rethink its structures. The process of adapting the corporate governance provisions in order to ensure transparency, responsibility and fair treatment of shareholders has resulted in the development of Corporate Governance Principles by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. In order to asses these principles, it has started to identify the common elements of codes, one the most effective practice models of governance. Once the benefits of corporate governance practices have been understood and assimilated by the developed country, the developing countries (also Romania have begun to adopt "the best practices" in corporate governance, especially because this need is acutely felt in the changes required by the transition to a market economy. Our article describes the origins of the corporate governance, the concept and evolution of the corporate governance code at an international level, European level and also at a Romanian level.

  7. SECOND ATLAS DOMESTIC STANDARD PROBLEM (DSP-02 FOR A CODE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEON-SIK KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operating an integral effect test facility, the Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS, for transient and accident simulations of advanced pressurized water reactors (PWRs. Using ATLAS, a high-quality integral effect test database has been established for major design basis accidents of the APR1400 plant. A Domestic Standard Problem (DSP exercise using the ATLAS database was promoted to transfer the database to domestic nuclear industries and contribute to improving a safety analysis methodology for PWRs. This 2nd ATLAS DSP (DSP-02 exercise aims at an effective utilization of an integral effect database obtained from ATLAS, the establishment of a cooperation framework among the domestic nuclear industry, a better understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena, and an investigation into the possible limitation of the existing best-estimate safety analysis codes. A small break loss of coolant accident with a 6-inch break at the cold leg was determined as a target scenario by considering its technical importance and by incorporating interests from participants. This DSP exercise was performed in an open calculation environment where the integral effect test data was open to participants prior to the code calculations. This paper includes major information of the DSP-02 exercise as well as comparison results between the calculations and the experimental data.

  8. The Ontario Energy Board`s draft standard supply service code: effects on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S. [Ontario Clean Air Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-06-29

    The Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA), a coalition of 67 organizations, takes issue with the Ontario Energy Board`s draft document `Standard Supply Service Code`, particularly sections 2.2.2. and 2.5.2 which they claim are not in the public interest unless the Ontario government implements the OCAA`s recommended emission caps. The alliance is of the view that without strict new environmental regulations the proposed Code would encourage the use of coal for electricity generation. Public health, the environment, consumer interests, job creation and promotion of a competitive electricity market would all be jeopardized by this development, the alliance states. The argument is supported by extensive reference to the Final Report of the Ontario Market Design Committee (MDC) which also emphasized the importance of combining the introduction of competition with appropriate environmental regulations, singling out the emission cap and trade program, and recommending that it be launched concurrently with the electricity market opening for competition. The view of the MDC was that public support for restructuring would not be forthcoming in the absence of regulatory measures to control power plant emissions. 25 refs.

  9. Second ATLAS Domestic Standard Problem (DSP-02) For A Code Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeonsik; Choi, Kiyong; Cho, Seok; Park, Hyunsik; Kang, Kyungho; Song, Chulhwa; Baek, Wonpil

    2013-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been operating an integral effect test facility, the Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS), for transient and accident simulations of advanced pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Using ATLAS, a high-quality integral effect test database has been established for major design basis accidents of the APR1400 plant. A Domestic Standard Problem (DSP) exercise using the ATLAS database was promoted to transfer the database to domestic nuclear industries and contribute to improving a safety analysis methodology for PWRs. This 2 nd ATLAS DSP (DSP-02) exercise aims at an effective utilization of an integral effect database obtained from ATLAS, the establishment of a cooperation framework among the domestic nuclear industry, a better understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena, and an investigation into the possible limitation of the existing best-estimate safety analysis codes. A small break loss of coolant accident with a 6-inch break at the cold leg was determined as a target scenario by considering its technical importance and by incorporating interests from participants. This DSP exercise was performed in an open calculation environment where the integral effect test data was open to participants prior to the code calculations. This paper includes major information of the DSP-02 exercise as well as comparison results between the calculations and the experimental data

  10. The AutoProof Verifier: Usability by Non-Experts and on Standard Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A. Furia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal verification tools are often developed by experts for experts; as a result, their usability by programmers with little formal methods experience may be severely limited. In this paper, we discuss this general phenomenon with reference to AutoProof: a tool that can verify the full functional correctness of object-oriented software. In particular, we present our experiences of using AutoProof in two contrasting contexts representative of non-expert usage. First, we discuss its usability by students in a graduate course on software verification, who were tasked with verifying implementations of various sorting algorithms. Second, we evaluate its usability in verifying code developed for programming assignments of an undergraduate course. The first scenario represents usability by serious non-experts; the second represents usability on "standard code", developed without full functional verification in mind. We report our experiences and lessons learnt, from which we derive some general suggestions for furthering the development of verification tools with respect to improving their usability.

  11. Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (“heels recycle”). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

  12. Using a standards committee to design practical procedure system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Plung, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Three Mile Island (TMI) environment, numerous reports have been issued on how to improve the quality of procedures used at government and commercial nuclear facilities. The studies tend to be long on what is wrong with existing procedures and short on practical directions on how to fix those faults. Few of these studies have been conducted by practitioners with full-time procedure-managing or procedure writing experience. None of these studies go into detail on how to improve the procedure system itself. Over the last 10 yr, various nuclear facilities within the US Department of Energy (DOE) have carried out individual programs to develop procedures that meet post-TMI standards. However, ∼2 yr ago, DOE formed a Procedures Standards Committee to advise DOE in developing a set of post-TMI guidelines that could be consistently applied throughout all DOE nuclear facilities. The committee has achieved not only its original mission by producing a series of integrated guidance documents but has also evolved a systems approach to procedures management that sets new standards for procedure quality and efficiency. As members of this committee, the authors want to describe what has made the group's approach so successful. The lessons learned may be translatable to a wide range of government and commercial industry procedure programs

  13. Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry: Pt. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This code has been prepared for use on a worldwide basis as a guide to safe practice for those concerned with drilling and production operations for oil and gas in offshore areas. It is intended to provide information and guidance on those offshore drilling, production and support activities which have an impact on safety and therefore require detailed care and attention. Each chapter of the Code covers an important drilling, production or support activity and has an introduction which describes the part each activity plays in the overall offshore operation. (author).

  14. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  15. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  16. Consensus coding sequence (CCDS) database: a standardized set of human and mouse protein-coding regions supported by expert curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Shashikant; O'Leary, Nuala A; Farrell, Catherine M; Loveland, Jane E; Mudge, Jonathan M; Wallin, Craig; Girón, Carlos G; Diekhans, Mark; Barnes, If; Bennett, Ruth; Berry, Andrew E; Cox, Eric; Davidson, Claire; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gonzalez, Jose M; Hunt, Toby; Jackson, John; Joardar, Vinita; Kay, Mike P; Kodali, Vamsi K; Martin, Fergal J; McAndrews, Monica; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael; Rajput, Bhanu; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Riddick, Lillian D; Seal, Ruth L; Suner, Marie-Marthe; Webb, David; Zhu, Sophia; Aken, Bronwen L; Bruford, Elspeth A; Bult, Carol J; Frankish, Adam; Murphy, Terence; Pruitt, Kim D

    2018-01-04

    The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) project provides a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assembly in genome annotations produced independently by NCBI and the Ensembl group at EMBL-EBI. This dataset is the product of an international collaboration that includes NCBI, Ensembl, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Mouse Genome Informatics and University of California, Santa Cruz. Identically annotated coding regions, which are generated using an automated pipeline and pass multiple quality assurance checks, are assigned a stable and tracked identifier (CCDS ID). Additionally, coordinated manual review by expert curators from the CCDS collaboration helps in maintaining the integrity and high quality of the dataset. The CCDS data are available through an interactive web page (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CCDS/CcdsBrowse.cgi) and an FTP site (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/CCDS/). In this paper, we outline the ongoing work, growth and stability of the CCDS dataset and provide updates on new collaboration members and new features added to the CCDS user interface. We also present expert curation scenarios, with specific examples highlighting the importance of an accurate reference genome assembly and the crucial role played by input from the research community. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  17. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  18. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Requirements for validation and routine control. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    These recommendations for the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts adopt the principles that the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) applies to the radiation sterilization of health care products. The approach has been adapted to take into account the special features associated with human tissues and the features that distinguish them from industrially produced sterile health care products. The approach as described here is not applicable if viral contamination is identified. Thus it is emphasized that the human donors of the tissues must be medically and serologically screened. To further support this screening it is recommended that autopsy reports be reviewed if available. This adaptation of established ISO methods can thus only be applied to sterilization of tissue allografts if the radiation sterilization described here is the terminal stage of a careful, detailed, documented sequence of procedures involving: donor selection; tissue retrieval; tissue banking general procedures; specific processing procedures; labelling; and distribution. The methods proposed here for the establishment of a sterilization dose are based on statistical approaches used for the sterilization of health care products and modified appropriately for the low numbers of tissue allograft samples typically available. This code of practice will be useful to tissue banking staff, surgeons using tissues for transplantation, regulators who oversee the safety of transplantation and radiation sterilization procedures, members of tissue banking associations, health service personnel in hospitals in which tissue transplantations are performed and inter-governmental organizations involved in transplantation issues, for example the World Health Organization. This publication was discussed extensively at an international meeting in Wrexham in the United Kingdom and was approved by the Technical Advisory Committee of the relevant IAEA project, which included the Chairpersons

  19. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  20. Codes of practice and protocols for the dosimetry in reference conditions of proton and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    The advantages of radiotherapy protons and heavier charged-particle beams, the technological feasibility, and the clinical results obtained so far have led to the establishment of about 20 treatment facilities worldwide and plans to open another 20 proton and light-ion therapy centres in the next five years. In order to meet the expanding capabilities of treatment techniques, considerable effort has been devoted during the last fifteen years to the development of the dosimetry and calibration of such beams. This paper reviews these developments and summarizes the present status of Codes of Practice and protocols for the dosimetry in reference conditions of proton and ion beams. The first dosimetry protocol for heavy-particle radiotherapy beams, AAPM TG 20, was based on the use of Faraday cups and calorimeters, whereas ionization chamber dosimetry received little attention. Following the trends in 'nuclear particle' radiotherapy, TG 20 included recommendations for specifying 'dose to tissue'. The lack of availability of a harmonized set of data for the different particles made this protocol to include data for stopping-powers and for the mean energy required to produce and ion pair in air, W air , from multiple authors, without enough attention being paid to their consistency. The increased focus into proton beams was materialized in the publication of the ECHED Code of Practice, dedicated exclusively to protons, where ionization dosimetry received more attention than in TG 20. It was not until the publication of the Supplement to the ECHED recommendations that ionization chambers having a 60 CO calibration factor were recommended as a reference detector for proton dosimetry, and data supplied for chambers with different wall materials. The emphasis on ionization chamber-based proton dosimetry was complemented with a recommendation for using water as dosimetry phantom material and the necessary data on tissue and water to air stopping-power ratios and W air . One of

  1. PREMs in inflammatory arthritis: from guidelines to standard practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Deborah; Miedany, Y El

    There is now a widespread realisation that patients' views are not incidental to, but essential to, achieving high-quality care. However, despite increasing awareness of its potential value, patient experience is not routinely assessed in inflammatory arthritis patients at present. In fact, use of patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) to evaluate the patients' management and the quality of services remains a challenge. In contrast with cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), adopting a PREMs approach in inflammatory arthritis patients is difficult because of a lack of tools and approach. This article discusses how the guidelines can be translated into standard clinical practice, creating a 'therapeutic alliance' between the health professional and patients. It will also present a novel tool for use of PREMs, which can be used in routine clinical care.

  2. Best practice in forensic entomology--standards and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Campobasso, Carlo P; Gaudry, Emmanuel; Reiter, Christian; LeBlanc, Hélène N; Hall, Martin J R

    2007-03-01

    Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic Entomology has developed a protocol document for best practice in forensic entomology, which includes an overview of equipment used for collection of entomological evidence and a detailed description of the methods applied. Together with the definitions of key terms and a short introduction to the most important methods for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval, the present paper aims to encourage a high level of competency in the field of forensic entomology.

  3. ZAKI a windows-based k sub o standardization code for in-core INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ojo, J O

    2002-01-01

    A new computer code ZAKI, for k sub o -based INAA standardization, written in Visual Basic for the WINDOWS environment is described. The parameter alpha measuring the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum shape from the ideal 1/E shape, and the thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio f, are monitored at each irradiation position for each irradiation using the ''triple bare monitor with k sub o '' technique. Stability of the irradiation position with respect to alpha and f is therefore assumed only for the duration of the irradiation. This now makes it possible to use k sub o standardization even for in-core reactor irradiation channels without an a priori knowledge of alpha and f values as required by existing commercial software. ZAKI is considerably versatile and contains features which allow for use of several detectors at different counting geometries, direct inputting of peak search output from GeniePc, and automatic nuclide identification of all gamma lines using an in-built library. Sample results for ...

  4. ZAKI: a windows-based ko standardization code for in-core INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, J.O.; Filby, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    A new computer code ZAKI, for k o -based INAA standardization, written in Visual Basic for the WINDOWS environment is described. The parameter α measuring the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum shape from the ideal 1/E shape, and the thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio f, are monitored at each irradiation position for each irradiation using the ''triple bare monitor with k o '' technique. Stability of the irradiation position with respect to α and f is therefore assumed only for the duration of the irradiation. This now makes it possible to use k o standardization even for in-core reactor irradiation channels without an a priori knowledge of α and f values as required by existing commercial software. ZAKI is considerably versatile and contains features which allow for use of several detectors at different counting geometries, direct inputting of peak search output from GeniePc, and automatic nuclide identification of all gamma lines using an in-built library. Sample results for two certified reference materials are presented

  5. Safety in nuclear power plant operation, including commissioning and decommissioning. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Safe operation of a nuclear power plant postulates satisfactory siting, design, construction and commissioning, together with proper management and operation of the plant. This Code of Practice deals with the safety aspects of management, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of the plant. It forms part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. It has been prepared for the use of those responsible for the operation of stationary nuclear power plants, the main function of which is the generation of electrical and/or thermal power, and for the use of those responsible for regulating the operation of such plants. It is not intended for application to reactors used solely for experimental or research purposes. The provisions in the Code are designed to provide assurance that operational activities are carried out without undue radiological hazard to the general public and to persons on the site. It should be understood that the provisions in the Code set forth minimum requirements which shall be met in order to achieve safe operation of a nuclear power plant

  6. Standard practice for torque calibration of testing machines and devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and requirements for the calibration of torque for static and quasi-static torque capable testing machines or devices. These may, or may not, have torque indicating systems and include those devices used for the calibration of hand torque tools. Testing machines may be calibrated by one of the three following methods or combination thereof: 1.1.1 Use of standard weights and lever arms. 1.1.2 Use of elastic torque measuring devices. 1.1.3 Use of elastic force measuring devices and lever arms. 1.1.4 Any of the methods require a specific uncertainty of measurement and a traceability derived from national standards of mass and length. 1.2 The procedures of 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and 1.1.3 apply to the calibration of the torque-indicating systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the torque-indicating system(s) to be calibrated and included in the repor...

  7. Some practical applications of fundamental standards in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, Francis; Lavie, Jean-Marie

    1964-05-01

    After some general considerations on the recommendations made by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) regarding standards of internal or external exposure of organs or tissues to different types of radiations, and a recall of the main problems raised by acute radio-exposures (dose assessment in case of accident, assessment of the dose due to an emergency intervention in case of accident, classification of radio-elements), this report describes how ICRP recommendations have been implemented by the CEA, and tries to relate the problem of acute radio-exposures to the problem of chronic radio-exposures. This study is limited to the case of workers and to internal contamination by inhalation, but can be easily extended to other groups or other contamination types. The authors thus recall some fundamental data and definitions regarding values recommended by the ICRP for chronic radio-exposure and for acute exposure (acceptable exposure, accidental exposure, concerted exposure, units), present and comment how standards are practically applied for dose calculation and assessment. Formulas allow a quick assessment of radiological consequences of an acute radio-exposure, or vice-versa [fr

  8. 78 FR 38735 - Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1626] Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION... entitled, ``Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices''. The opportunity to...

  9. Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane (SEL, MEL, SES, MES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Private Pilot - Airplane Practical Test Standards book has been : published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the : standards for the private pilot certification practical tests for the airplane : category and the single-e...

  10. Time-varying block codes for synchronisation errors: maximum a posteriori decoder and practical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann A. Briffa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors consider time-varying block (TVB codes, which generalise a number of previous synchronisation error-correcting codes. They also consider various practical issues related to maximum a posteriori (MAP decoding of these codes. Specifically, they give an expression for the expected distribution of drift between transmitter and receiver because of synchronisation errors. They determine an appropriate choice for state space limits based on the drift probability distribution. In turn, they obtain an expression for the decoder complexity under given channel conditions in terms of the state space limits used. For a given state space, they also give a number of optimisations that reduce the algorithm complexity with no further loss of decoder performance. They also show how the MAP decoder can be used in the absence of known frame boundaries, and demonstrate that an appropriate choice of decoder parameters allows the decoder to approach the performance when frame boundaries are known, at the expense of some increase in complexity. Finally, they express some existing constructions as TVB codes, comparing performance with published results and showing that improved performance is possible by taking advantage of the flexibility of TVB codes.

  11. UKAEA code of practice for tracer and irradiation studies involving the use of volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.N.; Morgan, A.

    1987-06-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: 1) General considerations in volunteer studies (informed consent, beneficial objectives, recruitment from within or without the workforce, records, compensation, codes of practice, confidentiality etc.) 2) Tracer and irradiation studies approval committee, (terms of reference, membership, dose limitations, assessment of chemical toxicity, procedure for submitting proposals) 3) Obtaining a project licence 4) Conduct of volunteer experiments 5) The use of non-authority volunteers. (U.K.)

  12. KS 2031 Radioactive waste - Disposal by the user - Code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayaka, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation are widely used in Medicine, Agriculture, Industry, Research and Education, and Security checks. The purpose of this code of practice is to recommend practices which are helpful in achieving the ALARA principle for small quantities of radioactive waste and which will ensure a degree of uniformity in radioactive waste disposal procedures. It has been prepared to supplement the radiation control legislation implemented by the Radiation Protection Board. It is possible to carry out a formal radiological hazard assessment of any proposed radioactive waste disposal activity that provides estimates of the risk to a population that is potentially exposed to ionising radiation as a result of the activity

  13. VALIDATION OF SIMBAT-PWR USING STANDARD CODE OF COBRA-EN ON REACTOR TRANSIENT CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Darwis Isnaini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The validation of Pressurized Water Reactor typed Nuclear Power Plant simulator developed by BATAN (SIMBAT-PWR using standard code of COBRA-EN on reactor transient condition has been done. The development of SIMBAT-PWR has accomplished several neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculation modules. Therefore, the validation of the simulator is needed, especially in transient reactor operation condition. The research purpose is for characterizing the thermal-hydraulic parameters of PWR1000 core, which be able to be applied or as a comparison in developing the SIMBAT-PWR. The validation involves the calculation of the thermal-hydraulic parameters using COBRA-EN code. Furthermore, the calculation schemes are based on COBRA-EN with fixed material properties and dynamic properties that calculated by MATPRO subroutine (COBRA-EN+MATPRO for reactor condition of startup, power rise and power fluctuation from nominal to over power. The comparison of the temperature distribution at nominal 100% power shows that the fuel centerline temperature calculated by SIMBAT-PWR has 8.76% higher result than COBRA-EN result and 7.70% lower result than COBRA-EN+MATPRO. In general, SIMBAT-PWR calculation results on fuel temperature distribution are mostly between COBRA-EN and COBRA-EN+MATPRO results. The deviations of the fuel centerline, fuel surface, inner and outer cladding as well as coolant bulk temperature in the SIMBAT-PWR and the COBRA-EN calculation, are due to the value difference of the gap heat transfer coefficient and the cladding thermal conductivity.

  14. Authorization request for potential non-compliance with the American Standard Safety Code for Elevators Dumbwaiters and Escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.E.

    1964-09-28

    A Third Party inspection of the reactor work platforms was conducted by representatives of the Travelers Insurance Company in 1958. An inspection report submitted by these representatives described hazardous conditions noted and presented a series of recommendations to improve the operational safety of the systems. Project CGI-960, ``C`` & ``D`` Work Platform Safety Improvements -- All Reactors, vas initiated to modify the platforms in compliance with the Third Party recommendations. The American Standard Safety Code for Elevators Dumbwaiters and Escalators (A-17.1) is used as a guide by the Third Party in formulating their recommendations. This code is used because there is no other applicable code for this type of equipment. While the work platforms do not and in some cases can not comply with this code because of operational use, every effort is made to comply with the intent of the code.

  15. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  16. 7 CFR 28.123 - Costs of practical forms of cotton standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs of practical forms of cotton standards. 28.123 Section 28.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  17. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules, F9-F11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes.

  18. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules, F9-F11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes

  19. Guided waves dispersion equations for orthotropic multilayered pipes solved using standard finite elements code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin

    2014-09-01

    The dispersion curves for hollow multilayered cylinders are prerequisites in any practical guided waves application on such structures. The equations for homogeneous isotropic materials have been established more than 120 years ago. The difficulties in finding numerical solutions to analytic expressions remain considerable, especially if the materials are orthotropic visco-elastic as in the composites used for pipes in the last decades. Among other numerical techniques, the semi-analytical finite elements method has proven its capability of solving this problem. Two possibilities exist to model a finite elements eigenvalue problem: a two-dimensional cross-section model of the pipe or a radial segment model, intersecting the layers between the inner and the outer radius of the pipe. The last possibility is here adopted and distinct differential problems are deduced for longitudinal L(0,n), torsional T(0,n) and flexural F(m,n) modes. Eigenvalue problems are deduced for the three modes classes, offering explicit forms of each coefficient for the matrices used in an available general purpose finite elements code. Comparisons with existing solutions for pipes filled with non-linear viscoelastic fluid or visco-elastic coatings as well as for a fully orthotropic hollow cylinder are all proving the reliability and ease of use of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. French codes and standards for design, construction and in-service inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot, G.; Grandemange, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1970, France decided that its future power plants would be of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. This choice proved to be successful since it resulted in more than 60 PWR units in operation or under construction in France and abroad. At the beginning of such a program, the French engineering and manufacturing industry, the national electrical utility and the Safety Authorities had to face the many challenges imposed by the implementation of an imported technology. The government reorganised the licensing process. FRAMATOME, the NSSS vendor, and EDF (Electricite de France), the national utility, decided to create 'AFCEN', the French Association for Design and Construction Rules for Nuclear Island Components. These rules, the RCC's (Regles de Construction et de conception), which are approved by French Safety Authorities deal with mechanical and electrical equipment as well as with nuclear fuel and civil works. They are now being supplemented by in service inspection rules, the RSE's (Regles d'inspection en Service). The paper presents these Codes and their main updating following experience of application, technical progress and evolution of standards. Status of discussion concerning reference to European standardisation and developments of rules applicable to the EPR project will also be discussed

  1. Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratios: Sensitivity Analyses on the Impact of Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Jarman, Brian; Aylin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hospital standardized mortality ratios (HSMRs) are derived from administrative databases and cover 80 percent of in-hospital deaths with adjustment for available case mix variables. They have been criticized for being sensitive to issues such as clinical coding but on the basis of limited quantitative evidence. Methods In a set of sensitivity analyses, we compared regular HSMRs with HSMRs resulting from a variety of changes, such as a patient-based measure, not adjusting for comorbidity, not adjusting for palliative care, excluding unplanned zero-day stays ending in live discharge, and using more or fewer diagnoses. Results Overall, regular and variant HSMRs were highly correlated (ρ > 0.8), but differences of up to 10 points were common. Two hospitals were particularly affected when palliative care was excluded from the risk models. Excluding unplanned stays ending in same-day live discharge had the least impact despite their high frequency. The largest impacts were seen when capturing postdischarge deaths and using just five high-mortality diagnosis groups. Conclusions HSMRs in most hospitals changed by only small amounts from the various adjustment methods tried here, though small-to-medium changes were not uncommon. However, the position relative to funnel plot control limits could move in a significant minority even with modest changes in the HSMR. PMID:21790587

  2. Perceptual video quality assessment in H.264 video coding standard using objective modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ramasamy; Sainarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Deepa, Subramaniam Nachimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Since usage of digital video is wide spread nowadays, quality considerations have become essential, and industry demand for video quality measurement is rising. This proposal provides a method of perceptual quality assessment in H.264 standard encoder using objective modeling. For this purpose, quality impairments are calculated and a model is developed to compute the perceptual video quality metric based on no reference method. Because of the shuttle difference between the original video and the encoded video the quality of the encoded picture gets degraded, this quality difference is introduced by the encoding process like Intra and Inter prediction. The proposed model takes into account of the artifacts introduced by these spatial and temporal activities in the hybrid block based coding methods and an objective modeling of these artifacts into subjective quality estimation is proposed. The proposed model calculates the objective quality metric using subjective impairments; blockiness, blur and jerkiness compared to the existing bitrate only calculation defined in the ITU G 1070 model. The accuracy of the proposed perceptual video quality metrics is compared against popular full reference objective methods as defined by VQEG.

  3. Coding of DNA samples and data in the pharmaceutical industry: current practices and future directions--perspective of the I-PWG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, M A; Cohen, N; Warner, A W; Shaw, P M; Groenen, P; Snapir, A

    2011-04-01

    DNA samples collected in clinical trials and stored for future research are valuable to pharmaceutical drug development. Given the perceived higher risk associated with genetic research, industry has implemented complex coding methods for DNA. Following years of experience with these methods and with addressing questions from institutional review boards (IRBs), ethics committees (ECs) and health authorities, the industry has started reexamining the extent of the added value offered by these methods. With the goal of harmonization, the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) conducted a survey to gain an understanding of company practices for DNA coding and to solicit opinions on their effectiveness at protecting privacy. The results of the survey and the limitations of the coding methods are described. The I-PWG recommends dialogue with key stakeholders regarding coding practices such that equal standards are applied to DNA and non-DNA samples. The I-PWG believes that industry standards for privacy protection should provide adequate safeguards for DNA and non-DNA samples/data and suggests a need for more universal standards for samples stored for future research.

  4. Governmental organization for the regulation of nuclear power plants. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Code of Practice recommends requirements for a regulatory body responsible for regulating the siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for safety. It forms part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. This Code has been prepared to provide recommendations for Member States embarking on a nuclear power programme and covers: (1) Establishing and maintaining a regulatory body to which is assigned the responsibility for authorizing the siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants after appropriate review and assessment (2) Organizing for and conducting the review and assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants (3) Conducting the necessary regulatory inspections and taking necessary enforcement actions during all stages of the licensing process in order to ensure that the limits and conditions of the licences are being complied with by the applicants/licensees and their contractors (4) Establishing regulations and criteria for nuclear-related health, safety and environmental protection

  5. RTE - Compliance with the code of good practices and Independence of RTE. 2013 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (Electricity Transmission System Operator) is referred to in Article L111-40 of the French Energy Code as the company in charge of managing France's public electricity transmission grid. For this purpose, RTE must comply with all the rules and obligations that apply to transmission grid management companies as defined by the Energy Code. More particularly, the articles concerning the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) belonging to a Vertically Integrated Undertaking (VIU) apply to RTE, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Electricite de France. The purpose of these provisions is to establish and maintain over time the independence of the transmission grid operator vis-a-vis the VIU. The Commission de Regulation de l'Energie (CRE - Energy Regulation Board) certified RTE in its deliberation of January 26, 2012: To maintain this certification, RTE is required to comply with its commitments made within the framework of the certification process and maintain the conditions of independence that were approved by the CRE. Among the obligations that RTE is required to comply with as an independent transmission manager is the need to bring together 'in a code of good practices approved by the Energy Regulation Board, the organisational measures taken to prevent any risks of discriminatory practices in terms of access to the grid' (Article L111-22). RTE is also required to put in place 'a Compliance Officer in charge of ensuring [...] the conformity of its methods with the obligations of independence incumbent on it with regard to other companies belonging to the VIU', 'to verify the application [...] of the commitments appearing in the code of good practices' and to draw up an annual report [...] which it sends on to the Energy Regulating Board' on the subject (Article L111-34). This document is the report regarding compliance with the code of good practices for 2013 by the RTE Compliance Officer. It is destined for the CRE and is intended to

  6. Deliberation at the hub of medical education: beyond virtue ethics and codes of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2013-02-01

    Although both codes of practice and virtue ethics are integral to the ethos and history of "medical professionalism", the two trends appear mutually incompatible. Hence, in the first part of the paper we explore and explicate this apparent conflict and seek a direction for medical education. The theoretical and empirical literature indicates that moral deliberation may transcend the incompatibilities between the formal and the virtuous, may enhance moral and other aspects of personal sensitivity, may help design and improve other parts of the curricula, and may foster self-awareness and clarification of the professional role. Not only are these goals essential for good and conscientious doctoring, but they may also reduce physicians' "burn-out". We argue that medical education should focus on the ubiquitous practice of deliberation in contemporary medicine, and especially the practice of moral deliberation.

  7. 40 CFR 63.11550 - What are my standards and management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... my standards and management practices? (a) If you own or operate new or existing affected sources at... practices plan. The management practices plan must include the required management practices in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section and may include any other management practices that are implemented at...

  8. Measurement uncertainty. A practical guide for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    necessary that they conform to given safety and performance criteria. The demonstration of the competence of calibration laboratories is achieved through comparisons and the establishment of a quality system following the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide 17025. One of the requirements of the quality system of a calibration laboratory is the assessment of the measurement uncertainty for all its calibration services. General guidance on the estimation of measurement uncertainty was published by ISO in 1995. However, that document addresses all calibration and testing laboratories and not specifically dosimetry calibration laboratories. To provide SSDLs of the IAEA/WHO Network with a practical guide on the assessment of the measurement uncertainty, two consultants meetings were held at IAEA Headquarters on 26-30 April, 2004 and 19-23 September 2005. The present publication was prepared during these meetings. It is addressed to scientists working in calibration laboratories and to physicists involved in radiation dosimetry measurement

  9. Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions by Health-Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... SPs are the minimum infection prevention practices that apply to all patients regardless ... Nonavailability of materials, limited organizational support, and lack of knowledge regarding infection control practices among HCWs ...

  10. NODC Standard Product: NODC Taxonomic Code on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0050418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The content of the NODC Taxonomic Code, Version 8 CD-ROM (CD-ROM NODC-68) distributed by NODC is archived in this accession. Version 7 of the NODC Taxonomic Code...

  11. Innovation and Standardization in School Building: A Proposal for the National Code in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Giuseppe

    This document discusses the University of Florence's experience and concepts as it developed the research to define a proposal for designing a new national school building code. Section 1 examines the current school building code and the Italian Reform Process in Education between 1960 and 2000. Section 2 details and explains the new school…

  12. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities i...

  13. WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for Standardization/Technical Standard (ISO/TS) 13499

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing  the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters  Services ...ISO)- Multimedia Exchange task force is responsible for maintaining the specification for the multimedia data exchange format for impact tests outlined...channel codes, ATD, multimedia exchange format, ISO/TS 13499 36 Michael B Tegtmeyer 410-278-6074Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii

  14. Code of practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Code of Practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems are presented in three parts. Part 1 specifies the requirement for Radiological Protection Instrumentation (RPI) including operational characteristics and the effects of both a radiation and non-radiation environment. Part 2 satisfies the requirement for RPI equipment as regards the overall design, the availability, the reliability, the information display, the human factors, the power supplies, the manufacture and quality assurance, the testing and the cost. Part 3 deals with the supply, location and operation of the RPI equipment. (U.K.)

  15. Code of practice for the disposal of radioactive waste by the user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Code is to recommend practices for the Safe disposal of small quantities of radioactive waste so that the exposure of persons to radiation is as low as reasonably achievable and below prescribed limits. The areas covered are: radiological hazard assessments; waste forms; responsibilities of statutory authorities, users and tip and incinerator operators; transport of radioactive waste; mechanisms of disposal, including municipal tips, incineration, sewerage, disposal to the atmosphere and interim storage. Guidelines are given for the packaging and transport of radioactive waste

  16. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 4: studies towards a code of practice for rope condition assessment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Borrello, M

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the verification of the code of Practice for Rope Condition Assessment. Ropes were meant to be discarded according to the discard criteria as outlined in the code and then tested by the CSIR. The results...

  17. INACSL Standards of Best Practice for Simulation: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittner, Barbara J; Aebersold, Michelle L; Paige, Jane B; Graham, Leslie L M; Schram, Andrea Parsons; Decker, Sharon I; Lioce, Lori

    2015-01-01

    To describe the historical evolution of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning's (INACSL) Standards of Best Practice: Simulation. The establishment of simulation standards began as a concerted effort by the INACSL Board of Directors in 2010 to provide best practices to design, conduct, and evaluate simulation activities in order to advance the science of simulation as a teaching methodology. A comprehensive review of the evolution of INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation was conducted using journal publications, the INACSL website, INACSL member survey, and reports from members of the INACSL Standards Committee. The initial seven standards, published in 2011, were reviewed and revised in 2013. Two new standards were published in 2015. The standards will continue to evolve as the science of simulation advances. As the use of simulation-based experiences increases, the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: Simulation are foundational to standardizing language, behaviors, and curricular design for facilitators and learners.

  18. A Code of Ethics and Standards for Outer-Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Now is the time to put forth an effective code of ethics for businesses in outer space. A successful code would be voluntary and would actually promote the growth of individual companies, not hinder their efforts to provide products and services. A properly designed code of ethics would ensure the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. Indeed, if the commercial space industry does not develop its own professional code of ethics, government- imposed regulations would probably be instituted. Should this occur, there is a risk that the development of off-Earth commerce would become more restricted. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial space ventures easier to develop. The proposed code consists of a preamble, which underscores basic values, followed by a number of specific principles. For the most part, these principles set forth broad commitments to fairness and integrity with respect to employees, consumers, business transactions, political contributions, natural resources, off-Earth development, designated environmental protection zones, as well as relevant national and international laws. As acceptance of this code of ethics grows within the industry, general modifications will be necessary to accommodate the different types of businesses entering space commerce. This uniform applicability will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics will find less resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States but also from nonspacefaring nations. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code would demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working, and playing in space. Implementation of the code would also provide an off-Earth precedent for a modified

  19. CODES AND PRACTICES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA AND RESULTS REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU MARIA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance refers to the manner in which companies are directed and controlled. Business management was always guided by certain principles, but the current meaning of corporate governance concerns and the contribution that companies must have the overall development of modern society. Romania used quite late in adopting a code of good practice in corporate governance, being driven, in particular, the privatization process, but also the transfer of control and surveillance of political organizations by the Board of Directors (BD. Adoption of codes of corporate governance is necessary to harmonize internal business requirements of a functioning market economy. In addition, the CEE countries, the European Commission adopted an action plan announcing measures to modernize company law and enhance corporate governance. Romania takes steps in this direction by amending the Company Law, and other regulations, although the practice does not necessarily keep pace with the requirements. This study aims on the one hand, an analysis of the evolution of corporate governance codes adopted in Romania, but also an empirical research of the implementation of corporate governance principles of a representative sample of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE. Consider relevant research methodology, because the issuer of the Codes of CG in Romania is BSE listed companies requesting their voluntary implementation. Implementation results are summarized and interpreted at the expense of public reports of the companies studied. Most studies undertaken in this direction have been made on multinational companies which respects the rule of corporate governance codes of countries of origin. In addition, many studies also emphasize the fair treatment of stakeholders rather than on models of governance adopted (monist/dualist with implications for optimizing economic objectives but also social. Undertaken research attempts to highlight on the one

  20. Improvements in practical applicability of NSHEX: nodal transport calculation code for three-dimensional hexagonal-Z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kazuteru

    1998-07-01

    As a tool to perform a fast reactor core calculations with high accuracy, NSHEX the nodal transport calculation code for three-dimensional hexagonal-Z geometry is under development. To improve the practical applicability of NSHEX, for instance, in its application to safety analysis and commercial reactor core design studies, we investigated the basic theory used in it, improved the program performance, and evaluated its applicability to the analysis of commercial reactor cores. The current studies show the following: (1) An improvement in the treatment of radial leakage in the radial nodal coupling equation bettered calculational convergence for safety analysis calculation, so the applicability of NSHEX to safety analysis was improved. (2) As a result of comparison of results from NSHEX and the standard core calculation code, it was confirmed that there was consistency between them. (3) According to the evaluation of the effect due to the difference of calculational condition, it was found that the calculation under appropriate nodal expansion orders and Sn orders correspond to the one under most detailed condition. However further investigation is required to reduce the uncertainty in calculational results due to the treatment of high order flux moments. (4) A whole core version of NSHEX enabling calculation for any FBR core geometry has been developed, this improved general applicability of NSHEX. (5) An investigation of the applicability of the rebalance method to acceleration clarified that this improved calculational convergence and it was effective. (J.P.N.)

  1. Analyses in Support of Risk-Informed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Codes and Standards: Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter; Muna, Alice Baca; Ehrhart, Brian David

    2018-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed natural gas fueled vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operating procedures. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase II work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest using risk ranking. Detailed simulations and modeling were performed to estimate the location and behavior of natural gas releases based on these scenarios. Specific code conflicts were identified, and ineffective code requirements were highlighted and resolutions proposed. These include ventilation rate basis on area or volume, as well as a ceiling offset which seems ineffective at protecting against flammable gas concentrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge Bill Houf (SNL -- Retired) for his assistance with the set-up and post-processing of the numerical simulations. The authors also acknowledge Doug Horne (retired) for his helpful discussions. We would also like to acknowledge the support from the Clean Cities program of DOE's Vehicle Technology Office.

  2. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Control modules C4, C6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume is part of the manual related to the control modules for the newest updated version of this computational package.

  3. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K.; Petrovski, B.

    2004-01-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elastic creep, elastic compliance measurements

  4. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules F1-F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with eight of the functional modules in the code. Those are: BONAMI - resonance self-shielding by the Bondarenko method; NITAWL-II - SCALE system module for performing resonance shielding and working library production; XSDRNPM - a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code for transport analysis; XSDOSE - a module for calculating fluxes and dose rates at points outside a shield; KENO IV/S - an improved monte carlo criticality program; COUPLE; ORIGEN-S - SCALE system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms; ICE

  5. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules F1-F8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with eight of the functional modules in the code. Those are: BONAMI - resonance self-shielding by the Bondarenko method; NITAWL-II - SCALE system module for performing resonance shielding and working library production; XSDRNPM - a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code for transport analysis; XSDOSE - a module for calculating fluxes and dose rates at points outside a shield; KENO IV/S - an improved monte carlo criticality program; COUPLE; ORIGEN-S - SCALE system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms; ICE.

  6. Genetic hotels for the standard genetic code: evolutionary analysis based upon novel three-dimensional algebraic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Marco V; Morgado, Eberto R; Govezensky, Tzipe

    2011-07-01

    Herein, we rigorously develop novel 3-dimensional algebraic models called Genetic Hotels of the Standard Genetic Code (SGC). We start by considering the primeval RNA genetic code which consists of the 16 codons of type RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine). Using simple algebraic operations, we show how the RNA code could have evolved toward the current SGC via two different intermediate evolutionary stages called Extended RNA code type I and II. By rotations or translations of the subset RNY, we arrive at the SGC via the former (type I) or via the latter (type II), respectively. Biologically, the Extended RNA code type I, consists of all codons of the type RNY plus codons obtained by considering the RNA code but in the second (NYR type) and third (YRN type) reading frames. The Extended RNA code type II, comprises all codons of the type RNY plus codons that arise from transversions of the RNA code in the first (YNY type) and third (RNR) nucleotide bases. Since the dimensions of remarkable subsets of the Genetic Hotels are not necessarily integer numbers, we also introduce the concept of algebraic fractal dimension. A general decoding function which maps each codon to its corresponding amino acid or the stop signals is also derived. The Phenotypic Hotel of amino acids is also illustrated. The proposed evolutionary paths are discussed in terms of the existing theories of the evolution of the SGC. The adoption of 3-dimensional models of the Genetic and Phenotypic Hotels will facilitate the understanding of the biological properties of the SGC.

  7. Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Mineral Sands (1982) (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Code establishes radiation safety practices for the mineral sands industry in Western Australia. The Code prescribes, not only for operators and managers of mines and processing plants but for their employees as well, certain duties designed to ensure that radiation exposure is kept as low as reasonably practicable. The Code further provides for the management of wastes, again with a view to keeping contaminant concentrations and dose rates within specified levels. Finally, provision is made for the rehabilitation of those sites in which mining or processing operations have ceased by restoring the areas to designated average radiation levels. (NEA) [fr

  8. Setting standards for planning off duty and audit of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Linda; Minchin, Anne; Pickard, Jane

    The off duty or rostering system is an important part of managing any ward or department. This article looks at the issues that need to be considered when drawing up and managing off duty. It recommends standards for off-duty planning and shares the results of an audit carried out against some of these standards in one NHS trust.

  9. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  10. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  11. Aligning Mathematical Tasks to the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    How do algebra teachers align mathematical tasks to the CCSSM Standards of Mathematical Practice? Using methods of design-based implementation research, we identified difficulties of alignment to practices and developed strategies identifying high-quality tasks.

  12. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  13. Recommendations for codes and standards to be used for design and fabrication of high level waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermingham, A.J.; Booker, R.J.; Booth, H.R.; Ruehle, W.G.; Shevekov, S.; Silvester, A.G.; Tagart, S.W.; Thomas, J.A.; West, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    This study identifies codes, standards, and regulatory requirements for developing design criteria for high-level waste (HLW) canisters for commercial operation. It has been determined that the canister should be designed as a pressure vessel without provision for any overpressure protection type devices. It is recommended that the HLW canister be designed and fabricated to the requirements of the ASME Section III Code, Division 1 rules, for Code Class 3 components. Identification of other applicable industry and regulatory guides and standards are provided in this report. Requirements for the Design Specification are found in the ASME Section III Code. It is recommended that design verification be conducted principally with prototype testing which will encompass normal and accident service conditions during all phases of the canister life. Adequacy of existing quality assurance and licensing standards for the canister was investigated. One of the recommendations derived from this study is a requirement that the canister be N stamped. In addition, acceptance standards for the HLW waste should be established and the waste qualified to those standards before the canister is sealed. A preliminary investigation of use of an overpack for the canister has been made, and it is concluded that the use of an overpack, as an integral part of overall canister design, is undesirable, both from a design and economics standpoint. However, use of shipping cask liners and overpack type containers at the Federal repository may make the canister and HLW management safer and more cost effective. There are several possible concepts for canister closure design. These concepts can be adapted to the canister with or without an overpack. A remote seal weld closure is considered to be one of the most suitable closure methods; however, mechanical seals should also be investigated

  14. Increasing Trend of Fatal Falls in Older Adults in the United States, 1992 to 2005: Coding Practice or Reporting Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrazi, Rebekah J; Nash, Denis; Mielenz, Thelma J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in death certificate coding and reporting practices explain part or all of the recent increase in the rate of fatal falls in adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Trends in coding and reporting practices of fatal falls were evaluated under mortality coding schemes for International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Ninth Revision (1992-1998) and Tenth Revision (1999-2005). United States, 1992 to 2005. Individuals aged 65 and older with falls listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on their death certificates. The primary outcome was annual fatal falls rates per 100,000 U.S. residents aged 65 and older. Coding practice was assessed through analysis of trends in rates of specific UCD fall ICD e-codes over time. Reporting quality was assessed by examining changes in the location on the death certificate where fall e-codes were reported, in particular, the percentage of fall e-codes recorded in the proper location on the death certificate. Fatal falls rates increased over both time periods: 1992 to 1998 and 1999 to 2005. A single falls e-code was responsible for the increasing trend of fatal falls overall from 1992 to 1998 (E888, other and unspecified fall) and from 1999 to 2005 (W18, other falls on the same level), whereas trends for other falls e-codes remained stable. Reporting quality improved steadily throughout the study period. Better reporting quality, not coding practices, contributed to the increasing rate of fatal falls in older adults in the United States from 1992 to 2005. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. A Review of Standards of Practice for Beginning Teaching. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Kleinhenz, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review and comparison of the following sets of standards of practice for teachers: (1) The Victorian Interim Teacher Class Standards (ITCS), especially Interim Teacher Class Standards for Beginning Teachers; (2) Professional Standards for Teachers; (3) The National Competencies for Beginning Teaching; (4) The…

  16. A System Approach to Advanced Practice Clinician Standardization and High Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno-Jones, Susan; Siehoff, Alice; Law, Jennifer; Juarez, Patricia

    Advanced practice clinicians (APCs) are an integral part of the health care team. Opportunities exist within Advocate Health Care to standardize and optimize APC practice across the system. To enhance the role and talents of APCs, an approach to role definition and optimization of practice and a structured approach to orientation and evaluation are shared. Although in the early stages of development, definition and standardization of accountabilities in a framework to support system changes are transforming the practice of APCs.

  17. Standard practice for strain controlled thermomechanical fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of materials under uniaxially loaded strain-controlled conditions. A “thermomechanical” fatigue cycle is here defined as a condition where uniform temperature and strain fields over the specimen gage section are simultaneously varied and independently controlled. This practice is intended to address TMF testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. While this practice is specific to strain-controlled testing, many sections will provide useful information for force-controlled or stress-controlled TMF testing. 1.2 This practice allows for any maximum and minimum values of temperature and mechanical strain, and temperature-mechanical strain phasing, with the restriction being that such parameters remain cyclically constant throughout the duration of the test. No restrictions are placed on en...

  18. Foundations for Ethical Standards and Codes: The Role of Moral Philosophy and Theory in Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephen J.; Engels, Dennis W.; Altekruse, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical practice is a concern for all who practice in the psychological, social, and behavioral sciences. A central problem is discerning what action is ethically correct in a particular situation. It has been said that there is nothing so practical as good theory, because theory can help counselors organize and integrate knowledge. It seems,…

  19. 40 CFR 63.803 - Work practice standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within six months of the compliance date of the standard. All personnel shall be given refresher training... of pieces washed off, and the reason for the washoff; and (3) The quantity of spent organic HAP...

  20. Open Standards in Practice: An OGC China Forum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Mingda; Taylor, Trevor; Xie, Jibo; Zhang, Hongping; Tong, Xiaochong; Yu, Jinsongdi; Huang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    Open standards like OGC standards can be used to improve interoperability and support machine-to-machine interaction over the Web. In the Big Data era, standard-based data and processing services from various vendors could be combined to automate the extraction of information and knowledge from heterogeneous and large volumes of geospatial data. This paper introduces an ongoing OGC China forum initiative, which will demonstrate how OGC standards can benefit the interaction among multiple organizations in China. The ability to share data and processing functions across organizations using standard services could change traditional manual interactions in their business processes, and provide on-demand decision support results by on-line service integration. In the initiative, six organizations are involved in two “MashUp” scenarios on disaster management. One “MashUp” is to derive flood maps in the Poyang Lake, Jiangxi. And the other one is to generate turbidity maps on demand in the East Lake, Wuhan, China. The two scenarios engage different organizations from the Chinese community by integrating sensor observations, data, and processing services from them, and improve the automation of data analysis process using open standards.

  1. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  2. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

  3. Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-25

    Wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nursing was recognized as a nursing specialty by the American Nurses Association in February 2010, and the Society published the original scope and standards of WOC nursing practice in May 2010. The Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition is the definitive resource promoting excellence in professional practice, quality care, and improved patient outcomes in WOC specialty practice. It can be used to articulate the value of WOC nurses to administrators, legislators, payers, patients, and others. The second edition also provides an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice including a description of the specialty, the history and evolution of WOC nursing, characteristics of WOC nursing practice, and description of the trispecialty. The document describes various WOC nurse roles, populations served, practice settings, care coordination, and collaboration. Educational preparation, levels of practice within WOC specialty nursing, certification, mandate for continuous professional development, ethics, current trends, future considerations and challenges, and standards of WOC nursing practice and professional performance with competencies for each standard are provided. The purpose of this Executive Summary is to describe the process for developing the scope and standards document, provide an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice, and list the standards of practice and professional performance along with the competencies for each level of WOC nurse provider. The original document is available from the WOCN Society's online book store (www.wocn.org).

  4. Advocacy and Accessibility Standards in the New "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ashley K.; Blackwell, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the changes in the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" as they relate to Section C: Advocacy and Accessibility. Ethical issues are identified and discussed in relation to advocacy skills and to advocacy with, and on behalf of, the client; to…

  5. MILSTAMP TACs: Military Standard Transportation and Movement Procedures Transportation Account Codes. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-15

    82302 F 13211 PT VERDE WPB 82311 F 13212 PT SWIFT WPB 82312 E. 13214 PT THATCHER WPB 82314 E 13218 PT HERRON WPB 82318 C 13232 PT ROBERTS WPB 82332 E...Identifies DOT, FAA Logistica Center, OkIanhea City, as an organization to be billed. 4th Position Code A Ia assigned by DOT, rAA. Identifies appropriation

  6. Standard Practice for Evaluating Solar Absorptive Materials for Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a testing methodology for evaluating absorptive materials used in flat plate or concentrating collectors, with concentrating ratios not to exceed five, for solar thermal applications. This practice is not intended to be used for the evaluation of absorptive surfaces that are (1) used in direct contact with, or suspended in, a heat-transfer liquid, (that is, trickle collectors, direct absorption fluids, etc.); (2) used in evacuated collectors; or (3) used in collectors without cover plate(s). 1.2 Test methods included in this practice are property measurement tests and aging tests. Property measurement tests provide for the determination of various properties of absorptive materials, for example, absorptance, emittance, and appearance. Aging tests provide for exposure of absorptive materials to environments that may induce changes in the properties of test specimens. Measuring properties before and after an aging test provides a means of determining the effect of the exposure. 1.3 Th...

  7. Standard practices for sampling uranium-Ore concentrate

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These practices are intended to provide the nuclear industry with procedures for obtaining representative bulk samples from uranium-ore concentrates (UOC) (see Specification C967). 1.2 These practices also provide for obtaining a series of representative secondary samples from the original bulk sample for the determination of moisture and other test purposes, and for the preparation of pulverized analytical samples (see Test Methods C1022). 1.3 These practices consist of a number of alternative procedures for sampling and sample preparation which have been shown to be satisfactory through long experience in the nuclear industry. These procedures are described in the following order. Stage Procedure Section Primary Sampling One-stage falling stream 4 Two-stage falling stream 5 Auger 6 Secondary Sampling Straight-path (reciprocating) 7 Rotating (Vezin) 8, 9 Sample Preparation 10 Concurrent-drying 11-13 Natural moisture 14-16 Calcination 17, 18 Sample Packaging 19 Wax s...

  8. Coding practice of the Journal Article Tag Suite extensible markup language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, the Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS extensible markup language (XML coding is processed automatically by an XML filtering program. In this article, the basic tagging in JATS is explained in terms of coding practice. A text editor that supports UTF-8 encoding is necessary to input JATS XML data that works in every language. Any character representable in Unicode can be used in JATS XML, and commonly available web browsers can be used to view JATS XML files. JATS XML files can refer to document type definitions, extensible stylesheet language files, and cascading style sheets, but they must specify the locations of those files. Tools for validating JATS XML files are available via the web sites of PubMed Central and ScienceCentral. Once these files are uploaded to a web server, they can be accessed from all over the world by anyone with a browser. Encoding an example article in JATS XML may help editors in deciding on the adoption of JATS XML.

  9. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)], E-mail: nazly@batan.go.id; Febrida, A.; Basril, A. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)

    2007-11-15

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  10. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)

    2004-07-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.

  11. A Finnish national code of practice for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, A.; Sipilae, P.; Jaervinen, H.; Parkkinen, R.; Jokelainen, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A national Code of Practice (CoP) for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy in Finland will be established during 2002 and will be implemented from the beginning of 2003. The CoP will cover dosimetry of the conventional radiotherapy modalities used in Finland i.e. external radiotherapy with megavoltage photon and electron beams, external radiotherapy with low energy kilovoltage X-ray beams and brachytherapy. The formalisms for external radiation beam dosimetry are those of TRS 389. For brachytherapy the formalism will follow the general guidelines of TECDOC-1274. The CoP will be prepared by the SSDL of STUK in close co-operation with the Finnish radiotherapy physicists. For external beam radiotherapy, the main objective of the national Code of Practice for radiation therapy dosimetry is to maintain the achieved good level of consistency of the dosimetry procedures in external beam radiotherapy as the 'absorbed dose to water' based approach of TRS 389 is implemented in Finland. In the CoP the dosimetry the procedures are described for the whole dosimetry chain starting from the calibration of the ionisation chambers at the SSDL of STUK and ending to the calibration of the beam monitor ionisation chamber of a linear accelerator. For brachytherapy dosimetry the aim is to fix the national practice for reference air kerma rate calibrations both for radioactive sources and for well-type ionisation chambers. Although the dosimetry procedures are described independently of the SSDL service, CoP makes use of the special features of the calibration service offered by the SSDL of STUK. For ionisation chambers used for photon dosimetry the calibration factors for the user measurement chain are given not only for the actual reference beam quality ( 60 Co) but also for a set of user beam qualities. Furthermore, SSDL of STUK offers calibration services for plane parallel ionisation chambers in an electron beam of a user linac. For brachytherapy SSDL of STUK has

  12. Standard practice for radiological examination using digital detector arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice establishes the minimum requirements for radiological examination for metallic and nonmetallic material using a digital detector array (DDA) system. 1.2 The requirements in this practice are intended to control the quality of radiologic images and are not intended to establish acceptance criteria for parts or materials. 1.3 This practice covers the radiologic examination with DDAs including DDAs described in Practice E2597 such as a device that contains a photoconductor attached to a Thin Film Transistor (TFT) read out structure, a device that has a phosphor coupled directly to an amorphous silicon read-out structure, and devices where a phosphor is coupled to a CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) array, a Linear Detector Array (LDA) or a CCD (charge coupled device) crystalline silicon read-out structure. 1.4 The DDA shall be selected for an NDT application based on knowledge of the technology described in Guide , and of the selected DDA properties provided by the manufactu...

  13. Finding Alignment: The Perceptions and Integration of the Next Generation Science Standards Practices by Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janette; Nadelson, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Preparing elementary-level teachers to teach in alignment with the eight Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practices could prove to be a daunting endeavor. However, the process may be catalyzed by leveraging elements of teacher science instruction that inherently attend to the practice standards. In this study, we investigated the science…

  14. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard. 205.203 Section 205.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT...

  15. 40 CFR 63.10390 - What management practice standard must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management practice standard must I meet? 63.10390 Section 63.10390 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....10390 What management practice standard must I meet? You must sterilize full loads of items having a...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11561 - What are my standards and management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards and management practices? (a) For asphalt processing operations, you must meet the emission limits... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my standards and management practices? 63.11561 Section 63.11561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  17. 40 CFR 63.10895 - What are my standards and management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Foundries § 63.10895 What are my standards and management practices? (a) If you own or operate an affected... management practices in §§ 63.10885 and 63.10886, the requirements in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my standards and management...

  18. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  19. Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations arising from Medical and Dental Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-01-01

    This Code is a revision of the 1964 Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use. This revised Code (which does not have the force of law) applies to the use of ionizing radiations arising from all forms of medical and dental practice and from allied research involving human subjects. It covers both workers, patients and members of the public. Although the arrangements recommended relate primarily to institutions they should be applied, as far as possible, by all medical and dental practitioners. The Code has been drawn up in the light of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and of the views of the Medical Research Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations.

  20. Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations arising from Medical and Dental Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Code is a revision of the 1964 Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use. This revised Code (which does not have the force of law) applies to the use of ionizing radiations arising from all forms of medical and dental practice and from allied research involving human subjects. It covers both workers, patients and members of the public. Although the arrangements recommended relate primarily to institutions they should be applied, as far as possible, by all medical and dental practitioners. The Code has been drawn up in the light of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and of the views of the Medical Research Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations. (NEA) [fr

  1. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  2. Standard practice for conducting and evaluating laboratory corrosions tests in soils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for conducting laboratory corrosion tests in soils to evaluate the corrosive attack on engineering materials. 1.2 This practice covers specimen selection and preparation, test environments, and evaluation of test results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Revision of AESJ standard 'the code of implemnetation of periodic safety review of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masashi; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) was launched in June 1992, when the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy issued a notification that required licensees to conduct comprehensive review on the safety of each existing nuclear power plant (NPP) once approximately every ten years based on the latest technical findings for the purpose of improving the safety of the NPP. In 2006, the Standard Committee of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the first version of 'The Standard of Implementation for Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: 2006'. Taking into account developments in safety regulation of PSR after the issuance of the first version, the Standard Committee has revised the Standard. This paper summarizes background on PSR, such developments are major contents of the Standard as well as the focal points of the revision. (author)

  4. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly rec...

  5. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi

    2013-01-01

    My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to ...

  6. Avoiding never events: Improving nasogastric intubation practice and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Pullyblank, Ann M.; Eveleigh, Mark; Slack, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To identify and rectify weaknesses in nasogastric (NG) intubation practice in the North Bristol NHS Trust that resulted in the occurrence of a National patient Safety Agency defined “never event”. Material and methods: Root-cause analysis identified that a change in culture was required. Recommendations divided into four categories: documentation, intubation, interpretation training, and radiology. A 6 month prospective audit covering all aspects of NG intubation practice preceded implementation of the recommendations. All patients whose tubes were mis-sited formed the cohort of the study. A re-audit was undertaken 12 months after the implementation of the recommended changes. Results: Re-audit suggested significant improvements had occurred in all categories, particularly junior doctor check image interpretation errors, which in the study group were reduced from seven to one, and documentation, which has so far improved by 22%. Protocols and guidelines associated with NG tube check imaging have now been developed for radiologists and radiographers with check imaging and image interpretation being made a priority and respiratory tract intubation treated as an emergency. Conclusion: The service is still not perfect, but there is a focal awareness of patient safety associated with intubation practice, and image interpretation by junior doctors significantly improved with the introduction of the e-learning package. However, it is considered that the responsibility for developing safe practice with respect to NG tube check image interpretation ultimately lies with the department of radiology, which should take the lead on reducing the risk of never events being caused by the misinterpretation of these images

  7. Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Essler, W.; Maurer, H.A.; Reijen, G. van.

    1978-01-01

    At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA) [fr

  8. Codes of Journalism Ethics in Russia and the United States: Traditions and the Current Practice of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Aleksei Yuryevich; Georgieva, Elena Savova; Danilova, Yuliya Sokratovna; Baychik, Anna Vitalyevna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to identify the main categories stated in the codes of journalism ethics in Russia and the United States, as well as the principles of their practical application. As a part of the comparative analysis of the codes of the journalism organizations of the two countries, we identify factors affecting the adoption and contents of the documents and the approaches to the regulation of different areas of professional activity which were reflected in these documents. The...

  9. Standard practice for classification of computed radiology systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the evaluation and classification of a computed radiography (CR) system, a particular phosphor imaging plate (IP), system scanner and software, in combination with specified metal screens for industrial radiography. It is intended to ensure that the evaluation of image quality, as far as this is influenced by the scanner/IP system, meets the needs of users. 1.2 The practice defines system tests to be used to classify the systems of different suppliers and make them comparable for users. 1.3 The CR system performance is described by signal and noise parameters. For film systems, the signal is represented by gradient and the noise by granularity. The signal-to-noise ratio is normalized by the basic spatial resolution of the system and is part of classification. The normalization is given by the scanning aperture of 100 µm diameter for the micro-photometer, which is defined in Test Method E1815 for film system classification. This practice describes how the parameters shall be meas...

  10. Main hearing according to the new Serbian Criminal Procedure Code: Survey in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main hearing is the central part of the criminal procedure. In Serbia, the reform of the national criminal procedure legislation has brought about numerous changes related to this stage of criminal proceedings. Numerous objections have been addressed to the almost entirely new legal text. In an attempt to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the new legislation and observe how the prescribed rules are applied in practice, the authors have conducted an empirical research by attending 205 main hearings which were conducted under the rules of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The research covers a huge number of related issues but, given the page limit, this paper will focus on individual issues observed in trial proceedings. The focal point of reference is the examination of witness, but the authors also consider a number of other issues: the examination of expert witness, the delay of the trial, and the use of a video-link as a novelty introduced owing to the technological achievements of the modern era. The article is organized into several parts. The authors first provide a theoretical background of the issue under consideration and, then, present and discuss the research results provided in tables. In the third part of the article, the authors draw specific conclusions about the current practice in trials proceedings.

  11. The Canadian approach to nuclear codes and standards. A CSA forum for development of standards for CANDU: radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, T.; Azeez, S.; Dua, S.

    2006-01-01

    Together with the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), industry stakeholders, governments, and the public have developed a suite of standards for CANDU nuclear power plants that generate electricity in Canada and abroad. In this paper, we will describe: CSA's role in national and international nuclear standards development; the key issues and priority projects that the nuclear standards program has addressed; the new CSA nuclear committees and projects being established, particularly those related to waste management and decommissioning; the hierarchy of nuclear regulations, nuclear, and other standards in Canada, and how they are applied by AECL; the standards management activities; and the future trends and challenges for CSA and the nuclear community. CSA is an accredited Standards Development Organization (SDO) and part of the international standards system. CSA's Nuclear Strategic Steering Committee (NSSC) provides leadership, direction, and support for a standards committee hierarchy comprised of members from a balanced matrix of interests. The NSSC strategically focuses on industry challenges; a new nuclear regulatory system, deregulated energy markets, and industry restructuring. As the first phase of priority projects is nearing completion, the next phase of priorities is being identified. These priorities address radioactive waste management, environmental radiation management, decommissioning, structural, and seismic issues. As the CSA committees get established in the coming year, members and input will be solicited for the technical committees, subcommittees, and task forces for the following related subjects: Radioactive Waste Management; a) Dry Storage of Irradiated Fuel; b) Short-Term Radioactive Waste Management; c) Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. 2. Decommissioning Nuclear Power is highly regulated, and public scrutiny has focused Codes and Standards on public and worker safety. Licensing and regulation serves to control

  12. Scientific and Practical Commentary on Specialists’ Professional Standards in Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional standards for heat treatment specialists such as "Specialist in thermal equipment installation and tests", "Specialist in analysis and diagnosis of heat treatment process systems", "Specialist in automation and mechanization of heat treatment process systems" were developed according to the Rules for the Development, Approval, and Application of Professional Standards adopted by a Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 01.22.2013 № 23.The article objective is to find a way that allows directors of machine-building plants to understand the provisions of abovementioned professional standards.This commentary was developed with participation of experts, who were in charge of the professional standards.When developing the professional standards it was taken into consideration that, presently, the most promising are vacuum and ion processes of heat and thermo-chemical treatment.In this connection a new classification of the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes has been realized according to criterion of technical complexity. This classification puts the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes into simple, complex, and specifically complex.As proposed, the specifically complex thermal equipment is a multi-zone thermal one with each zone being under precise temperature control, and a vacuum or ion equipment for thermal and thermochemical treatment with integrated cooling system. The complex thermal equipment is an equipment for heat and thermochemical treatment in controlled atmosphere, and a multichamber or continuous heat treatment furnaces, as well as vacuum and ion-plasma equipment, except for specifically complex thermal equipment. The simple thermal equipment is a heat treatment one except for complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The article gives concrete examples of simple, complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The criteria to classify the heat treatment technological

  13. MISTRA facility for containment lumped parameter and CFD codes validation. Example of the International Standard Problem ISP47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatschenko, I.; Studer, E.; Paillere, H.

    2005-01-01

    During a severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the formation of a combustible gas mixture in the complex geometry of the reactor depends on the understanding of hydrogen production, the complex 3D thermal-hydraulics flow due to gas/steam injection, natural convection, heat transfer by condensation on walls and effect of mitigation devices. Numerical simulation of such flows may be performed either by Lumped Parameter (LP) or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Advantages and drawbacks of LP and CFD codes are well-known. LP codes are mainly developed for full size containment analysis but they need improvements, especially since they are not able to accurately predict the local gas mixing within the containment. CFD codes require a process of validation on well-instrumented experimental data before they can be used with a high degree of confidence. The MISTRA coupled effect test facility has been built at CEA to fulfil this validation objective: with numerous measurement points in the gaseous volume - temperature, gas concentration, velocity and turbulence - and with well controlled boundary conditions. As illustration of both experimental and simulation areas of this topic, a recent example in the use of MISTRA test data is presented for the case of the International Standard Problem ISP47. The proposed experimental work in the MISTRA facility provides essential data to fill the gaps in the modelling/validation of computational tools. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1) Crop...

  15. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Miscellaneous -- Volume 3, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, L.M.; Jordon, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice; (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System developments has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3--for the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  16. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  17. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Miscellaneous -- Volume 3, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Jordon, W.C.; Edwards, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice; (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System developments has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3--for the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  18. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  19. What expects of academies. Activity of code and standard Div. in JSME, AESJ and JEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The present states of establishment activities of standards by the three academies in the title are summarized from the viewpoint of 'explanation accountability'. Their roles and directions to go forward are also summarized. To be concrete, the trends of these establishment academies of standards relating to the nuclear industry are summarized. By focusing on the three indispensable conditions (neutrality, impartiality and transparency) for the establishment academy of standards and their implementation, the verifications of these conditions and 'explanation accountability' in these three academies are described. (K. Kato)

  20. School Librarian as Inquisitor of Practice: Reimagine, Reflect, and React with the New Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The modern school library is a complex social setting "grounded in standards and best practice" (AASL 2018). The new "National School Library Standards" have refreshed the student learning standards and aligned new Shared Foundations to the school library. Additionally, the competencies for learners are now complemented by…

  1. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however, did not propose to adopt two standards it found... Wholesale Gas Quadrant of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas...

  2. 77 FR 10415 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...] Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines.\\1\\ The Commission also... Quadrant (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  3. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...; Order No. 587-V] Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. In addition, based on... (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines...

  4. Czech Republic; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module-Update

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Czech government has made further progress in improving fiscal transparency that was already high by international standards. The measures implemented to broaden the coverage of general government data have been commended. Improved reporting on fiscal risks, including those arising from contingent liabilities, has been welcomed. However, greater effort is needed to improve the public availability of fiscal data and to maintain regular tax expenditure reports. Ensuring appropriate standard...

  5. Standard practice for preparing sulfur prints for macrostructural evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides information required to prepare sulfur prints (also referred to as Baumann Prints) of most ferrous alloys to reveal the distribution of sulfide inclusions. 1.2 The sulfur print reveals the distribution of sulfides in steels with bulk sulfur contents between about 0.010 and 0.40 weight percent. 1.3 Certain steels contain complex sulfides that do not respond to the test solutions, for example, steels containing titanium sulfides or chromium sulfides. 1.4 The sulfur print test is a qualitative test. The density of the print image should not be used to assess the sulfur content of a steel. Under carefully controlled conditions, it is possible to compare print image intensities if the images are formed only by manganese sulfides. 1.5 The sulfur print image will reveal details of the solidification pattern or metal flow from hot or cold working on appropriately chosen and prepared test specimens. 1.6 This practice does not address acceptance criteria based on the use of the method. ...

  6. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to analyze existing approaches and break the "taboo theories," floats mysteriously present new knowledge, summed up in this multidisciplinary field study, now theories only considering the nature of scientific thought for recognition theoretical concepts and legal regulation best practice intelligence services in democratic societies. emocratic societies. Treatment of this complex matter such as "intelligent services submission principle" of democracy is very difficult. Is between the concept of democracy is to be open and transparent, and intelligent service logic in the concept is to be closed and secret. Generally in "strategic studies and Peace” security for the creation of "security system" argued by the authors Buzan and Herring. Concept Intelligent based on the theory: "The essence of intelligence is the adequate response to a stimulus." Is the essence of this analysis?

  7. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Roger H [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  8. Practical standard for nuclear power plant life management programs: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The standard specifies the method of implementing nuclear power plant life management programs. The plant life management programs evaluate the integrity of the plant structures, systems and components, assessing if appropriate measures are taken against existing aging phenomena, if there are possibilities of occurrence and development of aging phenomena and if a sufficient level of margin is maintained to assure the integrity throughout the future operating period. The programs also assess the validity of the current maintenance activities, such as trend monitoring, walkdowns, periodic tests and inspections, repair and replacement work for the purpose of preventive maintenance, and utilization of lessons learned from past trouble experience, in order to newly identify maintenance measures. The technical evaluation on aging phenomena is conducted to establish the 10 year maintenance program for nuclear power plants until the plant reaches 30 years of service. The standard was established and issued by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) through the discussion of experts in the associated fields. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger H.

    1992-01-01

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  10. Physician involvement enhances coding accuracy to ensure national standards: an initiative to improve awareness among new junior trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasivan, S; Gillott, T; Kamath, S; Blow, L; Goddard, V

    2011-06-01

    Record Keeping Standards is a development led by the Royal College of Physicians of London (RCP) Health Informatics Unit and funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Connecting for Health. A supplementary report produced by the RCP makes a number of recommendations based on a study held at an acute hospital trust. We audited the medical notes and coding to assess the accuracy, documentation by the junior doctors and also to correlate our findings with the RCP audit. Northern Lincolnshire & Goole Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has 114,000 'finished consultant episodes' per year. A total of 100 consecutive medical (50) and rheumatology (50) discharges from Diana Princess of Wales Hospital from August-October 2009 were reviewed. The results showed an improvement in coding accuracy (10% errors), comparable to the RCP audit but with 5% documentation errors. Physician involvement needs enhancing to improve the effectiveness and to ensure clinical safety.

  11. Standard Practice for Preparation of Aerospace Contamination Control Plans

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice is intended to assist in the preparation of formal plans for contamination control, especially of aerospace critical surfaces. Requirements may be established at the systems level, either by the customer or the systems integrator, or at the subsystem level. Subsystem requirements may be imposed by the responsible subsystem supplier or they may be flowed down from the systems organization (4.7). The extent of detail and level of cleanliness required can vary with the particular application and type of hardware being built, but all aspects of contamination control must be included in a final plan. Therefore, each of the following elements must be considered for inclusion in a contamination control plan (CCP): 1.1.1 Cleanliness requirements for deliverable hardware addressing particulate, molecular, or biological contaminants or combination thereof. Specify contamination limits and any budget allocations. 1.1.2 Implementation plans to achieve, verify, and maintain the specified cleanliness re...

  12. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  13. Code of Practice for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation Emitted from X-ray Analysis Equipment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate working rules, safety features and monitoring requirements for general X-ray analysis units or equipment are laid down in this Code which is intended for users of such equipment. The Code advises that establishments draw up their own working procedures based on appropriate legislation and on the recommendations contained in this Code. The Code also describes the requirements for X-ray analysis equipment necessary to ensure safety. (NEA) [fr

  14. Standard practice for alternate actinide calibration for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidance for an alternate linear calibration for the determination of selected actinide isotopes in appropriately prepared aqueous solutions by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This alternate calibration is mass bias adjusted using thorium-232 (232Th) and uranium-238 (238U) standards. One of the benefits of this standard practice is the ability to calibrate for the analysis of highly radioactive actinides using calibration standards at much lower specific activities. Environmental laboratories may find this standard practice useful if facilities are not available to handle the highly radioactive standards of the individual actinides of interest. 1.2 The instrument response for a series of determinations of known concentration of 232Th and 238U defines the mass versus response relationship. For each standard concentration, the slope of the line defined by 232Th and 238U is used to derive linear calibration curves for each mass of interest using interference equ...

  15. Contribution to the panel discussion on 'International developments in standards, rules and codes for pressure vessels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puell, K.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution to the discussion describes the legal system for technical installations in its existing form in the Federal Republic of Germany. The standardization of technical requirements to meet EC Directives and European Standards requires an adjustment, to a limited extent, of the appurtenant legal prerequisites. Given the trend away from tried and tested control mechanisms in the form of third party inspection, there is imminent danger of a reduction in quality. This compels us to consider how to maintain nonetheless the level of safety that has already been reached. (orig.)

  16. More Than Bar Codes: Integrating Global Standards-Based Bar Code Technology Into National Health Information Systems in Ethiopia and Pakistan to Increase End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Liuichi; Guirguis, Ramy; Hummel, Keith; Villanueva, Monica

    2017-12-28

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) DELIVER PROJECT work together to strengthen public health commodity supply chains by standardizing bar coding under a single set of global standards. From 2015, UNFPA and USAID collaborated to pilot test how tracking and tracing of bar coded health products could be operationalized in the public health supply chains of Ethiopia and Pakistan and inform the ecosystem needed to begin full implementation. Pakistan had been using proprietary bar codes for inventory management of contraceptive supplies but transitioned to global standards-based bar codes during the pilot. The transition allowed Pakistan to leverage the original bar codes that were preprinted by global manufacturers as opposed to printing new bar codes at the central warehouse. However, barriers at lower service delivery levels prevented full realization of end-to-end data visibility. Key barriers at the district level were the lack of a digital inventory management system and absence of bar codes at the primary-level packaging level, such as single blister packs. The team in Ethiopia developed an open-sourced smartphone application that allowed the team to scan bar codes using the mobile phone's camera and to push the captured data to the country's data mart. Real-time tracking and tracing occurred from the central warehouse to the Addis Ababa distribution hub and to 2 health centers. These pilots demonstrated that standardized product identification and bar codes can significantly improve accuracy over manual stock counts while significantly streamlining the stock-taking process, resulting in efficiencies. The pilots also showed that bar coding technology by itself is not sufficient to ensure data visibility. Rather, by using global standards for identification and data capture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and integrating the data captured into national and global tracking systems

  17. The Cardiology Audit and Registration Data Standards (CARDS), European data standards for clinical cardiology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Flynn (Rachel); C. Barrett (Conor); F.G. Cosio (Francisco); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); P. Kearney (Peter); M. Lonergan (Moira); E. Shelley (Emer); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: Systematic registration of data from clinical practice is important for clinical care, local, national and international registries, and audit. Data to be collected for these different purposes should be harmonized. Therefore, during Ireland's Presidency of the European Union (EU)

  18. International standard problem (ISP) No. 41. Containment iodine computer code exercise based on a radioiodine test facility (RTF) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of the tools, which were used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. The ISP No. 41 exercise, computer code exercise based on a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment on iodine behaviour in containment under severe accident conditions, is one of such ISP exercises. The ISP No. 41 exercise was borne at the recommendation at the Fourth Iodine Chemistry Workshop held at PSI, Switzerland in June 1996: 'the performance of an International Standard Problem as the basis of an in-depth comparison of the models as well as contributing to the database for validation of iodine codes'. [Proceedings NEA/CSNI/R(96)6, Summary and Conclusions NEA/CSNI/R(96)7]. COG (CANDU Owners Group), comprising AECL and the Canadian nuclear utilities, offered to make the results of a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) test available for such an exercise. The ISP No. 41 exercise was endorsed in turn by the FPC (PWG4's Task Group on Fission Product Phenomena in the Primary Circuit and the Containment), PWG4 (CSNI Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases), and the CSNI. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored forty-five ISP exercises over the last twenty-four years, thirteen of them in the area of severe accidents. The criteria for the selection of the RTF test as a basis for the ISP-41 exercise were; (1) complementary to other RTF tests available through the PHEBUS and ACE programmes, (2) simplicity for ease of modelling and (3) good quality data. A simple RTF experiment performed under controlled

  19. The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes in its core chapter (Chapter 4) the original algorithmic and design features of the ??rst coder for public mobile telephony, the GSM full-rate speech coder, as standardized in 1988. It has never been described in so much detail as presented here. The coder is put in a

  20. Corps et culture: les codes de savoir-vivre (Body and Culture: The Standards of Etiquette).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Dominique

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of values and standards of behavior as they relate to the body in culture are examined, especially in light of recent trends toward recognition of the natural and the spontaneous, the positive value placed on sexuality, and at the same time, narcissism and emphasis on youth. (MSE)

  1. Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eLewinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90% was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%. I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e. smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  2. General Practice Messaging Standard Version 3.0, May 2014

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-25

    We addressed the research question "what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person\\'s pathway within the acute setting". A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources)-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE) study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person\\'s pathway.

  3. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Cruz Padilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40-60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold. Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  4. Modification of an x-ray diffraction unit to comply with the NH and MRC code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbetson, V.J.; Young, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray analysis units are commonly used in research and industrial laboratories throughout Australia. Despite a well-established Code of Practice and working protocols for the safe use of such units, there are all too many stories of users by-passing safety features significantly increasing the risk of accidental exposure to the primary X-ray beam. Since the output of such units may be as high as 300 Gy x s 1 , such accidental exposures could have very serious consequences. Australian Radiation Services Pty Ltd undertook a compliance audit of an X-ray diffraction unit with respect to the NH and MRC Code of Practice for protection against ionising radiation emitted from X-ray analysis equipment. This paper discusses the findings from the initial inspection and the modifications recommended for the XRD unit to ensure compliance with the Code, without unnecessarily restricting its use. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  5. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  6. Benefit using reasonable regulations in USA, how to skill up on professional engineers, apply international code, standard, and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.L.; Morokuzu, Muneo; Amano, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    The reasonable regulations in USA consist of a graduated approach and a risk informed approach (RIA). RIA rationalizes the regulations on the basis of data of operations etc. PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), a general method of RIA, is explained in detail. The benefits of nuclear power plant using RIA are increase of the rate of operation, visualization of risk, application of design standard and design, cost down of nuclear fuel cycle, waste, production and operation, and safety. RIA is supported by the field data, code, standard, regulation and professional engineers. The effects of introduction of RIA are explained. In order to introduce RIA in Japan, all the parties concerned such as the regulation authorities, the electric power industries, makers, universities, have to understand it and work together. A part of scientific society is stated. (S.Y.)

  7. Malaysia : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This ROSC assessment of corporate governance in Malaysia benchmarks law and practice against the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, and focuses on listed companies. Important corporate governance reforms have been implemented in Malaysia since 1998, when a high-level Finance Committee on Corporate Governance, consisting of both government and industry, was formed to identify and address weaknesses highlighted by the Asian financial crisis. Key reforms have included the development of a ...

  8. Best practice in the management of clinical coding services: Insights from a project in the Republic of Ireland, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Beth A; Ridoutt, Lee; O'Connor, Paul; Murphy, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    This is the second of two articles about best practice in the management of coding services. The best practice project was part of a year-long project conducted in the Republic of Ireland to review the quality of the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data for its use in activity-based funding. The four methods used to address the best practice aspect of the project were described in detail in Part 1. The results included in this article are those relating to the coding manager's background, preparation and style, clinical coder (CC) workforce adequacy, the CC workforce structure and career pathway, and the physical and psychological work environment for the clinical coding service. Examples of best practice were found in the study hospitals but there were also areas for improvement. Coding managers would benefit from greater support in the form of increased opportunities for management training and a better method for calculating CC workforce numbers. A career pathway is needed for CCs to progress from entry to expert CC, mentor, manager and quality controller. Most hospitals could benefit from investment in infrastructure that places CCs in a physical environment that tells them they are an important part of the hospital and their work is valued.

  9. 76 FR 77237 - U.S. National Authority for the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration U.S. National Authority for the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS; Office of Global Affairs...

  10. Calculation of low-cycle fatigue in accordance with the national standard and strength codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorovich, T. S.; Radin, Yu. A.

    2017-08-01

    Over the most recent 15 years, the Russian power industry has largely relied on imported equipment manufactured in compliance with foreign standards and procedures. This inevitably necessitates their harmonization with the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation, which include calculations of strength, low cycle fatigue, and assessment of the equipment service life. An important regulatory document providing the engineering foundation for cyclic strength and life assessment for high-load components of the boiler and steamline of a water/steam circuit is RD 10-249-98:2000: Standard Method of Strength Estimation in Stationary Boilers and Steam and Water Piping. In January 2015, the National Standard of the Russian Federation 12952-3:2001 was introduced regulating the issues of design and calculation of the pressure parts of water-tube boilers and auxiliary installations. Thus, there appeared to be two documents simultaneously valid in the same energy field and using different methods for calculating the low-cycle fatigue strength, which leads to different results. In this connection, the current situation can lead to incorrect ideas about the cyclic strength and the service life of high-temperature boiler parts. The article shows that the results of calculations performed in accordance with GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001 are less conservative than the results of the standard RD 10-249-98. Since the calculation of the expected service life of boiler parts should use GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001, it becomes necessary to establish the applicability scope of each of the above documents.

  11. 75 FR 60616 - Commission Guidance Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards Related To Brokers and Dealers... Oversight Board in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to establish auditing... 60617

  12. Best practices in selecting performance measures and standards for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This report assesses and provides guidance on best practices in performance measurement, management and standards : setting for effective Transportation Asset Management (TAM). The study is conducted through a literature review, a : survey of the 50...

  13. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  14. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  15. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  16. New Standard Evaluated Neutron Cross Section Libraries for the GEANT4 Code and First Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, Emilio; Koi, Tatsumi; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter relies on evaluated nuclear data libraries and models. The evaluated libraries are compilations of measured physical parameters (such as cross sections) combined with predictions of nuclear model calculations which have been adjusted to reproduce the experimental data. The results obtained from the simulations depend largely on the accuracy of the underlying nuclear data used, and thus it is important to have access to the nuclear data libraries available, either of general use or compiled for specific applications, and to perform exhaustive validations which cover the wide scope of application of the simulation code. In this paper we describe the work performed in order to extend the capabilities of the GEANT4 toolkit for the simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter at neutron energies up to 20 MeV and a first verification of the results obtained. Such a work is of relevance for applications as diverse as the simulation of a n...

  17. Development of standard practice guidelines for open and closed system suctioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Dilek; Görgülü, R Selma

    2012-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practice of nurses before and after training and the development of standard practice guidelines for open and closed system suctioning methods in patients with endotracheal tubes. Many life-threatening complications can occur when a suctioning procedure is not performed with the correct technique. It has been reported that standard practice guidelines for suctioning are insufficient in clinical practice. Non-participant structured observational study. We assessed a total of 48 nurses who were employed in the cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit of a state hospital in Turkey. We used a questionnaire and nurse observation forms to assess the use of the open and closed system suctioning. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of the answers ('true', 'wrong' and 'I do not know') for the use of open and closed system suctioning before and after training. In addition, all steps of both suctioning procedures were carried out correctly during the third observation. The compliance of the nurses to the standard practice guidelines for open and closed suctioning and their knowledge levels on the subject were increased after training, while the implementation of standards was satisfactory. The development of open and closed system suctioning standard practice guidelines directly contributed to the enhancement of patient safety and the quality of nursing care. It is suggested that, as in other nursing care practices, suctioning should be carried out in accordance with standard practice guidelines, and health institutions should develop their standard practice guidelines and work in accordance with them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  19. Arts Shoved Aside: Changing Art Practices in Primary Schools since the Introduction of National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael Ray

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on the understandings and practices of primary teachers in implementing the arts curriculum since the 2010 introduction of National Standards in Numeracy and Literacy within the New Zealand Education system. The ever-mounting pressure on schools to perform to these standards has resulted in a reduction of emphasis and time…

  20. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...