WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard cells performance

  1. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Standardization and performance evaluation of mononuclear cell cytokine secretion assays in a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindle Kristine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been used to preserve and standardize immunologic measurements for multicenter studies, however, effects of cryopreservation on cytokine responses are incompletely understood. In designing immunologic studies for a new multicenter birth cohort study of childhood asthma, we performed a series of experiments to determine the effects of two different methods of cryopreservation on the cytokine responses of cord and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Paired samples of PBMC were processed freshly, or after cryopreservation in a Nalgene container (NC or a controlled-rate freezer (CRF. Although there were some differences between the methods, cryopreservation inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 secretion and Der f 1-induced IL-2 secretion, and augmented PHA-induced IL-2 secretion and spontaneous secretion of TNF-α. In separate experiments, NC cryopreservation inhibited secretion of several cytokines (IL-13, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α by PHA-stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells. With the exception of PHA-induced IL-13, results from fresh and cryopreserved cord blood samples were not significantly correlated. Finally, in reproducibility studies involving processing of identical cell samples in up to 4 separate laboratories, variances in cytokine responses of fresh cells stimulated at separate sites did not exceed those in cryopreserved cells stimulated at a central site. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that cryopreservation can affect mononuclear cell cytokine response profiles, and that IL-10 secretion and antigen-induced responses may be especially vulnerable. These studies also demonstrate that mononuclear cell responses can be standardized for performance in a small number of laboratories for multicenter studies, and underscore the importance of measuring reproducibility and of testing whether cryopreservation techniques alter specific immunologic outcomes.

  3. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier

    2018-01-05

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  4. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. II. Comparison of the performance of two standardized stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Galbraith, W; Navarro, E F; Bacus, J W

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance of two standardized Romanowsky blood stains, namely those of Marshall et al. and Wittekind et al., both containing azure B and eosin alone. Stain performance is assessed objectively by the use of three complementary techniques, all based on the visible absorbance spectra of stained cellular substrates. The first of these techniques is a simple comparison of the shapes and heights of the absorbance spectra. The second technique uses the CIE Colorimetric System, and thus permits the quantitation of colour in a manner that agrees with human observation. CIE co-ordinates (chromaticity points, luminance) are calculated directly from absorbance spectra. The third technique is that of spectral subtraction, which yields a set of factors which describe the quantities of component dyes which are bound by the object. This technique, unlike the other two, requires a priori knowledge of the dyes used in the stains, and their spectra when bound to cellular substrates. Although the differences between the two methods are subtle, and hard for the subjective observer to define, the objective methods described here do show statistically significant differences. Wittekind's stain produces less intense staining, except for lymphocyte and monocyte cytoplasms. To the human eye, the differential coloration of these two substrates is more pronounced, but the difference between all nuclei and cytoplasm is less marked. The major difference in the uptake of dye components is in the small quantities of eosin dimer that are bound in this technique.

  5. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  6. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  7. Automated saturated standard cell intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.E.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.)

    1987-10-05

    A cost effective, highly efficient, and automatic method of intercomparing standard cells has been sought after and implemented, utilizing computer control and a commercially available scanner. This system reduces intercomparison time from 4 hours to 30 minutes using the standard National Bureau of Standard (NBS) 4 x 4 design. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  9. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  10. 46 CFR 197.520 - Performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance standard. 197.520 Section 197.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.520 Performance standard. No person may be subjected to a personal...

  11. Standards and Performance Indicators for Surgical Luminaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, Arjan J.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The illumination performance of surgical luminaires is quantified by performance indicators defined in an international standard (IEC 2000). The remaining maximum illuminance in relevant situations, the light-field size, and the spectral characteristics are performance indicators used by hospitals

  12. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  13. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  14. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  15. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments; Performance...

  16. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  17. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness.

  18. Aiming High: Setting Performance Standards for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary; Garcia, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    Content standards, not performance standards, have been almost the sole focus of state policies and recent conversations about academic standards. Without rigorous content and performance standards, we cannot adequately prepare students for the global marketplace. A recent AIR study shows that state performance standards are consistently low and…

  19. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals delivered free of direct user fees for peaceful civil, commercial, and scientific uses worldwide. Th...

  20. 40 CFR 469.17 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor Subcategory... the following new source performance standards (NSPS). Subpart A—Semiconductor NSPS Effluent...

  1. Standards for University Libraries: Evaluation of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and Research Libraries News, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents the revised "Standards for University Libraries" approved by the Association of College and Research Libraries Board. Areas covered in the standards include a basic statement of purpose, underlying assumptions, goal development, measuring achievement and forming a statement of expectations, and evaluative criteria. Resource…

  2. 40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.144 New source performance standards (NSPS). Any new source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS...

  3. 40 CFR 415.645 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.645 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS...

  4. 47 CFR 25.209 - Antenna performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna performance standards. 25.209 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.209 Antenna performance standards. (a) The gain of any antenna to be employed in transmission from an earth station in the fixed-satellite service shall lie...

  5. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  6. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  7. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  8. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  9. 77 FR 52553 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines; Standards of Performance for Stationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Morales, OAQPS Document Control Officer (C404-02), Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards... that have heating values less than 26 megajoules per standard cubic meter (700 Btu per scf) per...

  10. Improving car-carrier safety through Performance-Based Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available 2012 Slide 4 Prescriptive Standards Performance-Based Standards Images courtesy of the Australian National Transport Commission Background: Performance-Based Standards ? CSIR 2012 Slide 5 Manoeuvre/Test Performance Standard Low-speed 90? turn Low... Slide 6 Frontal swing Tail swing Background: South African car-carriers ? CSIR 2012 Slide 7 4 .3 m 4. 6 m 18.5 m 4. 3 m 4. 6 m 22 m22.5 m 19 m WITH abnormal load permit Courtesy Unipower (Natal) and Kh?ssbohrer. WITHOUT abnormal...

  11. 40 CFR 415.165 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.165 Section 415.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... using the solar evaporation process must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS...

  12. Autonomous prediction of performance-based standards for heavy vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available performance-based standards approach which specifies on-road vehicle performance measures. One such standard is the low-speed swept path, which is a measure of road width required by a vehicle to complete a prescribed turning manoeuvre. This is typically...

  13. 40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.25 Section 415.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production...

  14. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle cost-effective...

  15. 40 CFR 415.345 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.345 Section 415.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production...

  16. 40 CFR 469.42 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 469.42 Section 469.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Luminescent Materials...

  17. 40 CFR 439.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 439.35 Section 439.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439...

  18. 40 CFR 410.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.45 Section 410.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.45 New...

  19. 40 CFR 410.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.35 Section 410.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Low Water Use Processing Subcategory § 410.35...

  20. 40 CFR 410.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.65 Section 410.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.65 New source...

  1. 40 CFR 410.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.85 Section 410.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonwoven Manufacturing Subcategory § 410.85 New...

  2. 40 CFR 410.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.15 Section 410.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.15 New source...

  3. 40 CFR 410.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.95 Section 410.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Felted Fabric Processing Subcategory § 410.95...

  4. 40 CFR 410.75 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.75 Section 410.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Stock and Yarn Finishing Subcategory § 410.75...

  5. 40 CFR 410.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.55 Section 410.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.55 New...

  6. 40 CFR 410.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.25 Section 410.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.25 New source...

  7. 40 CFR 471.73 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium Forming... achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS). The mass of pollutants in the uranium... mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds) of uranium extruded Cadmium 0.007 0.003 Chromium 0.013 0...

  8. 40 CFR 425.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome... subject to this subpart must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS): Pollutant or pollutant property NSPS Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Kg/kkg (or pound per 1,000 lb) of...

  9. 40 CFR 425.24 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet... subpart must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS): Pollutant or pollutant property NSPS Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Kg/kkg (or pound per 1,000 lb) of raw...

  10. 40 CFR 425.14 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet... subpart must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS): Pollutant or pollutant property NSPS Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Kg/kkg (or lb/1,000 lb) of raw material...

  11. 33 CFR 332.5 - Ecological performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ecological performance standards. 332.5 Section 332.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... appropriate adaptive management. ...

  12. Standards of performance and aesthetics in counselling and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses performance standards in relation to Danish experiments with expanding drug counselling into ‘aesthetic documentation’ which is a hybrid of art with narrative practice. This relation is problematic, since the instrumental use defies the point in art, and since ‘aesthetic...... documentation’ is the attempt to move beyond the standards of counselling. On the basis of brief outlines of the concepts of performance and standards, a critique is sketched of the strategy of ‘customizing’ counselling through formalized feed-back as a way of addressing the troublesome issue of client...... subjectivity. Then five claims are made about ‘aesthetic documentation’ as an alternative: The art works can be seen as prototypes rather than rigid standardizations; they represent collaboration rather than individualized performance; they work as staging or display in close connection with the substantial...

  13. Performance-based standards for South African car-carriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available with the Australian Performance-Based Standards (PBS) scheme. A low-speed turning model was developed in Matlab®, and used to benchmark the tail swing performance of the existing South African car-carrier fleet. About 80 per cent of the fleet were shown to not comply...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1643 - Performance accuracy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performance accuracy includes the measurement of factors that have a potential for affecting a decision, as... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance accuracy standard. 404.1643 Section 404.1643 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1043 - Performance accuracy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performance accuracy includes the measurement of factors that have a potential for affecting a decision, as... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance accuracy standard. 416.1043 Section 416.1043 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE...

  16. 24 CFR 902.43 - Management operations performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations performance... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.43 Management operations performance standards. (a) Management operations sub-indicators. The following sub...

  17. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Five Turbidity Sensors in Three Primary Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-10-28

    Open-File Report 2015-1172 is temporarily unavailable.Five commercially available turbidity sensors were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for accuracy and precision in three types of turbidity standards; formazin, StablCal, and AMCO Clear (AMCO–AEPA). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes all three turbidity standards as primary standards, meaning they are acceptable for reporting purposes. The Forrest Technology Systems (FTS) DTS-12, the Hach SOLITAX sc, the Xylem EXO turbidity sensor, the Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) 6136 turbidity sensor, and the Hydrolab Series 5 self-cleaning turbidity sensor were evaluated to determine if turbidity measurements in the three primary standards are comparable to each other, and to ascertain if the primary standards are truly interchangeable. A formazin 4000 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) stock was purchased and dilutions of 40, 100, 400, 800, and 1000 NTU were made fresh the day of testing. StablCal and AMCO Clear (for Hach 2100N) standards with corresponding concentrations were also purchased for the evaluation. Sensor performance was not evaluated in turbidity levels less than 40 NTU due to the unavailability of polymer-bead turbidity standards rated for general use. The percent error was calculated as the true (not absolute) difference between the measured turbidity and the standard value, divided by the standard value.The sensors that demonstrated the best overall performance in the evaluation were the Hach SOLITAX and the Hydrolab Series 5 turbidity sensor when the operating range (0.001–4000 NTU for the SOLITAX and 0.1–3000 NTU for the Hydrolab) was considered in addition to sensor accuracy and precision. The average percent error in the three standards was 3.80 percent for the SOLITAX and -4.46 percent for the Hydrolab. The DTS-12 also demonstrated good accuracy with an average percent error of 2.02 percent and a maximum relative standard

  19. AICPA standard can help improve audit committee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Luecke, R W

    2001-08-01

    The AICPA's Auditing Standards Board issued Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 90, Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees, in response to a related Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rule change. Under the standard, audit committees of publicly traded organizations must enter into discussions with their organization's auditors regarding the quality and the acceptability of the accounting principles that have been applied in the organization's financial statements. Although SAS No. 90 is intended for publicly traded entities, the standard has significant implications for all healthcare organizations in defining what constitutes an effective audit committee. To comply with the standard, audit committees should have independent directors who are rotated on and off the committee, training for committee members on the effective performance of their duties, a charter specifying committee responsibilities and membership requirements, meetings at least four times annually, and responsibility for retaining services of CPA firms to conduct the organization's annual audits.

  20. Performance Measurement of Management System Standards Using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Management system standards (MSS, such as ISO standards, TQM, etc. are widely-used standards adopted by millions of organizations worldwide. It is still an unclear question whether these standards are beneficial for an organization, besides the fact that they might be required or expected by law or customers. The question, whether MSS increase the efficiency, the output, or the performance of an organization is still discussed in scientific research. One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating of levels of environmental, social or economic expectations known as the Trible Bottom Line. The Balanced Scorecard is one possible solution for performance measurement on a strategic and operational level and therefore useful for the measurement of the influence of MSS within organizations. This study summarized current research in the field of performance measurement in the context of MSS and IMS and the use of BSC and quantitatively and qualitatively tests the usefulness of BSC in measuring the effect of MSSs using the Execution Premium. It was found that BSC is often used, that an average number of companies integrate their measurement initiatives of their MSSs into the BSC-process, and that a high integration of MSS into the BSC improves the organizational performance. This research is useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand the benefits of the usage of the BSC in the context of MSS or Integrated Management Systems.

  1. Optomechatronic load cell validation according to the American standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Serrano, Francisco Javier; Camacho P., Alma A.

    2009-09-01

    Productive activities require measuring systems as a key tool for manufacturing quality goods. Metal mechanical industries develop their processes based on the control of a high precision fit between two pieces of a pressureassembled product. Therefore, engineering materials are constantly subjected to resistance tests. Balance test equipment and mechanical vibrations work under the principle of force measurements. The most precise stress measurement methods are done with electromechanical devices known as load cells. They basically consist of a tiny electric resistor that is adhered to a mechanical element that may be under stress. Cyclic stresses also directly affect the performance of the measuring element including the resistance itself, which changes as the cyclic fatigue progresses (the measuring element is a very thin coil with limited strength). In this research, we developed an optomechatronic load cell1 whose operating principle is based on measuring the stress load applied to a mechanical element. The deformation causes a reduction in the distance between the emitter and the receptor producing an electrical signal. It must be established that the distribution of the light intensity varies between the emitter and the receptor due to the generated displacement. An infrared emitter was adapted to the load cell whose signal was received by the receptor at the other end. The second stage included a demonstration that the optoelectronic system is capable of measuring external stresses on a mechanical element by using an indirect method of measuring stresses. Here we present the results from those experiments, which include some adaptations on the mechanical element. We implemented a prototype sensitive to the deformation produced by the mechanical element (load cell). As a result of the two stages, we plan to test the system in academic and industrial applications. The third step in the research is to validate the optomechatronic load cell under the E74

  2. Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maysa C.; Silva, Natália F.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: mcastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-rays beams established for computed tomography at the LCI. (author)

  3. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...... can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations....

  4. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Recirculation—single stand. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum... wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Recirculation—multiple stands. Subpart J Pollutant or... worked pipe and tube mills—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property New source...

  5. 40 CFR 412.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process-generated wastewaters plus the runoff from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event at the location of the point source, any process wastewater pollutants in the overflow may be discharged into U.S. waters. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS...

  6. 40 CFR 412.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to contain all process-generated wastewaters plus the runoff from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event at the location of the point source, any process wastewater pollutants in the overflow may be... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS...

  7. 40 CFR 420.14 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such systems generate process wastewaters. (B) Increased loadings shall be provided for process... to the extent such systems generate process wastewaters and those wastewaters are co-treated with... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS...

  8. 40 CFR 430.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Soda Subcategory § 430.25 New source performance standards (NSPS). New sources subject to this subpart... fine papers are produced and soda facilities where pulp and paper are produced] Pollutant or pollutant... that does not use an exclusively TCF bleaching process, as disclosed by the discharger in its NPDES...

  9. Vocational and Technical Education Performance Standards and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.

    These Connecticut vocational and technical performance standards and competencies are a guide for overall quality attainment in these seven vocational and technical program areas: agricultural science technology education; business and finance technology education; cooperative work education; family and consumer sciences education; marketing…

  10. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009...

  11. Research Performance Evaluation: Some Critical Thoughts on Standard Bibliometric Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Loukas N.

    2014-01-01

    The bibliometric methodology is an established technique for research evaluation as it offers an objective determination and comparison of research performance. This paper aims to critically assess some standard bibliometric indicators commonly used (based on publication and citation counts) to evaluate academic units, and examine whether there…

  12. Changes in Student Performance and Confidence with a Standardized Patient and Standardized Colleague Interprofessional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Marie L; Schonder, Kristine S; Meyer, Susan M; Hall, Deanne L

    2015-06-25

    To assess the impact of a standardized patient and standardized colleague interprofessional activity on student performance and perceived confidence in communicating with patients and physicians. Students in the third professional year were presented with a practice and final activity including a standardized patient interaction, SOAP note preparation, and standardized colleague interaction. Student performance was measured by assessment rubrics on practice and final activities. Students' perceived confidence was measured via presurvey and postsurvey. Students performed significantly better from the practice to the final activity with regard to communicating with patients, SOAP note, and the overall activity with a mean difference (95% CI) of 9.2 (6.9-11.5), 3.6 (1.3-5.8), and 3.9 (2.0-5.7), respectively. There was a positive significant change from presurvey to postsurvey in students' confidence talking to patients and physicians on majority of questions. This study demonstrates that active learning and integrated assessments improve overall student performance. Integration of interprofessional education also has positive effects on students' perceived confidence.

  13. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach α = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Performance evaluation of emerging JPEGXR compression standard for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Medical images require loss less compression as a small error due to lossy compression may be considered as a diagnostic error. JPEG XR is the latest image compression standard designed for variety of applications and has a support for lossy and loss less modes. This paper provides in-depth performance evaluation of latest JPEGXR with existing image coding standards for medical images using loss less compression. Various medical images are used for evaluation and ten images of each organ are tested. Performance of JPEGXR is compared with JPEG2000 and JPEGLS using mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, mean absolute error and structural similarity index. JPEGXR shows improvement of 20.73 dB and 5.98 dB over JPEGLS and JPEG2000 respectively for various test images used in experimentation. (author)

  15. Standard Guide for Specifying Thermal Performance of Geothermal Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers power plant performance terms and criteria for use in evaluation and comparison of geothermal energy conversion and power generation systems. The special nature of these geothermal systems makes performance criteria commonly used to evaluate conventional fossil fuel-fired systems of limited value. This guide identifies the limitations of the less useful criteria and defines an equitable basis for measuring the quality of differing thermal cycles and plant equipment for geothermal resources. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  18. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  19. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter establishments. The new performance standards were... Salmonella and new Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect with...

  20. Design Performance Standards for Large Scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This document presents, discusses and provides a general guide on electrical performance standard requirements for connection of large scale onshore wind farms into HV transmission networks. Experiences presented here refer mainly to technical requirements and issues encountered during the process...... of connection into the Eastern Australian power system under the Rules and guidelines set out by AEMC and NEMMCO (AEMO). Where applicable some international practices are also mentioned. Standards are designed to serve as a technical envelope under which wind farm proponents design the plant and maintain...... ongoing technical compliance of the plant during its operational lifetime. This report is designed to provide general technical information for the wind farm connection engineer to be aware of during the process of connection, registration and operation of wind power plants interconnected into the HV TSO...

  1. Alternate performance standard project: Interpreting the post-construction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.D.; McDonough, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a project commissioned by the State of Florida, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, as one portion of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). The purpose of the FRRP is to provide technical support for a statewide Building Standard for Radon-Resistant Construction currently in the rulemaking process. In this case the information provides technical background for a post-construction radon test specified as a performance element of the code which accompanies the prescriptive alternative that does not incorporate active radon reduction systems

  2. Standard guide for hot cell specialized support equipment and tools

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 This guide presents practices and guidelines for the design and implementation of equipment and tools to assist assembly, disassembly, alignment, fastening, maintenance, or general handling of equipment in a hot cell. Operating in a remote hot cell environment significantly increases the difficulty and time required to perform a task compared to completing a similar task directly by hand. Successful specialized support equipment and tools minimize the required effort, reduce risks, and increase operating efficiencies. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide may apply to the design of specialized support equipment and tools anywhere it is remotely operated, maintained, and viewed through shielding windows or by other remote viewing systems. 1.2.2 Consideration should be given to the need for specialized support equipment and tools early in the design process. 1.2.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conv...

  3. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  4. APPLICATION OF DOE-2 TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D.; Rosenfield, A. H.

    1980-10-01

    One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.

  5. Spectral properties of iodine cells for laser standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; Chea, Erick; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this work is oriented towards preparation and spectral properties evaluation of optical frequency references for laser standards - molecular iodine cells. These references represent the crucial part of setups for practical realization of the meter unit - highly stable laser standards. Furthermore, not only in the most precise laboratory instruments, but also in less demanding interferometric measuring setups the frequency stabilization of the lasers throught the absorption in suitable media ensure the direct traceability to the fundamental standard of length. A set of absorption cells filled with different amounts of molecular iodine (different saturation pressure point of absorption media) was prepared and an agreement between expected and resulting spectral properties of these cells was observed and evaluated. The usage of borosilicate glass instead of common fused silica as a material for cells bodies represents an approach to simplify the manufacturing technology process and also reduces the overall cell costs. A great care must be taken to control/avoid the risk of absorption media contamination by impurities releasing from the cell walls. We introduce an iodine purity and spectral properties evaluation method based on measurement of linewidth of the hyperfine transitions. The proposed method was used for verification of great iodine purity of manufactured cells by comparison of spectral properties with cells traditionally made of fused silica glass with well known iodine purity. The results confirmed a great potential of proposed approaches.

  6. Development and performance characterization of a new standard mercury manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, H M; Maqsood, M; Rashid, Haris

    2007-07-01

    A new standard mercury manometer has been developed to calibrate low vacuum gauges in the range from atmospheric pressure to 1 mbar. It consists of a cistern that is a small stainless steel container used as mercury reservoir and also as the first Hg column connected to a long glass tube used as the second Hg column. Manometer scale covers the difference in Hg heights in two columns up to the length equivalent to 1000 mbars. This is a novel low cost manometer with simple design, compact fabrication, better accuracy, easy operation, low vibration, and thermal stability. In order to evaluate the performance of the equipment, its generated pressures are compared with those of secondary standard, i.e., calibrated capacitance diaphragm gauge, giving the average correction factor 0.998. Different uncertainties of the generated pressures are discussed in detail along with the evaluation of correction factors. The relative uncertainty in the higher pressure side is found to be in the range of 10(-4) which is within the limit (approximately 10(-4)).

  7. The moral aesthetics of simulated suffering in standardized patient performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2011-06-01

    Standardized patient (SP) performances are staged clinical encounters between health-professional students and people who specialize in role-playing the part of patients. Such performances have in recent years become increasingly central to the teaching and assessment of clinical skills in U.S. medical schools. SP performances are valued for being both "real" (in that they involve interaction with a real person, unlike written examinations) and "not real" (in that the SP does not actually suffer from the condition portrayed, unlike an actual patient). This article considers how people involved in creating SP performances reconcile a moral commitment to avoid suffering (to keep it "not real"), with an aesthetic commitment to realistically portray it (to keep it "real"). The term "moral aesthetic" is proposed, to indicate a sensibility that combines ideas about what is morally right with ideas about what is aesthetically compelling. Drawing on ethnographic research among SPs and SP program staff and medical faculty who work closely with them, this article argues that their work of creating "realism" in simulated clinical encounters encompasses multiple different (and sometimes conflicting) understandings and practices of realism, informed by three different moral aesthetics: (1) a moral aesthetic of induction, in which an accurate portrayal with a well-documented provenance serves to introduce experientially distant forms of suffering; (2) a moral aesthetic of inoculation, in which the authenticity and emotional impact of a performance are meant to inoculate students against the impact of future encounters with suffering; (3) a moral aesthetic of presence, generating forms of voice and care that are born out of the embodied presence of suffering individuals in a clinical space. All are premised on the assumption that risk and suffering can be banished from SP performances. This article suggests, however, that SP performances necessarily raise the same difficult

  8. Vehicle safety performance improvements using a performance-based standards approach: four case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a performance-based standards (PBS) research programme for heavy vehicles in South Africa, a need was identified to design, manufacture and operate a number of PBS or Smart Truck demonstration vehicles. The purpose of the demonstration...

  9. Performance of the standard FAIR equipment controller prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, S.; Baer, R.C.; Panschow, W.; Thieme, M.

    2012-01-01

    For the control system of the new FAIR accelerator facility a standard equipment controller, the Scalable Control Unit (SCU), is presently under development. First prototypes have already been tested in real applications. The controller combines an *86 COM Express TM Board and an Altera Arria TM II FPGA. Over a parallel bus interface called the SCU bus, up to 12 slave boards can be controlled. Communication between CPU and FPGA is done by a PCIe link. We discuss the real time behaviour between the Linux OS and the FPGA Hardware. For the test, a Front-End Software Architecture (FESA) class, running under Linux, communicates with the PCIe bridge in the FPGA. Although we are using PCIe only for single 32 bit wide accesses to the FPGA address space, the performance still seems sufficient. The tests showed an average response time to IRQs of 50 μs with a 1.6 GHz Intel Atom CPU. This includes the context change to the FESA user space application and the reply back to the FPGA. Further topics are the bandwidth of the PCIe link for single/burst transfers and the performance of the SCU bus communication. (authors)

  10. Marketing the indoor environment: standardization or performance on demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Health problems and complaints with the indoor environment are numerous, even though all available standards are met. For decades now, the standardization of indoor environments is under discussion. Do we approach it via the components of the indoor environment, resulting in standards for lighting,

  11. Performance enhancement of PV cells through micro-channel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of a PV cell is strongly dependent on its surface temperature. The current study is focused to achieve maximum efficiency of PV cells even in scorching temperatures in hot climates like Pakistan where the cell surface temperatures can even rise up to around 80 ℃. The study includes both the CFD and real time experimental investigations of a solar panel using micro channel cooling. Initially, CFD analysis is performed by developing a 3D model of a Mono-Crystalline cell with micro-channels to analyze cell surface temperature distribution at different irradiance and water flow rates. Afterwards, an experimental setup is developed for performance investigations under the real conditions of an open climate of a Pakistan's city, Taxila. Two 35W panels are manufactured for the experiments; one is based on the standard manufacturing procedure while other cell is developed with 4mm thick aluminum sheet having micro-channels of cross-section of 1mm by 1mm. The whole setup also includes different sensors for the measurement of solar irradiance, cell power, surface temperature and water flow rates. The experimental results show that PV cell surface temperature drop of around 15 ℃ is achieved with power increment of around 14% at maximum applied water flow rate of 3 LPM. Additionally, a good agreement is also found between CFD and experimental results. Therefore, that study clearly shows that a significant performance improvement of PV cells can be achieved through the proposed cell cooling technique.

  12. Using Unfiltered Images to Perform Standard Filter Band Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlitz, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that raw instrumental magnitudes of stars measured from a single unfiltered CCD image can be transformed into standard passband magnitudes. Star fields that have good catalogued photometric magnitudes can be used as a reference to transform unfiltered instrumental magnitudes into a standard system. To demonstrate this, the AAVSO (VSP) M-67 catalogued stars are used. It is shown that, within certain constraints, the standard B, V, Rc, and Ic magnitudes can be accurately determined from unfiltered instrumental magnitudes. For well behaved, well calibrated stars, the transformations to standard magnitudes can be done within a standard deviation of better than 0.021 magnitude. The paper further presents a simple spreadsheet tool to automatically derive the "standard" magnitudes from the raw instrumental magnitudes. This greatly simplifies the task of calculating transformation coefficients, and makes it possible to calibrate a CCD imaging system on an image-by-image basis.

  13. Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Maria; Junker, Johan; Berggren, Peter; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore

    2017-05-19

    The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean ± standard deviation 2.4 ± 0.68, post-test mean ± standard deviation 2.60 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be

  14. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  15. 40 CFR 463.24 - New source performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463... standards (i.e., mass of pollutant discharged) calculated by multiplying the average process water usage... process water usage flow rate for the new source cleaning water processes from the permittee. ...

  16. 40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New... subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below: (1) Subpart F—Silver Chloride...) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times. (2) Subpart F—Silver Chloride Cathodes—Electrolytic...

  17. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  18. 78 FR 38735 - Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1626] Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION... entitled, ``Autopsy Performance Criteria: Standards, Guidelines and Best Practices''. The opportunity to...

  19. Global Positioning System wide area augmentation system (WAAS) performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of spacebased : positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals generated from space vehicles orbiting the : earth and delivered free of direct user fees for civil...

  20. 40 CFR 440.24 - New Source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.24 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producting bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 406.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.35 Section 406.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.35 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards of performance establish the...

  2. 40 CFR 406.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.45 Section 406.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.45 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards of performance establish the...

  3. Recommendations for a proposed standard for performing systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Whitehead, D.; Drouin, M.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a policy statement proposing improved regulatory decisionmaking by increasing the use of PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. A key aspect in using PRA in risk-informed regulatory activities is establishing the appropriate scope and attributes of the PRA. In this regard, ASME decided to develop a consensus PRA Standard. The objective is to develop a PRA Standard such that the technical quality of nuclear plant PRAs will be sufficient to support risk-informed regulatory applications. This paper presents examples recommendations for the systems analysis element of a PRA for incorporation into the ASME PRA Standard

  4. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and... of 5.0 to 9.0 at all times. Subpart L [NSPS for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven... non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30 consecutive days...

  5. 40 CFR 463.14 - New source performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water... pollutant discharged), which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... 9.0 at all times. The permit authority will obtain the average process water usage flow rate for the...

  6. 40 CFR 463.34 - New source performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463... process water usage flow rate for the finishing water processes at a new source times the following... usage flow rate for the new source finishing water processes from the permittee. ...

  7. 40 CFR 430.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards apply with respect to each new source fiber line that commences discharge after June 15, 1998. (1... respect to each fiber line that uses exclusively TCF bleaching processes, as disclosed by the discharger...) (d) (d) (d) a These limitations do not apply with respect to fiber lines that use a TCF bleaching...

  8. 40 CFR 440.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores... falling on the treatment facility and the drainage area contributing surface runoff to the treatment facility exceeds the annual evaporation, a volume of water equivalent to the difference between annual...

  9. 40 CFR 433.16 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metal Finishing Subcategory § 433.16 New....38 2.07 Lead (T) 0.69 0.43 Nickel (T) 3.98 2.38 Silver (T) 0.43 0.24 Zinc (T) 2.61 1.48 Cyanide (T) 1...

  10. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.84 TSS 5.8 3.0 1.6 pH (1) (1) (1) Maximum for any 1 day Kg/kkg (or pounds per 1,000 lb) of product... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory...

  11. 40 CFR 430.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4 TSS 27.3 14.3 7.5 pH (1) (1) (1) Maximum for any 1 day Kg/kkg (or pounds per 1,000 lb) of product... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Kraft Subcategory...

  12. 40 CFR 464.14 - New source performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poured) for a specific plant. 3 Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Die Casting Operations... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464...) Casting Cleaning Operations. NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for...

  13. 40 CFR 464.44 - New source performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (b) Die Casting Operations. NSPS Pollutant or pollutant... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.44...) Casting Quench Operations. NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

  14. 78 FR 37723 - Laser Products; Proposed Amendment to Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... free-air communication peripherals, bar code scanners, cutting and welding tools, and laser speed... incorporate subclause 4.14.2 of IEC 60825-1:2007, but instead require that the protective housing of laser... move to lower classes under the harmonized standard. Class IV lasers, such as those used for cutting...

  15. Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have recently received increasing attention since in principle they allow for the use of non-precious metal catalysts, which dramatically reduces the cost per kilowatt of power in fuel cell devices. Until not long ago, the main barrier in the development of AEMFCs was the availability of highly conductive anion exchange membranes (AEMs); however, improvements on this front in the past decade show that newly developed AEMs have already reached high levels of conductivity, leading to satisfactory cell performance. In recent years, a growing number of research studies have reported AEMFC performance results. In the last three years, new records in performance were achieved. Most of the literature reporting cell performance is based on hydrogen-AEMFCs, although an increasing number of studies have also reported the use of fuels others than hydrogen - such as alcohols, non-alcohol C-based fuels, as well as N-based fuels. This article reviews the cell performance and performance stability achieved in AEMFCs through the years since the first reports in the early 2000s.

  16. Reverse translated and gold standard continuous performance tests predict global cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, Andrew W; Thomas, Michael L; Tarasenko, Melissa; Shiluk, Alexandra L; Rackelmann, Sonia Y; Young, Jared W; Light, Gregory A

    2018-04-12

    Attentional dysfunction contributes to functional impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Sustained attention is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many CPTs have limited cross-species translational validity and place demands on additional cognitive domains. A reverse-translated 5-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT) for human testing-originally developed for use in rodents-was designed to minimize demands on perceptual, visual learning, processing speed, or working memory functions. To-date, no studies have validated the 5C-CPT against gold standard attentional measures nor evaluated how 5C-CPT scores relate to cognition in SZ. Here we examined the relationship between the 5C-CPT and the CPT-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP), an established and psychometrically robust measure of vigilance from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in a sample of SZ patients (n = 35). Relationships to global and individual subdomains of cognition were also assessed. 5C-CPT and CPT-IP measures of performance (d-prime) were strongly correlated (r = 0.60). In a regression model, the 5C-CPT and CPT-IP collectively accounted for 54% of the total variance in MCCB total scores, and 27.6% of overall cognitive variance was shared between the 5C-CPT and CPT-IP. These results indicate that the reverse translated 5C-CPT and the gold standard CPT-IP index a common attentional construct that also significantly overlaps with variance in general cognitive performance. The use of simple, cross-species validated behavioral indices of attentional/cognitive functioning such as the 5C-CPT could accelerate the development of novel generalized pro-cognitive therapeutics for SZ and related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Comparison between the neutron parameters for CANDU-6 standard and SEU-43 fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the efforts in nuclear energy industry are focused on the growing of the fuel cycles' efficiency, the decreasing of the spent fuel volumes simultaneously with a decreasing of the production costs. In INR Pitesti the project for a new fuel bundle named SEU-43 (Slightly Enriched Uranium, bundle with 43 elements) was started in the late of '80s (Horhoianu et al., 2001), like an alternative for the CANDU-6 standard bundle (Natural Uranium, bundle with 37 elements). This paper presents a comparison between the SEU-43 fuel and CANDU-6 Standard fuel with the a special regard to the neutron cell parameters (k-inf, multigroup fluxes, pin powers). SEU-43 CANDU cell consists of a single cluster (43-fuel elements bundle, 2 fuel type element sizes). The other elements of the cell are the same as those of the Standard cell. The enrichment in 235 U (nearly 1%) is present. The WIMS-5B library was used (Halsall and Taubman, 1986) for cross-sections generation and CP 2 D, a two-dimensional transport the first collision probability code for detailed fuel assembly hyperfine flux distribution calculation (Constantin, 1999) was used for the computing of the neutron local parameters. A comparison between the SEU-43 and CANDU-6 Standard fuel cell parameters are performed. The analysis shows the SEU-43 fuel can be used successfully in CANDU-6 reactor, its local neutron performances being similar with those of the CANDU-6 Standard fuel. The major advantage of the SEU-43 fuel bundle is that it can reach a maximum burnup of 25000 MWd/tU compared to the Standard 37-fuel bundle where the maximum burnup is about of 13000 MWd/TU (reached only for some fuel bundles of the core). (authors)

  18. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done...... with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....

  19. 40 CFR 427.85 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards of performance for new sources. 427.85 Section 427.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.85 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards of...

  20. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved] ...

  1. HEP graphics: Standards and portability versus performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    After mentioning the range of applications for which computer graphics is used in high energy physics, some of the characteristics required of graphics hardware are presented, along with a discussion of how well these requirements are likely to be met by the computer industry. Moving on to the topic of software, the status of the more important graphics standards is covered briefly, as well as their evolution in the medium term. The point will be made that HEP, perhaps even more than other areas, has conflicting requirements for graphics systems. The subject is manpower-intensive, and the physics community has to made a trade-off. (orig.)

  2. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  3. 75 FR 19252 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    .... CC Glass Manufacturing Plants...... Yes. DD Grain Elevators Yes. EE Surface Coating of Metal Yes... Test Cells/Stands X (Combined w/Rocket Testing Facilities). QQQQQ Friction Products Manufacturing. X... Compounds X PPPPPP Lead Acid Battery Mfg X QQQQQQ Wood Preserving X RRRRRR Clay Ceramics Mfg X SSSSSS Glass...

  4. Performance-based standards (PBS) vehicles for transport in the agricultural sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available (2007a). Performance Based Standards Scheme – The Standards and Vehicle Assessment Rules. Prepared by National Transport Commission: Melbourne, Vic. Australia. National Transport Commission (2007b). Performance Based Standards Scheme – Network..., Australia. Standards South Africa (2007). ARP 067-1: Road Transport Management Systems: Part 1: Operator Requirements – Goods. ISBN: 978-0-626-19331-7. SABS, Pretoria, South Africa. Proc S Afr Sug Technol Ass (2008) 81: 445 - 453 ...

  5. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogaji, S.O.T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M. [Power Propulsion and Aerospace Engineering Department, Centre for Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs, Cranfield University (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-09

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaji, S. O. T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M.

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed.

  7. Construction, validation, and derivation of performance standards for a fitness test for correctional officer applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Thomas, Scott G; Burr, Jamie F; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a fitness test for correctional officer (CO) applicants (FITCO) and to establish associated standards of acceptability. The FITCO incorporated the most important, physically demanding, and frequently occurring tasks of a CO. It consists of (i) a simulated cell search; (ii) an emergency response circuit (ERC), involving a 60-m run while scaling 4 sets of stairs, followed by simulations of an inmate control, wrist restraint, arm retraction, and 40-m mannequin drag; and (iii) a test of aerobic fitness. The validity of the FITCO was established by very high congruence between the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion of incumbent COs while performing the ERC with the same measurements while COs were performing the on-the-job tasks on which the ERC was based. The content validity of the FITCO was confirmed by very high Likert ratings (>6 on a 7-point scale) by both male and female incumbent COs of all ages concerning the importance, relatedness, physical demands, and overall appropriateness of the FITCO for evaluating CO applicants. We conclude that because the forces built into the ERC and the FITCO standards were both derived from the performance of safe and efficient incumbent female COs of all ages, and both the validity and test-retest reliability (intraclass correllation coefficient = 0.977) of the FITCO are very high, the FITCO was properly constructed to meet the requirements of the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision.

  8. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  9. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  10. 77 FR 32645 - Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...] Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units AGENCY: Office of Inspector... Fraud Control Units (MFCU or Unit). These standards replace and supersede standards published on... Association of Medicaid Fraud Control Units (the Association), which submitted extensive comments on each of...

  11. 75 FR 31937 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... subject to Section 129 standards. In vacating the rule, the Court found that the definitions in the CISWI... = standard deviation. The summary statistics and analyses are presented in the docket and further described... Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 60 Standards of Performance for New Stationary...

  12. 75 FR 27708 - National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  13. 76 FR 55880 - National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... equitable treatment of these individuals. This notice lists the membership of the NIST PRB and supersedes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology; Performance Review Board Membership The National Institute of Standards and...

  14. 12 CFR 345.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the bank; (4) Institutional capacity and constraints, including the size and financial condition... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.21 Performance...

  15. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  16. 40 CFR 421.184 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 421.184 Section 421.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.184 Standards of performance for new sources. Any new...

  17. Use of performance standards in behavioral health carve-out contracts among Fortune 500 firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, E L; Garnick, D W; Horgan, C M; Goldin, D; Hodgkin, D; Sciegaj, M

    1999-06-25

    To determine the prevalence and nature of performance standards in specialty managed behavioral healthcare contracts among Fortune 500 companies. This was a cross-sectional survey of all companies listed on the Fortune 500 during 1994, 1995, or both. From April 1997 to May 1998 we conducted a mailed survey with phone follow-up. Of the 68% of firms that responded, over one third reported carve-out contracts. The survey focused on whether companies had behavioral health carve-out contracts with specialty vendors and characteristics of these contracts, including the use of performance standards. More than three quarters of the Fortune 500 companies reporting specialty behavioral healthcare contracts used at least one performance standard. Most common were administrative standards (70.2%) and customer service standards (69.4%). About half of the companies used quality standards, whereas only a third used provider-related standards. Most (58.8%) companies using performance standards also specified financial consequences. Larger Fortune 500 firms were significantly more likely to use performance standards. Risk contracts and contracts that included all covered employees were also more likely to include some categories of standards. Administrative and customer service standards may be most common because companies find it easier to specify those standards, especially compared with clinical quality measures. To the extent that employers want to obtain the most value from their behavioral healthcare purchasing, we expect that more will begin to adopt quality standards in their contracts, especially as performance measures become more refined. Reliance on accreditation, however, is an alternative approach for employers.

  18. Setting Performance Standards for Technical and Nontechnical Competence in General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Peter; Bonrath, Esther M; Louridas, Marisa; Fecso, Andras B; Howe, Brett; Fehr, Adam; Ott, Michael; Mack, Lloyd A; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) create a technical and nontechnical performance standard for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, (2) assess the classification accuracy and (3) credibility of these standards, (4) determine a trainees' ability to meet both standards concurrently, and (5) delineate factors that predict standard acquisition. Scores on performance assessments are difficult to interpret in the absence of established standards. Trained raters observed General Surgery residents performing laparoscopic cholecystectomies using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) and the Objective Structured Assessment of Non-Technical Skills (OSANTS) instruments, while as also providing a global competent/noncompetent decision for each performance. The global decision was used to divide the trainees into 2 contrasting groups and the OSATS or OSANTS scores were graphed per group to determine the performance standard. Parametric statistics were used to determine classification accuracy and concurrent standard acquisition, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to delineate predictive factors. Thirty-six trainees were observed 101 times. The technical standard was an OSATS of 21.04/35.00 and the nontechnical standard an OSANTS of 22.49/35.00. Applying these standards, competent/noncompetent trainees could be discriminated in 94% of technical and 95% of nontechnical performances (P technically and nontechnically competent trainees was identified (P analysis demonstrated case experience and trainee level were both able to predict achieving the standards with an area under the curve (AUC) between 0.83 and 0.96 (P technical and nontechnical performance. Such standards are imperative to implementing summative assessments into surgical training.

  19. [Monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma--standards and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapies has led to a novel situation regarding monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): patients treated with these new drugs have a significantly longer life expectancy than just a few years ago. In order to maximize the treatment benefit, new demands have come up on the assessment of tumor progression: timing and interpretation of imaging studies are crucial for optimal therapeutic management. Detailed knowledge of the new compounds' mode of action is important as it is different from that of classic cytotoxic drugs. The RECIST criteria constitute the standard for evaluation. Following recommendations made by the German Cancer Society's (DKG) interdisciplinary task force, targeted therapies should strive for a sufficient treatment duration in each line of therapy in order to achieve the best therapeutic outcome. Treatment is continued until clinical progression occurs. Assessing therapeutic efficacy with adequate imaging techniques 6-9 weeks after the beginning of therapy is recommended. Subsequent follow-up examinations should be repeated using identical imaging modalities every 2-3 months. For cyclically applied drugs such as Sunitinib, examinations should be carried out at identical time points within the treatment cycle. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The development of standard samples with a defined number of antigen-specific T cells to harmonize T cell assays: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Tummers, Bart; Schumacher, Ton N; Gomez, Raquel; Franken, Kees L M C; Verdegaal, Els M; Laske, Karoline; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ottensmeier, Christian; Welters, Marij J P; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2013-03-01

    The validation of assays that quantify antigen-specific T cell responses is critically dependent on cell samples that contain clearly defined measurable numbers of antigen-specific T cells. An important requirement is that such cell samples are handled and analyzed in a comparable fashion to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We performed a proof-of-principle study to show that retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked at defined numbers in autologous PBMC can be used as standard samples for HLA/peptide multimer staining. NY-ESO-1157-165-specific, TCR-transduced CD8+ T cell batches were successfully generated from PBMC of several HLA-A*0201 healthy donors, purified by magnetic cell sorting on the basis of HLA tetramer (TM) staining and expanded with specific antigen in vitro. When subsequently spiked into autologous PBMC, the detection of these CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells was highly accurate with a mean accuracy of 91.6 %. The standard cells can be preserved for a substantial period of time in liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, TM staining of fresh and cryopreserved standard samples diluted at decreasing concentrations into autologous cryopreserved unspiked PBMC revealed that the spiked CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells could be accurately detected at all dilutions in a linear fashion with a goodness-of-fit of over 0.99 at a frequency of at least 0.02 % among the CD3+CD8+ T cell population. Notably, the CD3+CD8+TM+ cells of the standard samples were located exactly within the gates used to analyze patient samples and displayed a similar scatter pattern. The performance of the cryopreserved standard samples in the hands of 5 external investigators was good with an inter-laboratory variation of 32.9 % and the doubtless identification of one outlier.

  1. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  2. First steps towards fuel cells testing harmonisation: Procedures and parameters for single cell performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Ubertini, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via di Torvergata, 110, Rome (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    The great interest in Fuel Cell Systems, combined with the innovation of the device itself, has led to a huge developmental effort to make the steps necessary for future FC plant commissioning. The clearest and most effective way to evaluate the performance of a fuel cell is to measure it directly and, since few fuel cell test rigs are available at the moment, standard experimental procedures have not been realized so far. Our research group is currently performing single cell testing at the University of Perugia fuel cell laboratory and particular emphasis has been put on the definition of procedures and the testing of parameterisation. The work team strongly believes that this is the key to effective system testing and reliable performance evaluation. In this work, the test parameterisation developed by the team, and the resulting advanced control procedure used for a single MCFC experimental characterization are presented. Efforts have been dedicated to obtain some relevant non-dimensional parameters to allow an easy understanding of the results and quick comparisons with other tests under different operating conditions, or with results obtained on different cells eventually tested in different laboratories. The authors strongly emphasise this topic to avoid the data that developers and research institutions collect being of no practical use due to a lack of shared rules. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10 -8 centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  4. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Anke; Gliwiński, Mateusz; Grageda, Nathali; Spiering, Rachel; Abbas, Abul K; Appel, Silke; Bacchetta, Rosa; Battaglia, Manuela; Berglund, David; Blazar, Bruce; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ten Brinke, Anja; Brusko, Todd M; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Geissler, Edward; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gołab, Karolina; Hafler, David A; van Ham, S Marieke; Hester, Joanna; Hippen, Keli; Di Ianni, Mauro; Ilic, Natasa; Isaacs, John; Issa, Fadi; Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Dorota; Jaeckel, Elmar; Joosten, Irma; Klatzmann, David; Koenen, Hans; van Kooten, Cees; Korsgren, Olle; Kretschmer, Karsten; Levings, Megan; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia Maria; Martinez-Llordella, Marc; Miljkovic, Djordje; Mills, Kingston H G; Miranda, Joana P; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Putnam, Amy L; Ritter, Thomas; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Sawitzki, Birgit; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Sykes, Megan; Tang, Qizhi; Vives-Pi, Marta; Waldmann, Herman; Witkowski, Piotr; Wood, Kathryn J; Gregori, Silvia; Hilkens, Catharien M U; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Phillip; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG). It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  5. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG. It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  6. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  7. Relationship Between Faculty and Standardized Patient Assessment Scores of Podiatric Medical Students During a Standardized Performance Assessment Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Anwar, Noreen; Hagenbucher, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    Direct assessment of health professional student performance of clinical skills can be accurately performed in the standardized performance assessment laboratory (SPAL), typically by health professional faculty. However, owing to time and economic considerations, nonmedical individuals have been specially trained to perform the same function (standardized patients [SPs]). This study compared the assessment scores of the history and physical examination components of a SPAL designed for second-year podiatric medical students at Des Moines University (DMU) by a podiatry medical faculty member and SPs. A total of 101 students from the classes of 2015 and 2016 were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 by 11 to 13 SPs from the DMU SPAL program. The video recordings of these 101 students were then evaluated by one faculty member from the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at DMU. The Pearson correlation coefficient for each class showed a strong linear relationship between SP and faculty assessment scores. The associations between SP and faculty assessment scores in the history, physical examination, and combined history and physical examination components for the 2016 class (0.706, 0.925, and 0.911, respectively) were found to be stronger than those for the 2015 class (0.697, 0.791, and 0.791, respectively). This study indicated that there are strong associations between the assessment scores of trained SPs and faculty for the history, physical examination, and combined history and physical examination components of second-year SPAL activity for podiatric medical students.

  8. The radiation performance standard. A presentation model for ionizing radiation in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaap, L.E.J.J.; Bosmans, G.; Van der Graaf, E.R.; Hendriks, Ch.F.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the so-called radiation performance standard (SPN, abbreviated in Dutch) the total radioactivity from building constructions which contributes to the indoor radiation dose can be calculated. The SPN is implemented with related boundary values and is part of the Building Decree ('Bouwbesluit') in the Netherlands. The model, presented in this book, forms the basis of a new Dutch radiation protection standard, to be published by the Dutch Institute for Standardization NEN (formerly NNI). 14 refs

  9. Developing Performance Cost Index Targets for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G – Performance Rating Method - Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method in ASHRAE Standard 90.1 has been updated to make two significant changes for the 2016 edition, to be published in October of 2016. First, it allows Appendix G to be used as a third path for compliance with the standard in addition to rating beyond code building performance. This prevents modelers from having to develop separate building models for code compliance and beyond code programs. Using this new version of Appendix G to show compliance with the 2016 edition of the standard, the proposed building design needs to have a performance cost index (PCI) less than targets shown in a new table based on building type and climate zone. The second change is that the baseline design is now fixed at a stable level of performance set approximately equal to the 2004 code. Rather than changing the stringency of the baseline with each subsequent edition of the standard, compliance with new editions will simply require a reduced PCI (a PCI of zero is a net-zero building). Using this approach, buildings of any era can be rated using the same method. The intent is that any building energy code or beyond code program can use this methodology and merely set the appropriate PCI target for their needs. This report discusses the process used to set performance criteria for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 and suggests a method for demonstrating compliance with other codes and beyond code programs.

  10. Developing Performance Cost Index Targets for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G – Performance Rating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method in ASHRAE Standard 90.1 has been updated to make two significant changes for the 2016 edition, to be published in October of 2016. First, it allows Appendix G to be used as a third path for compliance with the standard in addition to rating beyond code building performance. This prevents modelers from having to develop separate building models for code compliance and beyond code programs. Using this new version of Appendix G to show compliance with the 2016 edition of the standard, the proposed building design needs to have a performance cost index (PCI) less than targets shown in a new table based on building type and climate zone. The second change is that the baseline design is now fixed at a stable level of performance set approximately equal to the 2004 code. Rather than changing the stringency of the baseline with each subsequent edition of the standard, compliance with new editions will simply require a reduced PCI (a PCI of zero is a net-zero building). Using this approach, buildings of any era can be rated using the same method. The intent is that any building energy code or beyond code program can use this methodology and merely set the appropriate PCI target for their needs. This report discusses the process used to set performance criteria for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 and suggests a method for demonstrating compliance with other codes and beyond code programs.

  11. Designing media for animal cell culture: CHO cells, the industrial standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or naturally sourced components. The compositions are based on scientific awareness of the needs of the cells. The result is high lot-to-lot consistency and high performance.In this book section, a method for the development of a synthetic, animal component-free medium is described. The composition is based on public available formulations and information based on the work of many scientists printed in numerous papers and manuscripts. The method shall help beginners to design their own medium, although some knowledge of biochemistry and animal cells is still required.

  12. 40 CFR 406.25 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.25 Section 406.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.25...

  13. 40 CFR 406.15 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.15 Section 406.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.15...

  14. 76 FR 62074 - Proposed Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...] Proposed Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units AGENCY: Office of... Control Units (MFCUs or Units). This proposal would replace and supersede standards published on September..., including 42 CFR Sec. 455.21, ``Cooperation with State Medicaid fraud control units,'' and 42 CFR 455.23...

  15. 40 CFR 421.94 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall achieve the following new source performance standards: Subpart I—Metallurgical Acid Plant...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid... per/million pounds) of 100 pct sulfuric acid capacity Arsenic 3.550 1.584 Cadmium 0.511 0.204 Copper 3...

  16. 40 CFR 405.95 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 405.95 Section 405.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk...

  17. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available of the Australian PBS system while the infrastructure performance standards are based on South African bridge and pavement design standards. In order to optimise road wear per ton of payload, the South African Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method, which is the basis...

  18. 40 CFR 428.65 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards of performance for new sources. 428.65 Section 428.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded...

  19. Performance Analysis of a Utility Helicopter with Standard and Advanced Rotors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Bousman, William G; Johnson, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Flight test measurements of the performance of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with both standard and advanced rotors are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II...

  20. Best practices in selecting performance measures and standards for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This report assesses and provides guidance on best practices in performance measurement, management and standards : setting for effective Transportation Asset Management (TAM). The study is conducted through a literature review, a : survey of the 50...

  1. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  2. Solid oxide electrolysis cells - Performance and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauch, A.

    2007-10-15

    In this work H2 electrode supported solid oxide cells (SOC) produced at Risoe National Laboratory, DTU, have been used for steam electrolysis. Electrolysis tests have been performed at temperatures from 650AeC to 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) from 0.99/0.01 to 0.30/0.70 and current densities from -0.25 A/cm2 to -2 A/cm2. The solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) have been characterised by iV curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at start and end of tests and by EIS under current load during electrolysis testing. The tested SOCs have shown the best initial electrolysis performance reported in literature to date. Area specific resistances of 0.26 Oecm2 at 850AeC and 0.17 Oecm2 at 950AeC were obtained from electrolysis iV curves. The general trend for the SOEC tests was: 1) a short-term passivation in first few hundred hours, 2) then an activation and 3) a subsequent and underlying long-term degradation. The transient phenomenon (passivation/activation) was shown to be a set-up dependent artefact caused by the albite glass sealing with a p(Si(OH)4) of 1.10-7 atm, leading to silica contamination of the triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) of the electrode. The long-term degradation for the SOECs was more pronounced than for fuel cell testing of similar cells. Long-term degradation of 2%/1000 h was obtained at 850AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.5/0.5 and -0.5 A/cm2, whereas the degradation rate increased to 6%/1000h at 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.9/0.1 and -1.0 A/cm2. Both the short-term passivation and the long-term degradation appear mainly to be related to processes in the H2 electrode. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs show that only limited changes occur in the Ni particle size distribution and these are not the main degradation mechanism for the SOECs. Micro and nano analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM reveals that glassy phase impurities have accumulated at the TPBs as a result of

  3. Variations of cell performance in ITO-free organic solar cells with increasing cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Junkyung; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a cell area on the cell performances in ITO-free organic solar cells (OSCs) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C 61 (PCBM). Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films with two different sheet resistances (R sh ) were used as polymeric transparent anodes for cost-effective ITO-free OSCs. Changes in the power conversion efficiency (PCE), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current (J sc ), and the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) that resulted from changing the cell area or sheet resistance of transparent electrodes were systematically investigated. With increasing cell area from 4.5 to 49.5 mm 2 , the device performance of ITO-free OSCs was continuously decreased mainly due to the decrease in the FF and the series resistance (R s ). In addition, the performance of OSCs was critically dependent on R sh of the PEDOT:PSS electrode. Upon reducing R sh of the polymer anode from ∼200 to ∼90 Ω/□, the FF and PCE showed better values at an identical large cell area and exhibited a relieved cell performance degradation with increasing cell area, suggesting that the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes is a dominant factor to limit cell efficiencies in practical large-area solar cells

  4. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  5. Standard-Cell, Open-Architecture Power Conversion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boroyevich, D; Wang, F; Lee, F. C; Odendaal, W. G; Edwards, S

    2005-01-01

    ...). This project was purposefully aimed to develop a standardized hierarchical design and analysis methodology for modular power electronics conversion systems using as basis the ISO/OSI seven-layer reference model...

  6. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  7. Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

  8. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.

  9. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  10. High Performance InGaAsSb TPV Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZA Shellengarger; GC Taylor; RU Martinelli; JM Carpinelli

    2004-06-09

    Lattice-matched 0.52 eV InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are grown using a multi-wafer metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) system. MOCVD growth series of P/N junction epitaxial structures consisting of as many as 30 wafers demonstrate good run-to-run reproducibility, good uniformity across the wafer and exhibit high performance with open circuit voltages of {approx}300mV and fill factors of 70% at 25 C. Growth parameters, including temperature, surface preparation and substrate orientation, that directly affect growth have been optimized for the active 0.52 eV InGaAsSb region and GaSb confinement layers. Focus is on increasing TPV diode performance through architectural improvements, specifically by reducing the minority carrier recombination velocity at the emitter and base front and back interfaces. Work in support of incorporating a back surface reflector (BSR) including the growth of N/P diode architectures and the addition of a lattice-matched InAsSb etch stop layer for substrate removal and wafer bonding, is reported. The lattice matched InAsSb stop etch exhibits resiliency to the substrate removal and wafer bonding processes. Substantial improvement in carrier lifetime on test structures with P-type AlGaAsSb layers indicated incorporation of these layers into the TPV cell structure should provide significant improvement in open-circuit voltage. Addition of AlGaAsSb confinement layers to the standard P/N cell structure gave some of the best InGaAsSb TPV cell results to date.

  11. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eley, Charles [Eley and Associates, Hobe Sound, FL (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  12. Comparison of exertion required to perform standard and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, J J; Mianulli, M J; Gisch, T M; Coffeen, P R; Haidet, G C; Lurie, K G

    1995-02-01

    Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizes a hand-held suction device with a pressure gauge that enables the operator to compress as well as actively decompress the chest. This new CPR method improves hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters when compared with standard CPR. ACD-CPR is easy to perform but may be more labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the work required to perform ACD and standard CPR. Cardiopulmonary testing was performed on six basic cardiac life support- and ACD-trained St. Paul, MN fire-fighter personnel during performance of 10 min each of ACD and standard CPR on a mannequin equipped with a compression gauge. The order of CPR techniques was determined randomly with > 1 h between each study. Each CPR method was performed at 80 compressions/min (timed with a metronome), to a depth of 1.5-2 inches, and with a 50% duty cycle. Baseline cardiopulmonary measurements were similar at rest prior to performance of both CPR methods. During standard and ACD-CPR, respectively, rate-pressure product was 18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 23.8 +/- 1.7 (x 1000, P CPR compared with standard CPR. Both methods require subanaerobic energy expenditure and can therefore be sustained for a sufficient length of time by most individuals to optimize resuscitation efforts. Due to the slightly higher work requirement, ACD-CPR may be more difficult to perform compared with standard CPR for long periods of time, particularly by individuals unaccustomed to the workload requirement of CPR, in general.

  13. An Assessment of Long-Term Compliance with Performance Standards in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bosch, Kyle; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-04-01

    Under the US Clean Water Act, wetland restoration is used to compensate for adverse impacts to wetlands. Following construction, compensation wetlands are monitored for approximately 5 years to determine if they comply with project-specific performance standards. Once a compensation site complies with performance standards, it is assumed that the site will continue to meet standards indefinitely. However, there have been few assessments of long-term compliance. We surveyed, in 2012, 30 compensation sites 8-20 years after restoration to determine whether projects continued to meet performance standards. Additionally, we compared floristic quality of compensation sites to the quality of adjacent natural wetlands to determine whether wetland condition in compensation sites could be predicted based on the condition of nearby wetlands. Compensation sites met, on average, 65% of standards during the final year of monitoring and 53% of standards in 2012, a significant decrease in compliance. Although forested wetlands often failed to meet standards for planted tree survival, the temporal decrease in compliance was driven by increasing dominance by invasive plants in emergent wetlands. The presumption of continued compliance with performance standards after a 5-year monitoring period was not supported. Wetlands restored near better quality natural wetlands achieved and maintained greater floristic quality, suggesting that landscape context was an important determinant of long-term restoration outcomes. Based on our findings, we recommend that compensation wetlands should be monitored for longer time periods, and we suggest that nearby or adjacent natural wetlands provide good examples of reasonably achievable restoration outcomes in a particular landscape.

  14. Standard Practice for Generating All-Day Thermal Performance Data for Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a means of generating all-day thermal performance data for flat-plate collectors, concentrating collectors, and tracking collectors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in the parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics - 30 years of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George D.; Gonczy, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties/performance of brittle bodies (e.g., advanced ceramics and glasses) can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. For three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed numerous full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure various properties and performance of a monolithic and composite ceramics and coatings that, in some cases, may be applicable to glasses. These standards give the "what, how, how not, why, why not, etc." for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of advanced ceramics. Use of these standards provides accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Involvement in ASTM Committee C28 has included users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. who write, continually update, and validate through round robin test programmes, more than 45 standards in the 30 years since the Committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the ASTM Committee C28 standards and how to obtain them either as i) individual copies with full details or ii) a complete collection in one volume. A listing of other ASTM committees of interest is included. In addition, some examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics are employed to demonstrate their practical application.

  16. A standard photomap of ovarian nurse cell chromosomes and inversion polymorphism in Anopheles beklemishevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Gleb N; Gordeev, Mikhail I; Kokhanenko, Alina A; Moskaev, Anton V; Velichevskaya, Alena I; Stegniy, Vladimir N; Sharakhov, Igor V; Sharakhova, Maria V

    2018-03-27

    Anopheles beklemishevi is a member of the Maculipennis group of malaria mosquitoes that has the most northern distribution among other members of the group. Although a cytogenetic map for the larval salivary gland chromosomes of this species has been developed, a high-quality standard cytogenetic photomap that enables genomics and population genetics studies of this mosquito at the adult stage is still lacking. In this study, a cytogenetic map for the polytene chromosomes of An. beklemishevi from ovarian nurse cells was developed using high-resolution digital imaging from field collected mosquitoes. PCR-amplified DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed based on the genome of An. atroparvus. The DNA probe obtained by microdissection procedures from the breakpoint region was labelled in a DOP-PCR reaction. Population analysis was performed on 371 specimens collected in 18 locations. We report the development of a high-quality standard photomap for the polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of An. beklemishevi. To confirm the suitability of the map for physical mapping, several PCR-amplified probes were mapped to the chromosomes of An. beklemishevi using FISH. In addition, we identified and mapped DNA probes to flanking regions of the breakpoints of two inversions on chromosome X of this species. Inversion polymorphism was determined in 13 geographically distant populations of An. beklemishevi. Four polymorphic inversions were detected. The positions of common chromosomal inversions were indicated on the map. The study constructed a standard photomap for ovarian nurse cell chromosomes of An. beklemishevi and tested its suitability for physical genome mapping and population studies. Cytogenetic analysis determined inversion polymorphism in natural populations of An. beklemishevi related to this species' adaptation.

  17. Creatinine Assay Attainment of Analytical Performance Goals Following Implementation of IDMS Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sunmin Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international initiative to standardize creatinine (Cr assays by tracing reference materials to Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS assigned values was implemented to reduce interlaboratory variability and improve assay accuracy. Objective: The aims of this study were to examine whether IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy (bias, interlaboratory variability (precision, total error (TE, and attainment of recommended analytical performance goals. Methods: External Quality Assessment (EQA data (n = 66 challenge vials from Ontario, Canada, were analyzed. The bias, precision, TE, and the number of EQA challenge vials meeting performance goals were determined by assay manufacturer before (n = 32 and after (n = 34 IDMS implementation. Results: The challenge vials with the worst bias and precision were spiked with known common interfering substances (glucose and bilirubin. IDMS standardization improved assay bias (10.4%-1.6%, P < .001, but precision remained unchanged (5.0%-4.7%, P = .5 with performance goals not consistently being met. Precision and TE goals based on biologic variation were attained by only 29% to 69% and 32% to 62% of challenge vials. Conclusions: While IDMS standardization has improved Cr assay accuracy and thus reduced TE, significant interlaboratory variability remains. Contemporary Cr assays do not currently meet the standards required to allow for accurate and consistent estimated glomerular filtration rate assessment and chronic kidney disease diagnosis across laboratories. Further improvements in Cr assay performance are needed.

  18. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  19. A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith

    1989-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.

  20. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  1. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  2. Performance Measurement Implementation Of Minimum Service Standards For Basic Education Based On The Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Rusli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Policies Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education has rolled out since 2002 by the minister in accordance with the Decree No. 129a U 2004 About Minimum Service Standards Education is continually updated and lastly Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 23 of 2013. All of the district government town should achieve the target of achieving 100 per cent in each of the indicators listed in the minimum service standards for the end of 2014. achievement pad on each indicator is just one measure of the performance of the local government department of education. Unfortunately from the announced target for 27 indicators that exist almost all regions including local governments do not reach Tangerang Regency. It is necessary for measuring the performance of local authorities particularly the education department. One performance measure modern enough that measurements can be done that The Balance Scorecard BSc. In the Balanced Scorecard is a management tool contemporare complete measure company performance not only of the financial perspective but also non-financial performance such as Customer Perspective Internal Business Processes and Learning and Growth. This approach is actually ideally suited for multinational companies because this approach requires very expensive but can be used to measure the profit performance of the company in addition to the combination of a long-term strategic and short-strategic. Balanced Scorecard it can also be done in measuring the performance of public sector services as well by modifying a few things so it can be used to measure the performance of the public sector including the Performance Measurement Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education.

  3. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  4. IR-drop analysis for validating power grids and standard cell architectures in sub-10nm node designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yongchan; Wang, Chenchen; Zeng, Jia; Kye, Jongwook

    2017-03-01

    Since chip performance and power are highly dependent on the operating voltage, the robust power distribution network (PDN) is of utmost importance in designs to provide with the reliable voltage without voltage (IR)-drop. However, rapid increase of parasitic resistance and capacitance (RC) in interconnects makes IR-drop much worse with technology scaling. This paper shows various IR-drop analyses in sub 10nm designs. The major objectives are to validate standard cell architectures, where different sizes of power/ground and metal tracks are validated, and to validate PDN architecture, where types of power hook-up approaches are evaluated with IR-drop calculation. To estimate IR-drops in 10nm and below technologies, we first prepare physically routed designs given standard cell libraries, where we use open RISC RTL, synthesize the CPU, and apply placement & routing with process-design kits (PDK). Then, static and dynamic IR-drop flows are set up with commercial tools. Using the IR-drop flow, we compare standard cell architectures, and analysis impacts on performance, power, and area (PPA) with the previous technology-node designs. With this IR-drop flow, we can optimize the best PDN structure against IR-drops as well as types of standard cell library.

  5. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Andreas; Seltmann, Stefanie; Bairoch, Amos; Bittner, Marie-Sophie; Bruce, Kevin; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Clarke, Laura; Crook, Jeremy M; Daheron, Laurence; Dewender, Johannes; Faulconbridge, Adam; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Gutteridge, Alexander; Hei, Derek J; Kim, Yong-Ou; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kokocinski, Anja Kolb-; Lekschas, Fritz; Lomax, Geoffrey P; Loring, Jeanne F; Ludwig, Tenneille; Mah, Nancy; Matsui, Tohru; Müller, Robert; Parkinson, Helen; Sheldon, Michael; Smith, Kelly; Stachelscheid, Harald; Stacey, Glyn; Streeter, Ian; Veiga, Anna; Xu, Ren-He

    2018-01-09

    Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg). To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurtz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg. To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines.

  7. Evaluation of a draft standard on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation: results for environmental tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Mashburn, K.R.; Selby, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Draft ANSI Standard N42.17 on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation is currently being evaluated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Evaluation is performed by testing a cross-section of currently available instruments with testing procedures based on specifications of the standard and then determining the degree of conformance to the various elements of the proposed standard. Data will be presented on the performance of a cross-section of beta-gamma survey instruments under various environmental tests. Test results that will be presented include temperature effects, humidity effects, radio frequency (r.f.) susceptibility, ambient pressure effects, vibration effects, and shock effects. Tests performed to date show that most instruments will meet the temperature, humidity, and ambient pressure tests. A large variability is noted among instruments from the same or different vendors. Preliminary r.f. susceptibility tests have shown large artificial responses at some frequencies for specific instruments. The presentation will also include a discussion of procedures used in the testing and weaknesses identified in the proposed standard

  8. Innovations in Setting Performance Standards for K-12 Test-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Kristen; Plake, Barbara S.

    2010-01-01

    Standard setting is a systematic process that uses a combination of judgmental and empirical procedures to make recommendations about where on the score continuum "cut scores" should be placed. Cut scores divide the score scale into categories consistent with the descriptions of student performance associated with multiple levels of achievement.…

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-4 - Insulation system and performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specification— (1) Standard Heat Transfer Rate (SHTR), expressed in Btu/day/lb of water capacity, means the rate of heat transfer used for determining the satisfactory performance of the insulation system of a cryogenic tank car tank in cryogenic liquid service (see § 179.401-1 table). (2) Test cryogenic liquid means...

  10. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken and turkey slaughter... Collection Programs: The Young Chicken Survey and the Young Turkey Survey. The Agency invites comments on the...

  11. 40 CFR 421.314 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart shall achieve the following new source performance standards: (a) Tungsten detergent wash... times. (e) Tungsten carbide leaching wet air pollution control. NSPS for the Secondary Tungsten and...) Tungsten carbide wash water. NSPS for the Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  12. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired... 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150 Fossil...

  13. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  14. 75 FR 63259 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ..., causes the release of a wide array of air pollutants, some of which exist in the waste feed material and... solid waste incineration units. In previous actions, EPA has promulgated new source performance standards and emission guidelines for large municipal waste combustion units, small municipal waste...

  15. Ergonomics, user comfort, and performance in standard and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, R. H. van der Schatte; van't Hullenaar, C. D. P.; Ruurda, J. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.

    Robot-assisted surgical systems have been introduced to improve the outcome of minimally invasive surgery. These systems also have the potential to improve ergonomics for the surgeon during endoscopic surgery. This study aimed to compare the user's mental and physical comfort in performing standard

  16. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  17. Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…

  18. 40 CFR 421.154 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achieve the following new source performance standards: (a) Solvent extraction raffinate from bertrandite... times. (b) Solvent extraction raffinate from beryl ore. NSPS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory... ore as beryllium Beryllium 1,842.000 831.000 Chromium (total) 831.000 336.900 Copper 2,875.000 1,370...

  19. A pro-forma design for car-carriers: Low-speed performance-based standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade R, Berman R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian performance-based standards (PBS) scheme is being evaluated in South Africa as an alternative means of regulating heavy vehicles, allowing for a relaxation of length and mass limits. This has proven to provide economic benefits while...

  20. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following model I/M program inputs and local characteristics, such as vehicle mix and local fuel controls... current version of the EPA mobile source emission model, and shall meet the minimum performance standard... specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart W. (8) Emission control device inspections. None. (9) Stringency. A 20...

  1. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903...

  2. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...

  3. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...

  4. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...

  5. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937...

  6. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...

  7. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...

  8. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...

  9. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910...

  10. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912...

  11. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...

  12. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...

  13. Special Education Professional Standards: How Important Are They in the Context of Teacher Performance Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation represents a high stakes issue as evidenced by its pivotal emphasis in national and local education reform initiatives and federal policy levers. National, state, and local education leaders continue to experience unprecedented pressure to adopt standardized benchmarks to reflect and link student achievement data to…

  14. Standard guide for general design considerations for hot cell equipment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide general design and operating considerations for the safe and dependable operation of remotely operated hot cell equipment. Hot cell equipment is hardware used to handle, process, or analyze nuclear or radioactive material in a shielded room. The equipment is placed behind radiation shield walls and cannot be directly accessed by the operators or by maintenance personnel because of the radiation exposure hazards. Therefore, the equipment is operated remotely, either with or without the aid of viewing. 1.1.2 This guide may apply to equipment in other radioactive remotely operated facilities such as suited entry repair areas, canyons or caves, but does not apply to equipment used in commercial power reactors. 1.1.3 This guide does not apply to equipment used in gloveboxes. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for persons who are tasked with the planning, design, procurement, fabrication, installation, or testing of equipment used in rem...

  15. Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futscher, Moritz H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2017-09-08

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit. We show quantitatively that when optimizing these parameters in the perovskite top cell, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells could reach efficiencies above 38% under realistic conditions, even while leaving the Si cell untouched. Despite the rapid efficiency increase of perovskite solar cells, our results emphasize the need for further material development, careful device design, and light management strategies, all necessary for highly efficient perovskite/Si tandem solar cells.

  16. Performance test for implantation of a primary standard of low energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Bossio, Francisco; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of a standard laboratory of calibration chambers that will serve to radiotherapy activities, radiodiagnosis and radioprotection, depends on the knowledge of physical and dosimetric parameters that characterize the quality of the radiation beam. With the aim of verifying the reliability of the ionizing free-air chamber with variable volume manufactured by Victoreen Instruments, model 481, as a primary standard, a study of the performance of the chamber to x-rays qualities of low energy was developed in this work. These qualities are the ones recommended by 'Bureau International des Poids et Mesures' - BIPM, for daily routine of the calibration service performed by the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI/IRD, for calibration of this secondary standard chambers that serve to the control in hospitals, clinics and industries. The results obtained at the present work show that the Victoreen chamber model 481 behaves as a primary standard, being easy to handle and having simple mechanical construction, and showing an expanded uncertainty equal to 0,26%, regarding the quality of the radiation beam of 30 kV. However, some of the equipment used at the present study need to be submitted to a strict routine calibration, in order for the laboratory to be in accordance with the recommendations of the standard ABNT -NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (2003). (author)

  17. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harnett, P J

    2009-06-01

    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  18. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  19. The Influence of Adaptation and Standardization of the Marketing Mix on Performance: a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Andrade Brei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between strategies of standardization and adaptation of the marketing mix and performance in an international context. We carried out a meta-analysis on a sample of 23 studies published between 1992 and 2010. The sample was analyzed based on measures of the effect size (ES – or the strength of the relation (Wolf, 1986 – between standardization/adaptation and performance. The results suggest the existence of a medium strength (ES ranging from .133 to .209 for the relationship considered. The results support the existence of a positive impact of both marketing mix adaptation and standardization on performance. However, our results suggest that companies should slightly emphasize the marketing mix adaptation (ES mean = .168 instead of standardizing it (ES mean = .134 when entering in a new international market. Results also indicate that, among the adaptation choices, price (ES = .209 should be the first element of the marketing mix to be adapted, followed by promotion (ES = .155, product (ES = .154, and distribution (ES = .141. Finally, we suggest some new research paths, such as the use of quantitative methods to compare degrees of adaptation to be applied to different segments, regions, and sectors, among other suggestions.

  20. Proposed performance standards for the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order certification training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B F; Field, W E; Tormoehlen, R

    2007-07-01

    The performance standards that accompany Gearing Up for Safety, the agricultural production safety training curriculum for youth, were designed to meet the certification testing requirements of the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order (AgHOs) certification training program. The AgHOs requires that certain youth who are older than 13 and younger than 16 years of age complete a prescribed training program before being eligible for employment on farms to perform certain tasks considered hazardous. These training resources will be available for implementation and can be accessed by contacting the second author. To our knowledge, up until this time, few, if any, standardized testing procedures or instruments have had the necessary psychometric evidence to support use of the resulting scores to assess the readiness of youth to meet the basic certification requirements contained in the AgHOs. This article describes the rationale, methods, and key findings from a standard-setting session held to establish minimum passing scores for a proposed testing process. The test will be used as a component of the Gearing Up for Safety certification process for youth workers seeking employment to perform job functions as specified under the AgHOs. Readers may be able to apply this standardized testing process, or similarly accepted processes, to other or future testing and certification projects involving agricultural safety and health.

  1. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  2. A Framework for Improving Project Performance of Standard Design Models in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbab Al-Otaib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving project performance in the construction industry poses several challenges for stakeholders. Recently, there have been frequent calls for the importance of adopting standardisation in improving construction design as well as the process and a focus on learning mapping from other industries. The Saudi Ministry of Interior (SMoI has adopted a new Standard Design Model (SDM approach for the development of its construction programme to effectively manage its complex project portfolio and improve project performance. A review of existing literature indicates that despite the adoption of SDM repetitive projects, which enable learning from past mistakes and improving the performance of future projects, it has been realised that there is a lack of learning instruments to capture, store and disseminate Lessons Learnt (LL. This research proposes a framework for improving the project performance of SDMs in the Saudi construction industry. Eight case studies related to a typical standard design project were performed that included interviews with of 24 key stakeholders who are involved in the planning and implementation of SDM projects within the SMoI. The research identified 14 critical success factors CSFs have a direct impact on the SDM project performance. These are classified into three main CSF-related clusters: adaptability to the context; contract management; and construction management. A framework, which comprises the identified 14 CSFs, was developed, refined and validated through a workshop with 12 key stakeholders in the SMoI construction programme. Additionally, a framework implementation process map was developed. Web-based tools and KM were identified as core factors in the framework implementation strategy. Although many past CSF-related studies were conducted to develop a range of construction project performance improvement frameworks, the paper provides the first initiative to develop a framework to improve the performance of

  3. Science and art of setting performance standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-12-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be obtained and regularly updated, it has several limitations-namely, time dependency, population dependence, discouraging low-level performers, and favoring advantaged or punishing disadvantaged individuals. Fortunately, these limitations can be significantly eliminated by employing the CR evaluation, which was introduced to kinesiology by Safrit and colleagues in the 1980s and has been successfully applied to some practical problems (e.g., set health-related fitness standards for FITNESSGRAM). Yet, the CR evaluation has its own challenges, e.g., selecting an appropriate measure for a criterion behavior, when the expected relationship between the criterion behavior and a predictive measure is not clear, and when standards are not consistent among multiple field measures. Some of these challenges can be addressed by employing the latest statistical methods (e.g., test equating). This article provides a comprehensive review of the science and art of setting standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology. After a brief historical overview of the standard-setting practice in kinesiology is presented, a case analysis of a successful CR evaluation, along with related challenges, is described. Lessons learned from past and current practice as well as how to develop a defendable standard are described. Finally, future research needs and directions are outlined.

  4. Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in sports nutrition and dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmuller, Patricia L; Kruskall, Laura J; Karpinski, Christine A; Manore, Melinda M; Macedonio, Michele A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2014-04-01

    Sports nutrition and dietetics addresses relationships of nutrition with physical activity, including weight management, exercise, and physical performance. Nutrition plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and for maintenance of health, and the ability to engage in physical activity, sports, and other aspects of physical performance. Thus, the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as a resource for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. The revised document reflects advances in sports nutrition and dietetics practice since the original standards were published in 2009 and replaces those standards. The Standards of Practice represents the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standards can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in sports nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 76 FR 53371 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., public hearing will be held at the Arlington Municipal Building in the City Council Chambers located at..., Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Sector Policies and Programs Division (E143-03), Research...), proposed rule should be addressed to Bruce Moore, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Sector...

  7. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  8. Application of standardization tools to improve the performance of executive authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nikolaevna Ivanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of improving the quality of public services through the development of standardization. The establishment of standards not only for performance, but also for processes, including management processes, is a characteristic feature of modern standardization. And management quality is very important for sustainable development of the region, country, and also for the quality of life. At present, it is necessary to create a modern system of public administration, working for the citizens and in the interests of the citizens. In order to enhance the quality of government institutions’ performance, several countries use the systems based on national and international standards, as well as on the models of national quality awards. The experience in the use of such systems has shown that a necessary condition for improving the performance quality of executive authorities consists in introduction of modern methods of quality management, including quality management systems. Nowadays Russia has established the Technical Committee 115 “Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units” (ATU, headed by Academician V.V. Okrepilov, Director General of the FBI “Test-St. Petersburg”. The task of the TC 115 is to develop criteria for assessing the activity of ATU management bodies and to create systems for ATO management. Technical Committee 115 “mirrors” the international TC 268 “Sustainable development in communities”. Currently TC are working to create national standards, clarify terminology, establish a common conceptual framework, develop a system of performance indicators for management bodies, and methodologies for implementation of quality management techniques in them. The discussion of the draft national standard “Quality management systems – guidance on the application of ISO 900162008 in the executive power bodies” is in the final phase. The standard takes into account the specifics of

  9. Simpler standards for local performance examinations: the Yes/No Angoff and whole-test Ebel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkowsky, Rachel; Downing, Steven M; Wirth, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The whole-test Ebel and Yes/No Angoff methods offer the possibility of faster and easier standard-setting exercises for local, medium-stakes performance exams. We sought to establish if these less demanding methods might be substituted for the traditional but complex case-level Ebel. Six faculty judges each used all three methods to set standards for six standardized-patient checklists used for 178 fourth-year medical students. We compared the cut scores, passing rates, reliability, ease of use, and credibility of the three methods. The three methods produced roughly equivalent cut scores. Generalizability of judgments was .94 and .96 for the case-level and whole-test Ebel, and .76 for the Yes/No Angoff. Judges found the simplified methods more credible than the case-level Ebel. The Yes/No Angoff method was preferred by five of six judges. The whole-test Ebel and the Yes/No Angoff may be simple and realistic options for setting standards for local performance exams.

  10. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 (Standard 90.1-2010).The PRM is used for rating the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM. It should be noted that this document is created independently from ASHRAE and SSPC 90.1 and is not sanctioned nor approved by either of those entities . Potential users of this manual include energy modelers, software developers and implementers of “beyond code” energy programs. Energy modelers using ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for beyond code programs can use this document as a reference manual for interpreting requirements of the Performance Rating method. Software developers, developing tools for automated creation of the baseline model can use this reference manual as a guideline for developing the rules for the baseline model.

  11. A reliable parameter to standardize the scoring of stem cell spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhou

    Full Text Available Sphere formation assay is widely used in selection and enrichment of normal stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs, based on their ability to grow in serum-free suspension culture for clonal proliferation. However, there is no standardized parameter to accurately score the spheres, which should be reflected by both the number and size of the spheres. Here we define a novel parameter, designated as Standardized Sphere Score (SSS, which is expressed by the total volume of selected spheres divided by the number of cells initially plated. SSS was validated in quantification of both tumor spheres from cancer cell lines and embryonic bodies (EB from mouse embryonic stem cells with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  12. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Method For Determination And Standardization Of Performance Parameters For Aircrafts With Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakielaszek Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the technique for flight tests carried out for a plane powered by an electric drive and the method for standardization of performance parameters applicable to evaluation of test results. Due to the relatively new type of drive, which is an electric motor, the literature references provide no descriptions of such issues. Therefore the solutions presented in the paper are the own contribution of the research team from Air Force Institute of Technology (ITWL.

  14. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  15. Does Lean Improve Labor Standards? Management and Social Performance in the Nike Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Distelhorst, Greg; Hainmueller, Jens; Locke, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that lean manufacturing improves the social performance of manufacturers in emerging markets. We analyze an intervention by Nike Inc. to promote the adoption of lean manufacturing in its apparel supply chain across eleven developing countries. Using difference-in-differences estimates from a panel of over three hundred factories, we find that lean adoption was associated with a 15 percentage point reduction in noncompliance with labor standards t...

  16. 40 CFR 421.134 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achieve the following new source performance standards: (a) Subpart M—Battery Cracking. NSPS Pollutant or...) .000 .000 Total suspended solids 10.100 8.076 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times... Ammonia (as N) 0.000 0.000 Total suspended solids 39.150 31.320 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10...

  17. 40 CFR 421.204 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achieve the following new source performance standards: (a) Spent battery electrolyte. NSPS for the... average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of mercury produced from batteries Lead 0.030 0.014 Mercury 0.016 0.006 Total suspended solids 1.590 1.272 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times...

  18. Performance of three pencil-type ionization chambers (10 cm) in computed tomography standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maysa C. de; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) has increased over the years, thus generating a concern about the doses received by patients undergoing this procedure. Therefore, it is necessary to perform routinely beam dosimetry with the use of a pencil-type ionization chamber. This detector is the most utilized in the procedures of quality control tests on this kind of equipment. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests in standard CT beams, as the saturation curve, polarity effect, ion collection efficiency and linearity of response, using three ionization chambers, one commercial and two developed at the IPEN. (author)

  19. Chapter 9: options for summarizing medical test performance in the absence of a "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikalinos, Thomas A; Balion, Cynthia M

    2012-06-01

    The classical paradigm for evaluating test performance compares the results of an index test with a reference test. When the reference test does not mirror the "truth" adequately well (e.g. is an "imperfect" reference standard), the typical ("naïve") estimates of sensitivity and specificity are biased. One has at least four options when performing a systematic review of test performance when the reference standard is "imperfect": (a) to forgo the classical paradigm and assess the index test's ability to predict patient relevant outcomes instead of test accuracy (i.e., treat the index test as a predictive instrument); (b) to assess whether the results of the two tests (index and reference) agree or disagree (i.e., treat them as two alternative measurement methods); (c) to calculate "naïve" estimates of the index test's sensitivity and specificity from each study included in the review and discuss in which direction they are biased; (d) mathematically adjust the "naïve" estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the index test to account for the imperfect reference standard. We discuss these options and illustrate some of them through examples.

  20. Ergonomics, user comfort, and performance in standard and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schatte Olivier, R H; Van't Hullenaar, C D P; Ruurda, J P; Broeders, I A M J

    2009-06-01

    Robot-assisted surgical systems have been introduced to improve the outcome of minimally invasive surgery. These systems also have the potential to improve ergonomics for the surgeon during endoscopic surgery. This study aimed to compare the user's mental and physical comfort in performing standard laparoscopic and robot-assisted techniques. Surgical performance also was analyzed. In this study, 16 surgically inexperienced participants performed three tasks using both a robotic system and standard laparoscopic instrumentation. Distress was measured using questionnaires and an ambulatory monitoring system. Surgical performance was analyzed with time-action analysis. The physiologic parameters (p = 0.000), the questionnaires (p = 0.000), and the time-action analysis (p = 0.001) favored the robot-assisted group in terms of lower stress load and an increase in work efficiency. In this experimental setup, the use of a robot-assisted surgical system was of value in both cognitive and physical stress reduction. Robotic assistance also demonstrated improvement in performance.

  1. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  2. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo......The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...... voltammetry at slow scan rates were similar. The charge factor remained close to unity. These results show the fact that satisfactory cell performance can be achieved with thin electrode films and cycling at slow scan rates....

  3. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  4. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  5. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Summary of Requirements for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 2011 document summarizes the various requirements of the sewage sludge incinerators (SSI) new source performance standards (NSPS) and emission guidelines (EG), broken down into compliance categories.

  7. Standard compliance - NDE performance demonstration/inspection in the CANDU industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.

    2011-01-01

    CANDU nuclear power plants are operated in 3 provinces in Canada for electric power generation. A table in the paper will show the built and operating plants in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and overseas. The regulator for nuclear power in Canada is the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The CNSC holds the plant licensees accountable for compliance to CSA N285.4 for periodic inspections. The Standard basically specifies the 'what, when, where, how, how much and how frequently' NDE is to be done on pressure retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants. In inspection methods, the Standard specifies they must be non-destructive. The NDE methods were grouped into visual, dimensional, surface, volumetric and integrative. The Standard also specifies that the licensees are responsible for the performance demonstration (PD) of the adequacy of the procedures and the proficiency of the personnel. This paper describes the Standard's requirement in NDE qualification and presents a joint project participated by Canadian and overseas CANDU owners. The sub-project for NDE included providing evidence and technical justification on the adequacy of the procedures and the proficiency of the personnel. The paper describes the qualification methodology followed by the participants. This will be followed by how the participants produced Inspection Specification, tools and procedures, personnel training and qualification programs, test and qualification samples, independent peer reviews and Technical Justification. (author)

  8. Microenvironments and different nanoparticle dynamics in living cells revealed by a standard nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Chan Gi; Song, Mi Ryoung; Tae, Eunju Lee; Hiroshima, Michio; Byun, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Sako, Yasushi

    2012-11-10

    For quantitative analysis of nanoparticle diffusions and submicro-environments in living cells, use of newly synthesized silica-based fluorescent nanoparticle (Si-FNP) as a standard nanoprobe is successfully demonstrated. The appropriate characteristics of a standard probe were fully analyzed in vitro by single molecule detection, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Using fluorescence correlation analysis in single living cells, we quantitatively compared the diffusional properties of the standard Si-FNP with a diameter of 50 nm, peptide coated Si-FNP, streptavidin coated Qdot, and GFP molecule which have different sizes and surface properties. The result demonstrates that the standard Si-FNP without coat is minimally trapped in the vesicles in the process of cellular endocytosis. Interestingly, a large proportion of Si-FNP introduced into the cells by electroporation diffuses freely in the cells during a cell cycle suggesting free diffusing NPs are hardly trapped in the vesicles. The simple but highly sensitive method will provide insight into strategies to understanding the hydrodynamic process of nanoparticle delivery into living cells as well as the cellular microenvironment in the view of submicro-size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A New Standard for Assessing the Performance of High Contrast Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Mawet, Dimitri; Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Absil, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Currie, Thayne; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Marois, Christian; Mazoyer, Johan; Ruane, Garreth; Tanner, Angelle; Cantalloube, Faustine

    2018-01-01

    As planning for the next generation of high contrast imaging instruments (e.g., WFIRST, HabEx, and LUVOIR, TMT-PFI, EELT-EPICS) matures and second-generation ground-based extreme adaptive optics facilities (e.g., VLT-SPHERE, Gemini-GPI) finish their principal surveys, it is imperative that the performance of different designs, post-processing algorithms, observing strategies, and survey results be compared in a consistent, statistically robust framework. In this paper, we argue that the current industry standard for such comparisons—the contrast curve—falls short of this mandate. We propose a new figure of merit, the “performance map,” that incorporates three fundamental concepts in signal detection theory: the true positive fraction, the false positive fraction, and the detection threshold. By supplying a theoretical basis and recipe for generating the performance map, we hope to encourage the widespread adoption of this new metric across subfields in exoplanet imaging.

  10. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z.; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C.; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K.; Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000–2014), Koop Award winners’ stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation—an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors—of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms. PMID:26716843

  11. STUDY OF PERFORMANCES OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... results of analysis of performances of organic solar cells by using what one call the datamining materials. ... Keywords: organic solar cells, gap energie, effiency, PCA. Author Correspondence .... oubli est malencontreux car le type de données disponibles influence toujours la direction de la recherche.

  12. Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells Under High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the serial resistance was not affected by the operation pressure; all the other processes that are dependent...

  13. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-01-01

    Background Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Methods Consecutive children with SCA aged 5?11?years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- m...

  14. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaeys, Pieter; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Liesenborgs, Jori; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Van Reeth, Frank; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos

    2014-08-01

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  15. Issues relating to new source performance standards for industrial steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streets, D.G.; Speciner, T.A.

    1979-06-01

    Issues relating to the revision of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers are identified. The objective is to provide information for the Department of Energy in order that it can participate productively in this standard-setting activity. The study had the following aims: to review the existing data relevant to industrial NSPS; to draw up possible regulatory alternatives; to project the effects of these regulatory alternatives; to identify issues that may be of concern to the Department of Energy; and to suggest areas for additional work. This is not a technology evaluation, nor a work plan for the Department of Energy. However, the items reported should be useful in identifying the technical issues that need to be resolved and in guiding further analysis by the Department of Energy.

  16. Performance evaluation of grid-enabled registration algorithms using bronze-standards

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Montagnat, J

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating registration algorithms is difficult due to the lack of gold standard in most clinical procedures. The bronze standard is a real-data based statistical method providing an alternative registration reference through a computationally intensive image database registration procedure. We propose in this paper an efficient implementation of this method through a grid-interfaced workflow enactor enabling the concurrent processing of hundreds of image registrations in a couple of hours only. The performances of two different grid infrastructures were compared. We computed the accuracy of 4 different rigid registration algorithms on longitudinal MRI images of brain tumors. Results showed an average subvoxel accuracy of 0.4 mm and 0.15 degrees in rotation.

  17. Performativity Double Standards and the Sexual Orientation Climate at a Southern Liberal Arts University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Reginald A; Lowe, Maria R; Billingsley, Brianna; Tuttle, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how heterosexual, bisexual, and gay students rate and describe a Southern, religiously affiliated university's sexual orientation climate. Using qualitative data, queer theory, and the concept tyranny of sexualized spaces, we explain why non-heterosexual students have more negative perceptions of the university climate than heterosexual male students, in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Although heterosexual students see few problems with the campus sexual orientation climate, bisexual men and women describe being challenged on the authenticity of their orientation, and lesbian and, to a greater extent, gay male students report harassment and exclusion in a number of settings. These distinct processes are influenced by broader heteronormative standards. We also shed much-needed light on how gendered sexual performativity double standards within an important campus microclimate (fraternity parties) contribute to creating a tyrannical sexualized space and negatively affect overall campus climate perceptions.

  18. Performance and durability of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Jensen, Søren H; Ramousse, Severine

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells produced at Riso National Laboratory have been tested as electrolysis cells by applying an external voltage. Results on initial performance and durability of such reversible solid oxide cells at temperatures from 750 to 950 degrees C and current densities from -0.25 A/cm(2......) to -0.50 A/cm(2) are reported. The full cells have an initial area specific resistance as low as 0.27 Omega cm(2) for electrolysis operation at 850 degrees C. During galvanostatic long-term electrolysis tests, the cells were observed to passivate mainly during the first similar to 100 h of electrolysis....... Cells that have been passivated during electrolysis tests can be partly activated again by operation in fuel cell mode or even at constant electrolysis conditions after several hundred hours of testing....

  19. Regional variations in US residential sector fuel prices: implications for development of building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Secrest, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings presented life-cycle-cost based energy budgets for single-family detached residences. These energy budgets varied with regional climatic conditions but were all based on projections of national average prices for gas, oil and electricity. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicated that further analysis of the appropriateness of various price measures for use in setting the Standards was under way. This part of that ongoing analysis addresses the availability of fuel price projections, the variation in fuel prices and escalation rates across the US and the effects of aggregating city price data to the state, Region, or national level. The study only provides a portion of the information required to identify the best price aggregation level for developing of the standards. The research addresses some of the economic efficiency considerations necessary for design of a standard that affects heterogeneous regions. The first section discusses the effects of price variation among and within regions on the efficiency of resource allocation when a standard is imposed. Some evidence of the extreme variability in fuel prices across the US is presented. In the second section, time series, cross-sectional fuel price data are statistically analyzed to determine the similarity in mean fuel prices and price escalation rates when the data are treated at increasing levels of aggregation. The findings of this analysis are reported in the third section, while the appendices contain price distributions details. The last section reports the availability of price projections and discusses some EIA projections compared with actual prices.

  20. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2015 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in pediatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin-Folino, Nancy; Ogata, Beth N; Charney, Pamela J; Holt, Katrina; Brewer, Holly L; Sharrett, Mary K; Carney, Liesje N

    2015-03-01

    All of the health care professions recognize that care of infants and children is best managed as a specialty area of practice. Nutrition plays a key role in normal growth and development. Appropriate nutrition care is vital adjuvant therapy for infants and children with acute or chronic illness. Provision of nutrition services in pediatric practice requires that registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have advanced knowledge in the focus area of pediatric nutrition. Therefore, the Pediatric Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed this revision of the Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for RDNs in Pediatric Nutrition as a resource for RDNs working in pediatric nutrition to assess skill level and to identify needs for professional development to advance practice in pediatric nutrition. This revision reflects recent advances in pediatric nutrition and replaces the previous Standards published in 2009. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps of the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance represent six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for RDNs working in pediatric nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of primary total hip replacements performed with a standard incision or a mini-incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolson, Steven T; Mow, Christopher S; Syquia, Jose Fernando; Lannin, John V; Schurman, David J

    2004-07-01

    Primary total hip replacement performed through an incision that is a minimally invasive technique. Proponents have claimed that mini-incision techniques reduce blood loss, transfusion requirements, postoperative pain, and the length of the hospital stay compared with standard techniques through a longer incision. However, we are aware of no well-designed comparison study that supports these claims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the short-term results of a mini-incision with a standard incision technique for total hip replacement. A consecutive series of patients who underwent 135 primary unilateral total hip replacements (fifty with use of a mini-incision [a standard incision) by three surgeons at one hospital were studied. Each surgeon selected patients to have a mini-incision procedure and performed a standard approach in the remaining patients. A posterior approach was used for all procedures. In-hospital data were collected retrospectively, and the initial postoperative radiographs were analyzed. Because of the selection process, the patients who had a mini-incision had both a significantly lower average body-mass index (p = 0.008) and a lower average score on the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating (p = 0.006), indicating that they were thinner and healthier than the patients who had a standard incision. With the numbers of patients available, no significant differences were found between the groups with respect to the average surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, in-hospital transfusion rate, length of hospital stay, or the patients' disposition after discharge. The mini-incision group was found to have a significantly higher risk of a wound complication (p = 0.02), a higher percentage of acetabular component malposition (p = 0.04), and poor fit and fill of femoral components inserted without cement (p = 0.0036). There was no evidence that the mini-incision technique resulted in less bleeding or less trauma to the soft tissues

  2. Distortion product otoacoustic emission test performance for a priori criteria and for multifrequency audiometric standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorga, M P; Neely, S T; Dorn, P A

    1999-08-01

    1) To describe distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) test performance when a priori response criteria are applied to a large set of DPOAE data. 2) To describe DPOAE test performance when multifrequency definitions of auditory function are used. 3) To determine DPOAE test performance when a single decision regarding auditory status is made for an ear, based on DPOAE data from several frequencies. 4) To compare univariate and multivariate test performance when multifrequency gold standard definitions and response criteria are applied to DPOAE data. DPOAE and audiometric data were analyzed from 1267 ears of 806 subjects. These data were evaluated for three different frequency combinations (2, 3, 4 kHz; 2, 3, 4, 6 kHz; 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 kHz). DPOAE data were collected for each of the f2 frequencies listed above, using primary levels (L1/L2) of 65/55 dB SPL and a primary ratio (f2/f1) of 1.22. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of 3, 6, and 9 dB, which are in common clinical use. In addition, test performance was evaluated using clinical decision theory, following the convention we have used in previous reports on otoacoustic emission test performance. Both univariate and multivariate analyses techniques were applied to the data. In addition to evaluating DPOAE test performance for the case when audiometric and f2 frequency were equal, multifrequency gold standards and multifrequency criterion responses were evaluated. Three new gold standards were used to assess test performance: average pure-tone thresholds, extrema thresholds that took into account both the magnitude of the loss and the number of frequencies at which hearing loss existed, and a combination of the two. These new gold standards were applied to each of the three frequency groups described above. As expected, SNR criteria of 3, 6, and 9 dB never resulted in perfect DPOAE test performance. Even the most stringent of these criteria (9 dB SNR) did not result

  3. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Dietetic Technicians, Registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    DTRs face complex situations every day. Competently addressing the unique needs of each situation and applying standards appropriately is essential to providing safe, timely, person-centered quality care and service. All DTRs are advised to conduct their practice based on the most recent edition of the Academy's Code of Ethics and the Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics, the Scope of Practice for the DTR, the 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for DTRs. These resources provide minimum standards and tools for demonstrating competence and safe practice, and are used collectively to gauge and guide a DTR's performance in nutrition and dietetics practice. The SOP and SOPP for the DTR are self-evaluation tools that promote quality assurance and performance improvement. Self-assessment provides opportunities to identify areas for enhancement, new learning and skill development, and to encourage progression of career growth. All DTRs are advised to have in their personal libraries the most recent copy of the Academy's Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics and its components: The 2012 Academy Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for DTRs; the Code of Ethics; and the Scope of Practice for the DTR. To ensure that credentialed dietetics practitioners always have access to the most current materials, each resource is maintained on the Academy's website. The documents will continue to be reviewed and updated as new trends in the profession of nutrition and dietetics and external influences emerge.

  4. The improvement of environmental performances by applying ISO 14001 standard: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Snežana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the advantages of applying ISO 14001 system in an environmental protection management system. The environmental protection management system which is not licensed, i.e., compatible with the principles and standard pre-conditions considerably increases the plausibility for ecological risk. There are some issues that remain to be solved in the areas which are not expressed by financial values only but also have a non-financial character with the aim of expanding markets, company image improvement and improvement of the environmental performance indicators. By improving a company’s environmental management system efficiency we expect to achieve the minimization and elimination of damaging influences on the environment which are the consequence of company’s activities. A case study in the Oil Refinery Belgrade (RNB analyses the implementation of the standard ISO 14001:2004 into its environment protection management system, particularly emphasizing the company’s own way of evaluating the environment aspects with the aim of establishing results of ecological performances indicators improvement. The average values of the first ecological indicator of the plant, the total amount of the waste waters in m3 per a ton of product, clearly show the downturn trend, which is confirmed by the proportional reduction of the second ecological plant indicator, that is by the flocculants consumption (Al2(SO43, Na2CO3 in kg per m3 of the waste water of the Oil Refinery of Belgrade for the given period 2008-2010. Case study RNB confirms the improvement of environmental performances using the ISO 14001 standard.

  5. Use of impedance tagging to monitor fuel cell stack performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gregory

    Fuel cells are electrochemical device that are traditionally assembled in stacks to perform meaningful work. Monitoring the state of the stack is vitally important to ensure that it is operating efficiently and that constituent cells are not failing for one of a several common reasons including membrane dehydration, gas diffusion layer flooding, reactant starvation, and physical damage. Current state-of-the-art monitoring systems are costly and require at least one connection per cell on the stack, which introduces reliability concerns for stacks consisting of hundreds of cells. This thesis presents a novel approach for diagnosing problems in a fuel cell stack that attempts to reduce the cost and complexity of monitoring cells in a stack. The proposed solution modifies the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) response of each cell in the stack by connecting an electrical tag in parallel with each cell. This approach allows the EIS response of the entire stack to identify and locate problems in the stack. Capacitors were chosen as tags because they do not interfere with normal stack operation and because they can generate distinct stack EIS responses. An experiment was performed in the Center for Automation Technologies an Systems (CATS) fuel cell laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to perform EIS measurements on a single cell with and without capacitor tags to investigate the proposed solution. The EIS data collected from this experiment was used to create a fuel cell model to investigate the proposed solution under ideal conditions. This thesis found that, although the concept shows some promise in simulations, significant obstacles to implementing the proposed solution. Observed EIS response when the capacitor tags were connected did not match the expected EIS response. Constraints on the capacitor tags found by the model impose significant manufacturing challenges to the proposed solution. Further development of the proposed solution is

  6. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  7. Comparison of BUT Big 6 commercial turkey production performance in Iran with the breed standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Haghighi Khoshkhoo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the management of commercial turkey production and finding existing problems in Iran, 15 commercial flocks of BUT Big6 breed (including 72000 commercial turkeys were selected randomly and monitored up to marketing age. In this study flock performances based on mean body weight and its coefficient of variation percentage, feed consumption, feed conversion rate, livability percentage and European Efficacy Factor were recorded in 15 flocks for each sex individually and statistically analyzed by SPSS program .The results showed that the mean body weight, livability percentage and European Efficacy Factor in all flocks were significantly lower than the breed's standards (P

  8. Internationally Standardized Reporting (Checklist) on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Internationally Standardized Reporting Checklist on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites: • A mutual and beneficial work between a core group of uranium miners and nuclear utilities; • An approach based on an long term experience, international policies and sustainable development principles; • A process to optimize the reporting mechanism, tools and efforts; • 11 sections focused on the main sustainable development subject matters known at an operational and headquarter level. The WNA will make available the sustainable development checklist for member utilities and uranium suppliers. Utilities and suppliers are encouraged to use the checklist for sustainable development verification.

  9. Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaxman Abraham D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician review of a verbal autopsy (VA and completion of a death certificate remains the most widely used approach for VA analysis. This study provides new evidence about the performance of physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA using defined clinical diagnostic criteria as a gold standard for a multisite sample of 12,542 VAs. The study was also designed to analyze issues related to PCVA, such as the impact of a second physician reader on the cause of death assigned, the variation in performance with and without household recall of health care experience (HCE, and the importance of local information for physicians reading VAs. Methods The certification was performed by 24 physicians. The assignment of VA was random and blinded. Each VA was certified by one physician. Half of the VAs were reviewed by a different physician with household recall of health care experience included. The completed death certificate was processed for automated ICD-10 coding of the underlying cause of death. PCVA was compared to gold standard cause of death assignment based on strictly defined clinical diagnostic criteria that are part of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC gold standard verbal autopsy study. Results For individual cause assignment, the overall chance-corrected concordance for PCVA against the gold standard cause of death is less than 50%, with substantial variability by cause and physician. Physicians assign the correct cause around 30% of the time without HCE, and addition of HCE improves performance in adults to 45% and slightly higher in children to 48%. Physicians estimate cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs with considerable error for adults, children, and neonates. Only for neonates for a cause list of six causes with HCE is accuracy above 0.7. In all three age groups, CSMF accuracy improves when household recall of health care experience is available. Conclusions Results show that physician

  10. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  11. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  12. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Standardizing the performance evaluation of short-term wind prediction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term wind power prediction is a primary requirement for efficient large-scale integration of wind generation in power systems and electricity markets. The choice of an appropriate prediction model among the numerous available models is not trivial, and has to be based on an objective...... evaluation of model performance. This paper proposes a standardized protocol for the evaluation of short-term wind-poser preciction systems. A number of reference prediction models are also described, and their use for performance comparison is analysed. The use of the protocol is demonstrated using results...... from both on-shore and off-shore wind forms. The work was developed in the frame of the Anemos project (EU R&D project) where the protocol has been used to evaluate more than 10 prediction systems....

  14. Relationship between encapsulation barrier performance and organic solar cell lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Stéphane; Guillerez, Stéphane; de Bettignies, Rémi; Lemaître, Noëlla; Bailly, Severine; Maisse, Pascal

    2008-08-01

    This article describes a method to have a better knowledge of barrier performances needed for encapsulating materials, particularly in the case of organic solar cells devices. We have developed a high sensitivity permeameter which enables simultaneous measurements of water and oxygen permeation. Various polymers and inorganic coatings on polymer substrates have been measured. Experimental barrier parameters have been plotted considering the steady and transient states of permeation curves and compared to theoretical values. In addition, we have performed ageing experiments on encapsulated organic solar cells to establish a barrier requirement directly related to the device. Finally, we have performed such experiments using different cathode materials and encapsulating materials.

  15. Standard guidelines of care: Performing procedures in patients on or recently administered with isotretinoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, the standard protocol regarding the performance of procedures on patients receiving or having recently received isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid states that the procedures should not be performed. The recommendations in standard books and drug insert require discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. These recommendations have been followed for over two decades despite little evidence for the stated increased risk of scarring. Objective: The Association of Cutaneous Surgeons (I constituted a task force to review the evidence and to recommend consensus guidelines regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy-device treatments, and dermatosurgical procedures in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. Materials and Methods: Data were extracted from the literature through a PubMed search using the keywords “isotretinoin,” “safety,” “scarring,” “keloids,” “hypertrophic scarring,” and “pigmentation.” The evidence was then labeled and circulated to all members of task force for review. Results: The task force is of the opinion that there is insufficient evidence to support the current protocol of avoiding and delaying treatments in the patient group under consideration and recommends that the current practice should be discontinued.The task force concludes that performing procedures such as laser hair removal, fractional lasers for aging and acne scarring, lasers for pigmented skin lesions, fractional radio-frequency microneedling, superficial and medium-depth peels, microdermabrasion, dermaroller, biopsies, radio-frequency ablation, and superficial excisions is safe in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration.

  16. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viganó Davide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  17. High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nianfang

    2017-06-01

    A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. 320 mW cm-2 of peak power density and over 260 mW cm-2 at 0.4 V are obtained when working at 90 °C with normal pressure air supply. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. From the comparison of iR-compensated cathode potential of methanol/air with that of H2/air fuel cell, the impact of methanol crossover on cathode performance decreases with current density and becomes negligible at high current density. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

  18. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  19. Effects of impurities on silicon solar-cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs (back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings) can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20%. To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentraion at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18% cell than for a 16% cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies above 18%, as verified experimentally.

  20. Improving Hispanic students' performance on science standardized tests: Successful practices from four elementary campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Yvonne Lynne

    This qualitative, descriptive multiple case study took place in a Southwest Texas city bordering Mexico. The study examined specific resources and practices used in four different exemplary-rated elementary school campuses, with standardized test data reflecting 93% or more of their 5th-grade Hispanic student population passing the state mandated standardized science test. The sample for this study included one principal, one assistant principal, and three 5th-grade teachers from each campus. In total, the sample participants consisted of four principals, four assistant principals, and 12 5th-grade teachers. Data collection involved conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews guided by five literature-based, researcher-generated questions. Fifth grade teachers and administrators reflected and reported upon their pedagogy for best practices in helping Hispanic students achieve success. Analysis of the data revealed eight themes: (a) successful schools have committed teachers, an environment conducive to learning, and incorporate best practices that work for all students; (b) curriculum alignment is very important; (c) teachers have access to a variety of resources; (d) teacher collaboration and planning is very important; (e) science camps, science reviews, and hands-on centers are effective in preparing students for the standardized test; (f) the most effective instructional practices include high emphasis on vocabulary, hands-on and differentiated instruction, and the 5E Model; (g) teachers see value in self-contained, dual-language classes; and (h) professional development and performance feedback are important to educators. The results of this study provide educational leaders with specific science instructional resources, practices, and interventions proven effective for the 5 th-grade Hispanic student population in passing the science state standardized test.

  1. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurement Lab.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  2. Photovoltaic Device Performance Evaluation Using an Open-Hardware System and Standard Calibrated Laboratory Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montes-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a complete characterization system for photovoltaic devices designed to acquire the current-voltage curve and to process the obtained data. The proposed system can be replicated for educational or research purposes without having wide knowledge about electronic engineering. Using standard calibrated instrumentation, commonly available in any laboratory, the accuracy of measurements is ensured. A capacitive load is used to bias the device due to its versatility and simplicity. The system includes a common part and an interchangeable part that must be designed depending on the electrical characteristics of each PV device. Control software, developed in LabVIEW, controls the equipment, performs automatic campaigns of measurements, and performs additional calculations in real time. These include different procedures to extrapolate the measurements to standard test conditions and methods to obtain the intrinsic parameters of the single diode model. A deep analysis of the uncertainty of measurement is also provided. Finally, the proposed system is validated by comparing the results obtained from some commercial photovoltaic modules to the measurements given by an independently accredited laboratory.

  3. Heat transfer effects on the performance of an air standard Dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.-S.

    2004-01-01

    There are heat losses during the cycle of a real engine that are neglected in ideal air standard analysis. In this paper, the effects of heat transfer on the net work output and the indicated thermal efficiency of an air standard Dual cycle are analyzed. Heat transfer from the unburned mixture to the cylinder walls has a negligible effect on the performance for the compression process. Additionally, the heat transfer rates to the cylinder walls during combustion are the highest and extremely important. Therefore, we assume that the compression and power processes proceed instantaneously so that they are reversible adiabatics, and the heat losses during the heat rejection process can be neglected. The heat loss through the cylinder wall is assumed to occur only during combustion and is further assumed to be proportional to the average temperature of both the working fluid and the cylinder wall. The results show that the net work output versus efficiency characteristics and the maximum net work output and the corresponding efficiency bounds are strongly influenced by the magnitude of the heat transfer. Higher heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls lowers the peak temperature and pressure and reduces the work per cycle and the efficiency. The effects of other parameters, in conjunction with the heat transfer, including combustion constants, cut-off ratio and intake air temperature, are also reported. The results are of importance to provide good guidance for the performance evaluation and improvement of practical Diesel engines

  4. A parallel row-based algorithm with error control for standard-cell replacement on a hypercube multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff Scott

    1988-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel new approaches to controlling error in parallel cell-placement algorithms; Heuristic Cell-Coloring and Adaptive (Parallel Move) Sequence Control. Heuristic Cell-Coloring identifies sets of noninteracting cells that can be moved repeatedly, and in parallel, with no buildup of error in the placement cost. Adaptive Sequence Control allows multiple parallel cell moves to take place between global cell-position updates. This feedback mechanism is based on an error bound derived analytically from the traditional annealing move-acceptance profile. Placement results are presented for real industry circuits and the performance is summarized of an implementation on the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube. The runtime of this algorithm is 5 to 16 times faster than a previous program developed for the Hypercube, while producing equivalent quality placement. An integrated place and route program for the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube is currently being developed.

  5. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  6. Evaluation of linear accelerator performance standards using an outcome oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Ploquin, Nicolas; Kay, Ian; Dunscombe, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Radiation therapy, along with other branches of medicine, is moving towards a firmer basis in evidence to optimally utilize resources. As new treatment technology and strategies place greater demands on quality assurance resources, the need to objectively evaluate equipment and process performance standards from the perspective of predicted clinical impact becomes more urgent. This study evaluates the appropriateness of recommended quality control tolerance and action levels for linear accelerators based on the calculated dosimetric impact of suboptimal equipment performance. A method is described to quantify the dosimetric changes, as reflected by the changes in the outcome surrogate, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), of machine performance deviations from the optimal, specifically in the range of tolerance and action levels promulgated by the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). Linear accelerator performance deviations were simulated for the treatment of prostate, breast, lung, and brain using 3D conformal techniques, and the impact evaluated in terms of the changes in the EUD of the target volumes and two principal organs at risk (OARs) per site. The eight key performance characteristics examined are: Output constancy, beam flatness, gantry angle, collimator angle, field size indicator, laser alignment (three directions) and, by inference, the optical distance indicator. Currently accepted CAPCA tolerance levels for these eight performance characteristics are shown to maintain average EUD deviations to within 2% for the targets and 2 Gy for the OARs. However, within the 2% or 2 Gy range, the recommended tolerance levels are found to have markedly different effects on the EUDs of the structures of interest.

  7. Impact of Interfacial Water Transport in PEMFCs on Cell Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, Toshikazu; Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Coupled cell performance evaluation, liquid water visualization by neutron radiography (NRG) and numerical modeling based on multiphase mixture (M2) model were performed with three types of GDMs: Micro Porous Layer (MPL) free; Carbon Paper (CP) with MPL; and CP free to investigate interfacial liquid water transport phenomena in PEMFCs and its effect on cell performance. The visualized results of MPL free GDM with different wettability of bi-polar plates (BPPs) showed hydrophilic BPP improved liquid water transport at the interface between CP and channel. Numerical modeling results indicated that this difference with BPP wettability was caused by the liquid water coverage difference on CP surface. Thus, controlling liquid water coverage is the one of the key strategies for improving cell performance. Additionally, liquid water distributions across the cell for three types of GDMs were compared and significant difference in liquid water content at the interface between Catalyst Layer (CL) and GDM was observed. Numerical modeling suggests this difference is influenced by the gap at the interface and that the MPL could minimize this effect. The CP free cell (i.e. only MPL) showed the best performance and the lowest liquid water content. There were multiple impacts of interfacial liquid water transport both at CL-GDM and GDM-channel interfaces. High hydrophobicity and fine structure of MPLs contributed to enhanced liquid water transport at GDM-channel interface and as a result reduced the liquid water coverage. At the same time, MPL improves contact at the CL-GDM interface in the same manner as seen in CP with MPL case. Thus, the CP free concept showed the best performance. It is suggested that the design of the interface between each component of the PEMFC has a great impact on cell performance and plays a significant role in achievement of high current density operation and cost reduction in FCEVs

  8. Experimental study of the performance of intumescent coatings exposed to standard and non-standard fire conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucherini, Andrea; Giuliani, Luisa; Jomaas, Grunde

    2018-01-01

    Three different experimental setups corresponding to three different fire scenarios were used to investigate how different heating conditions and heating rates affect the behaviour of two different thin intumescent coatings (a solvent-based and a water-based paint). Coated steel samples were...... to four critical points: activation, end of reaction, binder exhaustion and steel austenitization point. The results also showed that the water-based paint performed better at low heating rates, while the tested solvent-based paint performed better at high heating rates and did not activate or provide...

  9. Performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under light concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaesha Alnuaimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present 2D simulation of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under high concentration using physics-based TCAD. The performance of planar perovskite heterojunction solar cells is examined up to 1000 suns. We analyze the effect of HTM mobility and band structure, surface recombination velocities at interfaces and the effect of series resistance under concentrated light. The simulation results revealed that the low mobility of HTM material limits the improvement in power conversation efficiency of perovskite solar cells under concentration. In addition, large band offset at perovskite/HTM interface contributes to the high series resistance. Moreover, losses due to high surface recombination at interfaces and the high series resistance deteriorate significantly the performance of perovskite solar cells under concentration.

  10. Performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Hsueh, Kan-Lin; Tsau, Fanghei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → At 1 atm, cell has best performance (∼1300 mA/cm at 0.6 V) at 100 deg. C and RH = 100%. → The A value in Eq. increased with increases in the back pressure and RH. →R i dramatically decreased at back pressure of 1 atm. → At each RH, R i decreased and then increased as cell temperature increased at 1 atm. - Abstract: The polarization curves of a single PEMFC having a Nafion membrane fed with H 2 /O 2 with relative humidity (RH) of 35%, 70% and 100% were measured at cell temperatures ranging from 65 deg. C to 120 deg. C at back pressures of 0 atm and 1 atm, respectively. Measured results showed that the best cell performance at 0.6 V operated within 65-120 deg. C at zero back pressure was 1000 mA cm -2 at 65 deg. C and RH = 100%, while the best cell performance at 1 atm back pressure was 1300 mA cm -2 at 100 deg. C and RH = 100%. Based on the analysis of impedance data measured at anode and cathode humidification temperatures of 90 deg. C and cell temperature of 100 deg. C at back pressures of 0 and 1 atm (90-100p0 and 90-100p1), it could be found that the membrane resistance was reduced and the catalyst became more active as the back pressure increases. The present results showed that increasing back pressure was able to dramatically improve cell performance and the effect of the back pressure surpassed that of humidification in the internal resistance of cell.

  11. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a great potential for large scale conversion of renewable electrical energy into chemical energy via electrolysis of H2O and CO2 to produce syngas (H2 + CO). The produced syngas can be further catalytically converted into various gaseous or liquid...... hydrocarbon fuels, which is normally performed at high pressure to achieve a high yield. Operation of SOECs at elevated pressure will therefore facilitate integration with the downstream fuel synthesis and is furthermore advantageous as it increases the cell performance. In this work, recent pressurised test...... in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be born in mind that the pressurised gas contains higher molar free energy. Operating at high current density...

  12. Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives

  13. Viwithan, a StandardizedWithania somniferaRoot Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, H V; Gouthamchandra, K; Venkatesh, B J; Prasad, K Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. The present study reports for the first time that Viwithan, a standardized 5% Withania somnifera root extract, has potent

  14. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Public Health and Community Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Udarbe, Adrienne Z; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Stell Crowley, Phyllis; Fredericks, Doris C; Edwards Hall, Leigh Ann

    2015-10-01

    The need and demand for population-level disease prevention has increased, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, a worldwide increase in obesity and chronic disease, and a global emphasis on preventative health care that includes behavioral, environmental, and policy interventions. In response to these evolving needs, the Public Health and Community Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as tools for registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) currently in practice or interested in working in public health and community nutrition, to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for professional development. The Standards of Practice address the four steps of the Nutrition Care Process for community and public health RDNs, which are assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation/monitoring. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of the following six domains of professional performance for community and public health RDNs: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate the ways in which RDNs can address client and population nutrition and health. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs. These tools highlight the unique scope of expertise that RDNs provide to the field of public health and community nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  16. MIMO wireless networks channels, techniques and standards for multi-antenna, multi-user and multi-cell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clerckx, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This book is unique in presenting channels, techniques and standards for the next generation of MIMO wireless networks. Through a unified framework, it emphasizes how propagation mechanisms impact the system performance under realistic power constraints. Combining a solid mathematical analysis with a physical and intuitive approach to space-time signal processing, the book progressively derives innovative designs for space-time coding and precoding as well as multi-user and multi-cell techniques, taking into consideration that MIMO channels are often far from ideal. Reflecting developments

  17. Analysis of the existing Standard on Power performance measurement and its application in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1997-01-01

    There are some groups working on the improvement of the existing Standard and recommendation on WECS power performance measurement and analysis. One of them, besides the one working in this project, is the MEASNET expert group. This one is trying to adequate the main reference, the IEC1400-12 Ref. [9]. to the current requirements on technical quality and trueness. Within this group and the MEASNET one, many deficiencies have been detected in the procedure followed up to now. Several of them belong to general aspects of the method (calculations, assumptions, etc. ) but the most critical fact regards to the inherent characteristics of complex terrain and to the issue of site calibration and uncertainties due to it, specifically. (Author)

  18. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. van de Lindt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA. Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percent of cement in a concrete mix with SDA for the construction of structural members in high seismic zones. This would help significantly redirect spray dryer ash away from landfills, thus, providing a sustainable greener alternative to concrete that uses only Portland cement, or only a small percentage of SDA or fly ash.

  19. Performance test on 2-dimensional PIV and 3-dimensional PIV using standard images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Gyu; Doh, Deog Hee

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative performance test on the conventional 2D-PIV and the hybrid angular 3D-PIV (Stereoscopic PIV) was carried out. LES Data sets on an impinging jet which are provided on the webpage(http://www.vsj.or.jp/piv) for the PIV Standard Project were used for the generation of virtual images. The generated virtual images were used for the 2D-PIV and 3D-PIV measurements test. It has been shown that the results obtained by 2D-PIV on average values are slightly closer to the LES data than those obtained by 3D-PIV, but the turbulent properties obtained by 2D-PIV are largely underestimated than those obtained by 3D-PIV

  20. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  1. How to improve the standardization and the diagnostic performance of the fecal egg count reduction test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levecke, Bruno; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2018-01-01

    Although various studies have provided novel insights into how to best design, analyze and interpret a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it is still not straightforward to provide guidance that allows improving both the standardization and the analytical performance of the FECRT across...... a variety of both animal and nematode species. For example, it has been suggested to recommend a minimum number of eggs to be counted under the microscope (not eggs per gram of feces), but we lack the evidence to recommend any number of eggs that would allow a reliable assessment of drug efficacy. Other...... the UI methodology that yields the most reliable assessment of drug efficacy (coverage of TDE) and detection of reduced drug efficacy, and (iii) to determine the required sample size and number of eggs counted under the microscope that optimizes the detection of reduced efficacy. Our results confirm...

  2. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    RDs face complex situations every day. Competently addressing the unique needs of each situation and applying standards appropriately is essential to providing safe, timely, person-centered quality care and service. All RDs are advised to conduct their practice based on the most recent edition of the Academy's Code of Ethics and the Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics, the Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian, the 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for RDs, and the applicable focus area SOP and SOPP for RDs. These resources provide minimum standards and tools for demonstrating competence and safe practice, and are used collectively to gauge and guide an RD's performance in nutrition and dietetics practice. The SOP and SOPP for the RD are self-evaluation tools that promote quality assurance and performance improvement. Self-assessment provides opportunities to identify areas for enhancement, new learning, and skill development, and to encourage progression of career growth. All RDs are advised to have in their personal libraries the most recent copy of the Academy's Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics and its components: The 2012 Academy Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitians; applicable focus area SOP and SOPP; the Code of Ethics; and the Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian. To ensure that credentialed dietetics practitioners always have access to the most current materials, each resource is maintained on the Academy's website. The documents will continue to be reviewed and updated as new trends in the profession of nutrition and dietetics and external influences emerge.

  3. Standard test method to determine the performance of tiled roofs to wind-driven rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which roof coverings can resist water penetration from the combination of wind and rain, commonly referred to as wind driven rain, is important for the design of roofs. A new project of European Standard prEN 15601 (1 specifies a method of test to determine the performance of the roof covering against wind driven rain. The combined action of wind and rain varies considerably with geographical location of a building and the associated differences in the rain and wind climate. Three windrain conditions and one deluge condition covering Northern Europe Coastal, Central Europe and Southern Europe are specified in the project standard, each subdivided into four wind-speeds and rainfall rates to be applied to the test. The project does not contain information on the level of acceptable performance.Para el diseño de los tejados es importante determinar el punto hasta el cual éstos pueden resistirse a la penetración de agua causada por la combinación de viento y lluvia. Un nuevo proyecto de Norma Europeo prEN 15601 (1 especifica un método de ensayo para determinar el comportamiento del tejado frente a la combinación de viento y lluvia. La acción combinada de viento y lluvia varía considerablemente con la situación geográfica de un edificio y las diferencias asociadas al clima de la lluvia y del viento. El proyecto de norma especifica las condiciones de viento y lluvia y una condición de diluvio para cada una de las tres zonas de Europa: Europa del Norte y Costera, Europa Central y Europa del Sur, cada una subdividida en cuatro condiciones de velocidades de viento y caudal de lluvia para ser aplicadas en los ensayos. El proyecto no contiene la información sobre condiciones aceptables.

  4. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  5. Assessing the performance and satisfaction of medical residents utilizing standardized patient versus mannequin-simulated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaad AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali A Alsaad,1 Swetha Davuluri,2 Vandana Y Bhide,3 Amy M Lannen,4 Michael J Maniaci3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 2University of Miami, Coral Gables, 3Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, 4J. Wayne and Delores Barr Weaver Simulation Center, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: Conducting simulations of rapidly decompensating patients are a key part of internal medicine (IM residency training. Traditionally, mannequins have been the simulation tool used in these scenarios. Objective: To compare IM residents’ performance and assess realism in specific-simulated decompensating patient scenarios using standardized patients (SPs as compared to mannequin. Methods: Nineteen IM residents were randomized to undergo simulations using either a mannequin or an SP. Each resident in the two groups underwent four different simulation scenarios (calcium channel blocker overdose, severe sepsis, severe asthma exacerbation, and acute bacterial meningitis. Residents completed pretest and post-test evaluations as well as a questionnaire to assess the reality perception (realism score. Results: Nine residents completed mannequin-based scenarios, whereas 10 completed SP-based scenarios. Improvement in the post-test scores was seen in both groups. However, there were significantly higher post-test scores achieved with SP simulations in three out of the four scenarios (P=0.01. When compared with the mannequin group, the SP simulation group showed a significantly higher average realism score (P=0.002. Conclusions: Applying SP-based specific-simulation scenarios in IM residency training may result in better performance and a higher sense of a realistic experience by medical residents. Keywords: simulation, standardized patient, satisfaction, mannequin, assessment, resident education

  6. Broiler performance, hatching egg, and age relationships of progeny from standard and dwarf broiler dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Cervantes, H; Farmer, C W; Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of egg and chick weights to the performance of broiler chickens from two 42-wk-old flocks (standard and dwarf dams) having male parents from the same genetic stock was investigated in this study. Fertility (91.7 vs. 94.7%) and hatchability (95.2 vs. 96.3%) were not significantly (P > 0.10) different for eggs from standard and dwarf dams, respectively. Egg weight contributed significantly to the variation in BW [BW = β(0) + β(i) (egg weight) + β(i) (dam) + β(i) (sex)]. Body weight as a function of chick weight was not significant. However, chick weight was significant when included in a model with egg weight, suggesting that significant differences in BW at 50 d could be attributed to both egg and chick weights. The negative coefficient for chick weight indicated that between the 2 broilers of the same egg weight, the one with the greater chick weight would have the smaller 50-d BW. Chick weight was a linear function of egg weight. Similarly, the effect of egg or chick weight on broiler BW at 35 or 50 d was best represented by a single linear function. Dam genotype did not contribute significantly to variation in 50-d BW after variation attributable to egg weight was removed from the model. Differences in BW attributable to egg weight increased with broiler age. The coefficients of egg weight and chick weight showed that the differences in BW per gram of egg were 1.43, 3.06, 6.24, and 7.61 g and those per gram of chick were 1.87, 3.99, 8.14, and 9.93 g, respectively, at 7, 21, 35, and 50 d. Body weight increased by 0.1563 times egg weight (and 0.2092 times chick weight) with each additional day of age for both sexes and genotypes. Clearly, both egg and chick weights are important for modeling or predicting market-age broiler BW and economic returns. The relatively small relationship between BW and egg weight demonstrates that genetic selection over the past 3 decades has decreased the influence of egg weight on broiler growth. The present dwarf

  7. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna P.; Gunashekar, Subhashini; Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.; Abu-Zahra, Nidal

    2015-06-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm-2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm-2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles.

  8. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  9. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.

  10. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Enhances Exercise Performance Through Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Taeyoon; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Increased mitochondrial function and content can contribute to the improvement in skeletal muscle function and the benefits of exercise by increasing the response to energy demands. The effect of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) on exercise performance was accessed in L6 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. KPE significantly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and increased mitochondrial density in L6 myotubes. KPE also upregulated the expression of transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor-α [ERRα], nuclear respiratory factor-1 [NRF-1], and mitochondrial transcription factor A [Tfam]) through activation of PGC-1α in L6 myotubes. In vivo models including normal diet mice and high-fat diet obese mice showed that KPE effectively enhanced running endurance and increased the skeletal muscle weight/body weight ratio. Furthermore, these observations were associated with a significant upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory genes in skeletal muscle tissue. KPE enhanced the protein expression of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/PGC-1α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) signaling pathway components in vitro and in vivo, acting as an exercise metabolism regulator. These results suggest that KPE has the potential to enhance exercise performance through mitochondrial biogenesis and the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARδ signaling pathways.

  11. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  12. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files

  13. Simulating performance of solar cells with spectral downshifting layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate the performance of solar cells with downshifters under realistic irradiation conditions we used spectral distributions as they may be found outdoors. The spectral distributions were generated on a minutely basis by means of the spectrum simulation model SEDES2, using minutely

  14. Effect of localized polycrystalline silicon properties on solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D.; Iles, P. A.; Hyland, S.; Kachare, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several forms of polycrystalline silicon, mostly from cast ingots, (including UCP, SILSO and HEM) were studied. On typical slices, localized properties were studied in two ways. Small area (about 2.5 sq mm) mesa diodes were formed, and localized photovoltaic properties were measured. Also a small area (about .015 sq mm) light spot was scanned across the cells; the light spot response was calibrated to measure local diffusion length directly. Using these methods, the effects of grain boundaries, or of intragrain imperfections were correlated with cell performance. Except for the fine grain portion of SILSO, grain boundaries played only a secondary role in determining cell performance. The major factor was intra-grain material quality and it varied with position in ingots and probably related to solidification procedure.

  15. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  16. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  17. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  18. Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  19. Spatial proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance under bromomethane poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; St-Pierre, Jean

    2017-02-01

    The poisoning effects of 5 ppm CH3Br in the air on the spatial performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were studied using a segmented cell system. The presence of CH3Br caused performance loss from 0.650 to 0.335 V at 1 A cm-2 accompanied by local current density redistribution. The observed behavior was explained by possible bromomethane hydrolysis with the formation of Br-. Bromide and bromomethane negatively affected the oxygen reduction efficiency over a wide range of potentials because of their adsorption on Pt, which was confirmed by XPS. Moreover, the PEMFC exposure to CH3Br led to a decrease in the anode and cathode electrochemical surface area (∼52-57%) due to the growth of Pt particles through agglomeration and Ostwald ripening. The PEMFC did not restore its performance after stopping bromomethane introduction to the air stream. However, the H2/N2 purge of the anode/cathode and CV scans almost completely recovered the cell performance. The observed final loss of ∼50 mV was due to an increased activation overpotential. PEMFC exposure to CH3Br should be limited to concentrations much less than 5 ppm due to serious performance loss and lack of self-recovery.

  20. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  1. Standardized assessment of reading performance: the New International Reading Speed Texts IReST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Dietz, Klaus

    2012-08-13

    There is a need for standardized texts to assess reading performance, for multiple equivalent texts for repeated measurements, and for texts equated across languages for multi-language studies. Paragraphs are preferable to single sentences for accurate speed measurement. We developed such texts previously in 6 languages. The aim of our current study was to develop texts in more languages for a wide range of countries and users, and to assess the reading speeds of normally-sighted readers. Ten texts were designed for 17 languages each by a linguist who matched content, length, difficulty, and linguistic complexity. The texts then were used to assess reading speeds of 436 normally-sighted native speakers (age 18-35 years, 25 per language, 36 in Japanese), presented at a distance of 40 cm and size 1 M, that is 10-point Times New Roman font. Reading time (aloud) was measured by stopwatch. For all 17 languages, average mean reading speed was 1.42 ± 0.13 texts/min (±SD), 184 ± 29 words/min, 370 ± 80 syllables/min, and 863 ± 234 characters/min. For 14 languages, mean reading time was 68 ms/character (95% confidence interval [CI] 65-71 ms). Our analysis focussed on words per minute. The variability of reading speed within subjects accounts only for an average of 11.5%, between subjects for 88.5%. The low within-subject variability shows the equivalence of the texts. The IReST (second edition) can now be provided in 17 languages allowing standardized assessment of reading speed, as well as comparability of results before and after interventions, and is a useful tool for multi-language studies (for further information see www.amd-read.net).

  2. Performance of the RAD-57 pulse CO-oximeter compared with standard laboratory carboxyhemoglobin measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger, Michael; Birnbaum, Adrienne; Wang, Jessica; Chou, Katherine; Pearson, Darion; Bijur, Polly

    2010-10-01

    We assess agreement between carboxyhemoglobin levels measured by the Rad-57 signal extraction pulse CO-oximeter (RAD), a Food and Drug Administration-approved device for noninvasive bedside measurement, and standard laboratory arterial or venous measurement in a sample of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. The study was a cross-sectional cohort design using a convenience sample of adult and pediatric ED patients in a Level I trauma, burn, and hyperbaric oxygen referral center. Measurement of RAD carboxyhemoglobin was performed simultaneously with blood sampling for laboratory determination of carboxyhemoglobin level. The difference between the measures for each patient was calculated as laboratory carboxyhemoglobin minus carboxyhemoglobin from the carbon monoxide oximeter. The limits of agreement from a Bland-Altman analysis are calculated as the mean of the differences between methods ±1.96 SDs above and below the mean. Median laboratory percentage carboxyhemoglobin level was 2.3% (interquartile range 1 to 8.5; range 0% to 38%). The mean difference between laboratory carboxyhemoglobin values and RAD values was 1.4% carboxyhemoglobin (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2% to 2.6%). The limits of agreement of differences of measurement made with the 2 devices were -11.6% and 14.4% carboxyhemoglobin. This range exceeded the value of ±5% carboxyhemoglobin defined a priori as clinically acceptable. RAD correctly identified 11 of 23 patients with laboratory values greater than 15% carboxyhemoglobin (sensitivity 48%; 95% CI 27% to 69%). There was one case of a laboratory carboxyhemoglobin level less than 15%, in which the RAD device gave a result greater than 15% (specificity of RAD 96/97=99%; 95% CI 94% to 100%). In the range of carboxyhemoglobin values measured in this sample, the level of agreement observed suggests RAD measurement may not be used interchangeably with standard laboratory measurement. Copyright © 2010 American

  3. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  4. Bifacial solar cell measurements under standard test conditions and the impact on cell-to-module loss analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Hsian Saw, Min; Khoo, Yong Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Bifacial cells are conventionally measured using gold-plated chuck, which is conductive and reflective. This measurement setup does not portray the actual operating conditions of the bifacial cells in a module. The reflective chuck causes an overestimation of the current due to the cell transmittance for the infrared light. The conductive chuck creates a shorter current flow path in the rear side of the cell and causes an over inflation of the fill factor measurement. In this study, we characterize and quantitatively analyze the difference between the bifacial cell measurements on different mounting chucks and calculate the cell-to-module (CTM) loss. To characterize the optical behavior of the bifacial cell and module, we perform external quantum efficiency, reflectance and transmittance measurements. The electrical behavior of the bifacial cell is studied using in-house developed software Griddler. Using Griddler, we calculate the difference in the fill factor of the bifacial cell due to the measurement using a conductive and non-conductive chuck, and estimate the corresponding CTM resistive losses.

  5. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Gas-Cell Atomic Frequency Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-25

    Clock Model Calculations ......................................................... 8 11. Exponents for Power-Law Formulas: oy -P a, S -P B, and PY...iz not substantiated oy the three-dimensional model. Considering Fig. 4 and Table IIi, it is more accurate tu state that the clock’s frequency offset...1985). [71 H. E. Williams, T. M. Kwon and T. McClelland, "Compact rectangular cavity for rubidium vapor cell frequency standards," Proceeding of the

  6. Neuritogenic effect of standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa233 on human neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to gain insight into neuroprotective effects of ECa 233, a standardized extract of Centella asiatica, previously demonstrated in animal models of memory impairment induced by transient global ischemia or intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid, the effect of ECa 233 on neurite outgrowth of human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. Methods Cells were seeded and incubated with various concentrations of ECa 233. Morphometric analysis was carried out by a measurement of the longest neurite growth of cells at 24 and 48 h. Contributing signaling pathways possibly involved were subsequently elucidated by western blot analysis. Results While ECa 233 had only limited effects on cell viability, it significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth of IMR-32 cells at the concentrations of 1–100 μg/ml. Western blot analysis revealed that ECa 233 significantly upregulated the level of activated ERK1/2 and Akt of the treated cells suggesting their involvement in the neuritogenic effect observed, which was subsequently verified by the finding that an addition of their respective inhibitors could reverse the effect of ECa 233 on these cells. Conclusions The present study clearly demonstrated neurite outgrowth promoting activity of ECa 233. ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways seemed to account for the neurotrophic effect observed. In conjunction with in vivo neuroprotective effect of ECa 233 previously reported, the results obtained support further development of ECa 233 for clinical use in neuronal injury or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23915016

  7. 75 FR 27249 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ..., which did not correspond to our description of our standard-setting process. This action will also... correspond to the aforementioned standard-setting process. The third section discusses the proposed...). The Sierra Club claimed that EPA violated CAA Section 129 by setting emissions standards for HMIWI...

  8. 76 FR 15703 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Injection ANSI American National Standards Institute ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM... Canadian Standards Association CWA Clean Water Act D/F Dioxin/Furan DIFF Dry Sorbent Injection Fabric... implementation of the standards. Section 129(a)(5) of the CAA then directs EPA to review those [[Page 15707...

  9. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  11. Local transport phenomena and cell performance of PEM fuel cells with various serpentine flow field designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Duan, Yuan-Yuan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Wei-Mon [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Taipei 22305 (China); Peng, Xiao-Feng [Laboratory of Phase Change and Interfacial Transport Phenomena, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-01-03

    The flow field design in bipolar plates is very important for improving reactant utilization and liquid water removal in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A three-dimensional model was used to analyze the effect of the design parameters in the bipolar plates, including the number of flow channel bends, number of serpentine flow channels and the flow channel width ratio, on the cell performance of miniature PEMFCs with the serpentine flow field. The effect of the liquid water formation on the porosities of the porous layers was also taken into account in the model while the complex two-phase flow was neglected. The predictions show that (1) for the single serpentine flow field, the cell performance improves as the number of flow channel bends increases; (2) the single serpentine flow field has better performance than the double and triple serpentine flow fields; (3) the cell performance only improves slowly as the flow channel width increases. The effects of these design parameters on the cell performance were evaluated based on the local oxygen mass flow rates and liquid water distributions in the cells. Analysis of the pressure drops showed that for these miniature PEMFCs, the energy losses due to the pressure drops can be neglected because they are far less than the cell output power. (author)

  12. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p program tiers (p speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results confirm that high-intensity variable-direction exercise capabilities are important for success in elite squash.

  13. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  14. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  15. Performance-enhancing drugs: design and production of redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B L

    2015-03-01

    Performance enhancement of the immune system can now be generated through ex vivo gene modification of T cells in order to redirect native specificity to target tumor antigens. This approach combines the specificity of antibody therapy, the expanded response of cellular therapy and the memory activity of vaccine therapy. Recent clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed toward CD19 as a stand-alone therapy have shown sustained complete responses in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As these drug products are individually derived from a patient's own cells, a different manufacturing approach is required for this kind of personalized therapy compared with conventional drugs. Key steps in the CAR T-cell manufacturing process include the selection and activation of isolated T cells, transduction of T cells to express CARs, ex vivo expansion of modified T cells and cryopreservation in infusible media. In this review, the steps involved in isolating, genetically modifying and scaling-out the CAR T cells for use in a clinical setting are described in the context of in-process and release testing and regulatory standards.

  16. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  17. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.D.; Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I–V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  18. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  19. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  1. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Experimental design and reporting standards for metabolomics studies of mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Sarah; Maker, Garth L; Mullaney, Ian; Trengove, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that investigates the small biochemical molecules present within a biological sample isolated from a plant, animal, or cultured cells. It can be an extremely powerful tool in elucidating the specific metabolic changes within a biological system in response to an environmental challenge such as disease, infection, drugs, or toxins. A historically difficult step in the metabolomics pipeline is in data interpretation to a meaningful biological context, for such high-variability biological samples and in untargeted metabolomics studies that are hypothesis-generating by design. One way to achieve stronger biological context of metabolomic data is via the use of cultured cell models, particularly for mammalian biological systems. The benefits of in vitro metabolomics include a much greater control of external variables and no ethical concerns. The current concerns are with inconsistencies in experimental procedures and level of reporting standards between different studies. This review discusses some of these discrepancies between recent studies, such as metabolite extraction and data normalisation. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of a standardised experimental approach to any cultured cell metabolomics study and suggests an example procedure fully inclusive of information that should be disclosed in regard to the cell type/s used and their culture conditions. Metabolomics of cultured cells has the potential to uncover previously unknown information about cell biology, functions and response mechanisms, and so the accurate biological interpretation of the data produced and its ability to be compared to other studies should be considered vitally important.

  3. Reevaluation of the Harboe assay as a standardized method of assessment for the hemolytic performance of ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chris H H; Hilton, Andrew; Foster, Graham; Hawkins, Karl

    2012-08-01

    The Harboe spectrophotometric assay is regarded as one of the safest and most reproducible methods for measuring plasma free hemoglobin (pfHb). However, there is still some ambiguity in the application of the assay when assessing the hemolytic performance of ventricular assist devices (VADs). The purpose of this study was to reexamine and compare values of pfHb obtained using different concentrations of plasma diluent (Na(2) CO(3) ) as cited by various studies such that a standard practice may be recommended for the application of the Harboe assay in the hemolytic evaluation of VADs, allowing reliable comparisons to be made between laboratories. As a means to examine the Harboe assay, a BioMedicus BPX-80 was tested using both whole blood and a washed suspension of red blood cells (RBCs). Results show that for whole blood, the pfHb may be underestimated by 13-23%, dependent upon the concentration of Na(2) CO(3) diluent solution. This trend was not observed for the washed suspension of RBCs. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration of diluent influences the stability of a sample. The results of this study show that the problems associated with the incongruity of pfHb readings are a direct result of the precipitation of proteins from the plasma under alkaline conditions; as the molarity of the diluent controls pH, it becomes essential to use the appropriate concentration of Na(2) CO(3) diluent in order to avoid turbidity of the solution and the consequent misrepresentation of pfHb values. Such standardization is pertinent when measuring the very low levels of pfHb observed during the in vivo testing of modern ventricular assist devices. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2016-10-11

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  5. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; De Wolf, Stefaan; Levrat, Jacques; Christmann, Gabriel; Descoeudres, Antoine; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; Watabe, Yoshimi; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  6. Low temperature performance of lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Tuhovak, D. R.; Post, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells for low temperature applications have been developed. Prismatic and spirally wound AA cells were tested under constant load discharge of 0.3 to 1.8 amps or pulse discharge of 0.225 or 1.0 amps at temperatures from -40 to 25 C. At -40 C with current densities of 2.5 mA/cm2, 23 percent of theoretical capacity was achieved under constant load discharge and 40 percent of theoretical capacity was achieved under pulse test. Self-discharge estimates of 0.7 percent per year at 25 C were obtained from microcalorimetry. Preliminary safety testing of the cells revealed no violent performance under short circuit or crush tests.

  7. Analysis performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, A. N. A.; Bahrom, M. H.; Azri, M.; Ibrahim, Z.; Rahim, N. A.; Raihan, S. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has gained much attention to the technology of renewable energy due to its mechanically ideal and zero emission power source. PEMFC performance reflects from the surroundings such as temperature and pressure. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of the PEMFC by developing the mathematical thermodynamic modelling using Matlab/Simulink. Apart from that, the differential equation of the thermodynamic model of the PEMFC is used to explain the contribution of heat to the performance of the output voltage of the PEMFC. On the other hand, the partial pressure equation of the hydrogen is included in the PEMFC mathematical modeling to study the PEMFC voltage behaviour related to the input variable input hydrogen pressure. The efficiency of the model is 33.8% which calculated by applying the energy conversion device equations on the thermal efficiency. PEMFC’s voltage output performance is increased by increasing the hydrogen input pressure and temperature.

  8. The Impact of Process Instructions on Judges' Use of Examinee Performance Data in Angoff Standard Setting Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Janet; Clauser, Brian E.; Margolis, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being widely used and frequently studied, the Angoff standard setting procedure has received little attention with respect to an integral part of the process: how judges incorporate examinee performance data in the decision-making process. Without performance data, subject matter experts have considerable difficulty accurately making the…

  9. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  10. 40 CFR 426.115 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture Tube... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  11. Performance optimization and microbiological analysis of microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the operation performance of microbial fuel cells, improved the degradation rate of nitrate and the power output of microbial fuel cell, a typical single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (AC-MFC is inoculated and operated with urban sewage treatment plant clarifier sludge as inoculum source and sodium nitrate as electron acceptor. It is successfully started by synthetic wastewater containing a phosphate buffered nutrient solution (PBS, 50 mmol/L and sodium acetate (1 g/L. After successful starting, the four factors of carbon source, C/N, nitrate concentration and temperature are considered to optimize the operation performance of MFC. The test result shows that the operation performance of MFC is best under the conditions of anhydrous sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N of 5∶1, 200 mg/L nitrate concentration and at 30 ℃, and the degradation rate of nitrate reaches more than 90% and the voltage of MFC is 0.462 V. After 6 cycles of operation, the voltage and power density of MFC reaches 0.62 V and 4.53 W /m2. AC impedance analysis indicates that the MFC resistance is 130 Ω. Scanning electron microscopy of electrode surface illustrates that the number of microbial species are significantly increased. The results indicate that MFC can be an effective technology for nitrate contained wastewater treatment and energy production.

  12. Lithium alloy-thionyl chloride cells - Performance and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, E.; Lombardi, A.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1983-06-01

    It is pointed out that the lithium-thionyl chloride cell has the highest energy density among all the commercially available batteries. The low rate, AA-bobbin cathode cell has been in the marketplace for several years, while the wound or spiral electrode cell is still in the stage of development. The main reason for this are safety problems. These problems are related to the very high reactivity of lithium toward thionyl chloride and the rather low melting point of lithium (180.5 C). The practical stability of the system depends on an LiCl-passivating layer which forms spontaneously on the immersion of the lithium in the electrolyte. This layer serves as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Under certain extreme conditions, however, the SEI can be damaged in such a way that an explosion of the cell occurs. The present investigation is concerned with the reduction of the short-circuit current and the improvement of the safety performance of the cell by the use of special, treated lithium alloys.

  13. The Performance of Standardized Patients in Portraying Clinical Scenarios in Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne E.; Davidson, Bronwyn J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Standardized patients (SPs) are frequently included in the clinical preparation of students in the health sciences. An acknowledged benefit of using SPs is the opportunity to provide a standardized method by which students can demonstrate and develop their competency. Relatively little is known, however, about the capacity of SPs to…

  14. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... estimated 38 tons per year, and hydrocarbons by an estimated 18 tons per year in the year 2030. DATES: This... Changes Since Proposal A. Definitions B. Emission Standards and Fuel Requirements C. Requirements for... Located in Remote Alaska D. Emission Standards for Marine Engines E. Test Methods F. Definitions VI...

  15. 40 CFR 280.20 - Performance standards for new UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Laboratories Subject 971, “UL Listed Non-Metal Pipe”; (B) Underwriters Laboratories Standard 567, “Pipe..., “Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pipe and Fittings for Flammable Liquids”; and (D) Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Standard CAN 4-S633-M81, “Flexible Underground Hose Connectors.” (2) The piping is...

  16. C(G)-Band and X(I)-Band Noncoherent Radar Transponder Performance Specification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED ABERDEEN TEST CENTER DUGWAY...Standardization. Quality management and quality assurance standards -- Part 2: Generic guidelines for the application of ISO 9001 , ISO 9002 and ISO 9003...for the application of ISO 9001 , ISO 9002 and ISO 9003. ISO 9000-2:1997. Withdrawn with no replacement. Geneva: International Organization

  17. A population study comparing screening performance of prototypes for depression and anxiety with standard scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be

  18. Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Krzysztof; Søndenâ, Rune; Stokkan, Gaute; Looney, Erin; Jensen, Mallory; Lai, Barry; Rinio, Markus; Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

  19. Electrochemical performance and interfacial investigation on Si composite anode for lithium ion batteries in full cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Alvarado, Judith; Yang, Yangyuchen; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) containing silicon (Si) as a negative electrode have gained much attention recently because they deliver high energy density. However, the commercialization of LIBs with Si anode is limited due to the unstable electrochemical performance associated with expansion and contraction during electrochemical cycling. This study investigates the electrochemical performance and degradation mechanism of a full cell containing Si composite anode and LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate (LFP)) cathode. Enhanced electrochemical cycling performance is observed when the full cell is cycled with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive compared to the standard electrolyte. To understand the improvement in the electrochemical performance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Based on the electrochemical behavior, FEC improves the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si composite anode. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrates that the SEI composition generated from the addition of FEC consists of a large amount of LiF and less carbonate species, which leads to better capacity retention over 40 cycles. The effective SEI successively yields more stable capacity retention and enhances the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion through the interphase of the Si anode, even at higher discharge rate. This study contributes to a basic comprehension of electrochemical performance and SEI formation of LIB full cells with a high loading Si composite anode.

  20. Business cycles and the financial performance of fuel cell companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in a hydrogen powered world. They will provide power to homes, modes of transportation and appliances. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature, but it must be extracted in order to be usable. It can be produced from oil, natural gas and coal or from renewable sources such as biomass, thermal or nuclear reactions. Fuel cells running on hydrogen extracted from non renewable resources have an efficiency of 30 per cent, which is twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine. The greatest barrier to mass commercialization is the cost of making hydrogen-powered auto engines. Also, an infrastructure must be developed to refill hydrogen cars. One solution is to build a hydrogen highway using the existing natural gas grid to produce hydrogen and sell it at existing filling stations. The cost of building 12,000 refueling pumps in urban areas which will provide access to 70 per cent of America's population is estimated at $10 to $15 billion. This paper described the vector autoregression (VAR) model which empirically examines the relationship between financial performance of fuel cell companies and business cycles. It was used to measure how sensitive the financial performance of fuel cell companies are to changes in macroeconomic activity. A four variable VAR model was developed to examine the relationship between stock prices, oil prices and interest rates. It was shown that the stock prices of fuel cell companies are affected by shocks to technology stock prices and oil prices, with the former having a longer lasting impact. These results add to the growing literature that oil price movements are not as important as once thought. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...

  2. Energy harvesting influences electrochemical performance of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be effective power sources for remote sensing, wastewater treatment and environmental remediation, but their performance needs significant improvement. This study systematically analyzes how active harvesting using electrical circuits increased MFC system outputs as compared to passive resistors not only in the traditional maximal power point (MPP) but also in other desired operating points such as the maximum current point (MCP) and the maximum voltage point (MVP). Results show that active harvesting in MPP increased power output by 81-375% and active harvesting in MCP increased Coulombic efficiency by 207-805% compared with resisters operated at the same points. The cyclic voltammograms revealed redox potential shifts and supported the performance data. The findings demonstrate that active harvesting is a very effective approach to improve MFC performance across different operating points.

  3. High Performance Nano-Ceria Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Martinez Aguilera, Lev; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    In solid oxide electrochemical cells, the conventional Ni-based fuel-electrodes provide high electrocatalytic activity but they are often a major source of long-term performance degradation due to carbon deposition, poisoning of reaction sites, Ni mobility, etc. Doped-ceria is a promising mixed...... ionic-electronic conducting oxide that could solve these issues if it can be integrated into an appropriate electrode structure. Two new approaches to obtain high-performance nanostructured doped-ceria electrodes are highlighted. The first is an infiltration-based architecture with Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-δ...... forming the active surfaces on a porous backbone with embedded electronic current collector material, yielding one of the highest performances reported for an electrode that operates either on fuel or oxidant. The second is a nano-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ thin film prepared by spin-coating, which provides...

  4. Describing Performance Standards: Validity of the 1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress Achievement Level Descriptors as Characterizations of Mathematics Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Leigh; Koretz, Daniel; Linn, Robert; Sugrue, Brenda; Novak, John; Baker, Eva L.; Harris, Elizabeth Lewis

    1996-01-01

    Three studies evaluating the validity of the descriptors and exemplars of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as characterizations of the actual mathematics performance of students at achievement levels are reported. Serious inconsistencies were found between actual performance and descriptors and exemplars. Recommendations for…

  5. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-11-19

    Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Consecutive children with SCA aged 5-11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- matched normal classmates were recruited as controls. The total number of days of school absence for 2009/2010 academic session was obtained for each pair of pupils from the class attendance register. Academic performance was assessed using the average of the overall scores in the three term examinations of same session. Intelligence ability was determined with Draw-A-Person Quotient (DAPQ) using the Draw-A-Person Test while socio-economic status was determined using the occupational status and educational attainment of each parent. Academic performance of children with SCA showed statistically significant association with their socio-economic status (χ2 = 9.626, p = 0.047), and significant correlation with DAPQ (r = 0.394, p = 0.000) and age (r = -0.412, p = 0.000). However, no significant relationship existed between academic performance and school absence in children with SCA (r = -0.080, p = 0.453). Academic performance of children with SCA is influenced by their intelligence ability, age and socio-economic status but not negatively affected by their increased school absenteeism.

  6. Evaluation of the performance test uncertainties of a primary standard for low energy X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was developed with the aim to check the reliability of the free-air ionization chamber with variable volume, manufactured by Victoreen Instruments, model 481 as a primary standard, used by Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI of IRD in order to measure the quantity ar kerma. To that were evaluates the uncertainties in each test done with the equipment during the process of its characterization as a standard. The results has a behaviour characteristics of a primary standard, being simple to handle, mechanical construction and showing an expanded uncertainty equal to 0,26%, which, corresponds to a 30 kV quality. (author)

  7. Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders' academic performance on achievement of mathematics and english education standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.

  8. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (EMSs AND ISO 14001 STANDARDS ON CORPORATE PERFORMANCE: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Grandic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the systematic literature review method and investigates the impacts of the EMS and ISO 14001 Standards towards corporate performance. Two units are considered through the methodology of research; firm size and market orientation. The evidence comes from the analysed dataset of 19 papers. Aggregated search results show that global firms orientated towards export have a higher probability to achieve product and process innovation than companies who focus primarily on regional and local markets due to higher competition in the global market. Moreover, firms who adopted EMS and ISO 14001 standard have a greater impact on performance, a positive influence on innovation and commitment to the environment related to company targets than those firms who did not apply it. The results of this research could be interesting for both investors and academics to know how the voluntary adoption of these two standards affects corporate performance.

  9. Performance of a Yeast-mediated Biological Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip To

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae present in common Baker’s yeast was used in a microbial fuel cell in which glucose was the carbon source. Methylene blue was used as the electronophore in the anode compartment, while potassium ferricyanide and methylene blue were tested as electron acceptors in the cathode compartment. Microbes in a mediator-free environment were used as the control. The experiment was performed in both open and closed circuit configurations under different loads ranging from 100 kΩ to 400Ω. The eukaryotic S. cerevisiae-based fuel cell showed improved performance when methylene blue and ferricyanide were used as electron mediators, rendering a maximum power generation of 146.71±7.7 mW/m3. The fuel cell generated a maximum open circuit voltage of 383.6±1.5 mV and recorded a maximum efficiency of 28±1.8 % under 100 kΩ of external load.

  10. Performance Evaluation of a PEM Scanner Using the NEMA NU 4—2008 Small Animal PET Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weidong; Anashkin, Edward; Matthews, Christopher G.

    2010-02-01

    The recently published NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards has been specially designed for evaluating the performance of small animal PET scanners used in preclinical applications. In this paper, we report on the NU 4 performance of a clinical positron emission mammography (PEM) system. Since there are no PEM specific performance test protocols available, and the NU 2 protocol (intended for whole-body PET scanners) cannot be applied without modification due to the compact design of the PEM scanner, we decided to evaluate the NU 4 Standards as an alternative. We obtained the following results: Trans-axial spatial resolution 1.8 mm FWHM for high resolution reconstruction mode and 2.4 mm FWHM for standard resolution reconstruction mode with no significant variation within the field of view. The total system sensitivity was 0.16 cps/Bq. In image quality testing, the uniformity was found to be 3.9% STD at the standard resolution mode and 5.6% at the high resolution mode when measured with a 34 mm paddle separation. The NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards were found to be a practicable tool to evaluate the performance of the PEM scanner after some modifications to address the specifics of its detector configuration. Furthermore, the PEM scanner's in-plane spatial resolution was comparable to other small animal PET scanners with good image quality.

  11. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer... prior experience with contaminants in the gas stream, where these contaminants could be expected to...

  12. Glucose-based Biofuel Cells: Nanotechnology as a Vital Science in Biofuel Cells Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Aghahosseini; Ali Ramazani; Pegah Azimzadeh Asiabi; Farideh Gouranlou; Fahimeh Hosseini; Aram Rezaei; Bong-Ki Min; Sang Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of el...

  13. Poly (Ethylene-Alit-Tetrafluoroethylene) Based Membranes For Fuel Cells: Synthesis And Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan Guersel, S.; Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.

    2005-03-01

    Proton exchange membranes have been synthesized by pre-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly (ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) in the presence of divinyl benzene (DVB) as the cross linker and characterized ex-situ for their fuel cell relevant properties. The optimum graft level was determined as between 20 and 30 %. ETFE based membranes exhibited encouraging fuel cell performance yet, there is room for improvement through optimization of the membrane-electrode interface. (author)

  14. Writing standards for performance based building regulations. Conditions to be fulfilled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Walters, W.; Nouwen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Building Decree, a general administrative measure based on the Housing Act, is expressed in performance requirements. In each clause the performance requirement is based on a functional definit-ion. This definition expresses the intention of the performance requirement. The performance

  15. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen [Sandy Hook, CT; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan [New Milford, CT; Novacco, Lawrence J [Brookfield, CT

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  16. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  17. Microfluidics and numerical simulation as methods for standardization of zebrafish sperm cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas; Knapp, Gerald L; Guitreau, Amy; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Tiersch, Terrence; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Monroe, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Sperm cell activation plays a critical role in a range of biological and engineering processes, from fertilization to cryopreservation protocol evaluation. Across a range of species, ionic and osmotic effects have been discovered that lead to activation. Sperm cells of zebrafish (Danio rerio) initiate motility in a hypoosmotic environment. In this study, we employ a microfluidic mixer for the purpose of rapidly diluting the extracellular medium to initiate the onset of cell motility. The use of a microchannel offers a rapid and reproducible mixing profile throughout the device. This greatly reduces variability from trial to trial relative to the current methods of analysis. Coupling these experiments with numerical simulations, we were able to investigate the dynamics of intracellular osmolality as each cell moves along its path through the micromixer. Our results suggest that intracellular osmolality, and hence intracellular ion concentration, only slightly decreases, contrary to the common thought that larger changes in these parameters are required for activation. Utilizing this framework, microfluidics for controlled extracellular environments and associated numerical modeling, has practical applicability in standardizing high-throughput aquatic sperm activation, and more fundamentally, investigations of the intracellular environment leading to motility.

  18. Comparison of clinical grade type 1 polarized and standard matured dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Donia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    induction of type 1 effector T cells. Standard matured clinical grade DCs “sDCs” were compared with DCs matured with either of two type 1 polarizing maturation cocktails; the alpha-type-1 DCs “αDC1s” (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFN-α, Poly(I:C)) and “mDCs” (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), IFN-γ) or a mixed cocktail....... αDC1s and mDCs were functionally superior to sDCs as they polarized naïve CD4+ T cells most efficiently into T helper type 1 effector cells and primed more functional MART-1 specific CD8+ T cells although with variation between donors. αDC1s and mDCs were transiently less capable of CCL21-directed......DCs and strikingly had the highest expression of the inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and CD25. Thus, further studies with type 1 polarized DCs are warranted for use in immunotherapy, but when combined with PGE2 as in mpDCs, they seems to be less optimal for maturation of DCs....

  19. Microstructured Electrolyte Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue

    Fuel cells, with the advantages of high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission, and long lifetime are a promising technology for both portable power and stationary power sources. The development of efficient electrolyte membranes with high ionic conductivity, good mechanical durability and dense structure at low cost remains a challenge to the commercialization of fuel cells. This thesis focuses on exploring novel composite polymer membranes and ceramic electrolytes with the microstructure engineered to improve performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), respectively. Polymer/particle composite membranes hold promise to meet the demands of DMFCs at lower cost. The structure of composite membranes was controlled by aligning proton conducting particles across the membrane thickness under an applied electric field. The field-induced structural changes caused the membranes to display an enhanced water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability in comparison to membranes prepared without an applied field. Although both methanol permeability and proton conductivity are enhanced by the applied field, the permeability increase is relatively lower than the proton conductivity improvement, which results in enhanced proton/methanol selectivity and improved DMFC performance. Apatite ceramics are a new class of fast ion conductors being studied as alternative SOFC electrolytes in the intermediate temperature range. An electrochemical/hydrothermal deposition method was developed to grow fully dense apatite membranes containing well-developed crystals with c-axis alignment to promote ion conductivity. Hydroxyapatite seed crystals were first deposited onto a metal substrate electrochemically. Subsequent ion substitution during the hydrothermal growth process promoted the formation of dense, fully crystalline films with microstructure optimal for ion transport. The deposition parameters were systematically investigated, such as

  20. Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells based on Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0103 Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells based on Conjugated Polymers Kung-Hwa Wei National Chiao Tung University Final...Conjugated Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-4113 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Kung-Hwa Wei 5d.  PROJECT...gap polymer with good packing order as the active layer for a single-junction photovoltaic device. The light absorptions for the small molecule and the

  1. High Performance InGaN-Based Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-12

    Performance InGaN-Based Solar Cells AR coating n-GaN contact Dichroic mirror Grid contact Bonding interlayer ( BCB , SOG, etc Grid contact AR coating...Dichroic mirror ■ Grid contact - Bonding interlayer ■ ( BCB , SOG, etc.; Grid contact - AR coating - Back side- contact GaAs(1.42eV) Gao.nlno27As...benzocyclobutene ( BCB ) or spin-on-glass (SOG), will need to be used at the bonding interface to electrically isolate the grid contacts and provide good

  2. Standardized Sophora pachycarpa Root Extract Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation in Adipose-derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Samaneh; Neshati, Vajiheh; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mojarrad, Majid; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-05-01

    Bone defect is an important topic in public health. Novel therapies are based on osteogenic induction by natural antiosteoporotic compounds including plant-derived estrogens. In the current study, the osteogenic potential of Sophora pachycarpa root extract (SPRE) was explored on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Herein, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinducted in the presence of increased concentrations of the extract for 21 days. Then, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and the differentiated cells were stained by Alizarin Red S for calcium deposition and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay for enzymatic activity. To assess the expression of bone-related genes, treated cells were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTT test demonstrated that SPRE had no toxic effects on the cell viability. Treating the cells with SPRE noticeably promoted ALP activity, mineralization, and mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Additionally, cells subjected to 0.1 μg/mL SPRE showed the highest osteogenic effects. According to high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of SPRE, the osteoprotective effects of SPRE is probably due to presence of phytochemicals with estrogen-like activity in the extract. Thus, SPRE might be a suitable therapeutic agent for bone defects therapy in the future research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission (EC) issued a directive, 2002/91/EC [1]. The objective of this directive is to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the community, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements...... and ventilation systems must be performed. The present paper will present the method for calculating the energy performance for heating systems. The relevant CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small family house in different geographical locations: Stockholm...

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Humidity Effect on Performance of PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Al Shakhshir, Saher; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrical performance is tested and modelled. The aim is to investigate the effect of reactants and membrane humidity on cell electrical performance. We discuss cell performance in terms of various variables affecting water transport...... and the impact of cell hydration on ohmic resistance....

  5. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by ektacytometry (LORRCA MaxSis, Mechatronics, The Netherlands) in 6 healthy individuals and 49 SCA patients and tested the effects of different heights of the RBC diffraction patterns, obtained by altering the camera gain of the LORRCA, on the result of RBC deformability measurements, expressed as Elongation Index (EI). Results indicate that the pattern of RBCs from control subjects adopts an elliptical shape under shear stress, whereas the pattern of RBCs from individuals with SCA adopts a diamond shape arising from the superposition of elliptical and circular patterns. The latter represent rigid RBCs. While the EI measures did not change with the variations of the RBC diffraction pattern heights in the control subjects, we observed a decrease of EI when the RBC diffraction pattern height is increased in the SCA group. The differences in SCA EI values measured at 5 Pa between the different diffraction pattern heights correlated with the percent of hemoglobin S and the percent of sickled RBC observed by microscopy. Our study confirms that the camera gain or aperture of the ektacytometer should be used to standardize the size of the RBC diffraction pattern height when measuring RBC deformability in sickle cell patients and underscores the potential clinical utility of this technique.

  6. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, A.R.; Adomeit, U.; Chevalier, P.; Landeau, S.; Bijl, P.; Champagnat, F.; Dijk, J.; Göhler, B.; Landini, S.; Reynolds, J.P.; Smith, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance

  7. 20 CFR 669.500 - What performance measures and standards apply to the NFJP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... youth programs, described in 20 CFR part 666. The levels of performance for the farmworker indicators... service area economy and local demographics of eligible MSFW's. The levels of performance for these...

  8. Performance Analysis of Video PHY Controller Using Unidirection and Bi-directional IO Standard via 7 Series FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M F L; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    The Video PHY controller offers an interface between transmitters/receivers and video ports. These video ports are categorized in HDMI or Displayport. HDMI Video PHY controller are mostly used for their high speed operation for high resolution graphics. However, the execution of high resolution...... graphics consumes more power, this creates a need of designing the low power design for Video PHY controller. In this paper, the performance of Video PHY controller is analyzed by comparing the power consumption of unidirectional and bi-directional IO Standard over 7 series FPGA. It is determined...... that total on-chip power is reduced for unidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller compared to bidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller. The most significant achievement of this work is that it is concluded that unidirectional IO Standard based Video PHY controller consume least...

  9. A comparison of two standard-setting approaches in high-stakes clinical performance assessment using generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina A; Boscardin, Christy K; May, Win; Fung, Cha-Chi

    2012-08-01

    Scoring clinical assessments in a reliable and valid manner using criterion-referenced standards remains an important issue and directly affects decisions made regarding examinee proficiency. This generalizability study of students' clinical performance examination (CPX) scores examines the reliability of those scores and of their interpretation, particularly according to a newly introduced, "critical actions" criterion-referenced standard and scoring approach. The authors applied a generalizability framework to the performance scores of 477 third-year students attending three different medical schools in 2008. The norm-referenced standard included all station checklist items. The criterion-referenced standard included only those items deemed critical to patient care by a faculty panel. The authors calculated and compared variance components and generalizability coefficients for each standard across six common stations. Norm-referenced scores had moderate generalizability (ρ = 0.51), whereas criterion-referenced scores showed low dependability (φ = 0.20). The estimated 63% of measurement error associated with the person-by-station interaction suggests case specificity. Increasing the number of stations on the CPX from 6 to 24, an impractical solution both for cost and time, would still yield only moderate dependability (φ = 0.50). Though the performance assessment of complex skills, like clinical competence, seems intrinsically valid, careful consideration of the scoring standard and approach is needed to avoid misinterpretation of proficiency. Further study is needed to determine how best to improve the reliability of criterion-referenced scores, by implementing changes to the examination structure, the process of standard-setting, or both.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  11. CDTE alloys and their application for increasing solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Drew E.

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film solar is the largest manufactured solar cell technology in the United States and is responsible for one of the lowest costs of utility scale solar electricity at a purchase agreement of $0.0387/kWh. However, this cost could be further reduced by increasing the cell efficiency. To bridge the gap between the high efficiency technology and low cost manufacturing, a research and development tool and process was built and tested. This fully automated single vacuum PV manufacturing tool utilizes multiple inline close space sublimation (CSS) sources with automated substrate control. This maintains the proven scalability of the CSS technology and CSS source design but with the added versatility of independent substrate motion. This combination of a scalable deposition technology with increased cell fabrication flexibility has allowed for high efficiency cells to be manufactured and studied. The record efficiency of CdTe solar cells is lower than fundamental limitations due to a significant deficit in voltage. It has been modeled that there are two potential methods of decreasing this voltage deficiency. The first method is the incorporation of a high band gap film at the back contact to induce a conduction-band barrier that can reduce recombination by reflecting electrons from the back surface. The addition of a Cd1-x MgxTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should induce this desired offset and reflect both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cells current and the reduction of forward current will increase the cells voltage. To have the optimal effect, CdTe must have reasonable carrier lifetimes and be fully depleted. To achieve this experimentally, CdTe layers have been grown sufficiently thin to help produce a fully depleted cell. A variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x

  12. High-performance polymer photovoltaic cells and photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Srdanov, Gordana; Wang, Hailiang; Cao, Yong; Heeger, Alan J.

    2001-02-01

    Polymer photovoltaic cells and photodetectors have passed their infancy and become mature technologies. The energy conversion efficiency of polymer photovoltaic cells have been improved to over 4.1% (500 nm, 10 mW/cm2). Such high efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells are promising for many applications including e-papers, e-books and smart- windows. The development of polymer photodetectors is even faster. The performance parameters have been improved to the level meeting all specifications for practical applications. The polymer photodetectors are of high photosensitivity (approximately 0.2 - 0.3 A/Watt in visible and UV), low dark current (0.1 - 1 nA/cm2), large dynamic range (> 8 orders of magnitude), linear intensity dependence, low noise level and fast response time (to nanosecond time domain). These devices show long shelf and operation lives. The advantages of low manufacturing cost, large detection area, and easy hybridization and integration with other electronic or optical components make the polymer photodetectors promising for a variety of applications including chemical/biomedical analysis, full-color digital image sensing and high energy radiation detection.

  13. Evaluation of a draft standard on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation. Initial results for radiological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Mileham, A.P.; Kathren, R.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    The draft ANSI standard N42.17D2 on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation is currently being evaluated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the project is the evaluation of the applicability and practicality of the proposed standard through testing of a cross-section of currently available commercial instruments to determine how well they conform to the standard. The standard is being tested against instruments such as ionization chambers, G.M. detectors, alpha survey meters, and neutron dose equivalent survey meters. This paper presents results of the preliminary radiological performance tests on ionization chambers and G.M. detectors. This includes both the data generated during the tests and a discussion of procedures developed to perform the testing. Results are reported for response time, accuracy, precision, radiation overloads, and angular dependence. In addition, results are reported for parameters that affect instrument performance including battery lifetime, geotropism and stability. Initial test indicates that some of the instruments will not meet the criteria specified in ANSI N42.17D2. Results cover approximately 40 instruments that have been obtained by direct purchase, by loan from instrument vendors or by loan from others including DOE licensees

  14. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring performance has been arguerably, one of the metric with many facets with different school of thoughts, as there exist different approaches of measuring it. Several of the existing approaches measure such metric by comparison with standards esherined in policy documents and as a result, ...

  15. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  16. Performance standards for pass-fail determinations in the national air traffic flight service station training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes and documents Pass-Fail procedures for the new FSS Training Program. New types of measures and sets of norms are used to create standards of performance that students must meet to become eligible for acceptance into the operatio...

  17. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  18. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  19. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 42 CFR 433.123 - Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for approval or reapproval. 433.123 Section 433.123 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM will...

  2. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  3. Performance of carbon dioxide vent for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shruti; Kohl, Paul A.

    Direct methanol fuel cells have potentially high energy density if the balance of plant and fuel losses can be kept to a minimum. CO 2 accumulation in the fuel tank can lower the efficiency and performance of closed-tank methanol fuel cells. This report discusses the implementation of a passive CO 2 vent fabricated with poly(1-trimethyl silyl propyne) and 1,6-divinylperfluorohexane. The performance of the membrane as a selective vent for carbon dioxide in the presence of methanol has been studied at various operating conditions. First, the selectivity of the vent membrane improved with temperature. Second, the activation energy for permeation through the polymer membrane corresponded to diffusion controlled transport of CO 2 and sorption controlled transport for methanol vapor. The activation energy for CO 2 transport through the poly(1-trimethyl silyl propyne) and 1,6-divinylperfluorohexane membrane was less than that for a pure poly(1-trimethyl silyl propyne) membrane. Finally, the polymer had a high selectivity for carbon dioxide compared to both liquid and vapor phase methanol.

  4. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  5. 76 FR 15371 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... of the Clean Air Act: Cadmium, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, lead, mercury, nitrogen oxides... Hydrogen Chloride Hg Mercury HMIWI Hospital, Medical and Infectious Waste Incineration ICR Information... Milligrams per Dry Standard Cubic Meter MH Multiple Hearth Mn Manganese MWC Municipal Waste Combustion NAAQS...

  6. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  7. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave validation standard antenna (mm-vast) – performance verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    A new multi-frequency Validation Standard (VAST) antenna covering upper microwave (K/Ka) and millimeter wave (Q/V) bands, and thus called mmVAST, was developed in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under contract from the European Space Agency. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical...

  8. Validity: Applying Current Concepts and Standards to Gynecologic Surgery Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClaire, Edgar L.; Nihira, Mikio A.; Hardré, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Validity is critical for meaningful assessment of surgical competency. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, validation involves the integration of data from well-defined classifications of evidence. In the authoritative framework, data from all classifications support construct validity claims. The two aims of this…

  9. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  10. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section, and the Associate General Counsel for the Air and Radiation Law Office, Office of... gas (GHG). We are not taking final agency action with respect to a GHG emission standard in this... sources. For a discussion of the data received from the American Chemistry Council after the proposed rule...

  11. 40 CFR 421.224 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus vanadium plus pure grade molybdenum produced Arsenic 27.120 12.097 Chromium 7.219 2.927 Lead 5.463...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary...

  12. [Developing and standardizing experimental protocols using human iPS-derived cells to predict adverse drug reactions in pre-clinical safety studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Yuko; Sato, Kaoru; Kanda, Yasunari; Ishida, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have standardized experimental protocols to evaluate the possibility of using cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in the pre-clinical studies for the drug approval processes. Cells differentiated from hiPSC, especially cardiomyocytes, neurons and hepatocytes, are expected to be used as new pharmacological and toxicological assay tools. Current preclinical test methods have limitations for predicting clinical adverse drug reactions. This is because of the so-called 'problem of species difference'. Drug-induced arrhythmia, cognitive impairment and hepatotoxicity which can't be predicted in pre-clinical studies are major causes of the high rate attrition of new-drug candidates in clinical studies and of withdrawal of products from the market. The development of new pre-clinical test methods using cells differentiated from hiPSCs would resolve these problems, in addition to solving the issue of "the replacement, refinement and reduction (3Rs)" of animal experiments. From 2010 to 2011, we surveyed companies belonging to the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) and academic researchers about the usage of differentiated cells in their laboratories. We found that studies were performed using differentiated cells from different cell lines of hiPSC with laboratory-specific differentiation methods. The cells were cultured in various conditions and their activities were measured using different methods. This resulted in a variety of pharmacological responses of the cells. It is therefore impossible to compare reproducibility and ensure reliability of experiments using these cells. To utilize the cells in the drug approval processes, we need robust, standardized test methods to accurately reproduce these methods in all laboratories. We will then be able to compare and analyze the obtained results. Based on the survey, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare funded our study. In our study, we standardize

  13. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  14. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  16. The political economy of regulation: Investigation of the relationship between design and performance standards in surface coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research concerning political and economic regulatory policy was conducted on 15 randomly selected surface coal mines in Tennessee. Data on violations were collected over a 6-year period from 1979 through 1984. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the approaches of the Carter and Reagan administrations concerning the implementation of design and performance regulations of Public Law 95-87. The study concluded that: (1) A change in political administration affects regulatory policy concerning enforcement practices. (2) Regulatory policy is altered in the direction of economic activity believed by an administration to be desirable to society and its constituents. (3) Elaborate rule making activity constrains market activity. (4) The coupling of design and performance standards should be retained. No difference was found in the number of violations for design and associated performance standards. Findings support the theory that it is the administration that affects change in regulatory policy, and not the regulatory construct for compliance with a mandate

  17. Setting Performance Standards for a Cost-Effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Strategy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paltiel, A. David; Zheng, Amy; Weinstein, Milton C.; Gaynes, Melanie R.; Wood, Robin; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Sax, Paul E.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Reports of a single case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) eradication suggest that elimination of HIV from individuals is possible. Anticipating both increased research funding and the development of effective, durable cure technologies, we describe the circumstances under which a cure might improve survival and be cost-effective in South Africa. Methods. We adapted a simulation model comparing a hypothetical cure strategy (?Cure?) to the standard of care, lifetime a...

  18. 2017 update of the European Federation for Colposcopy (EFC) performance standards for the practice of colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, K Ulrich; Nieminen, Pekka J; Leeson, Simon C; Bergeron, Christine O M A; Redman, Charles W E

    2018-03-16

    A refinement of quality indicators (QIs) is described whereby the quality of care can be measured across colposcopy services in different countries and healthcare settings. A five-round Delphi process was conducted at successive satellite meetings from 2011 to 2015 of leading European colposcopists to refine the most high-scoring QIs relevant to colposcopic practice. A review and refinement of the wording of the standards and their criteria was undertaken by national society representatives. Six quality indicators were identified and refined. "Documentation of whether the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) has been visible or not" was changed into "for cervical colposcopy transformation zone (TZ) type (1, 2 or 3) should be documented". The standard "percentage of cases having a colposcopic examination prior to treatment for abnormal cytology" was changed to "percentage of cases having a colposcopic examination prior to treatment for abnormal cervical screening test". The standard "percentage of all excisional treatments/conizations containing CIN2+ (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade two or worse)" was changed into "percentage of excisional treatments/conizations having a definitive histology of CIN2+. Definitive histology is highest grade from any diagnostic or therapeutic biopsies". The standard "percentage of excised lesions/conizations with clear margins" was unchanged. The remaining two QIs define the minimum caseloads required for colposcopists. However, "cytology" was replaced by "screening results" to acknowledge the introduction of human papillomavirus testing to European screening programmes. Six QIs were identified to define good practice in colposcopy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sticky Assessments--The Impact of Teachers' Grading Standard on Pupils' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that school grades cannot be interpreted solely as a reward for a given school performance, since they also reflect teachers' assessments of pupils. A teacher's evaluation of a pupil's performance, as reflected in the grade awarded, might influence the effort that the pupil invests in learning. Grades might therefore serve as…

  20. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no kasoku jumyo shiken hoho no hyojunka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for fuel cells, which are expected as a new clean energy, the R and D are being proceeded with in various fields of the world, but the standardization has not been made both in Japan and abroad. In Japan, the situation is that the information on technical terms, indication method, performance test method, and environment/safety test methods of the phosphorous acid fuel cell power generation is publicly spread. In relation to the international promotion of fuel cells to be predicted, it is necessary to internationally standardize cells themselves which are a key component of fuel cell power generation facilities. Phosphorous acid fuel cells are expected of the earliest commercialization of all, but the common test method to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack has not been established yet. In the R and D, for the purpose of internationally standardizing test methods to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack, a study on the acceleration life test method of phosphoric acid fuel cells was conducted in terms of the technical trend, data, standard, etc. A plan was prepared on general rules of the method to test acceleration life at the cell reaction part of the small cell, and activities also were started for setting up a technical committee for the fuel cell power system in President`s Advisory Committee on Future Technology. 29 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. I. Subtraction analysis of a standardized procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, W; Marshall, P N; Bacus, J W

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a microspectrophotometric study of blood smears stained by a simple, standardized Romanowsky technique, using only the dyes azure B and cosin. Absorbance spectra are presented for twenty-two classes of cellular object, and for the two dyes in solution, together with tabulations of spectral maxima, and suitable wavelengths for use in automated image processing. The colours of objects stained with azure B/eosin are discussed in terms of absorbance spectra. By a spectral subtraction technique, it is shown that the differential colouration of various cell structures may be explained satisfactorily in terms of the varying proportions of only four dye components. These are the monomers and dimers of azure B and eosin. Polymerization was found to occur both in solution and on binding to biopolymers. A similar analysis of a conventional Romanowsky stain would present much greater difficulties, due to the greater number of dye components, which, however, contribute little to the colours observed.

  2. Standardization method for measurement of hydroxyurea by Ultra High Efficiency Liquid Chromatography in plasma of patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a recessively inherited disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, chronic inflammation, and acute episodes of hemolysis. Hydroxyurea (HU is widely used to increase the levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. The objective of this study was to standardize and validate a method for the quantification of HU in human plasma by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in order to determine the plasma HU levels in adult patients with SCA who had been treated with HU. We used an analytical reverse phase column (Nucleosil C18 with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (16.7/83.3. The retention times of HU, urea, and methylurea were 6.7, 7.7, and 11.4 min, respectively. All parameters of the validation process were defined. To determine the precision and accuracy of quality controls, HU in plasma was used at concentrations of 100, 740, and 1600 µM, with methylurea as the internal standard. Linearity was assessed in the range of 50-1600 µM HU in plasma, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The method was accurate and precise and can be used for the quantitative determination of HU for therapeutic monitoring of patients with SCA treated with HU.

  3. A parallel simulated annealing algorithm for standard cell placement on a hypercube computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark Howard

    1987-01-01

    A parallel version of a simulated annealing algorithm is presented which is targeted to run on a hypercube computer. A strategy for mapping the cells in a two dimensional area of a chip onto processors in an n-dimensional hypercube is proposed such that both small and large distance moves can be applied. Two types of moves are allowed: cell exchanges and cell displacements. The computation of the cost function in parallel among all the processors in the hypercube is described along with a distributed data structure that needs to be stored in the hypercube to support parallel cost evaluation. A novel tree broadcasting strategy is used extensively in the algorithm for updating cell locations in the parallel environment. Studies on the performance of the algorithm on example industrial circuits show that it is faster and gives better final placement results than the uniprocessor simulated annealing algorithms. An improved uniprocessor algorithm is proposed which is based on the improved results obtained from parallelization of the simulated annealing algorithm.

  4. Standard guide for in-plant performance evaluation of automatic pedestrian SNM monitors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This guide is affiliated with Guide C1112 on special nuclear material (SNM) monitors, Guide C1169 on laboratory performance evaluation, and Guide C1189 on calibrating pedestrian SNM monitors. This guide to in-plant performance evaluation is a comparatively rapid way to verify whether a pedestrian SNM monitor performs as expected for detecting SNM or SNM-like test sources. 1.1.1 In-plant performance evaluation should not be confused with the simple daily functional test recommended in Guide C1112. In-plant performance evaluation takes place less often than daily tests, usually at intervals ranging from weekly to once every three months. In-plant evaluations are also more extensive than daily tests and may examine both a monitor's nuisance alarm record and its detection sensitivity for a particular SNM or alternative test source. 1.1.2 In-plant performance evaluation also should not be confused with laboratory performance evaluation. In-plant evaluation is comparatively rapid, takes place in the monitor...

  5. Experimental study and comparison of various designs of gas flow fields to PEM fuel cells and cell stack performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eLiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to PEM fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells all have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm2. The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for relatively large size fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  6. Standardization of Romanowsky stains. The relationship between stain composition and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1978-03-01

    A panel of 17 eminent haematologists has assessed the performance of 5 Romanowsky stains prepared from pure component dyes, comparing the suitability and acceptability of these stains for the preparation of routine blood and bone-marrow films. It was found that the results obtained using the stain described by Marshall et al (1975) were comparable to those obtained using a modification of the stain described by Wittekind et al (1976). The performance of the 3 other stains was less acceptable. Variations in stain formulation have been correlated with stain performance.

  7. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  8. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell with biocathode over nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eHuimin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell (MFC with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN removal rate of 54.80±0.01 g m-3 d-1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode .

  9. Engrossed in conversation: the impact of cell phones on simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beede, Kristen E; Kass, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of cognitively distracting tasks on various measures of driving performance. Thirty-six college students with a median of 6 years of driving experience completed a driving history questionnaire and four simulated driving scenarios. The distraction tasks consisted of responding to a signal detection task and engaging in a simulated cell phone conversation. Driving performance was measured in terms of four categories of behavior: traffic violations (e.g., speeding, running stop signs), driving maintenance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), attention lapses (e.g., stops at green lights, failure to visually scan for intersection traffic), and response time (e.g., time to step on brake in response to a pop-up event). Performance was significantly impacted in all four categories when drivers were concurrently talking on a hands-free phone. Performance on the signal detection task was poor and not significantly impacted by the phone task, suggesting that considerably less attention was paid to detecting these peripheral signals. However, the signal detection task did interact with the phone task on measures of average speed, speed variability, attention lapses, and reaction time. The findings lend further empirical support of the dangers of drivers being distracted by cell phone conversations.

  10. Effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, K.D.G.I.; Amarasinghe, K.M.P.; Nismy, N.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mills, C.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Advanced Coatings Group, Surface Engineering Department, Tata Steel Research Development and Technology, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham, S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Silva, S.R.P., E-mail: s.silva@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Polymer solar cells are fast gaining momentum as a potential solution towards low cost sustainable energy generation. However, the performance of architectures is known to be limited by the thin film nature of the active layer which, although required due to low charge carrier mobilities, limits the optical coupling to the active layer. The formation of periodic backgratings has been proposed as a solution to this problem. Here, we investigate the effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells. Analysis of device performance under standard conditions indicates higher power conversion efficiencies with the incorporation of the evaporated interlayer (5.7%) over a sol–gel processed interlayer (4.9%). This is driven by a more conformal coating as evidenced through two orders of magnitude higher electron mobilities (10{sup −5} versus 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) as well as the balanced electron and hole transport observed for the former architecture. It is believed that these results will catalyse further development of such device engineering concepts for improved optical coupling in thin film photovoltaics. - Highlights: • Effect of interlayers on backgrated photovoltaic devices is tested. • Evaporated interlayers lead to better device performance. • Better charge extraction is observed for evaporated interlayers.

  11. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  12. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... to the following address: Roberto Morales, OAQPS Document Control Officer (C404-02), Office of Air... calculated for these 5 best performing sources. A summary of the values is shown in Table 1. Table 1--CEMS...

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Glucose-based Biofuel Cells: Nanotechnology as a Vital Science in Biofuel Cells Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Aghahosseini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of electricity. This review article presents how nanoscience, engineering and medicine are combined to assist in the development of renewable glucose-based biofuel cell systems. Here, we review recent advances and applications in both abiotic and enzymatic glucose biofuel cells with emphasis on their “implantable” and “implanted” types. Also the challenges facing the design and application of glucose-based biofuel cells to convert them to promising replacement candidates for non-rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Nanotechnology could make glucose-based biofuel cells cheaper, lighter and more efficient and hence it can be a part of the solutions to these challenges.

  15. Proposal for Standard Index and Analysis of Financial Performance in 2014 of Brazilian Soccer Clubs of Serie A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Jahara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a standard index for analysis of the financial performance of the football clubs of Brazil who participated in the series in the year 2014. To prepare the standard index are used economic and financial indicators of liquidity, profitability and debt, as well solvency analysis of the clubs by using the Kanitz model. Based on studies on standard indices to compare the performance of companies were selected for the analysis of balance sheets and statements of income twenty clubs. This study is classified as a descriptive exploratory research, multicases and quantitative approach because the document analysis, on the information that was extracted from financial reports, published on the websites of the respective soccer clubs. As a result, you can see that the clubs generally have poor performance when individually analyzed in both the analysis of liquidity indicators, indebtedness, profitability and solvency. However, such a result can not explain the competitive performance of the teams in that league.

  16. The development of VSAT performance standards in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael W.; Hedinger, Robert A.

    1993-08-01

    In the 1990s thus far, it has emerged that the preferred radio frequency for very small aperture terminal operations in the U.S. is the domestic 12/14 GHz band. Accounts are here given of the FCC's consequent digital and analog network requirements; an applicant wishing to exceed these technical limits must show through engineering analyses that excessive intereference can be avoided. Alternatively, novel technilogy may be used by the VSAT operator which will not exceed the interference burden of established technical standards.

  17. Performance analysis of air-standard Diesel cycle using an alternative irreversible heat transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the investigation of air-standard Diesel cycle under irreversible heat transfer conditions. The effects of various engine parameters are presented. An alternative approach is used to evaluate net power output and cycle thermal efficiency from more realistic parameters such as air-fuel ratio, fuel mass flow rate, intake temperature, engine design parameters, etc. It is shown that for a given fuel flow rate, thermal efficiency and maximum power output increase with decreasing air-fuel ratio. Also, for a given air-fuel ratio, the maximum power output increases with increasing fuel rate. However, the effect of the thermal efficiency is limited

  18. Standard guide to In-Plant performance evaluation of Hand-Held SNM monitors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide is one of a series on the application and evaluation of special nuclear material (SNM) monitors. Other guides in the series are listed in Section 2, and the relationship of in-plant performance evaluation to other procedures described in the series is illustrated in Fig. 1. Hand-held SNM monitors are described in of Guide C1112, and performance criteria illustrating their capabilities can be found in Appendix X1. 1.2 The purpose of this guide to in-plant performance evaluation is to provide a comparatively rapid procedure to verify that a hand-held SNM monitor performs as expected for detecting SNM or alternative test sources or to disclose the need for repair. The procedure can be used as a routine operational evaluation or it can be used to verify performance after a monitor is calibrated. 1.3 In-plant performance evaluations are more comprehensive than daily functional tests. They take place less often, at intervals ranging from weekly to once every three months, and derive their result fr...

  19. Conical nano-structure arrays of Platinum cathode catalyst for enhanced cell performance in PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aziz; Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-01-01

    Conical nanostructure arrays of Pt (Platinum) as cathode catalyst are developed using a novel integrated plasma sputtering technique. The integration method involves successive deposition of Pt catalyst arrays one upon another maintaining a uniform time gap. Deposition by integrated approach results in the formation of dense arrays of Pt nanostructure as compared to continuous deposition. These high number density integrated arrays with low Pt loading of 0.10 mg cm −2 at the cathode provide enhanced performance compared to non-integrated cathode catalyst prepared by continuous deposition and standard commercial electrodes with Pt loadings of 1 mg cm −2 . The performance is compared on the basis of polarization curve measurements and the calculated power density values. PEM fuel cell with dual integrated cathode showed an improved power density of 0.90 W cm −2 , which is higher than continuously deposited cathode catalyst with maximum power density of 0.67 W cm −2 for the same Pt loading of 0.10 mg cm −2 . - Highlights: • Conical nanostructures with high number density are prepared by a novel integrated deposition technique. • Electrode with such catalyst shows maximum performance of 0.9 W cm −2 . • Integrated catalyst performs better than continuously prepared nanostructure catalyst.

  20. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshan, Meng; Lin, Zhao; Wenqing, Liu; Chunlei, Lu; Yongqiang, Liu; Naiyi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian. The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn't attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis. The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates

  1. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  2. Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC and A components at a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Carolynn

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC and A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC and A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC and A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC and A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC and A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC and A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

  3. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    during the break-in procedure at a current density of 0.2 A/cm2. The performance of the cell was measured over the 100 hour break-in period and a polarization curve was recorded after completion of break-in. The performance change was minimal during the break-in cycle. However, in the first hour of op......-eration a significant performance decrease of 30 mV was observed. Hereafter a performance in-crease started and the overall performance change during the break-in procedure was a voltage in-crease of 35 mV corresponding to a rate of 240 μV/hr. The performance increase was however fast-est in the first 50 hours...... at the active sites of the electrodes causing a more sluggish perform-ance. Moreover, preliminary data is given on a long term degradation study, using Electrochemical Im-pedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to analyze the degradation at high current densities (0.8 A/cm2)....

  4. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  5. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  6. Numerical investigation: Performances of a standard biogas in a 100 kWe MGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Liguori

    2016-11-01

    For reasons related to the design economies, the preliminary numerical investigations such as that of the work in question on a model of combustor of a 100 kWe MGT are essential. To limit nitrogen oxides production, established lean premixed conditions. It is studied the behavior of a standard biogas M65 starting from the mouth of flame, through the laminar model up to the whole combustor but through the model k-ε, at different adducted flows. It is liked also to submit a hint related to the variation of thermal profiles or of concentrations in the combustor when the supplied natural gases have different composition, as well as at different flows and when adopted simplified kinetic paths of model to understand a sort of acceptable degree of simplification, for studies of first approximation.

  7. Using insurance standards and policy levers to build a high performance health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Michael; Koller, Christopher

    2009-11-01

    This issue brief examines an unprecedented use of state health insurance regulatory authority to promote health system reform. In 2004, the Rhode Island legislature created the Office of the Health Insurance Commissioner (OHIC) with authority not granted to state health insurance regulatory agencies in other states. Specifically, the legislation instructed OHIC to direct insurers toward policies that promote improved accessibility, quality, and affordability for the Rhode Island health system. In 2009, OHIC used this authority to implement a set of standards to promote increased affordability through a series of requirements aimed at strengthening and expanding the state's primary care infrastructure. Insurers are required to increase their investments in primary care on a cost-neutral basis, expand use of the chronic care model medical home, and support implementation of electronic medical records. Rhode Island is testing whether state insurance regulation can foster a profound transformation in health care delivery.

  8. Performance based building design to ensure building quality: from standardization to LEAN construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zanchetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of architectural design is influenced by the standardization activities concerning the construction and the development of tools for the coordination in the design process such as Building Information Modeling. The two disciplines contribute reciprocally to the achievement of the overall quality of the building process. To do so, it is strategic to develop researches on the following aspects: - definition of frameworks for the connection of the building system requirements to space and technology unit that defines it; - development of an inventory of interoperable and compliant technical solutions; - implementation of the discipline of model checking for project validation; and methodologies of comparison between intervention models; - implementation of collaborative environments for verification of compatibility between programs and regulations in order to identify the optimal design solution.

  9. The inquiry continuum: Science teaching practices and student performance on standardized tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernnigan, Laura Jane

    Few research studies have been conducted related to inquiry-based scientific teaching methodologies and NCLB-required state testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the strategies used by seventh-grade science teachers in Illinois and student scores on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) to aid in determining best practices/strategies for teaching middle school science. The literature review defines scientific inquiry by placing teaching strategies on a continuum of scientific inquiry methodologies from No Inquiry (Direct Instruction) through Authentic Inquiry. Five major divisions of scientific inquiry: structured inquiry, guided inquiry, learning cycle inquiry, open inquiry, and authentic inquiry, have been identified and described. These five divisions contain eight sub-categories: demonstrations; simple or hands-on activities; discovery learning; variations of learning cycles; problem-based, event-based, and project-based; and student inquiry, science partnerships, and Schwab's enquiry. Quantitative data were collected from pre- and posttests and surveys given to the participants: five seventh grade science teachers in four Academic Excellence Award and Spotlight Award schools and their 531 students. Findings revealed that teachers reported higher inquiry scores for themselves than for their students; the two greatest reported factors limiting teachers' use of inquiry were not enough time and concern about discipline and large class size. Although the correlation between total inquiry and mean difference of pre- and posttest scores was not statistically significant, the survey instrument indicated how often teachers used inquiry in their classes, not the type of inquiry used. Implications arose from the findings that increase the methodology debate between direction instruction and inquiry-based teaching strategies; teachers are very knowledgeable about the Illinois state standards, and various inquiry-based methods

  10. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  11. 40 CFR 422.55 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be... any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P...

  12. 40 CFR 422.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this... quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be... of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride (as...

  13. The gold standard of dental care for the adult performance horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David L

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the primary odontogenic problems of the mature performance horse, including wolf teeth; hooks; overbite, overjet, underjet, and wry bite; equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis; infundibular caries; and secondary oral problems. It outlines the author's methods of taking the history, oral examination, and use of diagnostic nerve blocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting Academic Performance Standards: MCAS vs. PARCC. Technical Report. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Political realities dictate that, as with any tests, passing scores on those developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) will be set at a level that avoids having an unacceptable number of students fail. Since Massachusetts is by far the highest performing of the states that remain in the PARCC…

  15. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing : General considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  16. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing: general considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  17. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  18. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  19. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

  20. Academic Performance in Predominantly Black Nursing Classes: Effects Associated with Intervention Designed for Standardized Test Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Henry T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    One hundred fifty-two senior nursing students at a traditionally Black college participated in a study to determine the effect on academic performance of: (1) test-taking instruction; (2) a combination of test-taking instruction with cooperative learning procedures; or (3) no intervention. Spring semester grades were used to represent academic…

  1. 12 CFR 228.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided by the bank; (4) Institutional capacity and constraints, including the size and financial... costs, and other relevant data pertaining to a bank's assessment area(s); (2) Any information about... about the bank's CRA performance submitted to the bank or the Board; and (7) Any other information...

  2. 12 CFR 25.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the bank; (4) Institutional capacity and constraints, including the size and financial condition..., and other relevant data pertaining to a bank's assessment area(s); (2) Any information about lending... bank's CRA performance submitted to the bank or the OCC; and (7) Any other information deemed relevant...

  3. Towards standards for the publication of performance indicators in the public sector: the case of schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, S.; Visscher, A.J.; Dijkstra, A.B.; Veenstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the media and public authorities in many developed countries have published data on the quality of public services such as schools, hospitals and police. In the education sector the publication of performance indicators and league tables generated considerable debate. In this

  4. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Carolynn P.; Bushlya, Anatoly V.; Efimenko, Vladimir F.; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I.

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC and A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC and A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC and A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC and A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC and A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC and A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC and A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  6. Cellular Cultivation: Growing HeLa Cells Using Standard High School Laboratory Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments to culture cells in a laboratory that provide students with hands-on experience in manipulating cells and a chance to observe cell growth characteristics first hand. Exposes students to sterile technique, cell culture, cell growth concepts, and eukaryotic cell structure. (JRH)

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  8. Performing to a world class standard under pressure--can we learn lessons from the Olympians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Serryth D; Scott, James; Dale, Trevor; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    With the 2012 Olympics being held in London, we explored pre-requisites for success in sport, and the comparative efficacy of employing these when performing under intense pressure in the clinical setting. We asked members of the Great Britain Olympic rowing team and OMFS surgeons to complete a validated questionnaire on how they performed under pressure. 89 questionnaires were completed by 43 surgeons and 46 rowers (81% response). We compared the results in terms of mental toughness and technical skill. The importance of training to be a winner was evident in athletes. While emphasising the multidimensional nature of talent, we recognise the essential role of psychology in the ability of individuals to fulfil their sporting potential. We discuss the possible implications for surgeons. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standard guide for evaluating performance characteristics of phased-Array ultrasonic testing instruments and systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes procedures for evaluating some performance characteristics of phased-array ultrasonic examination instruments and systems. 1.2 Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this guide are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic examinations. Other electronic instrument characteristics in phased-array units are similar to non-phased-array units and may be measured as described in E 1065 or E 1324. 1.3 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be evaluated. 1.4 This guide establishes no performance limits for examination systems; if such acceptance criteria ar...

  10. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M

    2010-07-01

    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  11. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Performance of Tracking Concentrating Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of thermal performance of tracking concentrating solar collectors that heat fluids for use in thermal systems. 1.2 This test method applies to one- or two-axis tracking reflecting concentrating collectors in which the fluid enters the collector through a single inlet and leaves the collector through a single outlet, and to those collectors where a single inlet and outlet can be effectively provided, such as into parallel inlets and outlets of multiple collector modules. 1.3 This test method is intended for those collectors whose design is such that the effects of diffuse irradiance on performance is negligible and whose performance can be characterized in terms of direct irradiance. Note 1—For purposes of clarification, this method shall apply to collectors with a geometric concentration ratio of seven or greater. 1.4 The collector may be tested either as a thermal collection subsystem where the effects of tracking errors have been essentially removed from t...

  12. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  13. Scientific and regulatory standards for assessing product performance using the similarity factor, f2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

    2015-03-01

    The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective.

  14. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...

  15. Imaging Facilities' Adherence to PI-RADS v2 Minimum Technical Standards for the Performance of Prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Steven J; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to assess variability in imaging facilities' adherence to the minimum technical standards for prostate magnetic resonance imaging acquisition established by Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2). A total of 107 prostate magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at 107 unique imaging facilities after the release of PI-RADS v2 and that were referred to a tertiary care center for secondary interpretation were included. Image sets, DICOM headers, and outside reports were reviewed to assess adherence to 21 selected PI-RADS v2 minimum technical standards. Hardware arrangements were 23.1%, 1.5T without endorectal coil; 7.7%, 1.5T with endorectal coil; 63.5%, 3T without endorectal coil; and 5.8%, 3T with endorectal coil. Adherence to minimum standards was lowest on T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) for frequency resolution ≤0.4 mm (16.8%) and phase resolution ≤0.7 mm (48.6%), lowest on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for field of view (FOV) 120-220 mm (30.0%), and lowest on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for slice thickness 3 mm (33.3%) and temporal resolution value (≥1400 s/mm 2 ) images were included in 58.0% (calculated in 25.9%). Adherence to T2WI phase resolution and DWI inter-slice gap were greater (P  .05) for any parameter between examinations performed with and without an endorectal coil. Adherence was greater for examinations performed at teaching facilities for T2WI slice thickness and DCE temporal resolution (P  .05). Facilities' adherence to PI-RADS v2 minimum technical standards was variable, being particularly poor for T2WI frequency resolution and DCE temporal resolution. The standards warrant greater community education. Certain technical standards may be too stringent, and revisions should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of individual training loads considered as permanent in selected heart-rate (HR) zones on aerobic fitness and performance in elite professional soccer players. Eighteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (8 weeks). Speeds and HR at 2 and 4 mmol · L blood-lactate concentrations (S2, S4, respectively), VO2max, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (HR 4 mmol · L). Training-session HRs (n = 900) showed a polarized distribution with 73.6 ± 3.7 (2,945 ± 148 minutes), 19.1 ± 3.5 (763 ± 141 minutes), and 7.3 ± 2.9% (292 ± 116 minutes) of the total training time spent at low, moderate, and high intensities, respectively (p 90% HRmax) in men's professional soccer. In this regard, the time spent at high intensity should be in the range of 7-8% of the total training time during preseason.

  17. Cell outage compensation in LTE networks: Algorithms and performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirijoo, M.; Jorguseski, L.; Litjens, R.; Schmelz, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cell outage compensation is a self-healing function and as such part of the Self-Organising Networks concept for mobile wireless networks. It aims at mitigating the degradation of coverage, capacity and service quality caused by a cell or site level outage. Upon detection of such an outage, cell

  18. Impact of volatile fatty acids on microbial electrolysis cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the performance of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) fed with three common fermentation products: acetate, butyrate, and propionate. Each substrate was fed to the reactor for three consecutive-batch cycles. The results showed high current densities for acetate, but low current densities for butyrate and propionate (maximum values were 6.0 ± 0.28, 2.5 ± 0.06, 1.6 ± 0.14 A/m(2), respectively). Acetate also showed a higher coulombic efficiency of 87 ± 5.7% compared to 72 ± 2.0 and 51 ± 6.4% for butyrate and propionate, respectively. This paper also revealed that acetate could be easily oxidized by anode respiring bacteria in MEC, while butyrate and propionate could not be oxidized to the same degree. The utilization rate of the substrates in MEC followed the order: acetate > butyrate > propionate. The ratio of suspended biomass to attached biomass was approximately 1:4 for all the three substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of Nanostructures in High Performance Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Abouelmaaty M.; Ebrahim, Essamudin A.; Sweelem, Emad

    2017-11-01

    Nanotechnology has great contributions in various fields, especially in solar energy conversion through solar cells (SCs). Nanostructured SCs can provide high performance with lower fabrication costs. The transition from fossil fuel energy to renewable sustainable energy represents a major technological challenge for the world. In the last years, the industry of SCs has grown rapidly due to strong attention in renewable energy in order to handle the problem of global climate change that is now believed to occur due to use of the fossil fuels. Cost is an influential factor in the eventual success of any solar technology, since inexpensive SCs are needed to produce electricity, especially for rural areas and for third world countries. Therefore, new developments in nanotechnology may open the door for the production of inexpensive and more efficient SCs by reducing the manufacturing costs of SCs. Utilizing nanotechnology in cheaper SCs will help maintain the environment. This article covers a review of the progress that has been made to-date to enhance efficiencies of various nanostructures used in SCs, including utilizations of all the wavelengths present in of the solar spectrum.

  20. Performance evaluation of the small-animal PET scanner ClairvivoPET using NEMA NU 4-2008 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Shidahara, M.; Watabe, H.; Watanuki, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Arakawa, Y.; Nai, YH; Furumoto, S.; Tashiro, M.; Shoji, T.; Yanai, K.; Gonda, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ClairvivoPET using NEMA NU4 standards. The ClairvivoPET incorporates a LYSO dual depth-of-interaction detector system with 151 mm axial field of view (FOV). Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality were evaluated using NEMA NU4-2008 standards. Normal mouse imaging was also performed for 10min after intravenous injection of 18F(-)-NaF. Data were compared with 19 other preclinical PET scanners. Spatial resolution measured using full width at half maximum on FBP-ramp reconstructed images was 2.16 mm at radial offset 5 mm of the axial centre FOV. The maximum absolute sensitivity for a point source at the FOV centre was 8.72%. Peak noise equivalent counting rate (NECR) was 415kcps at 14.6MBq ml-1. The uniformity with the image-quality phantom was 4.62%. Spillover ratios in the images of air and water filled chambers were 0.19 and 0.06, respectively. Our results were comparable with the 19 other preclinical PET scanners based on NEMA NU4 standards, with excellent sensitivity because of the large FOV. The ClairvivoPET with iterative reconstruction algorithm also provided sufficient visualization of the mouse spine. The high sensitivity and resolution of the ClairvivoPET scanner provided high quality images for preclinical studies.

  1. A review of performance standards to monitor, evaluate and assess the impact of technology transfer offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibongile Gumbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of scientific discoveries to new products and processes and their launch onto the market can be a lengthy process. Similarly, it takes many years before the impact of scientific research on society and the economy is realised and a further length of time before its performance can be measured. Higher education and research institutions, and their governments, often make significant investments into intellectual property management and technology transfer activities through legislative and policy development, human resource development, financial allocation and infrastructure improvement. Since returns on such investments are not immediately apparent, it is important to establish a means by which the impact of their efforts can be determined. In this paper, I examined the measures and indicators that could be developed by institutions and their stakeholders in order to monitor, evaluate and determine the impact of research output and outcomes on the market.

  2. The Impact of Data-Based Science Instruction on Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Tia W.

    Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.

  3. Statistical performance of image cytometry for DNA, lipids, cytokeratin, & CD45 in a model system for circulation tumor cell detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futia, Gregory L; Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a blood sample is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker panel used to identify CTCs over other blood cells. In this work, we present Bayesian theory that shows how test sensitivity and specificity set the rarity of cell that a test can detect. We perform our calculation of sensitivity and specificity on our image cytometry biomarker panel by testing on pure disease positive (D + ) populations (MCF7 cells) and pure disease negative populations (D - ) (leukocytes). In this system, we performed multi-channel confocal fluorescence microscopy to image biomarkers of DNA, lipids, CD45, and Cytokeratin. Using custom software, we segmented our confocal images into regions of interest consisting of individual cells and computed the image metrics of total signal, second spatial moment, spatial frequency second moment, and the product of the spatial-spatial frequency moments. We present our analysis of these 16 features. The best performing of the 16 features produced an average separation of three standard deviations between D + and D - and an average detectable rarity of ∼1 in 200. We performed multivariable regression and feature selection to combine multiple features for increased performance and showed an average separation of seven standard deviations between the D + and D - populations making our average detectable rarity of ∼1 in 480. Histograms and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for these features and regressions are presented. We conclude that simple regression analysis holds promise to further improve the separation of rare cells in cytometry applications. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L

    2013-08-27

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

  5. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VCO FOR STANDARD GSM USING MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of a prototype monolithic Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS electronic circuits, namely the Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs is presented. The components can achieve the stringent requirements of wireless communication applications such as GSM cellular telephony. The VCO meets the low phase noise specifications of -136 dBc/Hz at large offset frequency of 3MHz, over the appropriate frequency range. The model of the monolithic VCO is based on the topology of the Colpitts Oscillator. It is relatively less complicated, which facilitates the practical integration of the MEMS components into the configuration. The variable capacitor and the monolithic 3-D coil inductor are suitable for low phase-noise and low power consumption at the application frequencies. A PSpice simulation model was developed with MEMS switching devices that can be integrated into the system. The model helps in determining the design parameters, which affect the performance and operation reliability of the RF transceiver system, for which a prototype has been tested and proved successful.

  6. Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burschka, Julian

    2013-07-10

    Following pioneering work, solution-processable organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites - such as CH 3 NH 3 PbX 3 (X = Cl, Br, I) - have attracted attention as light-harvesting materials for mesoscopic solar cells. So far, the perovskite pigment has been deposited in a single step onto mesoporous metal oxide films using a mixture of PbX 2 and CH 3 NH 3 X in a common solvent. However, the uncontrolled precipitation of the perovskite produces large morphological variations, resulting in a wide spread of photovoltaic performance in the resulting devices, which hampers the prospects for practical applications. Here we describe a sequential deposition method for the formation of the perovskite pigment within the porous metal oxide film. PbI 2 is first introduced from solution into a nanoporous titanium dioxide film and subsequently transformed into the perovskite by exposing it to a solution of CH 3 NH 3 I. We find that the conversion occurs within the nanoporous host as soon as the two components come into contact, permitting much better control over the perovskite morphology than is possible with the previously employed route. Using this technique for the fabrication of solid-state mesoscopic solar cells greatly increases the reproducibility of their performance and allows us to achieve a power conversion efficiency of approximately 15 per cent (measured under standard AM1.5G test conditions on solar zenith angle, solar light intensity and cell temperature). This two-step method should provide new opportunities for the fabrication of solution-processed photovoltaic cells with unprecedented power conversion efficiencies and high stability equal to or even greater than those of today\\'s best thin-film photovoltaic devices. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Influencing Academic Performance Of Standard Eight Girls In National Examinations In Public Primary Schools A Case Of Matungu Division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.

  8. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  9. Separator Characteristics for Increasing Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2009-11-01

    Two challenges for improving the performance of air cathode, single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) include increasing Coulombic efficiency (CE) and decreasing internal resistance. Nonbiodegradable glass fiber separators between the two electrodes were shown to increase power and CE, compared to cloth separators (J-cloth) that were degraded over time. MFCtestswereconductedusing glass fibermatswith thicknesses of 1.0mm (GF1) or 0.4 mm (GF0.4), a cation exchange membrane (CEM), and a J-cloth (JC), using reactors with different configurations. Higher power densities were obtained with either GF1 (46 ± 4 W/m3) or JC (46 ± 1 W/m3) in MFCs with a 2 cm electrode spacing, when the separator was placed against the cathode (S-configuration), rather than MFCs with GF0.4 (36 ± 1 W/m3) or CEM (14 ± 1 W/m3). Power was increased to 70 ± 2 W/m3 by placing the electrodes on either side of the GF1 separator (single separator electrode assembly, SSEA) and further to 150 ± 6 W/m3 using two sets of electrodes spaced 2 cm a part (double separator electrode assembly, DSEA). Reducing the DSEA electrode spacing to 0.3 cm increased power to 696 ± 26 W/m3 as a result of a decrease in the ohmic resistance from 5.9 to 2.2 Ω. The main advantages of a GF1 separator compared to JC were an improvement in the CE from 40% to 81% (S-configuration), compared to only 20-40% for JC under similar conditions, and the fact that GF1 was not biodegradable. The high CE for the GF1 separator was attributed to a low oxygen mass transfer coefficient (ko ) 5.0 x 10-5 cm/s). The GF1 andJCmaterials differed in the amount of biomass that accumulated on the separator and its biodegradability, which affected long-term power production and oxygen transport. These results show that materials and mass transfer properties of separators are important factors for improving power densities, CE, and long-term performance of MFCs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. High performance solid acid fuel cells through humidity stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Boysen, Dane A.; Uda, Tetsuya; Chisholm, Calum R. I.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2004-01-01

    Although they hold the promise of clean energy, state-of-the-art fuel cells based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are inoperable above 100°C, require cumbersome humidification systems, and suffer from fuel permeation. These difficulties all arise from the hydrated nature of the electrolyte. In contrast, “solid acids” exhibit anhydrous proton transport and high-temperature stability. We demonstrate continuous, stable power generation for both H_2/O_2 and direct methanol fuel cells o...

  11. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  13. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Denolf, Kristof; Lafruit, Gauthier; Blanch, Carolina; Bormans, Jan

    2004-12-01

    The advanced video codec (AVC) standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT) of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs) project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology) comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  14. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xia, Xue; Luo, Yong; Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas F; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2 V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2 V produced the highest power of 1330±60 mW m(-2) for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2 V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2V produced the highest power of 1330±60mWm-2 for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Photovoltaic Performance of ZnO Nanosheets Solar Cell Sensitized with Beta-Substituted Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was fabricated using two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets (2D ZnO NSs sensitized with beta-substituted porphyrins photosensitizer, and its photovoltaic performance in solid-state DSSC with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 TNs modified poly (ethylene oxide (PEO polymer electrolyte was studied. The ZnO NSs were synthesized through hydrothermal method and were characterized through high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM, diffused reflectance spectra (DRS, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The crystallinity of the polymer electrolytes was investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The photovoltaic performance of the beta-substituted porphyrins sensitized solar cells was evaluated under standard AM1.5G simulated illumination (100 mW cm−2. The efficiency of energy conversion from solar to electrical due to 2D ZnO NSs based DSSCs is 0.13%, which is about 1.6 times higher than that of the control DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs as photoanode (0.08%, when TiO2 NTs fillers modified PEO electrolyte was incorporated in the DSSCs. The current-voltage (- and photocurrent-time (- curves proved stable with effective collection of electrons, when the 2D ZnO nanostructured photoanode was introduced in the solid-state DSSC.

  17. Standardized CSR and climate performance: why is Shell willing, but Hydro reluctant?; Shell; Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2007-06-15

    This report aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion concerning whether CSR merely serves to streamline company rhetoric or also has an influence on actual efforts. We discuss the tangible effects of CSR instruments on the climate-related rules and performances of the two different oil companies Hydro and Shell. First we explore whether similar CSR instruments lead to similar climate-related rules and practices in the two companies. Both Hydro and Shell adhere to the Global Compact (GC), the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) and the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR). The report concludes that the GC has not rendered any tangible effects in either of the companies. Concerning the other instruments, Hydro has only followed the instrument requirements that fit their initial approach, and refrained from all deviating requirements. Shell has been more malleable, but we have noted few effects on the actual emissions and business portfolio resulting from the instrument adherence. Second, we assess how the differing results of the similar CSR portfolio may be explained. The reluctant attitude of the leaders in Hydro and the strong CSR motivation of Shell's executives result in significant differences. Hydro executives are able to constrain the effects of the instrument adherence. With Shell we note the opposite pattern: Its leaders promoted the instruments to be translated into internal rules, but a general lack of hierarchical structures hinders them from governing the conduct of various sub-organisations. The very diversity of the Shell culture helps to explain why the efforts of its executives have resulted in limited impact. The strength of the Hydro culture makes the corporation resistant to the instruments. Moreover, Hydro is strikingly shielded by virtue of its strong position in Norway. In contrast, Shell is more strongly affected by the global field of petroleum and the global field of CSR

  18. Sustainability Performance of Scandinavian Corporations and their Value Chains assessed by UN Global Compact and Global Reporting Initiative standards - a way to identify superior performers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Strategies & Policies, Management Systems, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms and Key Outcomes on sustainability defined broadly as the Human Rights, Labour, Environment and Anti-Corruption issues by the UN Global Compact. The study firmly concludes that Scandinavian corporations on average......The purpose of this study was to introduce a combination of the two most adopted multi- stakeholder standards for sustainability reporting as an alternate framework for assessing sustainability performance in Scandinavian corporations. This novel approach leverages numeric measures on the criteria...... are not performing on higher levels concerning their implementation of these issues. The generalization of the results is moderated by the study's limitations concerning the framework and data sources used, sample size and the indirect use of GRI indicators. The uniqueness of the sustainability practice by two...

  19. TGLF Recalibration for ITER Standard Case Parameters FY2015: Theory and Simulation Performance Target Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work was motivated by the observation, as early as 2008, that GYRO simulations of some ITER operating scenarios exhibited nonlinear zonal-flow generation large enough to effectively quench turbulence inside r /a ~ 0.5. This observation of flow-dominated, low-transport states persisted even as more accurate and comprehensive predictions of ITER profiles were made using the state-of-the-art TGLF transport model. This core stabilization is in stark contrast to GYRO-TGLF comparisons for modern-day tokamaks, for which GYRO and TGLF are typically in very close agreement. So, we began to suspect that TGLF needed to be generalized to include the effect of zonal-flow stabilization in order to be more accurate for the conditions of reactor simulations. While the precise cause of the GYRO-TGLF discrepancy for ITER parameters was not known, it was speculated that closeness to threshold in the absence of driven rotation, as well as electromagnetic stabilization, created conditions more sensitive the self-generated zonal-flow stabilization than in modern tokamaks. Need for nonlinear zonal-flow stabilization: To explore the inclusion of a zonal-flow stabilization mechanism in TGLF, we started with a nominal ITER profile predicted by TGLF, and then performed linear and nonlinear GYRO simulations to characterize the behavior at and slightly above the nominal temperature gradients for finite levels of energy transport. Then, we ran TGLF on these cases to see where the discrepancies were largest. The predicted ITER profiles were indeed near to the TGLF threshold over most of the plasma core in the hybrid discharge studied (weak magnetic shear, q > 1). Scanning temperature gradients above the TGLF power balance values also showed that TGLF overpredicted the electron energy transport in the low-collisionality ITER plasma. At first (in Q3), a model of only the zonal-flow stabilization (Dimits shift) was attempted. Although we were able to construct an ad hoc model of the zonal

  20. TGLF Recalibration for ITER Standard Case Parameters FY2015: Theory and Simulation Performance Target Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This work was motivated by the observation, as early as 2008, that GYRO simulations of some ITER operating scenarios exhibited nonlinear zonal-flow generation large enough to effectively quench turbulence inside r /a ~ 0.5. This observation of flow-dominated, low-transport states persisted even as more accurate and comprehensive predictions of ITER profiles were made using the state-of-the-art TGLF transport model. This core stabilization is in stark contrast to GYRO-TGLF comparisons for modern-day tokamaks, for which GYRO and TGLF are typically in very close agreement. So, we began to suspect that TGLF needed to be generalized to include the effect of zonal-flow stabilization in order to be more accurate for the conditions of reactor simulations. While the precise cause of the GYRO-TGLF discrepancy for ITER parameters was not known, it was speculated that closeness to threshold in the absence of driven rotation, as well as electromagnetic stabilization, created conditions more sensitive the self-generated zonal-flow stabilization than in modern tokamaks. Need for nonlinear zonal-flow stabilization: To explore the inclusion of a zonal-flow stabilization mechanism in TGLF, we started with a nominal ITER profile predicted by TGLF, and then performed linear and nonlinear GYRO simulations to characterize the behavior at and slightly above the nominal temperature gradients for finite levels of energy transport. Then, we ran TGLF on these cases to see where the discrepancies were largest. The predicted ITER profiles were indeed near to the TGLF threshold over most of the plasma core in the hybrid discharge studied (weak magnetic shear, q > 1). Scanning temperature gradients above the TGLF power balance values also showed that TGLF overpredicted the electron energy transport in the low-collisionality ITER plasma. At first (in Q3), a model of only the zonal-flow stabilization (Dimits shift) was attempted. Although we were able to construct an ad hoc model of the zonal