WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard aquatic test

  1. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. QC ranges were established for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 when testing at 22, 28 and 35 degrees C (E. coli only) for 10 different antimicrobial agents...

  2. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-03-15

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V.; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  4. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  5. Inter-Laboratory trial of a standardized sediment contact test with the aquatic plant myriophyllum aquaticum (ISO 16191)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feiler, U.; Ratte, M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Bazin, C.; Brauer, F.; Casado, C.

    2014-01-01

    A whole-sediment toxicity test with Myriophyllum aquaticum has been developed by the German Federal Institute of Hydrology and standardized within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ISO 16191). An international ring-test was performed to evaluate the precision of the test

  6. Evaluation of Graphite for Environmental Toxicity Using the Standard Aquatic Microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    A.C., Conquest, L.L., and Meador, J.P., "Results of the Interlaboratory Testing of the Standardized Aquatic Microcosm Protocol," Aquatic Toxicology and...34 Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Sixth Symposium, ASTM 802, W.E. Bishop, R.D. Cardwell, and B.B. Heidolph, Eds., American Society for...Communities," Aquatic Toxicology and Environmental Fate: Ninth Volume, ASTM 921, T. M. Poston and R. Purdy, Eds., American Society for Testing and

  7. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness...

  8. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slabbert, JL

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of aquatic toxicity tests have been established for South African use, which include fish and Daphnia lethality tests, microbiotests, and short-term chronic tests. Studies on effluents and surface waters showed that all the tests have a...

  10. Aquatic toxicity testing for aquatic life impact assessments and recent scientific advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this presentation is to provide an overview of the use of aquatic toxicity testing for assessing possible impacts to aquatic life and how new scientific approaches are being researched. Toxicity testing of both ambient and effluent monitoring samples will be discusse...

  11. Clinical tests in aquatic toxicology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrle, P M; Mayer, F L

    1980-02-01

    Hazard assessment of chemicals to aquatic organisms involves the use of many toxicity tests. Acute toxicity tests, embryo-larval toxicity tests, and chronic toxicity tests that measure survival, growth, and reproductive effects now provide the most relative utility for evaluation of potential chemical hazards to aquatic life. Physiological, biochemical, and histological measurements have a low relative utility as diagnostic tests in aquatic toxicology because it is not yet possible to relate changes in these sublethal responses to adverse environmental impacts. The problem of interpreting the toxicological significance of chemical-induced changes in biochemical and physiological mechanisms is twofold: (1) the understanding of physiological and biochemical regulatory mechanisms in fish is limited; and (2) parallel changes in these mechanisms are difficult to correlate with toxicant exposure and impaired ability of fish to survive. To overcome this problem, more physiological and biochemical research must be conducted in conjunction with toxicity studies that measure important whole-animal responses. Toxicant-induced biochemical and physiological responses must be correlated unequivocally with responses related to reproduction, growth and development, survival, or fish health if pertinent diagnostic tests are to be developed for use in aquatic toxicology. The use of diagnostic tests in hazard assessment procedures can decrease the time required for safety evaluation of chemicals, define no-effect exposure concentrations more adequately, and provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chemicals. Considerations for improving the status of the "state of the art" of diagnostic or clinical tests in aquatic toxicology are discussed.

  12. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  13. Draft Test Guideline: Aquatic Food Chain Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  14. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long...

  15. Ecogenotoxicity testing of aquatic environment by comet assay in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of environmental monitoring is the detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water. We have set up a standard method to apply the Comet assay in aquatic plants that could be of great interest to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress on the same species regarded as most sensitive to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present study was to set up of standardized procedure to evaluate genotoxicity in aquatic plants- Ceratophyllum demersum one that is submerged free floating and the other is Lemna minor - a fresh water floating plant by Comet assay. Electrophoresis and unwinding times were adapted to obtain minimum DNA migration evaluated as tail intensity % or tail moment in the control group and, at the same time maximum sensitivity for DNA damage with known genotoxicants. We further investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in the same species. Based on the repeatability of results obtained we suggest that Ceratophyllum, Lemna can serve as model species and Comet assay could be adopted to monitor the eco-genotoxicity of water pollutants.

  16. Regulatory adequacy of aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    directing test method developments towards increased regulatory reliability and acknowledging the implicit limitations in the dual purpose of guideline testing for chemical risk assessment (i.e. for hazard identification and for hazard assessment) it is possible to generate data sufficient for regulatory......Nanoecotoxicology as a discipline has matured significantly over the last years, from the first paper in 2004 to close to a thousand studies published today. We are therefore no longer facing a scarcity of data as severe as only a few years ago. From a regulatory standpoint, it is timely...... to question whether ecotoxicity testing is now able to facilitate regulatory decision-making on manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). In this paper, we review the state of aquatic ecotoxicity testing of MNs as well as the overarching issues that challenge the reliability and relevance of such testing. We conclude...

  17. Use of micronucleus test in the assessment of radiation effects in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edvaldo F. de; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Lima, Pedro A. de S.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana Maria M. de A.; Silva, Edvane B. da; Silva, Ronaldo C. da

    2011-01-01

    The study of the effects of radioactive substances on the environment is accomplished by radioecology. This science has played an important role in combating all forms of pollution. The uncontrolled use of physical and chemical agents has been a concern for environmental regulatory agencies, due to the serious damage to ecosystems. Aquatic organisms are exposed to a variety of pollutants harmful to aquatic systems. The mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata has been featured as a bioindicator to possess characteristics such as short reproductive cycle ease of maintenance in the laboratory and low maintenance cost. The micronucleus assay has been shown to be a great test to identify mutagenic effects caused by physical and chemical agents. In this study the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to high doses of 60 Co gamma radiation contributing to a further standardization of this test as an indicator of the presence of radioactive contamination in aquatic environments. The young adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata were divided into groups and subjected to a dose of 0 (control), 40 and 60 Gy of gamma radiation. The results showed that snails irradiated with 40 Gy showed a smaller number of haemocytes, whereas those exposed to 60 Gy had a greater quantity of these cells compared to control group. It can be concluded that the morphological analysis and the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation may be used in studies of the action of high doses of radiation in aquatic environments (author)

  18. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  19. The use of carrier solvents in regulatory aquatic toxicology testing: practical, statistical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John; Wheeler, James R

    2013-11-15

    Solvents are often used to aid test item preparation in aquatic ecotoxicity experiments. This paper discusses the practical, statistical and regulatory considerations. The selection of the appropriate control (if a solvent is used) for statistical analysis is investigated using a database of 141 responses (endpoints) from 71 experiments. The advantages and disadvantages of basing the statistical analysis of treatment effects to the water control alone, solvent control alone, combined controls, or a conditional strategy of combining controls, when not statistically significantly different, are tested. The latter two approaches are shown to have distinct advantages. It is recommended that this approach continue to be the standard used for regulatory and research aquatic ecotoxicology studies. However, wherever technically feasible a solvent should not be employed or at least the concentration minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing nanomaterial exposures in aquatic ecotoxicological testing: Framework and case studies based on dispersion and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan J; Coleman, Jessica G; Diamond, Stephen A; Melby, Nicolas L; Bednar, Anthony J; Harmon, Ashley; Collier, Zachary A; Moser, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The unique behavior of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in aqueous media and dynamic changes in particle settling, agglomeration and dissolution rates is a challenge to the consistency, reliability and interpretation of standard aquatic hazard bioassay results. While the toxicological endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, reproduction, etc.) in ecotoxicity bioassays are largely applicable to ENMs, the standard methods as written for dissolved substances are confounded by the dynamic settling, agglomeration and dissolution of particulate ENMs during the bioassay. A testing framework was designed to serve as a starting point to identify approaches for the consistent conduct of aquatic hazard tests that account for the behavior of ENMs in test media and suitable data collection to support representative exposure metrology. The framework was demonstrated by conducting three case studies testing ENMs with functionally distinct characteristics and behaviors. Pretests with a temporal sampling of particle concentration, agglomeration and dissolution were conducted on each ENM in test media. Results indicated that a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) powder was not dispersible, a nano-TiO 2 powder was dispersible but unstable, and a polyvinylpyrrolidinone-coated AgNP was relatively stable in test media. Based on these functional results, Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays were conducted to compare different exposure summary methods (nominal, arithmetic average, geometric average, time-weighted average) for calculating and expressing toxicity endpoints. Results indicated that while arithmetic means were effective for expressing the toxicity of more stable materials, time-weighted averaged concentrations were appropriate for the unstable nano-TiO 2 .

  1. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  2. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    . Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates development of reproducible, standardized hazard testing methods such as those provided by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Currently, there is no comprehensive guidance on how to best address testing issues specific to MN...... particulate, fibrous, or colloidal properties. This paper summarizes the findings from an expert workshop convened to develop a guidance document that addresses the difficulties encountered when testing MNs using aquatic and sediment OECD test guidelines. Critical components were identified by workshop...... participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance...

  3. Continuous Flow Aquatic Toxicity Testing Using Dilution Water by Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    AMRL-TR-79-25 CONTINUOUS FLOW AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY TESTING USING DILUTION WATER BY REVERSE OSMOSIS J. W. FISHtER R. C INMAN M. A. HAGERMAN C. B. HARRAH...showing construction design. 8 DISCUSSION This system was designed for limited xise in an aquatic toxicology laboratory. The floor space and water quality

  4. Micronucleus test in fish genome: A sensitive monitor for aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic environment makes up the major part of our environment and resources, therefore its safety is directly related to the safety our health. In this study, three tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia zilli) and Clarias gariepinus were employed to estimate water pollution using ...

  5. Standardization of egg collection from aquatic birds for biomonitoring--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Roland; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Koschorreck, Jan; Paulus, Martin; Tarricone, Kathrin; Teubner, Diana; Wagner, Gerhard; Weimann, Thomas; Veith, Michael

    2012-05-15

    Collecting bird eggs is an established method of biomonitoring for specific pollution hazards. One of the most critical problems with this method is the extreme biological variability in bird eggs, but standardizing the collection and preservation of eggs can reduce these problems. Furthermore, standard practices are required so that the results can be compared among studies because mistakes cannot be corrected by laboratory analysis. Therefore, a standard procedure for collecting and preserving bird eggs may be necessary. The objective of this review is to investigate the current standard of quality assurance in the field by analyzing 86 peer-reviewed papers describing egg collection and use for aquatic birds. We show that little attention has been paid to standardizing how eggs are collected and stored in the field. Important information is often absent, including crucial aspects of sample collection and preservation, such as the freshness of the eggs, the position of the eggs in the laying sequence, the selection criteria, random sampling, and the duration and temperature of transport. Potential standards are suggested and discussed as a foundation for the development of quality assurance standards in the field.

  6. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) for various applications and consumer products already available on the market. ENPs may exhibit unique and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts......, which is often related to a high surface-to-volume ratio. These properties have also caused concern amongst scientists and regulators, who have called for timely identification of the potential adverse effects of ENPs to human health and the environment. Despite intensive research on the aquatic...... the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has...

  8. Teste de Conconi adaptado para bicicleta aquática Conconi test adapted to aquatic bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Neves Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A prática regular de exercícios físicos tem sido considerada um dos mecanismos que auxiliam a melhoria de padrões da saúde e de qualidade de vida. Em conseqüência do crescimento da procura por academias de ginástica, as atividades físicas no meio líquido, com destaque para a bicicleta aquática, têm aumentado nos últimos anos. No entanto, há ainda carência de métodos para a avaliação e prescrição do treinamento aeróbio neste tipo de equipamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi propor uma adaptação do teste de Conconi et al. (1982 para bicicleta aquática. Foram testados 27 participantes (24 ± 6 anos, 171 ± 8cm, 66 ± 12kg 15 do sexo masculino e 12 do feminino. Os participantes foram submetidos a um teste progressivo, realizado em bicicleta aquática, com carga inicial de 50RPM e incremento de 3RPM a cada minuto, até a exaustão. A FC foi registrada durante todo o teste. Para análise dos dados, foi utilizada estatística descritiva e o teste "t" de Student (P Physical exercise has been considered one of the mechanisms that improve health and quality of life. As a consequence of the enhanced demand for fitness centers, physical activities in liquid environment, especially aquatic cycling, have increased in the last years. However, methods of assessment and prescription of aerobic training in these equipments are still scarce. The objective of this study was to propose an adapted test of Conconi et al (1982 to aquatic bicycle. 27 participants (24 ± 6 years, 171 ± 8 cm, 66 ± 12 kg, 15 male and 12 female, were assessed. The participants have been submitted to a graded test in aquatic bicycle, with initial load of 50 RPM and increments of 3 RPM each minute, until exhaustion. HR was registered during the entire test. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used as well as Student "t" test for comparison between genders. HRDP was identified in 85% of the subjects. There were not significant differences in HRmax (181 ± 12

  9. Fate and effects of CeO2 nanoparticles in aquatic ecotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoecke, Karen; Quik, Joris T K; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Van der Meeren, Paul; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C Vyvyan; Van de Meent, Dik; Rydzyński, Konrad; Dawson, Kenneth A; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Silversmit, Geert; De Samber, Björn; Vincze, Laszlo; Janssen, Colin R

    2009-06-15

    Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly being used as a catalyst in the automotive industry. Consequently, increasing amounts of CeO2 NPs are expected to enter the environment where their fate in and potential impacts are unknown. In this paper we describe the fate and effects of CeO2 NPs of three different sizes (14, 20, and 29 nm) in aquatic toxicity tests. In each standard test medium (pH 7.4) the CeO2 nanoparticles aggregated (mean aggregate size approximately 400 nm). Four test organisms covering three different trophic levels were investigated, i.e., the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, two crustaceans: Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus, and embryos of Danio rerio. No acute toxicity was observed for the two crustaceans and D. rerio embryos, up to test concentrations of 1000, 5000, and 200 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, significant chronic toxicity to P. subcapitata with 10% effect concentrations (EC10s) between 2.6 and 5.4 mg/L was observed. Food shortage resulted in chronic toxicity to D. magna, for wich EC10s of > or = 8.8 and or = 0.052 and effect of dissolved Ce or CeO2 NP uptake or adsorption, nor to an indirect effect of nutrient depletion (by sorption to NPs) or physical light restriction (through shading by the NPs). However, observed clustering of NPs around algal cells may locally cause a direct or indirect effect.

  10. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  11. Key challenges for nanotechnology: Standardization of ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2017-04-03

    Nanotechnology is expected to contribute to the protection of the environment, but many uncertainties exist regarding the environmental and human implications of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). Contradictory results have been reported for their ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms, which constitute one of the most important pathways for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web. The present review is focused on the international strategies that are laying the foundations of the ecotoxicological assessment of MNMs. Specific advice is provided on the preparation of MNM dispersions in the culture media of the organisms, which is considered a key factor to overcome the limitations in the standardization of the test methodologies.

  12. Bibliography of non-destructive testing standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, L.; Khan, Subban

    1975-01-01

    A bibliography on non-destructive testing (NDT) standards issued by standards organisations of the U.K., the U.S.A., India, France and F.R. Germany and by the International Standards Organization has been compiled and arranged under the following topics: (1) radiographic testing (2) ultrasonic testing (3) eddy current testing (4) magnetic particle testing (5) liquid penetrant testing (6) magnetic testing and (7) NDT in general. The total number of standards listed in the bibliography is 195. (M.G.B.)

  13. Plain Talk About Standardized Tests. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James G.; Gould, Jewell C.

    This handbook, in two parts, constitutes a manual prepared by the American Federation of Teachers, for improving teachers' use of standardized tests. Part I outlines basic concepts and issues surrounding standardized testing for teachers, parents and school administrators. The terms norm-referenced tests, criterion referenced tests, minimum…

  14. Criteria and quality standards for aquatic life protection; Criteri e standard di qualita` per la protezione della vita acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volterra, L.; De Nava, V.; Mancini, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1998-12-31

    The report concerns two Italian laws, n.130/92 and 131/92 derived from the EEC directives n. 659/78 and 923/91 concerning water quality respectively for freshwater and for marine water suitable for shellfish. The meaning of each parameter, included in the two laws, is explained considering that their purpose is protection and promotion of aquatic life. This review was originated by a request that Ministry of the Environment directed to the `Istituto Superiore of Sanita` to supply information necessary for a possible definition of lacking standards and to draw up appropriate monitoring plans. [Italiano] Il rapporto si riferisce a due decreti, il numero 130/92 e il 131/92 recepiti dalle direttive comunitarie 659/78 e 923/91 riguardanti rispettivamente la qualita` delle acque dolci che richiedono protezione e miglioramento per la vita dei pesci e i requisiti di qualita` delle acque per la molluschiocoltura. Si elencano isignificati dei singoli parametri introdotti nelle due normative il cui scopo e` quello di proteggere e favorire lo sviluppo della vita acquatica in ambienti di acqua dolce e marina. La rassegna e` nata da una richiesta formulata all`Istituto Superiore di Sanita` da parte del Ministero dell`Ambiente per fornire indicazioni necessarie per la eventuale definizione degli standard mancanti ed indirizzi per la formulazione di idonei piani di sorveglianza.

  15. Rock Testing Handbook (Test Standards 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemistry , Houghton Minihn Co.. New (15) Leggeit, R. F., Geology and Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., York, NY (1947). Inc._ New York, NY (1939). (38... tesied from the some setup using a large- diameter drill to advance between tests. The direction of loading necessarily coincides with the drill hole...Geological Survey Professional Paper 205-B (1945). Co., Chicago. IL (1939). (37) Hartman, R. J., Colloid Chemistry , Houghton Mifflin Co.. New (15) Leggett

  16. Aquatic Ecotoxicity Testing of Nanoparticles—The Quest To Disclose Nanoparticle Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of products on the market containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has increased significantly, and concerns have been raised regarding their ecotoxicological effects. Environmental safety assessments as well as relevant and reliable ecotoxicological data are required for the safe...... and sustainable use of ENPs. Although the number of publications on the ecotoxicological effects and uptake of ENPs is rapidly expanding, the applicability of the reported data for hazard assessment is questionable. A major knowledge gap is whether nanoparticle effects occur when test organisms are exposed...... tests is high, and in most cases difficult to assess. This Review outlines some of the pitfalls in the aquatic toxicity testing of ENPs which may lead to misinterpretation of test results. Response types are also proposed to reveal potential nanoparticle effects in the aquatic test organisms....

  17. Besting Testing Hysteria: Reasonable Preparation for Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the content of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and describes similarities between the ITBS and the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) standards. Addresses three NCSS standards and how each may be represented on a standardized test. Provides eight confidence-boosting principles. (CMK)

  18. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poštulková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG. The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHMG on zebrafish (Danio rerio and green algae (Desmodesmus communis. We determined the acute toxicity in fish according to ČSN EN ISO 7346-1, and conducted the freshwater algae growth inhibition test according to ČSN ISO 8692 methodology. For inhibition tests with green algae we chose Guanicid and PHMG concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 ml/L. For fish short-term acute toxicity tests we chose Guanicid concentrations of 0.010, 0.050, 0.150, 0.200, 0.250, and 0.300 ml/L and PHMG concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.125 ml/L. In case of zebrafish (Danio rerio, the LC50 value for Guanicid is 0.086 ml/L, while the LC50 value for PHMG is 0.043 ml/L. Effects of Guanicid on inhibition of green algae (Desmodesmus communis appear highly significant (p < 0.010 at a concentration of 0.010 ml/L. For PHMG, these effects are highly significant (p < 0.001 at concentrations of 0.005 and 0.010 ml/L in 48 hours.

  19. Standard leach tests for nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Barnes, B.O.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Five leach tests were conducted to study time-dependent leaching of waste forms (glass). The first four tests include temperature as a variable and the use of three standard leachants. Three of the tests are static and two are dynamic (flow). This paper discusses the waste-form leach tests and presents some representative data. 4 figures

  20. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  1. 76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 998] Standard Mail Market Test AGENCY... Service application for an exemption from the annual revenue limitation that applies to market tests of... limitation in any year during the test of an experimental market dominant product.\\1\\ Pursuant to 39 U.S.C...

  2. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLean, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 ± 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  3. Functional reach and lateral reach tests adapted for aquatic physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional reach (FR and lateral reach (LR tests are widely used in scientific research and clinical practice. Assessment tools are useful in assessing subjects with greater accuracy and are usually adapted according to the limitations of each condition. Objective: To adapt FR and LR tests for use in an aquatic environment and assess the performance of healthy young adults. Methods: We collected anthropometric data and information on whether the participant exercised regularly or not. The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment and administered to 47 healthy subjects aged 20-30 years. Each test was repeated three times. Results: Forty-one females and six males were assessed. The mean FR test score for men was 24.06 cm, whereas the mean value for right lateral reach (RLR was 10.94 cm and for left lateral reach (LLR was 9.78 cm. For females, the mean FR score was 17.57 cm, while the mean values for RLR was 8.84cm and for LLR was 7.76 cm. Men performed better in the FR (p < 0.001 and RLR tests than women (p = 0.037. Individuals who exercised regularly showed no differences in performance level when compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment. Males performed better on the FR and RLR tests, when compared to females. There was no correlation between the FR and LR tests and weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI, foot length or length of the dominant upper limb.

  4. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  5. Standard test method for instrumented impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard establishes the requirements for performing instrumented Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and instrumented Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) impact tests on metallic materials. This method, which is based on experience developed testing steels, provides further information (in addition to the total absorbed energy) on the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Minimum requirements are given for measurement and recording equipment such that similar sensitivity and comparable total absorbed energy measurements to those obtained in Test Methods E 23 and E 2248 are achieved. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Standard test methods of tension testing of metallic foil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic foil at room temperature in thicknesses less than 0.006 in. (0.150 mm). Note 1—Exception to these methods may be necessary in individual specifications or test methods for a particular material. 1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  8. Standardized Testing of Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Kenneth E.; Faris, Anthony J.; Hauer, John F.

    2006-05-31

    This paper describes a set of tests used to determine Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) measurement characteristics under steady state and dynamic conditions. The methodology is repeatable, comparable among test facilities, and can be performed at any facility with commonly available relay and standard test equipment. The methodology is based upon using test signals that are mathematically generated from a signal model and played into the PMU with precise GPS synchronization. Timing flags included with the test signal provide correlate the test signals and the PMU output. This allows accurate comparison of the phasor model with the value estimated by the PMU for accurate performance analysis. The timing flags also facilitate programmed plot and report generation.

  9. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  10. Aquatic plants: Test species sensitivity and minimum data requirement evaluations for chemical risk assessments and aquatic life criteria development for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Thursby, Glen

    2018-03-21

    Phytotoxicity results from the publicly-available ECOTOX database were summarized for 20 chemicals and 188 aquatic plants to determine species sensitivities and the ability of a species-limited toxicity data set to serve as a surrogate for a larger data set. The lowest effect concentrations reducing the sublethal response parameter of interest by 50% relative to the controls (EC 50 ) usually varied several orders of magnitude for the 119 freshwater and 69 saltwater plants exposed to the same test chemicals. Generally, algae were more sensitive than floating and benthic species but inter-specific differences for EC 50 values were sometimes considerable within and between phyla and no consistently sensitive species was identified for the morphologically-diverse taxa. Consistent equivalencies of the phytotoxicity databases for freshwater-saltwater plants and floating-benthic macrophyte species were not demonstrated. Two species-sensitivity distribution plots (SSDs) were constructed for each of the 20 chemicals, one based on all available phytotoxicity information (range = 10-76 test species) and another based on information for only five species recommended for pesticide hazard evaluations. HC 5 values (hazardous concentration to 5% of test species) estimated from the two SSDs usually differed four-fold or less for the same chemical. HC 5 values for the five species were often conservative estimates of HC 5 values for the more species-populated data sets. Consequently, the collective response of the five test species shows promise as an interim aquatic plant minimum data requirement for aquatic life criteria development. In contrast, the lowest EC 50 values for the five species usually were greater than HC 5 values for the same test chemicals, a finding important to criteria-supporting Final Plant Values. The conclusions may differ for comparisons based on other test chemicals, test species, response parameters and calculations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  12. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    NPs with a nominal size of 30 nm, the resulting dose-response relationships from tests without (A) and with (B) the pre-suspension step are illustrated in figure 1. Without the pre-suspension step, poorly reproducible results were obtained and it was not possible to produce comparable EC50 values from the three test......In recent years, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied intensively due to their high toxicity and extensive use in consumer products. However, the field of aquatic nanotoxicology is generally challenged by poor reproducibility, lack of dose-response relationships...... runs. Introduction of the presuspension step resulted in a higher degree of reproducibility and in more comparable EC50 values, indicating better control of the processes affecting AgNPs during the 2h testing. Moreover, the algal toxicity of AgNPs increased when extending the pre-suspension step period...

  13. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Se OPSeS Debido a que el agua subterranea granclemente influve la resistencia a suelo , se establecio una relacion empirica entre el nurmero de golpes...en la prueba normal de penetraci’n (Standard Penetration Test) de una arena bajo el nivel freatico y el correspond- iente numero en una arena seca (ie...sobre el nivel freatico) con la misma densidad relativa. Asimisnmo, porque se encontr6 que el nu.- mero de golpes depende no solo de la densidad

  14. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  15. Standardization of Tests for Advanced Composites

    OpenAIRE

    石川, 隆司; ISHIKAWA, Takashi; 野口, 義男; NOGUCHI, Yoshio; 濱口, 泰正; HAMAGUCHI, Yasumasa

    2003-01-01

    Advanced composites are essentially the only feasible materials for the construction of newly developed aerospace vehicle. However, the path to be followed for the validation, evaluation and certification of composite aircraft structures is quite different from that of traditional metallic aircraft structures, and the importance of a composites database is now well recognized. A key issue in constructing a fully descriptive composites database is to establish standard composite test methods, ...

  16. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Development and validation of phytotoxicity tests with emergent and submerged aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.S. [Carolina Ecotox, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Powell, R.L. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Nelson, M.K. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Toxicity testing procedures have recently been developed for assessment of contaminant effects on emergent and submerged aquatic macrophytes commonly found in freshwater wetlands. These tests have potential application in risk assessments for contaminated wetlands as well as for new chemical substances. The objective of this study was to evaluate and modify, if necessary, these methods and to validate them, using two benchmark chemicals, in a contract laboratory setting. Oryza sativa (domestic rice) was used as a surrogate emergent vascular plant, while Ceratophylium demersum (coontail) and Myriophyllum heterophyllum (variable-leaf milfoil) were the representative submerged vascular plants. Subsequent to evaluating culturing techniques and testing conditions, toxicity tests were conducted using boron and metribuzin. The test procedure for the emergent plants involves a two-week pro-exposure period followed by a two-week aqueous exposure. Five types of sediment, including both natural and artificial sediments, were evaluated for use with rice. Fresh weight and chlorophyll a content were the selected test endpoints. The submerged plants were exposed for two weeks, and the response variables evaluated included length, weight (fresh and dry), and root number. The sensitivity of these tests were comparable to the results obtained for the same two chemicals using the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, and the duckweed, Lemna gibba, with the exception that rice was less sensitive to metribuzin than the other species.

  18. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  20. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  1. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  2. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  3. Consistency test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.

    1997-01-01

    If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions

  4. Multipurpose laboratory test system applying CAMAC standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.L.

    1976-11-01

    A flexible electronic product test and evaluation system is proposed. A system study was performed to determine how increasingly complex telemetry systems could be effectively evaluated during development and preproduction and after first production units were built. A primary requirement was that this system remain flexible with respect to configuration and mission and that it be easily maintainable. In addition, the system must be upgraded easily as old product requirements and definitions are replaced by new designs. As a result of this study it is concluded that this project would involve the expenditure of considerable funds and manpower at the beginning of the project and that the cost effectiveness of the system would be dependent upon its utilization and management. This study also demonstrates how the use of computer interface hardware standards (IEEE 583) can minimize requirements for expensive specially designed test equipment for each application.

  5. Towards improved behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Acclimation and observation times are important factors when designing behavioural tests with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Petit, Marie A; Duvignacq, Marion C; Sumpter, John P

    2017-08-01

    The quality and reproducibility of science has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms spanning disciplines. In aquatic toxicology, behavioural tests are currently an area of controversy since inconsistent findings have been highlighted and attributed to poor quality science. The problem likely relates to limitations to our understanding of basic behavioural patterns, which can influence our ability to design statistically robust experiments yielding ecologically relevant data. The present study takes a first step towards understanding baseline behaviours in fish, including how basic choices in experimental design might influence behavioural outcomes and interpretations in aquatic toxicology. Specifically, we explored how fish acclimate to behavioural arenas and how different lengths of observation time impact estimates of basic swimming parameters (i.e., average, maximum and angular velocity). We performed a semi-quantitative literature review to place our findings in the context of the published literature describing behavioural tests with fish. Our results demonstrate that fish fundamentally change their swimming behaviour over time, and that acclimation and observational timeframes may therefore have implications for influencing both the ecological relevance and statistical robustness of behavioural toxicity tests. Our review identified 165 studies describing behavioural responses in fish exposed to various stressors, and revealed that the majority of publications documenting fish behavioural responses report extremely brief acclimation times and observational durations, which helps explain inconsistencies identified across studies. We recommend that researchers applying behavioural tests with fish, and other species, apply a similar framework to better understand baseline behaviours and the implications of design choices for influencing study outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  7. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  8. Standard practice for instrumented indentation testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice defines the basic steps of Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) and establishes the requirements, accuracies, and capabilities needed by an instrument to successfully perform the test and produce the data that can be used for the determination of indentation hardness and other material characteristics. IIT is a mechanical test that measures the response of a material to the imposed stress and strain of a shaped indenter by forcing the indenter into a material and monitoring the force on, and displacement of, the indenter as a function of time during the full loading-unloading test cycle. 1.2 The operational features of an IIT instrument, as well as requirements for Instrument Verification Annex A1), Standardized Reference Blocks (Annex A2) and Indenter Requirements (Annex A3) are defined. This practice is not intended to be a complete purchase specification for an IIT instrument. 1.3 With the exception of the non-mandatory Appendix X4, this practice does not define the analysis necessary...

  9. Water quality standards for the protection of human health and aquatic ecosystems in Korea: current state and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Il; Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-02-01

    Since the Korean Ministry of the Environment established the Master Plan for Water Environment (2006-2015), the need to revise the water quality standards (WQSs) has driven government projects to expand the standards for the protection of human health and aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to provide an historical overview of how these WQSs were established, amended, and expanded over the past 10 years in Korea. Here, major projects related to national monitoring in rivers and the amendment of WQSs were intensely reviewed, including projects on the categorization of hazardous chemicals potentially discharged into surface water, the chemical ranking and scoring methodology for surface water (CRAFT, Chemical RAnking of surFace water polluTants), whole effluent toxicity (WET) management systems, the 4th, 5th, and 6th revisions of the water quality standards for the protection of human health, and efforts toward developing the 7th revision. In this review, we assimilated the past and current status as well as future perspectives of Korean surface WQSs. This research provides information that aids our understanding of how surface WQSs have been expanded, and how scientific approaches to ensure water quality have been applied at each step of the process in Korea.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1423 - Standard; Testing personnel qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or bachelor's degree in a chemical, physical, biological or clinical laboratory science, or medical... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1423 Standard; Testing personnel...

  11. Experimental tests of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodulman, L.

    1998-01-01

    The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of α EM in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G F , most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered

  12. Experimental tests of the standard model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodulman, L.

    1998-11-11

    The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of {alpha}{sub EM} in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G{sub F}, most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered.

  13. Wind and water tunnel testing of a morphing aquatic micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae . The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.

  14. IEC 61850 Industrial Communication Standards under Test

    CERN Document Server

    Tilaro, F M; Gonzalez-Berges, M

    2014-01-01

    IEC-61850, as part of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 57 (TC57), defines an international and standardized methodology to design electric power automation substations.

  15. Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane, Helicopter, Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards (PTS) book has : been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to : establish the standards for the instrument rating practical test for : airplanes, helicopters, and airships. FAA inspecto...

  16. Interpreting Results from the Standardized UXO Test Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Michael; Tuley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    ...) and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESCTP) to complete a detailed analysis of the results of testing carried out at the Standardized Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Test Sites...

  17. The utility of behavioral studies for aquatic toxicology testing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Wilson, Scott P

    2013-11-01

    Behavioral responses have been applied for decades as tools for aquatic toxicity testing, but have received far less attention than studies assessing lethality, development or reproduction. With improved visual and non-visual assessment tools and increased knowledge of the importance of behavior for organism health and fitness, interest in behavioral analysis has increased in recent years. However, to our knowledge there has never been a quantitative assessment of the available techniques for organismal toxicity testing, so it is not clear whether behavioral studies represent valuable additions to environmental monitoring. We performed a meta-analysis comparing the relative sensitivities and average durations of behavioral studies to those assessing acute lethality, development and reproduction. Results demonstrate that the average duration of behavioral studies is consistently less than developmental or reproductive studies, and that behavioral endpoints are generally more sensitive than those assessing development or reproduction. We found effect sizes to be lower but power to be higher in behavioral and reproductive studies compared to studies assessing development, which likely relates to low sample sizes commonly used in developmental studies. Overall, we conclude that behavioral studies are comparatively fast and sensitive, and therefore warrant further attention as tools for assessing the toxicological effects of environmental contaminants. We suggest that research aimed at developing and optimizing techniques for behavioral analysis could prove extremely useful to the field of toxicology, but that future work must be directed at determining what specific behaviors are most sensitive to various classes of contaminants, and at understanding the relevance of changes to discrete behaviors for influencing organismal and population-level health and fitness. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Standardized Testing and the Construction of Governable Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cameron; Neu, Dean

    2004-01-01

    While debates over standardized testing are ubiquitous, there has been relatively little consideration of how today's standardized testing practices have arisen. The current study provides a chronology of standardized testing within Alberta, Canada. Starting from prior work by Foucault and others on "governmentality", we propose that the…

  19. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  20. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  1. Standard Testing Methods for Satellite Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    University space programs continue to push the envelope of small satellite technology. Because budgets are often limited, and equipment costs can often be prohibitive to even well-established space programs, it becomes necessary to maximize the benefit/cost ratio of testing methods. Expensive testing is often not an option, nor is it realistic. Traditional methods such as anechoic chambers or antenna test ranges are not options, and testing the craft on the ground is not practical. Because of...

  2. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  3. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  4. Standard test for nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.D.; Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The function of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is to provide the standardized materials data base and supporting documentation to help ensure safe disposal of nuclear waste. The methods and data are being published in a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook DOE/TIC 11400. (DG)

  5. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  6. The skin prick test - European standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase

  7. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard:...

  8. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  9. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonoscopy for colorectal cancer . Mammograms for breast cancer . Pap tests (Pap smears) for cervical cancer . Different types of ... follow a group of women who have regular Pap tests, and divide them into those who test positive ...

  10. SEDIMENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: COMPARISON OF STANDARD AND NEW TESTING DESIGNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard methods of sediment toxicity testing are fairly well accepted; however, as with all else, evolution of these methods is inevitable. We compared a standard ASTM 10-day amphipod toxicity testing method with smaller, 48- and 96-h test methods using very toxic and reference ...

  11. Standard guide for fretting fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines terminology and covers general requirements for conducting fretting fatigue tests and reporting the results. It describes the general types of fretting fatigue tests and provides some suggestions on developing and conducting fretting fatigue test programs. 1.2 Fretting fatigue tests are designed to determine the effects of mechanical and environmental parameters on the fretting fatigue behavior of metallic materials. This guide is not intended to establish preference of one apparatus or specimen design over others, but will establish guidelines for adherence in the design, calibration, and use of fretting fatigue apparatus and recommend the means to collect, record, and reporting of the data. 1.3 The number of cycles to form a fretting fatigue crack is dependent on both the material of the fatigue specimen and fretting pad, the geometry of contact between the two, and the method by which the loading and displacement are imposed. Similar to wear behavior of materials, it is important t...

  12. Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holliger, C.; Alves, M.; Andrade, D.

    2016-01-01

    Production of biogas fromdifferent organic materials is a most interesting source of renewable energy. The biomethane potential (BMP) of these materials has to be determined to get insight in design parameters for anaerobic digesters. Although several norms and guidelines for BMP tests exist, int...

  13. HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF STANDARDIZED TESTING – A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Syeda Rakhshanda Kaukab; Syeda Mehrunnisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper has been written with the intent of providing the history and evolution of the modern standardized testing while also highlighting the importance, pros and cons of standardized testing. In Pakistan, recently the higher education institution has established institute for development and implementation of standardized testing for admissions to the universities. It is for the first time that this is being introduced. Therefore, it appears in order that first the global development and...

  14. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  15. Historical Evolution of NASA Standard Materials Testing with Hypergolic Propellants and Ammonia (NASA Standard 6001 Test 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has performed testing of hazardous and reactive aerospace fluids, including hypergolic propellants, with materials since the 1960s with the Apollo program. Amongst other test activities, Test 15 is a NASA standard test for evaluating the reactivity of materials with selected aerospace fluids, in particular hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, uns-dimethylhydrazine, Aerozine 50, dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizers, and ammonia. This manuscript provides an overview of the history of Test 15 over a timeline ranging from prior to its development and first implementation as a NASA standard test in 1974 to its current refinement. Precursor documents to NASA standard tests, as they are currently known, are reviewed. A related supplementary test, international standardization, and enhancements to Test 15 are also discussed. Because WSTF was instrumental in the development and implementation of Test 15, WSTF experience and practices are referred to in this manuscript.

  16. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  17. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions

  18. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  19. Issues in Standardizing Psychometric Tests for Children Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T.; Mason, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses issues and difficulties encountered in efforts at the University of Birmingham (England) to standardize a new psychometric assessment tool, a tactile speed-of-information-processing test for children with blindness. The problem of defining the population on which the test is standardized is seen as particularly difficult.…

  20. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  1. Gold Standard Testing of Motion Based Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0032 GOLD STANDARD TESTING OF MOTION BASED TRACKING SYSTEMS Joshua Hagen Human Signatures Branch Human-Centered ISR Division...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 03 17 Interim Report June 2016 – March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gold Standard Testing of...systems against a ‘ Gold Standard ’ on-field measurement system for human physiological performance monitoring. Data shows that the accuracy of the

  2. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  3. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  4. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    from the Columbia Laboratory and its field laboratories. It presents definitive acute toxicity data on 271 chemicals tested against a variety of freshwater invertebrates and fishes. The chemicals represent all major groups of pesticides, as well as numerous industrial chemicals. This compilation should serve as a useful database for the many agencies and organizations dealing with research and management programs concerned with the impact of chemicals on aquatic resources.The Columbia Laboratory has played a major role in developing currently used standard methodology for static acute toxicity testing. The use of standardized methodology greatly reduces variation in results. The data presented here have been carefully scrutinized to eliminate tests that failed to follow acceptable procedures. Handling of test organisms and procedures for static toxicity tests followed those described by Lennon and Walker (1964) and Macek and McAllister (1970), and conform well with those recommended by Brauhn and Schoettger (1975) and the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic Organisms (1975).The species of fish and invertebrates that were tested are listed in phylogenetic order in Tables 1 and 2. Fish were obtained from Federal and State hatcheries as either eggs or fry. Original stocks of invertebrates were collected and cultured from wild populations with no known source of contamination; these populations were replenished regularly. The invertebrates were cultured in the Laboratory by methods similar to those described by Sanders and Cope (1966).Test chemicals usually consisted of technical or analytical grade samples of known purity. Formulations of the chemicals were also tested when available. When purity of test chemicals was known, all calculated concentrations were based on percent active ingredients. Stock solutions were prepared immediately before each test, with commercial grade acetone as the carrier solvent. Occasionally, ethanol or dimethyl-formamide was

  5. Aquatic plants: Test species sensitivity and minimum data requirement evaluations for chemical risk assessments and aquatic life criteria development for the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytotoxicity results from the publicly-available ECOTOX database were summarized for 20 chemicals and 188 aquatic plants to determine species sensitivities and the ability of a species-limited toxicity data set to serve as a surrogate for a larger data set. The lowest effect con...

  6. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  7. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  8. Standard guide for conducting exfoliation corrosion tests in aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide differs from the usual ASTM standard in that it does not address a specific test. Rather, it is an introductory guide for new users of other standard exfoliation test methods, (see Terminology G 15 for definition of exfoliation). 1.2 This guide covers aspects of specimen preparation, exposure, inspection, and evaluation for conducting exfoliation tests on aluminum alloys in both laboratory accelerated environments and in natural, outdoor atmospheres. The intent is to clarify any gaps in existent test methods. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  10. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures and operations for the irradiation of raw, untreated, fresh (chilled), or frozen finfish and aquatic invertebrates, while ensuring that the irradiated product is safe and wholesome. 1.1.1 Aquatic invertebrates include molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms, etc. 1.1.1.1 Molluscs include bivalve shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters; snails; and cephalopods, such as squid and octopus. 1.1.1.2 Crustacea include shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, crabs, prawns and crayfish. 1.1.1.3 Echinoderms include sea urchins and sea cucumbers. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses used to reduce the microbial and parasite populations in aquatic invertebrates and finfish. Such doses typically are below 10 kGy (1). 1.3 The use of reduced-oxygen packaging (vacuum or modified atmosphere, and including products packed in oil) with irradiated, raw product is not covered by this guide. The anaerobic environment created by reduced-oxygen packaging provides the potential for outgrowth o...

  11. Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing of the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction by the President of the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing; (2) The Vice-president's Unit Standardization and Quality; (3) The President's Office; (4) Chief Inspector Department; (5) Legislative-juridical Department; (6) Department of Economy; (7) Department of International Co-operation; (8) Department of European Integration; (9) Department of Metrology; (10) Department of Testing; (11) Department of the Cyclotron Centre SR; (12) Slovak Institute of Metrology; (13) Slovak Standards Institution; (14) Slovak Metrology Inspectorate; (15) Slovak Legal Metrology; (16) Measuring Techniques - Technocentre - MTT; Abbreviations; (17) Technical Testing Institute Piestany; (18) Testing Institute of Transport and Earthmoving Machinery - SUDST

  12. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009...

  13. Eight Ways to Support Students during Standardized Tests. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Julie; Holcomb, Linda Laine

    2012-01-01

    Standardized testing time often creates a nervous atmosphere in classrooms. In past years one of the authors joined a chorus of teachers singing her own woes about the infamous test. She increased her daily caffeine intake, lost sleep, and became a nervous, crazed teacher who had turned her classroom into a test prep center. Her aha moment came…

  14. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done...... with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....

  15. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem components and

  16. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Where two or more studies provided data for an outcome, we carried out meta-analysis. In addition, we set and used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included 16 aquatic exercise training studies (N = 881; 866 women and 15 men). Nine studies compared aquatic exercise to control, five studies compared aquatic to land-based exercise, and two compared aquatic exercise to a different aquatic exercise program.We rated the risk of bias related to random sequence generation (selection bias), incomplete outcome data (attrition bias), selective reporting (reporting bias), blinding of outcome assessors (detection bias), and other bias as low. We rated blinding of participants and personnel (selection and performance bias) and allocation concealment (selection bias) as low risk and unclear. The assessment of the evidence showed limitations related to imprecision, high statistical heterogeneity, and wide confidence intervals. Aquatic versus controlWe found statistically significant improvements (P value aquatic than the control groups. The SMD for muscle strength as measured by knee extension and hand grip was 0.63 standard deviations higher compared to the control group (SMD 0.63, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.05; NNT 4, 95% CI 3 to 12) and cardiovascular submaximal function improved by 37 meters on six-minute walk test (95% CI 4.14 to 69.92). Only two major outcomes, stiffness and muscle strength, met the 15% threshold for clinical relevance (improved by 27% and 37% respectively). Withdrawals were similar in the aquatic and control groups and adverse effects were poorly reported, with no serious adverse effects reported. Aquatic versus land-basedThere were no statistically significant differences between interventions for multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain or stiffness: 0.91 units (95% CI -4.01 to 5.83), -5.85 units (95% CI -12.33 to 0.63), -0

  17. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  18. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M; Kagan, Arielle D; Nelson, Stephanie S; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K

    2007-01-15

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research.

  19. Standard Test Method for Environmental Resistance of Aerospace Transparencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of exposure to thermal shock, condensing humidity, and simulated weather on aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 This test method is not recommended for quality control nor is it intended to provide a correlation to actual service life. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 Exceptions—Certain inch-pound units are furnished in parentheses (not mandatory) and certain temperatures in Fahrenheit associated with other standards are also furnished. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Standard practice for conducting atmospheric corrosion tests on metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and defines conditions for exposure of metals and alloys to the weather. It sets forth the general procedures that should be followed in any atmospheric test. It is presented as an aid in conducting atmospheric corrosion tests so that some of the pitfalls of such testing may be avoided. As such, it is concerned mainly with panel exposures to obtain data for comparison purposes. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Gammarus spp. in aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality assessment: toward integrated multilevel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut

    2010-01-01

    The amphipod genus Gammarus is widespread and is structurally and functionally important in epigean freshwaters of the Northern Hemisphere. Its presence is crucial, because macroinvertebrate feeding is a major rate-limiting step in the processing of stream detrius. In addition, Gammarus interacts with multiple trophic levels bu functioning as prey, predator, herbivore, detritivore, and shredder. Such a broad span of ecosystem participation underlines the importance of Gammarus to pollutants and other disturbances may render it a valuable indicator for ecosystem health. This review summarizes the vast number of studies conducted with Gammarus spp. for evaluating aquatic ecotoxicology endpoints and examines the suitability of this native invertabrate species for the assessment of stream ecosystem health in the Northern Hemisphere. Numerous papers have been published on how pollutants affect gammarind behavior (i.e., mating, predator avoidance), reproduction, development, feeding activity, population structure, as well as the consequences of pollution on host-parasite, predator-prey, or native-invasive species interactions. Some biochemical and molecular biomarkers have already been established, such as the measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins, metallothioneins, alkali-labile phosphates (in proteins), and lipogenic enzyme activities for assessing endocrine distribution and detoxification mechanisms.

  2. Evaluation of Suitability of Non-Standardized Test Block for Ultrasonic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho Young; Lim, Jong Ho; Kang, Sei Sun

    2000-01-01

    Standard Test Block(STB) for UT(Ultrasonic Testing) is a block approved by authoritative for material, shape and quality. STB is used for characteristic tests, sensitivity calibration and control of the time base range of UT inspection devices. The material, size and chemical components of STB should be strictly controlled to meet the related standards such as ASTM and JIS because it has an effect upon sensitivity, resolution and reproductivity of UT. The STBs which are not approved are sometimes used because the qualified STBs are very expensive. So, the purpose of this study is to survey the characteristics, quality and usability of Non-Standardized Test Blocks. Non-Standardized Test Blocks did not meet the standard requirements in size or chemical components, and ultrasonic characteristics. Therefore if the Non-Standardized Test Blocks are used without being tested, it's likely to cause errors in detecting the location and measuring the size of the defects

  3. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  4. CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BATTERY OF BRAILLE SKILL TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOURGEAULT, STANLEY E.; WOODCOCK, RICHARD W.

    A BATTERY OF TESTS WAS DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED TO MEASURE MASTERY OF TWO BRAILLE CODES--THE GRADE 2 LITERARY CODE AND THE NEMETH CODE FOR MATHEMATICAL NOTATION. DESIGNATED AS THE "COLORADO BRAILLE BATTERY," THESE TESTS PROVIDED OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT DATA REGARDING A STUDENT'S OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN BRAILLE, AS WELL AS A MEANS OF…

  5. Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for conducting corrosion tests in plant equipment or systems under operating conditions to evaluate the corrosion resistance of engineering materials. It does not cover electrochemical methods for determining corrosion rates. 1.1.1 While intended primarily for immersion tests, general guidelines provided can be applicable for exposure of test specimens in plant atmospheres, provided that placement and orientation of the test specimens is non-restrictive to air circulation. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also 10.4.2.

  6. [Discussion on the standard of clinical genetic testing report and the consensus of gene testing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Shen, Yiping; Gu, Weihong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yiming; Qi, Ming; Shen, Jun; Qiu, Zhengqing; Yu, Shihui; Zhou, Zaiwei; Chen, Baixue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yundi; Cui, Huanhuan; Du, Juan; Gao, Yong; Guo, Yiran; Hu, Chanjuan; Hu, Liang; Huang, Yi; Li, Peipei; Li, Xiaorong; Li, Xiurong; Liu, Yaping; Lu, Jie; Ma, Duan; Ma, Yongyi; Peng, Mei; Song, Fang; Sun, Hongye; Wang, Liang; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Jingmin; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhengyuan; Wang, Zhinong; Wu, Jihong; Wu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Xu, Yimin; Yao, Hong; Yang, Dongsheng; Yang, Xu; Yang, Yanling; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Yulin; Zhu, Baosheng; Zeng, Sicong; Peng, Zhiyu; Huang, Shangzhi

    2018-02-10

    The widespread application of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical settings has enabled testing, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genetic diseases. However, many issues have arisen in the meanwhile. One of the most pressing issues is the lack of standards for reporting genetic test results across different service providers. The First Forum on Standards and Specifications for Clinical Genetic Testing was held to address the issue in Shenzhen, China, on October 28, 2017. Participants, including geneticists, clinicians, and representatives of genetic testing service providers, discussed problems of clinical genetic testing services across in China and shared opinions on principles, challenges, and standards for reporting clinical genetic test results. Here we summarize expert opinions presented at the seminar and report the consensus, which will serve as a basis for the development of standards and guidelines for reporting of clinical genetic testing results, in order to promote the standardization and regulation of genetic testing services in China.

  7. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  8. PROPOSAL FOR NEW WORLD STANDARD FOR TESTING SOLAR COOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK KUNDAPUR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available New protocol to test solar cooker is being proposed. The earlier tests measured only the thermal efficiency. There is an urgent need to look into other important parameters of the cooker such as its stagnation capacity, cost per watts delivered, weight of the cooker, ease of handling and aesthetics. The proposal also aims at standardization of reporting the test results so that it can be easily understood by common persons who wishes to use one.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in roots of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis as a tool for testing genotoxicity of bottom sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana; Medvedeva, Marina; Trofimova, Elena; Alexandrova, Yuliyana; Dementyev, Dmitry; Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Submersed freshwater macrophytes are considered as relevant indicators for use in bulk bottom sediment contact tests. The purpose of this study was to estimate the validity of endpoints of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis for laboratory genotoxicity testing of natural bottom sediments. The inherent level of chromosome abnormalities (on artificial sediments) in roots of E. canadensis under laboratory conditions was lower than the percentage of abnormal cells in bulk sediments from the Yenisei River. The percentage of abnormal cells in roots of E. canadensis was more sensitive to the presence of genotoxic agents in laboratory contact tests than in the natural population of the plant. The spectra of chromosomal abnormalities that occur in roots of E. canadensis under natural conditions in the Yenisei River and in laboratory contact tests on the bulk bottom sediments from the Yenisei River were similar. Hence, chromosome abnormalities in roots of E. canadensis can be used as a relevant and sensitive genotoxicity endpoint in bottom sediment-contact tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard test method for conducting potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for polarization resistance measurements which can be used for the calibration of equipment and verification of experimental technique. The test method can provide reproducible corrosion potentials and potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  12. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan F. Khazaal; Haider Th. Salim Alrikabi; Anwar N. Mohammed Ali; Kadhim A. Neamah; Ali S. Shanan

    2017-01-01

    Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding). The assembled ante...

  13. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  14. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard Test Method for Measured Speed of Oil Diffusion Pumps

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the measured speed (volumetric flow rate) of oil diffusion pumps. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The metric equivalents of inch-pound units may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard Test Method for Determining Poisson's Ratio of Honeycomb Cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the honeycomb Poisson's ratio from the anticlastic curvature radii, see . 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Standard Test Method for Shear Fatigue of Sandwich Core Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effect of repeated shear loads on sandwich core materials. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Standard Test Method for Dimensional Stability of Sandwich Core Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the sandwich core dimensional stability in the two plan dimensions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. DOE standard: Filter test facility quality program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard was developed primarily for application in US Department of Energy programs. It contains specific direction for HEPA filter testing performed at a DOE-accepted HEPA Filter Test Facility (FTF). Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data that may improve this document should be sent to the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31), US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585, by letter or by using the self-addressed Document Improvement Proposal form (DOE F 1300.3) appearing at the end of this document

  20. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  1. Similar tests and the standardized log likelihood ratio statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    1986-01-01

    When testing an affine hypothesis in an exponential family the 'ideal' procedure is to calculate the exact similar test, or an approximation to this, based on the conditional distribution given the minimal sufficient statistic under the null hypothesis. By contrast to this there is a 'primitive......' approach in which the marginal distribution of a test statistic considered and any nuisance parameter appearing in the test statistic is replaced by an estimate. We show here that when using standardized likelihood ratio statistics the 'primitive' procedure is in fact an 'ideal' procedure to order O(n -3...

  2. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  3. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  4. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  5. Aquatic ecotoxicity and biodegradability of cracked gas oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests as well as a biodegradation study on cracked gas oil samples. In a CONCAWE study, three samples were tested for toxicity to the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (alternatively known as Selenastrum capricornutum) using water accommodated fractions. In addition, another sample was tested in a separate API study for toxicity to the fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss, the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna (acute and chronic) and the algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata using water accommodated fractions. The API sample was also tested for ready biodegradability in a manometric respirometry test. All these results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by cracked gas oils.

  6. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  7. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  8. Standard Test Method for Laboratory Aging of Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of sandwich panels to severe exposure conditions as measured by the change in selected properties of the material after exposure. The exposure cycle to which the specimen is subjected is an arbitrary test having no correlation with natural weathering conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  10. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  11. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  12. Report on the Standardization Project "Formal Methods in Conformance Testing"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgarten, B.; Hogrefe, D.; Heymer, S.; Burkhardt, H.-J.; Giessler, A.; Tretmans, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the latest developments in the “Formal Methods in Conformance Testing��? (FMCT) project of ISO and ITU–T. The project has been initiated to study the role of formal description techniques in the conformance testing process. The goal is to develop a standard that defines the

  13. Non-standard testing of mechanical characteristics of historic mortars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, 4-5 (2011), s. 383-394 ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : non-standard test specimen * historic mortar * compressive strength Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.235, year: 2011

  14. Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media: Standards, Testing, and Technophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational publishing corporations and media corporations in the United States have been converging, especially through the promotion of standardization, testing, and for-profit educational technologies. Media and technology companies--including News Corp, Apple, and Microsoft--have significantly expanded their presence in public schools to sell…

  15. Development of Standardized Material Testing Protocols for Prosthetic Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, John C; Reinhall, Per G; Hafner, Brian J; Sanders, Joan E

    2017-04-01

    A set of protocols was created to characterize prosthetic liners across six clinically relevant material properties. Properties included compressive elasticity, shear elasticity, tensile elasticity, volumetric elasticity, coefficient of friction (CoF), and thermal conductivity. Eighteen prosthetic liners representing the diverse range of commercial products were evaluated to create test procedures that maximized repeatability, minimized error, and provided clinically meaningful results. Shear and tensile elasticity test designs were augmented with finite element analysis (FEA) to optimize specimen geometries. Results showed that because of the wide range of available liner products, the compressive elasticity and tensile elasticity tests required two test maxima; samples were tested until they met either a strain-based or a stress-based maximum, whichever was reached first. The shear and tensile elasticity tests required that no cyclic conditioning be conducted because of limited endurance of the mounting adhesive with some liner materials. The coefficient of friction test was based on dynamic coefficient of friction, as it proved to be a more reliable measurement than static coefficient of friction. The volumetric elasticity test required that air be released beneath samples in the test chamber before testing. The thermal conductivity test best reflected the clinical environment when thermal grease was omitted and when liner samples were placed under pressure consistent with load bearing conditions. The developed procedures provide a standardized approach for evaluating liner products in the prosthetics industry. Test results can be used to improve clinical selection of liners for individual patients and guide development of new liner products.

  16. Study on method of data standardization in interferometric testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2010-10-01

    As a rule, Interferometers are used to test the figure in the polishing phase of optical component, it could provide advance tutor suggestion for manufacturing. It is unable to get the whole wave-front interferogram usually because phase-shift Interferometry is sensitive to environment vibration, so the exactly interference data of the optical surface could not be obtained. Various spatial point on the tested optical component will be given by calculation method about arithmetic average value of equal accuracy is provied. This paper describes the testing results of optical components in size Φ1200mm, it is proved the method could eliminate the vibration effectively and get the standardization data.

  17. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  18. Impact of standard test protocols on sporicidal efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesgate, R; Rauwel, G; Criquelion, J; Maillard, J-Y

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increase in the availability of commercial sporicidal formulations. Any comparison of sporicidal data from the literature is hampered by the number of different standard tests available and the use of diverse test conditions including bacterial strains and endospore preparation. To evaluate the effect of sporicidal standard tests on the apparent activity of eight biocides against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus subtilis. The activity of eight biocidal formulations including two oxidizing agents, two aldehydes, three didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and amine formulations, and sodium hypochlorite were evaluated using four standard sporicidal tests (BS EN 14347, BS EN13704, ASTM E2197-11, and AOAC MB-15-03) against B. subtilis (ACTC 19659) and C. difficile (NCTC 11209) spores. C. difficile spores were more susceptible to the sporicides than were B. subtilis spores, regardless of the method used. There were differences in sporicidal activity between methods at 5 min but not at 60 min exposure. DDAC and amine-based products were not sporicidal when neutralized appropriately. Neutralization validation was confirmed for these biocides using the reporting format described in the BS EN standard tests, although the raw data appear to indicate that neutralization failed. The different methods, whether based on suspension or carrier tests, produced similar sporicidal inactivation data. This study suggests that detailed neutralization validation data should be reported to ensure that neutralization of active spores is effective. Failure to do so may lead to erroneous sporicidal claims. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Standard Practice for Quality Management Systems for Nondestructive Testing Agencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers general requirements for the establishment and maintenance of a quality management system for agencies engaged in nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 This practice utilizes criteria contained in Practice E 543. 1.3 This practice utilizes criteria contained in American National Standard ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001–2000, Quality management systems—Requirements. 1.4 This practice recognizes the importance of establishing minimum safety criteria. 1.5 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combinations thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.6 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard test method for macroetching metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These test procedures describe the methods of macro- etching metals and alloys to reveal their macrostructure. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.2, 7.1, 8.1.3, 8.2.1, 8.8.3, 8.10.1.1, and 8.13.2.

  2. RF tests on the Etam Standard C antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.

    1982-05-01

    Radiometric measurements on the Etam Standard C antenna are described in this paper. Gain-to-noise temperature ratio (G/T), receive and transmit gain, noise temperature, return loss, and port-to-port isolation were measured, and communication and tracking patterns taken. Because of the very low spectral flux densities in the 14/11-GHz bands, it was necessary to use radiometric methods for measuring G/T, gain and temperature. Although in Standard A antennas Y-factors range between 3 and 6 dB, in Standard C antennas they are only 0.4-0.5 dB. Thus, errors and uncertainties, which are negligible in a 6/4-GHz test, become major at 14/11 GHz. This difficulty was overcome at Etam by applying a refinement in switched radiometry, which resulted in the collection of a large amount of useful data.

  3. Standard test methods for conducting time-for-rupture notch tension tests of materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the time for rupture of notched specimens under conditions of constant load and temperature. These test methods also includes the essential requirements for testing equipment. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The units in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Cho, M.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Choo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  5. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  6. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan F. Khazaal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding. The assembled antenna subjected to two types of tests to evaluate its performance. The first one is the test by two port network analyzer to point out S & Z parameters, input resistance, and the voltage standing wave ratio of the horn, while the second test was done using un-echoic chamber to measure the gain, side lobes level and the half power beam width. The results of testing come nearly as a theoretical value of the most important of antenna parameters, like; gain, side lobe level, -3 dB beam width, return loss and voltage standing wave ratio "VSWR", input Impedance.

  7. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

  8. NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larwood, S.; Musial, W.; Freebury, G.; Beattie, A.G.

    2001-04-19

    In the mid-90s the European community initiated the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) program to harmonize testing and measurement procedures in several industries. Within the program, a project was carried out called the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development. The second part of that project, called Blade Test Methods and Techniques, included the United States and was devised to help blade-testing laboratories harmonize their testing methods. This report provides the results of those tests conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  9. Standard practice for conducting moist SO2 tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the apparatus and procedure to be used in conducting qualitative assessment tests in accordance with the requirements of material or product specifications by means of specimen exposure to condensed moisture containing sulfur dioxide. 1.2 The exposure conditions may be varied to suit particular requirements and this practice includes provisions for use of different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and for tests either running continuously or in cycles of alternate exposure to the sulfur dioxide containing atmosphere and to the ambient atmosphere. 1.3 The variant of the test to be used, the exposure period required, the type of test specimen, and the criteria of failure are not prescribed by this practice. Such details are provided in appropriate material and product purchase specifications. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety c...

  10. Development of aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenguang; Zhang Zhisheng; Wang Hong; Liang Feng; Li Ji; Liu Hongling; Sun Cheng; Liang Lijun; Liu Zhengtao

    2012-01-01

    Nitrobenzene is a toxic pollutant and was the main compound involved in the Songhuajiang accident in 2007, one of the largest water pollution accidents in China in the last decade. No aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene have previously been proposed. In this study, published toxicity data of nitrobenzene to Chinese aquatic species were gathered, and six resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for nitrobenzene. Seventeen genuses mean acute values, three genuses mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, and six genus toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected in total. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.018 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.001 mg/L were developed based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in the determination of water quality standard of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: ► China is embarking on development of national water quality criteria system. ► Nitrobenzene is a valuable case in development of water quality criteria in China. ► Several Chinese resident aquatic organisms were chosen to be tested. ► The aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene were developed. - An acute criterion of 0.018 mg/L and a chronic criterion of 0.001 mg/L for nitrobenzene in China were developed according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines.

  11. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jo; Dobbs, Michael; Ebke, Peter; Hanson, Mark; Hommen, Udo; Knauer, Katja; Loutseti, Stefania; Maltby, Lorraine; Mohr, Silvia; Poovey, Angela; Poulsen, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and background Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species because of differences in the duration and mode of exposure; sensitivity to the specific toxic mode of action of the chemical; and species-specific traits (e.g., duckweed's very short generation time). Discussion and perspectives These topics were addressed during the workshop entitled “Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides” (AMRAP) where a risk assessment scheme for aquatic macrophytes was proposed. Four working groups evolved from this workshop and were charged with the task of developing Tier 1 and higher-tier aquatic macrophyte risk assessment procedures. Subsequently, a SETAC Advisory Group, the Macrophyte Ecotoxicology Group (AMEG) was formed as an umbrella organization for various macrophyte working groups. The purpose of AMEG is to provide scientifically based guidance in all aspects of aquatic macrophyte testing in the laboratory and field, including prospective as well as retrospective risk assessments for chemicals. As AMEG expands, it will begin to address new topics including bioremediation and sustainable management of aquatic macrophytes in the context of ecosystem services. PMID:20191396

  12. The Analysis of the Psychological Tests Using In Educational Institutions According To the Testing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi MOR DİRLİK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze four psychological tests which are frequently used in the Guidance and Research Centers and in the guidance services of the schools according to the standards for educational and psychological testing of APA (American Psychological Association and test adaption standards of ITC (International Testing Commission. The tests were determined based on the goal- oriented sample selecting method and were selected from the most frequently used psychological tests in Guidance and Research Centers and school’s guidance centers. These tests are: Scale of Academic Self-Concept (Akademik Benlik Kavramı Ölçeği-ABKÖ, Evaluation of Early Childhood Development Tool (Gazi Erken Çocukluk Gelişimi Değerlendirme Aracı-GEÇDA, Primary Mental Abilities 7-11 (TKT 7-11, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised Form (WISC-R. In this research, the chapters related to the validity, reliability and test development and revision of “Standards For Educational And Psychological Testing” (APA, 1999 and the adaptation standards developed by ITC were translated into Turkish and a checklist was created by using these documents. The checklist has got two forms as short and long form. The tests were analyzed according to the short form of the checklist by researcher. In order to examine the reliability of these analyses, the analyses were repeated in three weeks’ time. Data of these analyses were exported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 and descriptive analysis was perfomed. As a result of this research, the meeting levels of the psychological tests to the test standards in the checklist and the features of the tests which should be improved according to the validity, reliability, test development and revision and test adaptation were determined. In conclusion, the standards analyzed have not been met satisfactorily by ABKÖ and GEÇDA, and according to the analyses of the realibility

  13. The Standard-Model Extension and Gravitational Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D. Tasson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Standard-Model Extension (SME provides a comprehensive effective field-theory framework for the study of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. This work reviews the structure and philosophy of the SME and provides some intuitive examples of symmetry violation. The results of recent gravitational tests performed within the SME are summarized including analysis of results from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO, sensitivities achieved in short-range gravity experiments, constraints from cosmic-ray data, and results achieved by studying planetary ephemerids. Some proposals and ongoing efforts will also be considered including gravimeter tests, tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle, and antimatter experiments. Our review of the above topics is augmented by several original extensions of the relevant work. We present new examples of symmetry violation in the SME and use the cosmic-ray analysis to place first-ever constraints on 81 additional operators.

  14. Accounting for both local aquatic community composition and bioavailability in setting site-specific quality standards for zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Simpson, Peter; Moccia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable improvement in water quality standards (QS) for metals by taking account of the effect of local water chemistry conditions on their bioavailability. We describe preliminary efforts to further refine water quality standards, by taking account of the composition of the local ecological community (the ultimate protection objective) in addition to bioavailability. Relevance of QS to the local ecological community is critical as it is important to minimise instances where quality classification using QS does not reconcile with a quality classification based on an assessment of the composition of the local ecology (e.g. using benthic macroinvertebrate quality assessment metrics such as River InVertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS)), particularly where ecology is assessed to be at good or better status, whilst chemical quality is determined to be failing relevant standards. The alternative approach outlined here describes a method to derive a site-specific species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on the ecological community which is expected to be present at the site in the absence of anthropogenic pressures (reference conditions). The method combines a conventional laboratory ecotoxicity dataset normalised for bioavailability with field measurements of the response of benthic macroinvertebrate abundance to chemical exposure. Site-specific QSref are then derived from the 5%ile of this SSD. Using this method, site QSref have been derived for zinc in an area impacted by historic mining activities. Application of QSref can result in greater agreement between chemical and ecological metrics of environmental quality compared with the use of either conventional (QScon) or bioavailability-based QS (QSbio). In addition to zinc, the approach is likely to be applicable to other metals and possibly other types of chemical stressors (e.g. pesticides). However, the methodology for deriving site-specific targets requires

  15. Standard Test Method for Bird Impact Testing of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers conducting bird impact tests under a standard set of conditions by firing a packaged bird at a stationary transparency mounted in a support structure. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 8.

  16. Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the production of cavitation damage on the face of a specimen vibrated at high frequency while immersed in a liquid. The vibration induces the formation and collapse of cavities in the liquid, and the collapsing cavities produce the damage to and erosion (material loss) of the specimen. 1.2 Although the mechanism for generating fluid cavitation in this method differs from that occurring in flowing systems and hydraulic machines (see 5.1), the nature of the material damage mechanism is believed to be basically similar. The method therefore offers a small-scale, relatively simple and controllable test that can be used to compare the cavitation erosion resistance of different materials, to study in detail the nature and progress of damage in a given material, or—by varying some of the test conditions—to study the effect of test variables on the damage produced. 1.3 This test method specifies standard test conditions covering the diameter, vibratory amplitude and frequency of the...

  17. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Aquatic Habitats: Homes for Aquatic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Describes natural aquatic habitats, such as rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and various wetlands, and discusses the major differences between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.

  18. Testing Conformance to Standards: Notes on the OGC CITE Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we report on the issues and lessons learnt from our recent experience on assessing service compliance to OGC geospatial standards. Official conformity is warranted by the OGC Compliance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation (CITE) initiative, through a centrally managed repository of tests, typically developed via initiatives funded by external sponsors. In particular, we have been involved in the ESA-led Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility Testbed (HMA-T) project. HMA-T objectives included the definition of specifications (and related compliance tests) for Earth Observation (EO) Product discovery and access. Our activities have focused on the EO and Catalogue of ISO Metadata (CIM) Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) OGC standard. Our main contributions have regarded the definition of Abstract Test Suites (ATS's) for the above specifications, as well as the development of Reference Implementations (RIs) and concrete Executable Test Suites (ETS's). According to the state-of-the-art, we have implemented the ETS's in Compliance Test Language (CTL), an OGC standard dialect of XML, and deployed the scripts onto the open-source Test Evaluation And Measurement (TEAM) Engine, the official OGC compliance test platform. A significant challenge was to accommodate legacy services, that can not support data publishing. Hence, we could not assume the presence of control test data, necessary for exhaustive assessment. To cope with this, we have proposed and experimented tests for assessing the internal coherence of a target service instance. Another issue was to assess the overall behavior of a target service instance. Although quite obvious, this requirement proved to be hard (if unviable) to implement, since the design of the OGC catalogue specification is multi-layered (i.e. comprised of EP, AP, binding and core functionalities) and, according to the current OGC rationale, ATS/ETS at each

  19. Standard practice for torque calibration of testing machines and devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and requirements for the calibration of torque for static and quasi-static torque capable testing machines or devices. These may, or may not, have torque indicating systems and include those devices used for the calibration of hand torque tools. Testing machines may be calibrated by one of the three following methods or combination thereof: 1.1.1 Use of standard weights and lever arms. 1.1.2 Use of elastic torque measuring devices. 1.1.3 Use of elastic force measuring devices and lever arms. 1.1.4 Any of the methods require a specific uncertainty of measurement and a traceability derived from national standards of mass and length. 1.2 The procedures of 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and 1.1.3 apply to the calibration of the torque-indicating systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the torque-indicating system(s) to be calibrated and included in the repor...

  20. Alternate performance standard project: Interpreting the post-construction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.D.; McDonough, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a project commissioned by the State of Florida, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, as one portion of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). The purpose of the FRRP is to provide technical support for a statewide Building Standard for Radon-Resistant Construction currently in the rulemaking process. In this case the information provides technical background for a post-construction radon test specified as a performance element of the code which accompanies the prescriptive alternative that does not incorporate active radon reduction systems

  1. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  2. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Standard Specification for Solar Simulation for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification provides means for classifying solar simulators intended for indoor testing of photovoltaic devices (solar cells or modules), according to their spectral match to a reference spectral irradiance, non-uniformity of spatial irradiance, and temporal instability of irradiance. 1.2 Testing of photovoltaic devices may require the use of solar simulators. Test Methods that require specific classification of simulators as defined in this specification include Test Methods E948, E1036, and E1362. 1.3 This standard is applicable to both pulsed and steady state simulators and includes recommended test requirements used for classifying such simulators. 1.4 A solar simulator usually consists of three major components: (1) light source(s) and associated power supply; (2) any optics and filters required to modify the output beam to meet the classification requirements in Section 4; and (3) the necessary controls to operate the simulator, adjust irradiance, etc. 1.5 A light source that does not mee...

  4. Semifield testing of a bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soils: evaluating the efficacy on soil and aquatic compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Silva, Cátia; Costa, Catarina; Viana, Paula; Viegas, Cristina A; Fialho, Arsénio M; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated the bioremediation efficacy of a cleanup tool for atrazine-contaminated soils (Pseudomonas sp. ADP plus citrate [P. ADP + CIT]) at a semifield scale, combining chemical and ecotoxicological information. Three experiments representing worst-case scenarios of atrazine contamination for soil, surface water (due to runoff), and groundwater (due to leaching) were performed in laboratory simulators (100 × 40 × 20 cm). For each experiment, three treatments were set up: bioremediated, nonbioremediated, and a control. In the first, the soil was sprayed with 10 times the recommended dose (RD) for corn of Atrazerba and with P. ADP + CIT at day 0 and a similar amount of P. ADP at day 2. The nonbioremediated treatment consisted of soil spraying with 10 times the RD of Atrazerba (day 0). After 7 d of treatment, samples of soil (and eluates), runoff, and leachate were collected for ecotoxicological tests with plants (Avena sativa and Brassica napus) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) species. In the nonbioremediated soils, atrazine was very toxic to both plants, with more pronounced effects on plant growth than on seed emergence. The bioremediation tool annulled atrazine toxicity to A. sativa (86 and 100% efficacy, respectively, for seed emergence and plant growth). For B. napus, results point to incomplete bioremediation. For the microalgae, eluate and runoff samples from the nonbioremediated soils were extremely toxic; a slight toxicity was registered for leachates. After only 7 d, the ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic compartments seemed to be diminished with the application of P. ADP + CIT. In aqueous samples obtained from the bioremediated soils, the microalgal growth was similar to the control for runoff samples and slightly lower than control (by 11%) for eluates. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1·0 mg litre−1) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0·6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term ‘toxicosm’ to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening

  6. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B T; Romanenko, V I

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1.0 mg litre(-1)) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0.6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term 'toxicosm' to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening aquatic

  7. Standard test method for conducting erosion tests by solid particle impingement using gas jets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of material loss by gas-entrained solid particle impingement erosion with jetnozzle type erosion equipment. This test method may be used in the laboratory to measure the solid particle erosion of different materials and has been used as a screening test for ranking solid particle erosion rates of materials in simulated service environments (1,2 ). Actual erosion service involves particle sizes, velocities, attack angles, environments, and so forth, that will vary over a wide range (3-5). Hence, any single laboratory test may not be sufficient to evaluate expected service performance. This test method describes one well characterized procedure for solid particle impingement erosion measurement for which interlaboratory test results are available. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determi...

  8. Standard test methods for notched bar impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods describe notched-bar impact testing of metallic materials by the Charpy (simple-beam) test and the Izod (cantilever-beam) test. They give the requirements for: test specimens, test procedures, test reports, test machines (see Annex A1) verifying Charpy impact machines (see Annex A2), optional test specimen configurations (see Annex A3), precracking Charpy V-notch specimens (see Annex A4), designation of test specimen orientation (see Annex A5), and determining the percent of shear fracture on the surface of broken impact specimens (see Annex A6). In addition, information is provided on the significance of notched-bar impact testing (see Appendix X2), methods of measuring the center of strike (see Appendix X2). 1.2 These test methods do not address the problems associated with impact testing at temperatures below -196 C (-320 F, 77 K). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units are provided for information only. This standard does not purpor...

  9. Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Paulson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background variables outside of the control of schools significantly affected averaged scores, and test scores result in high stakes consequences, benefits and sanctions may be inappropriately applied. Furthermore, disaggregating the data by race, SES, limited English, or other groupings ignores the significant confounding and cumulative effects of belonging to more than one disadvantaged group. With these approaches to evaluation being fundamental to the No Child Left Behind mandates, the danger of misinterpretation and inappropriate application of sanctions is substantial.

  10. Filtration: Novel Absorber Evaluation Club aims at standardized testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the past few years a number of novel absorber materials, both organic and inorganic, have appeared on the market - some claiming to achieve very large decontamination factors for metal ions, including those having radioactive isotopes. Several of these materials have been tested by individual companies in the nuclear industry and some have shown promise as decontaminants for radioactive waste streams. Unfortunately, the results obtained for the treatment of a particular waste stream cannot be applied directly to the many and diverse waste streams generated throughout the nuclear industry. A unified and standardized testing programme making use of available expertise is necessary to provide a fair and meaningful comparison. In November 1988, representatives of the United Kingdom nuclear industry agreed to form the Novel Absorber Evaluation Club to assess absorber materials and to undertake the necessary work to identify the extent and rate of adsorption of radionuclides by such materials from a set of typical reference waste streams. (author)

  11. Tests of the standard model and searches for new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langacker, Paul [Pennsylvania Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-07-01

    Earlier chapters of this volume have detailed described the standard model and its renormalization, the various types of precision experiments, and their implications. This chapter is devoted to global analysis of the Z-pole, M{sub W}, and neutral current data, which contains more information that any one class of experiments. The subsequent sections will summarize some of the relevant data and theoretical formulas, the status of the standard model tests and parameter determinations, the possible classes of new physics, and the implications of the precision experiments. In particular, the model independent analysis of neutral current couplings, which establishes the standard model to first approximation; the implication of supersymmetry; supersymmetric grand unification; and a number if specific types of new physics, including heavy Z{sup '} bosons, new sources of SU{sub 2} breaking, new contributions to the gauge boson self-energies, Zb b-bar vertex corrections, certain types of new 4-Fermi operators and leptoquarks, and the exotic fermions are described.

  12. Stress-testing the Standard Model at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the high-energy run of the LHC now underway, and clear manifestations of beyond-Standard-Model physics not yet seen in data from the previous run, the search for new physics at the LHC may be a quest for small deviations with big consequences. If clear signals are present, precise predictions and measurements will again be crucial for extracting the maximum information from the data, as in the case of the Higgs boson. Precision will therefore remain a key theme for particle physics research in the coming years. The conference will provide a forum for experimentalists and theorists to identify the challenges and refine the tools for high-precision tests of the Standard Model and searches for signals of new physics at Run II of the LHC. Topics to be discussed include: pinning down Standard Model corrections to key LHC processes; combining fixed-order QCD calculations with all-order resummations and parton showers; new developments in jet physics concerning jet substructure, associated jets and boosted je...

  13. Standard test methods for bend testing of metallic flat materials for spring applications involving static loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This standard describes three test methods for determining the modulus of elasticity in bending and the bending strength of metallic strips or sheets intended for the use in flat springs: 1.1.1 Test Method A—a cantilever beam, 1.1.2 Test Method B—a three-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and centrally loaded), and 1.1.3 Test Method C—a four-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and loaded at two points equally spaced from each support). 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 6.1 This test me...

  14. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard test method for pin-type bearing test of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1984-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a pin-type bearing test of metallic materials to determine bearing yield strength and bearing strength. Note 1—The presence of incidental lubricants on the bearing surfaces may significantly lower the value of bearing yield strength obtained by this method. 1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard test methods for elevated temperature tension tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures. 1.2 Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included. 1.3 Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  18. Aligning English grammar testing with European language standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrič Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.

  19. Calcium carbonate phosphate binding ion exchange filtration and accelerated denitrification improve public health standards and combat eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamadala, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Cultural eutrophication, the process by which a lake becomes rich in dissolved nutrients as a result of point and nonpoint pollutant sources, is a major cause of the loss of natural lake ecosystems throughout the world. The process occurs naturally in all lakes, but phosphate-rich nutrient runoff from sources such as storm drains and agricultural runoff is a major cause of excess phosphate-induced eutrophication. Especially in Madrona Marsh, one of the last remaining vernal marshes in the greater Los Angeles area, California, cultural eutrophication has become a major problem. In this study, calcium carbonate was found to be an excellent phosphate binder, reducing up to 70% of the phosphates in a given sample of water, and it posed relatively negligent ecological repercussions. This study involved the testing of this principle in both the laboratory and the real ecosystem. A calcium carbonate lacing procedure was first carried out to determine its efficacy in Madrona Marsh. Through this, ammonia was found to interfere with the solubility of calcium carbonate and therefore to be a hindrance to the reduction of phosphate. Therefore, various approaches for reduction of ammonia were tested, including aeration, use of fiber growth media, and plants, mainly Caulerpa verticellata, chosen for it hardiness, primarily in an attempt to increase population of Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas. All were successful in moderately reducing ammonia levels. In addition, soil sampling, sediment analysis, microscopic plant analysis, microorganism and macroinvertebrate identification, and rate law formulations were conducted. The effect of phosphate and ammonia reduction on the populations of enterobacteria was also an important focus of this experiment. Varying concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, and calcium carbonate in conjunction with phosphate were tested in Madrona Marsh to determine their effects on the populations of enteropathogens on nonspecific blood agar, MacConkey agar, and

  20. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Atomizer Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1965-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of fractional molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Suitability of cytotoxicity endpoints and test microalgal species to disclose the toxic effect of common aquatic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Raquel; García, Rosa; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Pulse discharges of chemicals to aquatic environments may lead to high concentrations of them in surface waters for short periods of time, but enough to induce toxic effects on aquatic organisms; however, no many methods allow an early warning of toxicity of these agents. Acute effects of one representative chemical from each of three of the main groups of aquatic pollutants (pesticides, metals and pharmaceuticals) are studied on two green microalgal species (Chlamydomonas moewusii and Chlorella vulgaris). Flow cytometry protocols were used to detect the potential application of chlorophyll a fluorescent emission, cell viability, metabolic activity and membrane potential as cytotoxicity endpoints, besides an epifluorescence microscopy protocol for comet assay to detect genotoxicity level of cells. Obtained results confirm the suitability of them for the prospective assessment of the potential cytotoxicity of these aquatic pollutants. The two microalgal species analysed could be used as indicators in toxicity bioassays, being C. moewusii more sensitive than C. vulgaris. Among cell parameters assayed, the metabolic activity and the primary DNA damage stood out as sensitive cytotoxicity endpoints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes procedures for the tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. The format is similar to that of other ASTM tension test standards, but the contents include modifications for cryogenic testing which requires special apparatus, smaller specimens, and concern for serrated yielding, adiabatic heating, and strain-rate effects. 1.2 To conduct a tension test by this standard, the specimen in a cryostat is fully submerged in normal liquid helium (He I) and tested using crosshead displacement control at a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1 or less. Tests using force control or high strain rates are not considered. 1.3 This standard specifies methods for the measurement of yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. The determination of the elastic modulus is treated in Test Method E 111. Note 1—The boiling point of normal liquid helium (He I) at sea level is 4.2 K (−269°C or −452.1°F or 7.6°R). It decreases with geographic elevation and is...

  5. Standard test method for guided bend test for ductility of welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a guided bend test for the determination of soundness and ductility of welds in ferrous and nonferrous products. Defects, not shown by X rays, may appear in the surface of a specimen when it is subjected to progressive localized overstressing. This guided bend test has been developed primarily for plates and is not intended to be substituted for other methods of bend testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Note 1—For additional information see Terminology E 6, and American Welding Society Standard D 1.1. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  7. Standard test method for K-R curve determination

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance to fracture of metallic materials under Mode I loading at static rates using either of the following notched and precracked specimens: the middle-cracked tension M(T) specimen or the compact tension C(T) specimen. A K-R curve is a continuous record of toughness development (resistance to crack extension) in terms of KR plotted against crack extension in the specimen as a crack is driven under an increasing stress intensity factor, K. 1.2 Materials that can be tested for K-R curve development are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness, so long as specimens are of sufficient size to remain predominantly elastic to the effective crack extension value of interest. 1.3 Specimens of standard proportions are required, but size is variable, to be adjusted for yield strength and toughness of the materials. 1.4 Only two of the many possible specimen types that could be used to develop K-R curves are covered in this method. 1.5 The test is app...

  8. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and...analytical costs for this more deliberate approach could be three to four person-years. It would be appropriate for the Air Force to market any

  9. Underwater noise from geotechnical drilling and standard penetration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McPherson, Craig

    2017-09-01

    Geotechnical site investigations prior to marine construction typically involve shallow, small-core drilling and standard penetration testing (SPT), during which a small tube is hammered into the ground at the bottom of the borehole. Drilling (120 kW, 83 mm diameter drillbit, 1500 rpm, 16-17 m drill depth in sand and mudstone) and SPT (50 mm diameter test tube, 15 mm wall thickness, 100 kg hammer, 1 m drop height) by a jack-up rig in 7-13 m of water were recorded with a drifting hydrophone at 10-50 m range. Source levels were 142-145 dB re 1 μPa rms @ 1 m (30-2000 Hz) for drilling and 151-160 dB re 1 μPa 2 s @ 1 m (20-24 000 Hz) for SPT.

  10. Working on a Standard Joint Unit: A pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajuana, Cristina; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Mercedes Balcells, María; Miquel, Laia; Teixidó, Lídia; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2017-09-29

    Assessing cannabis consumption remains complex due to no reliable registration systems. We tested the likelihood of establishing a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) which considers the main cannabinoids with implication on health through a naturalistic approach.  Methodology. Pilot study with current cannabis users of four areas of Barcelona: universities, nightclubs, out-patient mental health service, and cannabis associations. We designed and administered a questionnaire on cannabis use-patterns and determined the willingness to donate a joint for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Forty volunteers answered the questionnaire (response rate 95%); most of them were men (72.5%) and young adults (median age 24.5 years; IQR 8.75 years) who consume daily or nearly daily (70%). Most participants consume marihuana (85%) and roll their joints with a median of 0.25 gr of marihuana. Two out of three (67.5%) stated they were willing to donate a joint. Obtaining an SJU with the planned methodology has proved to be feasible. Pre-testing resulted in an improvement of the questionnaire and retribution to incentivize donations. Establishing an SJU is essential to improve our knowledge on cannabis-related outcomes.

  11. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurement Lab.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  12. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Feng, Y.; Galeriu, D.; Heling, R.; Kryshev, A.I.; Kononovich, A.L.; Watkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the accident; (b) assessment of doses to aquatic biota; and (c) assessment of potential doses and radiation risks to humans from consumption of contaminated fish. Calculations for the Scenario were performed by 19 participants using 6 different models: LAKECO-B (Netherlands); LAKEPOND (Romania); POSOD (USA); WATER, GIDRO and ECOMOD-W (Russia). For all endpoints, model predictions were compared with the test data, which were derived from the results of direct measurements and independent dose estimates based on measurements. Most of the models gave satisfactory agreement for some portions of the test data, although very few participants obtained good agreement with all criteria for model testing. The greatest level of difficulty was with the prediction of non-equilibrium radioecological processes in the first year after the accident (1986). The calculations 5 for this scenario gave modellers a unique opportunity to test their models using an independent data base and to analyse the advantages and weaknesses of different model approaches. The use of post-Chernobyl data in such a scenario is also recommended for use in training students in the field of radioecology and environmental protection. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  14. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Development of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    Considerable effort in the astronomy education research (AER) community over the past several years has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing the AER discipline so that researchers could establish the initial knowledge state of students as well as to attempt measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Unfortunately, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. This was not done in oversight, but rather as a result of the relative youth of AER as a discipline. Now that several important science education reform documents exist and are generally accepted by the AER community, we are in a position to develop, validate, and disseminate a new assessment instrument which is tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. In response, researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science & Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have designed a criterion-referenced assessment tool, called the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Through iterative development, this instrument has a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to help measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of our community.

  16. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  17. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  18. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  19. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  20. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  1. Aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M R; Shaw, G

    2000-02-01

    Australia is blessed with a great diversity of unique species in its fresh waters and in the marine environment around its coast. There is evidence that human and natural events are impacting on these species. Such impacts are associated with various agricultural, industrial, and domestic practices and with natural and anthropogenically driven climate change. Among the species most affected are those living in aquatic and marine environments. Some of these, such as cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, have the potential for toxicity. Linked to this, there is the potential benefit of harnessing the pharmacologic potential of these toxins.

  2. Proceedings of the 35. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, K.; Janz, D.M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre; Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This workshop on aquatic and environmental toxicology covered topics from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring and protecting the health of aquatic ecosystems. It addressed issues regarding the development of regulations and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The workshop emphasized an informal exchange of ideas and knowledge on the topics among interested persons from industry, governments and universities. The principles, current problems and approaches in aquatic toxicology and the biological effect on biota were also discussed. The sessions were entitled: environmental effects monitoring; endocrine modulating substances; metal, coal and diamond mining; mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity; genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in aquatic ecotoxicology; northern and Arctic ecosystems; oil sands research; general aquatic toxicology; barriers to biological recovery in metal contaminated sites; pesticides and other agricultural stressors; tools to assess toxicity and bioavailability in support of risk assessment; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; novel biological test methods; ecological risk assessment; national agri-environmental standards initiative; corroborating, extrapolating and predicting adverse effects between laboratory and field; cumulative effects assessment; advances in environmental chemistry; nanotoxicology; and sensory systems. The workshop featured 195 presentations, of which 31 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  3. Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Lighter-Than-Air Balloon, Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Private Pilot - Lighter-Than-Air (Balloon and Airship) Practical Test Standards (PTS) book has been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the standards for private pilot certification practical tests for the lighter-...

  4. Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards for Lighter-Than-Air: Balloon, Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Flight Instructor - Lighter-Than-Air Practical Test Standards (PTS) : book has been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to : establish the standards for flight instructor certification practical tests for : the lighter-than-air...

  5. Commercial Pilot Practical Test Standards for Lighter-Than-Air Balloon, Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Commercial Pilot Lighter-Than-Air Practical Test Standards (PTS) book has been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the standards for commercial pilot certification practical tests for the lighter-than-air category,...

  6. Standardized testing: a case of annual national assessments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardized assessments are becoming a norm internationally. Governments have turned to standardized assessments due to mounting pressure by citizens for accountability, quality education, transparency, and increased public confidence in education. In South Africa, the observed learning deficiencies and prolonged ...

  7. Use of the aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum as bioindicator of copper pollution: Accumulation and cellular distribution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, Fabien [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France)]. E-mail: fabien.monnet@univ-avignon.fr; Bordas, Francois [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France); Deluchat, Veronique [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France); Chatenet, Philippe [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France); Botineau, Michel [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France); Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des sciences de l' eau et de l' environnement, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87060 Limoges (France)

    2005-12-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of the aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum as bioindicator of copper pollution. Lichen thalli were exposed to 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mM copper in synthetic freshwater to solve the problems of metal bioavailability. The mineral composition of this media was prepared so that it corresponded to the ion composition of natural waters in D. luridum ecosystems. Sequential elution procedures using NiCl{sub 2} or Na{sub 2}-EDTA (20 mM) were used to determine the distribution of metals at different cellular sites. The copper concentration extracted from thalli was correlated with pollution intensity, the greater correlation being with the Na{sub 2}-EDTA extractant. The malondialdehyde concentration in thalli can be used as indicator of copper pollution; however, similar membrane degradation was observed for 0.25 and 0.50 mM copper and for 0.75 and 1.00 mM copper. - The copper concentration in thalli of aquatic lichens is correlated with pollution intensity.

  8. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  9. Standard Test Method for Oxyacetylene Ablation Testing of Thermal Insulation Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the screening of ablative materials to determine the relative thermal insulation effectiveness when tested as a flat panel in an environment of a steady flow of hot gas provided by an oxyacetylene burner. 1.2 This test method should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  10. Using standard serology blood tests to diagnose latent syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Katunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To conduct a comparative assessment of the results of regulated serological tests obtained as a result of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis. Materials and methods. The authors examined 187 patient medical records with newly diagnosed latent syphilis in FGBU GNTsDK (State Research Center for Dermatology, Venereology and Cosmetology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, in 2006-2015. The results of patient blood tests were analyzed with the use of non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR and treponemal (passive hemagglutination test, immune-enzyme assay (IgA, IgM, IgG, IFabs, immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test serology tests. Results. According to the results of blood tests of latent syphilis patients, the largest number of positive results was obtained as a result of treponemal serology tests such as immune-enzyme assay (100%, passive hemagglutination test (100% and IFabs (100%. The greatest number of negative results was observed in non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR serology tests: in 136 (72.7% patients; evidently positive results (4+ test results were obtained in 8 (4.3% patients only. According to the results of a comparative analysis of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis obtained with the use of treponemal serology tests, the greatest number of evidently positive results (4+ was noted for the passive hemagglutination test (67.9%. Negative treponemal test results were obtained with the use of the immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test (21.9% and 11.8% of cases, respectively. Moreover, weakly positive results prevailed for the immunofluorescence test: in 65 (34.7% patients. Conclusion. These data confirm that the following treponemal tests belong to the most reliable ones for revealing patients suffering from latent syphilis: immune-enzyme assay, passive hemagglutination test and IFabs.

  11. 29 CFR 1630.10 - Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.10 Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria. It is unlawful for a covered entity to use qualification standards, employment tests or other selection criteria that screen..., on the basis of disability, unless the standard, test or other selection criteria, as used by the...

  12. SMC Standard: Evaluation and Test Requirements for Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-26

    78 8.2 Pre-Launch Validation and Operational Tests ...................................................................... 78 8.2.1 General...completion of the development test program. The phase includes validation of test techniques, procedures, equipment, instrumentation, and software, as... reliability for flight operations. A corollary to TLYF is the “fly-as-you- test ” approach. “Fly-as-you- test ” means that flight operation should remain

  13. Annual meeting 1996 'Nondestructive materials testing'. German, Austrian and Swiss nondestructive materials testing standards as mirrored by international standardization. Vol. 1. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains 45 lectures which were given at the annual meeting of the German Society for Nondestructive Testing on May 13-15, 1996 at Lindau. The main subjects were: Standardization of nondestructive testing, irradiation testing, ultrasonic testing and electromagnetic processes. 13 individual articles were included in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  14. Annual meeting 1996 'Nondestructive material testing'. German, Austrian and Swiss nondestructive materials testing standards as mirrored by international standardization. Vol. 2. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains 49 poster articles which were presented at the Annual Meeting of the German Society for Nondestructive Testing at Lindau on May 13-15, 1996. The main subjects were: Standardization of nondestructive testing, irradiation testing, ultrasonic testing and electromagnetic processes. 16 individual articles were included in the ENERGY databank. (MM) [de

  15. Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severijns, N.; Beck, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Caen Univ., CNRS-ENSI, 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2006-05-15

    We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C{sub A},/C{sub V} = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)

  16. Framework for a Comparative Accelerated Testing Standard for PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Miller, D.; Meakin, D.; Monokroussos, C.; TamizhMani, M.; Kempe, M.; Jordan, D.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Bermudez, V.; Kondo, M.

    2013-08-01

    As the photovoltaic industry has grown, the interest in comparative accelerated testing has also grown. Private test labs offer testing services that apply greater stress than the standard qualification tests as tools for differentiating products and for gaining increased confidence in long-term PV investments. While the value of a single international standard for comparative accelerated testing is widely acknowledged, the development of a consensus is difficult. This paper strives to identify a technical basis for a comparative standard.

  17. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  18. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  19. Undergraduate Students' Errors in the Administration of Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbe, George A.; Traynelis-Yurek, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=106) in a psychoeducational testing course were required to administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised to the instructor. Only 29.2 percent were able to administer the test error-free, indicating that a one-semester course is insufficient preparation for special educators to become effective test…

  20. Primordial alchemy: a test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1987-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis provides the only probe of the early evolution of the Universe constrained by observational data. The standard, hot, big bang model predicts the synthesis of the light elements (D, 3 He, 4 He, 7 Li) in astrophysically interesting abundances during the first few minutes in the evolution of the Universe. A quantitative comparison of the predicted abundances with those observed astronomically confirms the consistency of the standard model and yields valuable constraints on the parameters of cosmology and elementary particle physics. The current status of the comparison between theory and observation will be reviewed and the opportunities for future advances outlined

  1. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  2. New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Lack of consensus standards containing procedural detail for NDE of polymer matrix composite materials: I. Flat panel composites. II. Composite components with more complex geometries a) Pressure vessels: 1) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). 2) composite pressure vessels (CPVs). III. Sandwich core constructions. Metal and brittle matrix composites are a possible subject of future effort.

  3. Precision tests of the standard model at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, Barbara; Universita La Sapienza, Rome

    1994-01-01

    Recent LEP results on electroweak precision measurements are reviewed. Line-shape and asymmetries analysis on the Z 0 peak is described. Then, the consistency of the Standard Model predictions with experimental data and consequent limits on the top mass are discussed. Finally, the possibility of extracting information and constrains on new theoretical models from present data is examined. (author). 20 refs., 5 tabs

  4. 42 CFR 493.1489 - Standard; Testing personnel qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived... biology; and (iii) Twelve semester hours of chemistry, biology, or medical laboratory technology in any... analysis— (i) Be qualified under § 493.1489(b)(1), (b)(2), (b)(3), (b)(4), or (b)(5); (ii) Have earned a...

  5. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G.; Fournier, M.; Campbell, P.G.C.; Pellerin, J.; Lacroix, E.; Burridge, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity assessment of six anti-cancer drugs and one metabolite using biotest battery - Biological effects and stability under test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Stokowski, Marcin; Stolte, Stefan; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Available ecotoxicological data for anti-cancer drugs and their metabolites are incomplete, and only some studies have been accompanied by chemical analysis. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the six most commonly used cytostatics, namely cyclophosphamide (CF), ifosfamide (IF), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), imatinib (IMT), tamoxifen (TAM) and methotrexate (MET) and its metabolite - 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH-MET), towards selected aquatic organisms, namely bacteria Vibrio fischeri, algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, crustaceans Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. All ecotoxicological tests were accompanied by chemical analysis to determine the differences between nominal and actual concentrations of investigated compounds and their stability under test conditions. For unstable compounds, tests were performed in static and semi-static conditions. It was observed that L. minor was the most sensitive organism. The compounds that were most toxic to aquatic organisms were 5-FU (highly toxic to algae, EC 50  = 0.075 mg L -1 ), MET and TAM (very toxic to highly toxic to duckweed depending on the test conditions; EC 50MET 0.08-0.16 mg L -1 , EC 50TAM 0.18-0.23 mg L -1 ). It is suspected that MET and 5-FU mainly affected algae and plants most probably because the exposure time was long enough for them to cause a specific effect (they inhibit DNA replication and act predominantly on actively dividing cells). Furthermore, the obtained results also suggest that the toxicity of the metabolites/potentially produced degradation products of MET towards duckweed is lower than that of the parent form, whereas the toxicity of TAM degradation products is in the same range as that of TAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Standard test methods for arsenic in uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are applicable to the determination of total arsenic in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two test methods are given: Test Method A—Arsine Generation-Atomic Absorption (Sections 5-10), and Test Method B—Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (Appendix X1). 1.2 The test methods are equivalent. The limit of detection for each test method is 0.1 μg As/g U when using a sample containing 0.5 to 1.0 g U. Test Method B does not have the complete collection details for precision and bias data thus the method appears as an appendix. 1.3 Test Method A covers the measurement of arsenic in uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) solutions by converting arsenic to arsine and measuring the arsine vapor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.4 Test Method B utilizes a solvent extraction to remove the uranium from the UO2F2 solution prior to measurement of the arsenic by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.5 Both insoluble and soluble arsenic are measured when UF6 is...

  8. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  9. Airside HVAC BESTEST: HVAC Air-Distribution System Model Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ronald [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates; Kennedy, Mike D. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc.; Gall, J. [AAON, Inc.; Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc.; Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc.; McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc.; Yan, D. [Tsinghua University; Zhou, X. [Tsinghua University

    2017-08-07

    This paper summarizes recent work to develop new airside HVAC equipment model analytical verification test cases for ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. The analytical verification test method allows comparison of simulation results from a wide variety of building energy simulation programs with quasi-analytical solutions, further described below. Standard 140 is widely cited for evaluating software for use with performance-path energy efficiency analysis, in conjunction with well-known energy-efficiency standards including ASHRAE Standard 90.1, the International Energy Conservation Code, and other international standards. Airside HVAC Equipment is a common area of modelling not previously explicitly tested by Standard 140. Integration of the completed test suite into Standard 140 is in progress.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1425 - Standard; Testing personnel responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the laboratory director and require a degree of skill commensurate with the individual's... test results and either must correct the problems or immediately notify the technical consultant, clinical consultant or director; and (6) Document all corrective actions taken when test systems deviate...

  11. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of

  12. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following steps: (i) Test equipment shall be connected to the fuel tank canister hose at the canister end... minutes and monitor for a sudden pressure drop, indicating that the fuel tank was pressurized. (v) The... be performed without repair or adjustment at the inspection facility, prior to the test, except as...

  13. Developing and Standardization of a Diagnostic Reading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sima-Shirazi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper is a report on the development, structure and content of a diagnostic dyslexia reading test. The target population of this test is persian children who have problems in learning reading and may be considered as dyslexic. This diagnostic test is the first reading test developed for the native speakers of persian. Materials & Methods: The theoretical framework of the test is based on two well- established reading tests for the English speaking children, namely Durrell Analysis of Reading and Neale Analysis of Reading Ability. The linguistic content of the subtests is selected from the vocabulary and texts of the textbook used in the primary schools. Both the vocabulary and the sentences of the parrallel passeges were controlled for frequency, phonemic/graphemic regularity, syllable structure, morphology, syntax and semantics. They were also controlled for value judgement by two linguistics and three first grader teachers.The first version of the test is normed on 605 boy and girl first graders from different educational sectors and schools selected randomly.The method used in this research is cross- sectional, descriptive- analytic and the data analysis is based on pearson, and mann-whitney u. Results: Reliability of the test is calculated based on parrallel forms (~ 90% and validity is based on content validity.This test has a supplementary section including spelling, graphem/ phoneme correspondness, nonword reading, irregular word reading, and copy subtests. Conclusion: Considering highreliability and precise validation of the test it can be used to diagnose the dyslexia and related linguistic impairments.

  14. Exploring and testing the Standard Model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Cooper, F.; Ginsparg, P.; Habib, S.; Gupta, R.; Mottola, E.; Nieto, M.; Mattis, M.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to extend and develop the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics in several different directions. This includes various aspects of the strong nuclear interactions in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), electroweak interactions and the origin of baryon asymmetry in the universe, as well as gravitational physics

  15. Test Standards for Contingency Base Waste-to-Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    standard and challenge recipes by weight percent ........6 Table 3 Recommended breakout of plastic recipes by weight percent ...............7 Table 4...to select the appropriate VOC and SVOC target compounds, it is recommended to review the list of hazardous air pollutants provided in 42 United...Class A explosives, or Class B explosives classifications. Toxicity: Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed. When toxic wastes

  16. Column percolation test for contaminated soils: Key factors for standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Angelica; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kalbe, Ute; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Inoba, Seiji; Takeo, Miyuki; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Takuro; Sato, Kenichi; Higashino, Kazuo; Someya, Masayuki

    2016-12-15

    Column percolation tests may be suitable for prediction of chemical leaching from soil and soil materials. However, compared with batch leaching tests, they are time-consuming. It is therefore important to investigate ways to shorten the tests without affecting the quality of results. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of decreasing testing time by increasing flow rate and decreasing equilibration time compared to the conditions specified in ISO/TS 21268-3, with equilibration periods of 48h and flow rate of 12mL/h. We tested three equilibration periods (0, 12-16, and 48h) and two flow rates (12 and 36mL/h) on four different soils and compared the inorganic constituent releases. For soils A and D, we observed similar values for all conditions except for the 0h-36mL/h case. For soil B, we observed no appreciable differences between the tested conditions, while for soil C there were no consistent trends probably due to the difference in ongoing oxidation reactions between soil samples. These results suggest that column percolation tests can be shortened from 20 to 30days to 7-9days by decreasing the equilibration time to 12-16h and increasing the flow rate to 36mL/h for inorganic substances. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  18. Standard Test Method for Contamination Outgassing Characteristics of Spacecraft Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a technique for generating data to characterize the kinetics of the release of outgassing products from materials. This technique will determine both the total mass flux evolved by a material when exposed to a vacuum environment and the deposition of this flux on surfaces held at various specified temperatures. 1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and related operating procedures for evaluating the total mass flux that is evolved from a material being subjected to temperatures that are between 298 and 398 K. Pressures external to the sample effusion cell are less than 7 × 10−3 Pa (5 × 10−5 torr). Deposition rates are measured during material outgassing tests. A test procedure for collecting data and a test method for processing and presenting the collected data are included. 1.3 This test method can be used to produce the data necessary to support mathematical models used for the prediction of molecular contaminant generation, migration, and deposition. 1.4 Al...

  19. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  20. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Uk Lee, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely...... with 100 mg/L in 24 h while in 48 h a single animal was immobilized (5% inhibition). Correspondingly, the NOEC of ANP in 24 h was 100 mg/L and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for 48 h was 100 mg/L. Therefore it can be considered to use ANP as an algal-inhibition agent at concentrations

  1. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment testing and the technical experience of the organization's personnel; (iii) Thorough knowledge of... procedures are appropriate for that purpose. (2) That the organization has no conflict of interest and will...

  2. Environmental test planning, selection and standardization aids available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. H.; Foley, J. T.

    1968-01-01

    Requirements for instrumentation, equipment, and methods to be used in conducting environmental tests on components intended for use by a wide variety of technical personnel of different educational backgrounds, experience, and interests is announced.

  3. Development and standardization of perafom integrated aptitude test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    / selection/ placement and the measurement of intelligence prompted the development of Perafom Integrated Aptitude Test (PIAT). Following the due psychometric process of item selection, PIAT comprises 40 items derived from several ...

  4. Standard Operating Procedure for Accelerated Corrosion Testing at ARL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    to scribe nonferrous materials so as to prevent contamination of the substrate during the process. The "X" scribe is made by scribing 2 intersecting...may include GMW14872 Cyclic Corrosion Testing (typically Exterior, Exposure C), ASTM B117 Neutral Salt Fog Testing, ASTM G50 Atmospheric Corrosion...using the same cleaning procedures, contamination of the substrate is minimized during the scribe process. All partners adhering to guidelines and

  5. Predicting standard penetration test N-value from cone penetration test data using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Tarawneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard Penetration Test (SPT and Cone Penetration Test (CPT are the most frequently used field tests to estimate soil parameters for geotechnical analysis and design. Numerous soil parameters are related to the SPT N-value. In contrast, CPT is becoming more popular for site investigation and geotechnical design. Correlation of CPT data with SPT N-value is very beneficial since most of the field parameters are related to SPT N-values. A back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN model was developed to predict the N60-value from CPT data. Data used in this study consisted of 109 CPT-SPT pairs for sand, sandy silt, and silty sand soils. The ANN model input variables are: CPT tip resistance (qc, effective vertical stress (σv′, and CPT sleeve friction (fs. A different set of SPT-CPT data was used to check the reliability of the developed ANN model. It was shown that ANN model either under-predicted the N60-value by 7–16% or over-predicted it by 7–20%. It is concluded that back-propagation neural networks is a good tool to predict N60-value from CPT data with acceptable accuracy.

  6. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of wrought products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 Purpose—This practice establishes the minimum requirements for ultrasonic examination of wrought products. Note 1—This standard was adopted to replace MIL-STD-2154, 30 Sept. 1982. This standard is intended to be used for the same applications as the document which it replaced. Users should carefully review its requirements when considering its use for new, or different applications, or both. 1.2 Application—This practice is applicable for examination of materials such as, wrought metals and wrought metal products. 1.2.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products—Examination shall be in accordance with Practice B 594. 1.3 Acceptance Class—When examination is performed in accordance with this practice, engineering drawings, specifications, or other applicable documents shall indicate the acceptance criteria. Five ultrasonic acceptance classes are defined in Table 1. One or more of these classes may be used to establish the acceptance criteria or additional or alternate criteria may be specified. 1.4 Ord...

  8. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  9. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  10. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1291 - Standard: Test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic system(s) in place to ensure test results and other patient-specific data are accurately and... information maintained as part of the patient's chart or medical record must be readily available to the...) Results and patient-specific data electronically reported to network or interfaced systems. (3) Manually...

  12. Standard-C hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1994-09-02

    The primary function of the standard-C hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank atmosphere which may also contain (but not be limited to) unknown quantities of air, nitrous oxide, ammonia, water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gaseous constituents. The SHMS will consist of hydrogen specific monitors, a grab sampler to collect samples for laboratory analysis, a gas chromatograph, and the gas sample collection system necessary to support the operation of the instrumentation. This system will be located in a cabinet placed at the tank of interest. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that the SHMS is constructed as intended by design.

  13. Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  14. Handover checklist: testing a standardization process in an Italian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferorelli D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Davide Ferorelli,1 Teresa Giandola,2 Mariangela Laterza,2 Biagio Solarino,2 Angela Pezzolla,3 Fiorenza Zotti,2 Alessandro Dell’Erba1 1Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, 2Section of Legal Medicine, 3Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Objectives: This study aimed to standardize and rationalize the handover, a critical and essential moment in common health care practices, through the realization of an efficient and standardized checklist, which could be used daily to ensure complete, thorough and effective handover. The principal purpose of the implementation of the handover is to reduce errors due to superficial and insufficient communication.Methods: The “operative group” defined the phases to the realization of the delineated aims: at first, the direct observation and the consequent realization of a handover checklist model and then, the experimental phases (trials. The handover checklist model was used for a month and it was daily and duly completed by the doctors who took part in the trial. To prove the success of the study, three questionnaires were distributed on different occasions.Results: Analyzing the answers to the questionnaires, the importance of the handover has come to light and that for the most part, the doctors consider it an essential and irreplaceable moment in daily health care work. Moreover, it became obvious that the use of the handover checklist guaranteed a considerable improvement in the traditional handover in terms of security, completeness, care continuity and clarity. The handover checklist was completely appreciated by the majority of the participant doctors who agree with the definitive introduction of it in their unit.Conclusions: Our study indicated the consistency of the handover checklist as an instrument to implement the handover and, indirectly, to improve the quality of the care. Keywords: clinical risk management, handover checklist, health care

  15. Chickadees fail standardized operant tests for octave equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-07-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when an observer judges notes separated by a doubling in frequency perceptually similar. The octave appears to form the basis of pitch change in all human cultures and thus may be of biological origin. Previously, we developed a nonverbal operant conditioning test of octave generalization and transfer in humans. The results of this testing showed that humans with and without musical training perceive the octave relationship between pitches. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether black-capped chickadees, a North American songbird, perceive octave equivalence. We chose these chickadees because of their reliance on pitch in assessing conspecific vocalizations, our strong background knowledge on their pitch height perception (log-linear perception of frequency), and the phylogenetic disparity between them and humans. Compared to humans, songbirds are highly skilled at using pitch height perception to classify pitches into ranges, independent of the octave. Our results suggest that chickadees used that skill, rather than octave equivalence, to transfer the note-range discrimination from one octave to the next. In contrast, there is evidence that at least some mammals, including humans, do perceive octave equivalence.

  16. Standard Test Method for Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride by Single-Standard Gas Source Multiple Collector Mass Spectrometer Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) with 235U concentrations less than or equal to 5 % and 234U, 236U concentrations of 0.0002 to 0.1 %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable to the analysis of the entire range of 235U isotopic compositions providing that adequate Certified Reference Materials (CRMs or traceable standards) are available. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Sweat test for cystic fibrosis: Wearable sweat sensor vs. standard laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Thaxton, Abigail; Jeong, In Cheol; Kim, Kain; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2018-03-23

    Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis. A Macroduct sweat collection device was attached to one arm and sweat was collected for 30 min and then sent for laboratory analysis. A sensor was attached to the other arm and the chloride ion concentration monitored in real time for 30 min using a Bluetooth transceiver and smart phone app. Stable sweat chloride measurements were obtained within 15 min following sweat induction using the wearable sensor. We define the detection time as the time at which the standard deviation of the real-time chloride ion concentration remained below 2 mEq/L for 5 min. The sweat volume for sensor measurements at the detection time was 13.1 ± 11.4 μL (SD), in many cases lower than the minimum sweat volume of 15 μL for conventional testing. The mean difference between sweat chloride concentrations measured by the sensor and the conventional laboratory practice was 6.2 ± 9.5 mEq/L (SD), close to the arm-to-arm variation of about 3 mEq/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97 highlighting the excellent agreement between the two methods. A wearable sensor can be used to make real-time measurements of sweat chloride within 15 min following sweat induction, requiring a small sweat volume, and with excellent agreement to standard methods. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  19. Design and testing of multi-standard waveguide couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, S; Neuber, A

    2012-03-01

    Most applications that use waveguides are designed for a single frequency or single band of frequency, and thus the waveguide dimensions are chosen for single mode operation. In special cases where multiple frequencies across multiple bands are needed (i.e., probing the temporal response of decaying plasma using a cw source that is generated by a pulsed source), special techniques must be used in order to implement both sources into a single waveguide structure. This paper presents two types of couplers designed to implement x-band frequencies into an s-band system with a large coupling coefficient ( -10 dB) at the design frequency of 11 GHz. Along with a discussion on the design procedure, a detailed description on the parameter optimization and initial values estimation is presented. The custom waveguide structures were tested utilizing an Agilent E8364B PNA network analyzer, and showed reasonable agreement with the simulated performance over the frequency range of interest.

  20. LHC BLM Single Channel Connectivity Test using the Standard Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Ferioli, G; Zamantzas, C; Ikeda, H; Verhagen, E

    2009-01-01

    For the LHC Beam Loss Measurement system (BLM), the high voltage supply of the ionisation chambers and the secondary emission detectors is used to test their connectivity. A harmonic modulation of 0.03 Hz results in a current signal of about 100pA measured by the beam loss acquisition electronics. The signal is analyzed and the measured amplitude and phase are compared with individual channel limits for the 4000 channels. It is foreseen to execute an automatic procedure for all channels every 12 hours which takes about 20 minutes. The paper will present the design of the system, the circuit simulations, measurements of systematic dependencies of different channels and the reproducibility of the amplitude and phase measurements.

  1. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santjer, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  2. Standard Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the degree of linearity of a photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter, for example, short-circuit current with respect to irradiance. 1.2 The linearity determined by this test method applies only at the time of testing, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.3 This test method applies only to non-concentrator terrestrial photovoltaic devices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. (a) Fabric...

  4. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  5. Standard tests for the characterization of roofing slate pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenes, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathologies formed in slate roofs are mainly due to the presence of potentially unstable minerals (iron sulfides, carbonates and organic matter. These minerals may become altered by the effect of environmental agents, once the slate roof is finished. The pathologies are mainly associated with oxidation and gypsification processes of the cited mineral phases. In this work, the potential pathologies of several Spanish roofing slates are identified, using the tests defined in the European Norms EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 and 11597:2007.

    Las patologías que se originan en pizarra para cubiertas son debidas fundamentalmente a la presencia de materiales alterables (sulfuros de hierro, carbonatos y materia orgánica. Estos minerales pueden llegar a alterarse por efecto de los agentes medioambientales, una vez que la pizarra es puesta en obra. Las patologías están principalmente asociadas a procesos de oxidación y yesificación de las citadas fases minerales. En este trabajo se determinan las patologías potenciales de varias pizarras para cubiertas españolas, utilizando los ensayos definidos en las normas UNE-EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 y 11597:2007.

  6. 78 FR 17875 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB59 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's.... The 2011 final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit...

  7. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's... effective on July 8, 2011. That final rule amended the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards and established new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial...

  8. Political Judgement, Freedom of Thought, and Standardized Testing: A Critical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Matthew Edward

    2012-01-01

    The practice of "standardized" testing has been embedded in United States federal education policy since at least the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The roots of standardized testing in American education, grounded in Kantian "Modern Thought," can be traced to the U.S. Military Academy at…

  9. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  10. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  11. Gaps in aquatic toxicological studies of microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings. Moreover, several considerations including quantification of chemicals on/in the MP particles, choice of test organisms, approaches for renewing the test solution, aggregation prevention, stock solution preparation, and units used to report MP concentration in the test solution should be taken into account. This critical review suggests some important strategies to help conduct environmentally-relevant MP bioassays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Standard test method for ball punch deformation of metallic sheet material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the procedure for conducting the ball punch deformation test for metallic sheet materials intended for forming applications. The test applies to specimens with thicknesses between 0.008 and 0.080 in. (0.20 and 2.00 mm). 1.2 The values stated in inch–pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Note 1—The ball punch deformation test is intended to replace the Olsen cup test by standardizing many of the test parameters that previously have been left to the discretion of the testing laboratory. Note 2—The modified Erichsen test has been standardized in Europe. The main differences between the ball punch deformation test and the Erichsen test are the diameters of the penetrator and the dies. Erichsen cup heights are given in SI units. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does...

  13. Consequences of different diagnostic "gold standards" in test accuracy research: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Lucas M; Jüni, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephan; Ziswiler, Hans-Rudolf; Kessels, Alfons G; Vögelin, Esther

    2005-08-01

    Test accuracy studies assume the existence of a well-defined illness definition and clear-cut diagnostic gold standards or reference standards. However, in clinical reality illness definitions may be vague or a mere description of a set of manifestations, mostly clinical signs and symptoms. This can lead to disagreements among experts about the correct classification of an illness and the adequate reference standard. Using data from a diagnostic accuracy study in carpal tunnel syndrome, we explored the impact of different definitions on the estimated test accuracy and found that estimated test performance characteristics varied considerably depending on the chosen reference standard. In situations without a clear-cut illness definition, randomized controlled trials may be preferable to test accuracy studies for the evaluation of a novel test. These studies do not determine the diagnostic accuracy, but the clinical impact of a novel test on patient management and outcome.

  14. Result of standard patch test in patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Puvabanditsin, Porntip

    2005-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common skin disease. Disease was diagnosed by a history of contact substance together with geographic distribution of lesion. Up till now, standard patch test is one of the most reliable test to identify and confirm causative agent of allergic contact dermatitis. To determine the rate of positive standard patch test and to identify the common allergen of contact dermatitis in Thailand, we performed the standard patch test in 129 patients, suspected having allergic contact dermatitis at Department of Dermatology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand from June 1, 2003 to September 1, 2004. The rate of positive standard patch test is 59.7% (n = 77/129). The most 3 common positive allergens were nickel sulfate (18.60%), cobalt chloride (17.05%) and fragrance mix (14.73%), respectively. The chance of positive standard patch test significantly correlated with sex (woman), initial diagnosis as contact dermatitis and history of house-worker (p = 0.017, p = 0.005 and p = 0.023, respectively). Whereas, there were no significant correlation between the chance of positive standard patch test and age of patient, location of lesion, history of recurrence, history of atopy, history of drug and food allergy. In addition, history of metal allergy significantly correlated with the chance of positive nickel sulfate or cobalt chloride in standard patch test (p = 0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated the prevalence of causative allergen of contact dermatitis in Thai patients using that standard patch test. Moreover, our data shown that the chance positive standard patch test was greater in patient, who were women or initial diagnosed as contact dermatitis or had history of houseworker or history of metal allergy.

  15. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  16. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2016-01-01

    on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012–2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced...

  17. Standard Test Method for Testing Polymeric Seal Materials for Geothermal and/or High Temperature Service Under Sealing Stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the initial evaluation of (screening) polymeric materials for seals under static sealing stress and at elevated temperatures. 1.2 This test method applies to geothermal service only if used in conjunction with Test Method E 1068. 1.3 The test fluid is distilled water. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Standard and prototype tests of hotwater- and steam-valves for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dernbach, B.

    1977-11-01

    More than 150 standard and prototype valves have been tested in a special valve test facility (VTF) for reactor valve tests under working conditions. Approximately 85% of the valves performed well for the given task, in some cases however only after numerous improvements jointly done with the manufactures; 15% turned out to be unserviceable. (orig.) [de

  19. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run

  20. Standard Setting in Specific-Purpose Language Testing: What Can a Qualitative Study Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the views of nursing and medical domain experts in considering the standards for a specific-purpose English language screening test, the Occupational English Test (OET), for professional registration for immigrant health professionals. Since individuals who score performances in the test setting are often language experts…

  1. Development of Proposed Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storage Devices. NBS Technical Note 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James E.; And Others

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards of the different techniques that are or could be used for testing solar collectors and thermal storage devices that are used in solar heating and cooling systems. This report reviews the various testing methods and outlines a recommended test procedure, including apparatus and…

  2. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  3. Standardized tests of handwriting readiness: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartingsveldt, M.J. van; Groot, I.J.M. de; Aarts, P.B.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish if there are psychometrically sound standardized tests or test items to assess handwriting readiness in 5- and 6-year-old children on the levels of occupations activities/tasks and performance. METHOD: Electronic databases were searched to identify measurement instruments. Tests

  4. Standardized Tests of Handwriting Readiness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hartingsveldt, Margo J.; de Groot, Imelda J. M.; Aarts, Pauline B. M.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To establish if there are psychometrically sound standardized tests or test items to assess handwriting readiness in 5- and 6-year-old children on the levels of occupations activities/tasks and performance. Method: Electronic databases were searched to identify measurement instruments. Tests were included in a systematic review if: (1)…

  5. How to prepare water accommodated fractions from petroleum hydrocarbons for use in aquatic toxicity testing - the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Boileau, P.; Kyle, D.; Sergy, G.; Fingas, M.

    1996-01-01

    A method to prepare water accommodated fractions (WAFs) from petroleum products for use in toxicity testing, was introduced. In order to develop a repeatable protocol, a systematic study of a range of experimental variables was conducted. One semi-solid oil and six liquid oils were exposed to artificial seawater. Studies were also performed on three liquid oils exposed to freshwater. Low energy mixing and fluorinated Nalgene carboys was used to produce the WAFs. The mixing time depended on the oil type and loading rate. Individual loading rates were prepared for each concentration, because WAF composition is influenced by loading rate rather than serial dilution. An overview of the basic concepts of WAF preparation was described. A draft protocol for preparing WAFs from liquid and semi-solid oil was also described and results were summarized. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Test Anxiety and a High-Stakes Standardized Reading Comprehension Test: A Behavioral Genetics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sarah G.; Hart, Sara A.; Little, Callie W.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that reading comprehension test performance does not rely solely on targeted cognitive processes such as word reading, but also on other nontarget aspects such as test anxiety. Using a genetically sensitive design, we sought to understand the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between test anxiety and…

  7. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing : General considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  8. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing: general considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  9. Standard Errors and Confidence Intervals of Norm Statistics for Educational and Psychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Hannah E M; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-11-14

    Norm statistics allow for the interpretation of scores on psychological and educational tests, by relating the test score of an individual test taker to the test scores of individuals belonging to the same gender, age, or education groups, et cetera. Given the uncertainty due to sampling error, one would expect researchers to report standard errors for norm statistics. In practice, standard errors are seldom reported; they are either unavailable or derived under strong distributional assumptions that may not be realistic for test scores. We derived standard errors for four norm statistics (standard deviation, percentile ranks, stanine boundaries and Z-scores) under the mild assumption that the test scores are multinomially distributed. A simulation study showed that the standard errors were unbiased and that corresponding Wald-based confidence intervals had good coverage. Finally, we discuss the possibilities for applying the standard errors in practical test use in education and psychology. The procedure is provided via the R function check.norms, which is available in the mokken package.

  10. Evaluation of standardized test methods to characterize fiber reinforced cement composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of standardized test methods to characterize fiber reinforced cementitious composites in terms of their behavior under flexural loading and its relation to their tensile stress-deformation response. Flexural testing and derivation of the tensile stress......-deformation response are preferred in standardized testing of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (FRCC) over the direct assessment of the tensile behavior because of the more convenient test setup and ease of specimen preparation. Four-point bending tests were carried out to evaluate the flexural response of FRCC...... and their results are compared to data obtained from direct tensile testing. The details of the formation of cracking are an important underlying assumption in the standardized evaluation procedures as well as in the established correlation models between flexural and tensile behavior. This detail has been...

  11. Water mutagenic potential assessment on a semiarid aquatic ecosystem under influence of heavy metals and natural radioactivity using micronuclei test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luiz Cláudio Cardozo; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia; Ferreira da Costa, Thomas; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Souza do Amaral, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    The contamination of water bodies by heavy metals and ionizing radiation is a critical environmental issue, which can affect water quality and, thus, human health. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Boqueirão de Parelhas Dam in the Brazilian semiarid region. A 1-year study (2013-2014) was performed through the assessment of physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content, and radioactivity along with the mutagenicity potential of water using micronuclei test in Orechromis niloticus (in vivo) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes (in vitro). A deterioration of water organoleptics characteristics by the presence of high levels of sulfate and total solids was observed. High concentrations of aluminum, nickel, silver, and lead along with the alpha particle content were higher than the limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation for drinking water. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities was observed in both experimental models. The results obtained confirmed the mutagenic potential present in water samples. This study highlights that geogenic agents affect water quality becoming a human health concern to be taken into account due to the relevance that this water reservoir has in the region.

  12. 78 FR 24289 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can... Information; Industry-Led Changes to FAA Airman Testing Standards and Training (2) Draft PRIVATE PILOT...

  13. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  14. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  15. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five a...

  16. Development of paper-based color test-strip for drug detection in aquatic environment: Application to oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I A S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-03-15

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of resistant microbial species. It should be avoided/minimized by controlling the amount of drug employed in fish farming. For this purpose, the present work proposes test-strip papers aiming at the detection/semi-quantitative determination of organic drugs by visual comparison of color changes, in a similar analytical procedure to that of pH monitoring by universal pH paper. This is done by establishing suitable chemical changes upon cellulose, attributing the paper the ability to react with the organic drug and to produce a color change. Quantitative data is also enabled by taking a picture and applying a suitable mathematical treatment to the color coordinates given by the HSL system used by windows. As proof of concept, this approach was applied to oxytetracycline (OXY), one of the antibiotics frequently used in aquaculture. A bottom-up modification of paper was established, starting by the reaction of the glucose moieties on the paper with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES). The so-formed amine layer allowed binding to a metal ion by coordination chemistry, while the metal ion reacted after with the drug to produce a colored compound. The most suitable metals to carry out such modification were selected by bulk studies, and the several stages of the paper modification were optimized to produce an intense color change against the concentration of the drug. The paper strips were applied to the analysis of spiked environmental water, allowing a quantitative determination for OXY concentrations as low as 30ng/mL. In general, this work provided a simple, method to screen and discriminate tetracycline drugs, in aquaculture, being a promising tool for local, quick and cheap monitoring of drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

  18. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Comparison of Size Modulation Standard Automated Perimetry and Conventional Standard Automated Perimetry with a 10-2 Test Program in Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Natsumi; Satou, Tsukasa; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2017-08-01

    This prospective observational study compared the performance of size modulation standard automated perimetry with the Octopus 600 10-2 test program, with stimulus size modulation during testing, based on stimulus intensity and conventional standard automated perimetry, with that of the Humphrey 10-2 test program in glaucoma patients. Eighty-seven eyes of 87 glaucoma patients underwent size modulation standard automated perimetry with Dynamic strategy and conventional standard automated perimetry using the SITA standard strategy. The main outcome measures were global indices, point-wise threshold, visual defect size and depth, reliability indices, and test duration; these were compared between size modulation standard automated perimetry and conventional standard automated perimetry. Global indices and point-wise threshold values between size modulation standard automated perimetry and conventional standard automated perimetry were moderately to strongly correlated (p 33.40, p modulation standard automated perimetry than with conventional standard automated perimetry, but the visual-field defect size was smaller (p modulation-standard automated perimetry than on conventional standard automated perimetry. The reliability indices, particularly the false-negative response, of size modulation standard automated perimetry were worse than those of conventional standard automated perimetry (p modulation standard automated perimetry than with conventional standard automated perimetry (p = 0.02). Global indices and the point-wise threshold value of the two testing modalities correlated well. However, the potential of a large stimulus presented at an area with a decreased sensitivity with size modulation standard automated perimetry could underestimate the actual threshold in the 10-2 test protocol, as compared with conventional standard automated perimetry.

  20. Administration of Standardized Competency Tests: Does the Testing Environment Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbundhit, Yuwadee

    1996-01-01

    To relieve overcrowded, distracting, and uncomfortable testing conditions, the Dade County (Florida) Public Schools began administering the High School Competency Test on two successive Saturdays, instead of on school days. Classrooms were used, and students received free breakfasts and lunches. The new arrangement improved student performance and…

  1. Linear shrinkage test: justification for its reintroduction as a standard South African test method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, LR

    2009-06-04

    Full Text Available Several problems with the linear shrinkage test specified in Method A4 of the THM 1 1979 were addressed as part of this investigation in an effort to improve the alleged poor reproducibility of the test and justify its reintroduction into THM 1. A...

  2. A standardization of the physical tests for external irradiation measuring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This report is the result of a standardization work, realized within the Radioprotection Services of the A.E.C., of the physical tests for dectors measuring external irradiations. Among the various tests mentionned, calibration and the establishment of the relative spectral response are treated in details. As far as calibration is concerned, the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the reference radiation source, the installation and calibration procedure. As for the relative spectral response the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the radiation sources to be used. High flux detectors and those for pulse electromagnetic radiations are also dealt with [fr

  3. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Standard test method for uranium analysis in natural and waste water by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method applies for the determination of trace uranium content in waste water. It covers concentrations of U between 0.05 mg/L and 2 mg/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  7. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  8. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  9. Results of patch testing with a standard series of allergens at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoi Shrutakirthi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the common sensitizers in allergic contact dermatitis, to evolve a standard patch test tray for screening patients at our centre and to suggest allergens for multicentric trial in India. 212 patients (65 women, 147 men were patch tested with a standard series of allergens (23 allergens of European standard series extended with lanolin, cresol and gentamycin. The frequent sensitizers observed were gentamycin (14.2%, potassium dichromate (7.1%, colophony (6.6% and fragrance mix (6.1%. No positive reactions were observed for lanolin, quaternium - 15 and mercaptomix. Our standard tray will thus consist of all the allergens of European standard series except primin along with lanolin, cresol and gentamycin. Lanolin is included despite negativity as it was found to be the commonest sensitizer among topical medications in our previous study.

  10. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of uranium isotopes in urine by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of uranium in urine at levels of detection dependent on sample size, count time, detector background, and tracer yield. It is designed as a screening tool for detection of possible exposure of occupational workers. 1.2 This test method is designed for 50 mL of urine. This test method does not address the sampling protocol or sample preservation methods associated with its use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Chapter 9: options for summarizing medical test performance in the absence of a "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikalinos, Thomas A; Balion, Cynthia M

    2012-06-01

    The classical paradigm for evaluating test performance compares the results of an index test with a reference test. When the reference test does not mirror the "truth" adequately well (e.g. is an "imperfect" reference standard), the typical ("naïve") estimates of sensitivity and specificity are biased. One has at least four options when performing a systematic review of test performance when the reference standard is "imperfect": (a) to forgo the classical paradigm and assess the index test's ability to predict patient relevant outcomes instead of test accuracy (i.e., treat the index test as a predictive instrument); (b) to assess whether the results of the two tests (index and reference) agree or disagree (i.e., treat them as two alternative measurement methods); (c) to calculate "naïve" estimates of the index test's sensitivity and specificity from each study included in the review and discuss in which direction they are biased; (d) mathematically adjust the "naïve" estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the index test to account for the imperfect reference standard. We discuss these options and illustrate some of them through examples.

  12. 78 FR 70349 - Proposed Revision of Policy for Incorporating New Test Standards Into the List of Appropriate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...) to the requirements in the replacement test standard. If OSHA's analysis shows the replacement test... standard to affected NRTLs' scopes of recognition. If OSHA's analysis shows the replacement test standard... equipment \\1\\ and materials for workplace safety purposes and to determine conformance with the test...

  13. 76 FR 26853 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383, 384 and 385 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial... Administration 49 CFR Parts 383, 384, and 385 [Docket No. FMCSA-2007-27659] RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. Evaluation of a draft standard on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation: results for environmental tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Mashburn, K.R.; Selby, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Draft ANSI Standard N42.17 on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation is currently being evaluated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Evaluation is performed by testing a cross-section of currently available instruments with testing procedures based on specifications of the standard and then determining the degree of conformance to the various elements of the proposed standard. Data will be presented on the performance of a cross-section of beta-gamma survey instruments under various environmental tests. Test results that will be presented include temperature effects, humidity effects, radio frequency (r.f.) susceptibility, ambient pressure effects, vibration effects, and shock effects. Tests performed to date show that most instruments will meet the temperature, humidity, and ambient pressure tests. A large variability is noted among instruments from the same or different vendors. Preliminary r.f. susceptibility tests have shown large artificial responses at some frequencies for specific instruments. The presentation will also include a discussion of procedures used in the testing and weaknesses identified in the proposed standard

  15. An Evaluation of Standardized Tests as Tools for the Measurement of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elsa

    Four tests--PPVT, ITPA, MRT, WPPSI--commonly used to measure language development in young children are evaluated by four criteria: (1) what development aspects do they claim to tap; (2) what do they actually tap; (3) what linguistic knowledge is presupposed; (4) what special problems face a non-standard English speaker. These tests are considered…

  16. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near a...

  17. Consensus based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis in ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, I.A.; Nielsen, S.S.; Whittington, R.J.; Collins, M.T.; Bakker, D.; Harris, B.; Sreevatsan, S.; Lombard, J.E.; Sweeney, R.; Smith, D.R.; Gavalchin, J.; Eda, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement (www.stard-statement.org) was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies in human medicine. The statement was motivated by widespread evidence of bias in test accuracy studies

  18. Toward a Qualitative Analysis of Standardized Tests Using an Information Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The use of standardized tests and test data to detect and address differences in cognitive styles is advocated here. To this end, the paper describes the componential theory of intelligence addressed by Sternberg et. al. This theory defines the components of intelligence by function and level of generality, including: (1) metacomponents: higher…

  19. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  20. Developing a Strategy for Using Technology-Enhanced Items in Large-Scale Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William

    2017-01-01

    As large-scale standardized tests move from paper-based to computer-based delivery, opportunities arise for test developers to make use of items beyond traditional selected and constructed response types. Technology-enhanced items (TEIs) have the potential to provide advantages over conventional items, including broadening construct measurement,…

  1. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  2. Using Modern Test Theory to Maintain Standards in Public Qualifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheadon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how item response theory (IRT) methods of test-equating could be applied to the maintenance of public examination standards in England. IRT methods of test-equating have been sparingly applied to the main public examinations in England, namely the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), the equivalent of a school…

  3. Standard test method for determination of surface lubrication on flexible webs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method has been used since 1988 as an ANSI/ISO standard test for determination of lubrication on processed photographic films. Its purpose was to determine the presence of process-surviving lubricants on photographic films. It is the purpose of this test method to expand the applicability of this test method to other flexible webs that may need lubrication for suitable performance. This test measures the breakaway (static) coefficient of friction of a metal rider on the web by the inclined plane method. The objectives of the test is to determine if a web surface has a lubricant present or not. It is not intended to assign a friction coefficient to a material. It is not intended to rank lubricants. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  4. Error analysis for duct leakage tests in ASHRAE standard 152P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of random uncertainties in the two methods of testing for duct leakage in Standard 152P of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The test method is titled Standard Method of Test for Determining Steady-State and Seasonal Efficiency of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems. Equations have been derived for the uncertainties in duct leakage for given levels of uncertainty in the measured quantities used as inputs to the calculations. Tables of allowed errors in each of these independent variables, consistent with fixed criteria of overall allowed error, have been developed.

  5. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  6. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  7. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  8. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  9. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  10. Harmonization of standards for parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; Palacin, Luis G.; Leon, Javier; Fischer, Stephan; Bohren, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The technology of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is used widely in concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants worldwide. However this type of large-size collectors cannot be officially tested by an accredited laboratory and certified by an accredited certification body so far, as there is no standard adapted to its particularity, and the current published standard for solar thermal collectors are not completely applicable to them. Recently some standardization committees have been working on this technology. This paper aims to give a summary of the standardized testing methodology of large-size PTC for CSP plants, giving the physical model chosen for modeling the thermal performance of the collector in the new revision of standard ISO 9806 and the points still to be improved in the standard draft IEC 62862-3-2. In this paper, a summary of the testing validation performed on one parabolic trough collector installed in one of the test facilities at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) with this new model is also presented.

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard test chamber upgrade requirements for spacecraft design verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the serious performance deficiencies inherent in conventional modular and welded shielding EMC test enclosures, in which multipath reflections and resonant standing waves can damage flight hardware during RF susceptibility tests, NASA-Goddard has undertaken the modification of a 20 x 24 ft modular-shielded enclosure through installation of steel panels to which ferrite tiles will be mounted with epoxy. The internally reflected RF energy will thereby be absorbed, and exterior power-line noise will be reduced. Isolation of power-line filters and control of 60-Hz ground connections will also be undertaken in the course of upgrading.

  12. Contribution of thermal–hydraulic validation tests to the standard design approval of SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sik Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal–hydraulic tests have been conducted at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for verification of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor design, the standard design approval of which was issued by the Korean regulatory body. In this paper, the contributions of these tests to the standard design approval of SMART are discussed. First, an integral effect test facility named VISTA-ITL (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents-Integral Test Loop has been utilized to assess the TASS/SMR-S (Transient and Set-point Simulation/Small and Medium safety analysis code and confirm its conservatism, to support standard design approval, and to construct a database for the SMART design optimization. In addition, many separate effect tests have been performed. The reactor internal flow test has been conducted using the SCOP (SMART COre flow distribution and Pressure drop test facility to evaluate the reactor internal flow and pressure distributions. An ECC (Emergency Core Coolant performance test has been carried out using the SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility to evaluate the safety injection performance and to validate the thermal–hydraulic model used in the safety analysis code. The Freon CHF (Critical Heat Flux test has been performed using the FTHEL (Freon Thermal Hydraulic Experimental Loop facility to construct a database from the 5 × 5 rod bundle Freon CHF tests and to evaluate the DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio model in the safety analysis and core design codes. These test results were used for standard design approval of SMART to verify its design bases, design tools, and analysis methodology.

  13. Introducing Vouchers and Standardized Tests for Higher Education in Russia: Expectations and Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2008-01-01

    The reform of higher education in Russia, based on standardized tests and educational vouchers, was intended to reduce inequalities in access to higher education. The initiative with the vouchers has failed and by now is already forgotten while the national test is planned to be introduced nationwide in 2009. The national test called to replace the present corrupt system of entry examinations has experienced numerous problems so far and will likely have even more problems in the future. This ...

  14. Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials. 1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method....

  15. College of American Pathologists' laboratory standards for next-generation sequencing clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nazneen; Zhao, Qin; Bry, Lynn; Driscoll, Denise K; Funke, Birgit; Gibson, Jane S; Grody, Wayne W; Hegde, Madhuri R; Hoeltge, Gerald A; Leonard, Debra G B; Merker, Jason D; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Palicki, Linda A; Robetorye, Ryan S; Schrijver, Iris; Weck, Karen E; Voelkerding, Karl V

    2015-04-01

    The higher throughput and lower per-base cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) as compared to Sanger sequencing has led to its rapid adoption in clinical testing. The number of laboratories offering NGS-based tests has also grown considerably in the past few years, despite the fact that specific Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988/College of American Pathologists (CAP) laboratory standards had not yet been developed to regulate this technology. To develop a checklist for clinical testing using NGS technology that sets standards for the analytic wet bench process and for bioinformatics or "dry bench" analyses. As NGS-based clinical tests are new to diagnostic testing and are of much greater complexity than traditional Sanger sequencing-based tests, there is an urgent need to develop new regulatory standards for laboratories offering these tests. To develop the necessary regulatory framework for NGS and to facilitate appropriate adoption of this technology for clinical testing, CAP formed a committee in 2011, the NGS Work Group, to deliberate upon the contents to be included in the checklist. Results . -A total of 18 laboratory accreditation checklist requirements for the analytic wet bench process and bioinformatics analysis processes have been included within CAP's molecular pathology checklist (MOL). This report describes the important issues considered by the CAP committee during the development of the new checklist requirements, which address documentation, validation, quality assurance, confirmatory testing, exception logs, monitoring of upgrades, variant interpretation and reporting, incidental findings, data storage, version traceability, and data transfer confidentiality.

  16. IPHE Regulations Codes and Standards Working Group - Type IV COPV Round Robin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M.; Starritt, L.; Zheng, J. Y.; Ou, K.; Keller, J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents the results of a multi-lateral international activity intended to understand how to execute a cycle stress test as specified in a chosen standard (GTR, SAE, ISO, EIHP...). The purpose of this work was to establish a harmonized test method protocol to ensure that the same results would be achieved regardless of the testing facility. It was found that accurate temperature measurement of the working fluid is necessary to ensure the test conditions remain within the tolerances specified. Continuous operation is possible with adequate cooling of the working fluid but this becomes more demanding if the cycle frequency increases. Recommendations for future test system design and operation are presented.

  17. Development of test practice requirements for a standard method on fracture toughness testing in the transition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Zerbst, U.; Heerens, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the resolution of several issues that are relevant to the ductile to brittle transition range of structural steels. One of this issues was to compare a statistical-based weakest-link method to constraint data adjustment methods for modeling the specimen size effects on fracture toughness. Another was to explore the concept of a universal transition temperature curve shape (Master Curve). Data from a Materials Properties Council round robin activity were used to test the proposals empirically. The findings of this study are inclosed in an activity for the development of a draft standard test procedure ''Test Practice for Fracture Toughness in the Transition Range''. (orig.) [de

  18. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masayuki; Toyo, Takamasa; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Sakai, Takaya; Kaneko, Youhei; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.

  19. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.

  20. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard test method for abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials by means of a sliding wear test. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Standard test method for measurement of web/roller friction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the simulation of a roller/web transport tribosystem and the measurement of the static and kinetic coefficient of friction of the web/roller couple when sliding occurs between the two. The objective of this test method is to provide users with web/roller friction information that can be used for process control, design calculations, and for any other function where web/roller friction needs to be known. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  4. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Standard test method for plastic strain ratio r for sheet metal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers special tension testing for the measurement of the plastic strain ratio, r, of sheet metal intended for deep-drawing applications. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the ability of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and pavers to be bonded to portland cement paste. This test method includes both face-mounted and back-mounted tile. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  8. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiffman, S.; Burton, S.; Pillitteri, J.; Gitchell, J.; Di, M; Sweeney, C.; Wardle, P.; Koehler, G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes.
DESIGN—Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (no...

  9. Consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Whittington, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement (www.stard-statement.org) was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies in human medicine. The statement was motivated by widespread evidence of bias in test accuracy...... studies and the finding that incomplete or absent reporting of items in the STARD checklist was associated with overly optimistic estimates of test performance characteristics. Although STARD principles apply broadly, specific guidelines do not exist to account for unique considerations in livestock...... studies such as herd tests, potential use of experimental challenge studies, a more diverse group of testing purposes and sampling designs, and the widespread lack of an ante-mortem reference standard with high sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the present study was to develop a modified...

  10. Standardization of shape memory alloy test methods toward certification of aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mabe, J. H.; Benafan, O.; Coda, A.; Conduit, B.; Padan, R.; Van Doren, B.

    2015-08-01

    The response of shape memory alloy (SMA) components employed as actuators has enabled a number of adaptable aero-structural solutions. However, there are currently no industry or government-accepted standardized test methods for SMA materials when used as actuators and their transition to commercialization and production has been hindered. This brief fast track communication introduces to the community a recently initiated collaborative and pre-competitive SMA specification and standardization effort that is expected to deliver the first ever regulatory agency-accepted material specification and test standards for SMA as employed as actuators for commercial and military aviation applications. In the first phase of this effort, described herein, the team is working to review past efforts and deliver a set of agreed-upon properties to be included in future material certification specifications as well as the associated experiments needed to obtain them in a consistent manner. Essential for the success of this project is the participation and input from a number of organizations and individuals, including engineers and designers working in materials and processing development, application design, SMA component fabrication, and testing at the material, component, and system level. Going forward, strong consensus among this diverse body of participants and the SMA research community at large is needed to advance standardization concepts for universal adoption by the greater aerospace community and especially regulatory bodies. It is expected that the development and release of public standards will be done in collaboration with an established standards development organization.

  11. Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of resin flow that will take place from prepreg tape or sheet under given conditions of temperature and pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Evaluation of the performance test uncertainties of a primary standard for low energy X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was developed with the aim to check the reliability of the free-air ionization chamber with variable volume, manufactured by Victoreen Instruments, model 481 as a primary standard, used by Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI of IRD in order to measure the quantity ar kerma. To that were evaluates the uncertainties in each test done with the equipment during the process of its characterization as a standard. The results has a behaviour characteristics of a primary standard, being simple to handle, mechanical construction and showing an expanded uncertainty equal to 0,26%, which, corresponds to a 30 kV quality. (author)

  13. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rewald

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants' homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1 single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2 aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3 aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical

  15. Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewald, Stefanie; Mesters, Ilse; Lenssen, Antoine F; Bansi, Jens; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob A; Waller, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat) was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants' homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1) single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2) aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3) aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical studies on the

  16. Aquatic cycling—What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansi, Jens; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob A.; Waller, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat) was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants’ homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1) single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2) aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3) aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical studies on the

  17. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, S; Burton, S L; Pillitteri, J L; Gitchell, J G; Di Marino, M E; Sweeney, C T; Wardle, P A; Koehler, G L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes. Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (non-commercial public service announcement (PSA), promotion of unbranded nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or promotion of branded NRT). The effectiveness of each advertisement was determined using a validated advertising testing system in which ads were viewed in the context of reviewing a pilot television programme. Response to ads is assessed through shifts in subject choices of products offered as prizes before and after viewing the test advertisements. Included among the possible prizes were cigarettes and various pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. Daily smokers (n = 1890) of Regular (34%), Light (47%), and Ultra Light (19%) cigarettes recruited from eight US cities. The primary outcome of interest was the shift away from cigarettes as the selected prize following exposure to the test advertisements. Secondary outcomes of interest included movement away from Light cigarettes and movement towards assisted quitting products. Smokers who saw the advertisement emphasising the sensory characteristics of Light cigarettes were more likely than subjects who saw the advertisement emphasising the effect of vent blocking to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval CI 1.25 to 3.09; chi(2)(1) = 8.69, p = 0.003). Similarly, subjects who saw the advertisement framed as a PSA, rather than as a promotion for either a branded or unbranded NRT product, were also somewhat more likely to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.40; chi(2)(1) = 2.97, p = 0.085). The

  18. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006 (SNI has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control. This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004 were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006.

  19. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Mechanical properties test and microstructure analysis of polyoxymethylene (POM) micro injection moulded standard parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties and the micro structure of micro injection moulded polyoxymethylene (POM) test parts were investigated in this paper. The effects of different injection moulding processing conditions on ultimate tensile stress and strain at break were analyzed. Additionally......, the effects of miniaturization on the mechanical properties were investigated by executing injection moulding with both a standard tool designed according to ISO 527-2 and a miniaturized test part obtained from the standard design by a downscaling factor 10. The experiments have been performed according...

  1. New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A258 002 AD NEW ROTIFER BIOASSAYS FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY FINAL REPORT TERRY W. SNELL JULY 15, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...Incluce Securiy Cawhca•r• on) New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Terry W. Snell 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. riME COVERED...rotifers. I. A test for brackish and marine environments with Brachionus plicatilis. Aquatic Toxicology . 14: 65-80. Snell, T. W. and G. Persoone. 1989

  2. Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: Elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Coker, A; Kümmerer, K

    2008-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectants, detergents and fabric softeners. Anionic detergents are one of the most widely used chemical substances. QACs and anionic surfactants can form ionic pairs. In the present study we investigated the biodegradability of QACs in the presence of different anionic surfactants. The biodegradability of three QACs, namely benzalkonium chloride (BAC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC) and ethacridine lactate (EL), when applied as single substances and in combination with anionic surfactants such as benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), LAS, naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) was studied applying the closed bottle test (CBT) [OECD 301D, 1992. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Closed bottle test. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris] at a ratio of 1:1 (mol:mol). Biodegradation was monitored by measuring oxygen concentration in the test vessels with an oxygen electrode in accordance with international standard methods [ISO 5414, 1990. Water quality - determination of dissolved oxygen. In: German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, New York, Basel Cambridge]. Primary elimination of the QACs and of LAS was monitored by LC-MS/MS. There was little biodegradability of the QACs as either single compounds or in the presence of organic counter ions. The biodegradability of the organic counter ions was lower in the presence of QACs as compared to the single substances. Primary elimination of the QACs by sorption took place.

  3. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  4. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  5. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  6. Usage of Latent Class Analysis in Diagnostic Microbiology in the Absence of Gold Standard Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Bayram Abiha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of performance of various tests diagnostic tests in the absence of gold standard is an important problem. Latent class analysis (LCA is a statistical analysis method known for many years, especially in the absence of a gold standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests so that LCA has found its wide application area. During the last decade, LCA method has widely used in for determining sensivity and specifity of different microbiological tests. It has investigated in the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, human papilloma virus, bordetella pertussis, influenza viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and other various viral infections. Researchers have compared several diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of different pathogens with LCA. We aimed to evaluate performance of latent class analysis method used microbiological diagnosis in various diseases in several researches. When we took into account all of these tests' results, we suppose that LCA is a good statistical analysis method to assess different test performances in the absence of gold standard. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 467-488

  7. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  8. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  9. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel surveillance capsule examinations. Application of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A series of pressure vessel surveillance capsules is installed in each commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. A capsule typically contains neutron dose meters, thermal monitors, tensile specimens, and Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In order to determine property changes of the pressure vessel resulting from irradiation, surveillance capsules are periodically removed during the life of a reactor and examined. There are numerous standards, regulations, and codes governing US pressure vessel surveillance capsule programmes. These are put out by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A majority of the pertinent ASTM standards are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Applications and Measurements of Radiation Effects. The standards, regulations, and codes pertaining to pressure vessel surveillance play an important role in ensuring reliability of the nuclear pressure vessels. ASTM E 185-73 is the Standard Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactors. This standard recommends procedures for both the irradiation and subsequent testing of surveillance capsules. ASTM E 185-73 references many additional specialized ASTM standards to be followed in specific areas of a surveillance capsule examination. A key element of surveillance capsule programmes is the Charpy V-notch impact test, used to define curves of fracture behaviour over a range of temperatures. The data from these tests are used to define the adjusted reference temperature used in determining pressure-temperature operating curves for a nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard review plan for the review and evaluation of emergency plans for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document provides a Standard Review Plan to assure that complete and uniform reviews are made of research and test reactor radiological emergency plans. The report is organized under ten planning standards which correspond to the guidance criteria in American National Standard ANSI/ANS 15.16 - 1982 as endorsed by Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide 2.6. The applicability of the items under each planning standard is indicated by subdivisions of the steady-state thermal power levels at which the reactors are licensed to operate. Standard emergency classes and example action levels for research and test reactors which should initiate these classes are given in an Appendix. The content of the emergency plan is as follows: the emergency plan addresses the necessary provisions for coping with radiological emergencies. Activation of the emergency plan is in response to the emergency action levels. In addition to addressing those severe emergencies that will fall within one of the standard emergency classes, the plan also discusses the necessary provisions to deal with radiological emergencies of lesser severity that can occur within the operations boundary. The emergency plan allows for emergency personnel to deviate from actions described in the plan for unusual or unanticipated conditions

  12. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  13. SEU testing of a novel hardened register implemented using standard CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, T.; Roche, F.M.; Cosculluela, J.; Velazco, R.

    1999-01-01

    A novel memory structure, designed to tolerate SEU perturbations, has been implemented in registers and tested. The design was completed using a standard submicron nonradiation hardened CMOS technology. This paper presents the results of heavy ions tests which evidence the noticeable improvement of the SEU-robustness with an increased LET threshold and reduced cross-section, without significant impact to die real estate, write time, or power consumption

  14. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  15. Development and Standardization of a Test for Pragmatic Language Skills in Egyptian Arabic: The Egyptian Arabic Pragmatic Language Test (EAPLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeir, Mona S; Hegazi, Mona A; Saleh, Marwa M

    2018-03-19

    The aim of this study was to standardize an Egyptian Arabic Pragmatic Language Test (EAPLT) using linguistically and socially suitable questions and pictures in order to be able to address specific deficits in this language domain. Questions and pictures were designed for the EAPLT to assess 3 pragmatic language subsets: pragmatic skills, functions, and factors. Ten expert phoniatricians were asked to review the EAPLT and complete a questionnaire to assess the validity of the test items. The EAPLT was applied in 120 typically developing Arabic-speaking Egyptian children (64 females and 56 males) randomly selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria in the age range between 2 years, 1 month, 1 day and 9 years, 12 months, 31 days. Children's scores were used to calculate the means and standard deviations and the 5th and 95th percentiles to determine the age of the pragmatic skills acquisition. All experts have mostly agreed that the EAPLT gives a general idea about children's pragmatic language development. Test-retest reliability analysis proved the high reliability and internal consistency of the EAPLT subsets. A statistically significant correlation was found between the test subsets and age. The EAPLT is a valid and reliable Egyptian Arabic test that can be applied in order to detect a pragmatic language delay. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cytotoxicity Test of One-Step Self-Etching Bonding Agents by Standardized Dentin Barrier Test Using Polyurethane Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Joo Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to standardize a dentin barrier test with the substitute and evaluate the cytotoxicity of one-step self-etching bonding agents. Each of the natural bovine dentin and polyurethane discs were 500-μm thick and were tested using a perfusion device. Following the treatment with 0.05% phenol on the natural bovine disc or three kinds of polyurethane discs—30, 40, and 50 pcf (pounds per cubic foot—cell viability of L-929 was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and expressed as percentages of non-treated group, respectively. A substitute showing permeability similar to that of bovine dentin was determined based on this result. Cytotoxicity test of bonding agents was performed by the selected substitute, the results of which were expressed as percentages of the control. In addition, SEM images were taken after the tests. The cell viability by 40-pcf polyurethane disc was not statistically different from that by bovine dentin disc (P > 0.05. Futurabond DC resulted in the highest cell viability and Bond force the lowest by the 40-pcf polyurethane disc (P < 0.05. The adhesives on the 40-pcf polyurethane disc changed cellular morphology with different degrees on the SEM images. This standardized test might be useful for assessing the cytotoxicity of dental materials applied to dentin before clinical applications.

  17. Standardization, Validity and Reliability Study of Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Maviş

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2 has been developed to show the presence of a language disorder ‘aphasia’ and to give the clinician implications for the accompanying speech disorders such as apraxia and dysarthria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report standardization, validity and reliability study of GAT-2. METHODS: : 10 healthy individuals were tested initially for the pilot study. 134 healthy individual was included to the standardization study and 30 individuals with aphasia and 11 individuals with right brain injury was included to the validation study. The inter group GAT-2 score differentiations and the effects of age, years of education, sex variances were observed. GAT-2 cut-off scores were calculated by the scores of healthy individuals. GAT-2 test-retest reliability and inter-observer reliability was calculated. RESULTS: Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were significantly different from the GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients, but not from right brain injured patients’. Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were not affected from the sex, age variances but from years of education, so cut-off scores were calculated by this variance. GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients were not affected from age, sex and years of education. Test-retest and inter-observer reliability and internal consistency results showed that GAT-2 is a highly reliable aphasia screening test. CONCLUSION: GAT-2 was found to be a standardized, highly reliable and a valid aphasia test for Turkish stroke patients with aphasia

  18. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  19. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Standard guide for conducting wear tests using a rotary platform, double-head abraser

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and is intended to assist in establishing procedures for conducting wear tests of rigid or flexible materials utilizing the rotary platform, double-head abraser (RPDH). 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.2.1 Exception—English units are used when determining coating thickness. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Overall migration test in food packaging: Evaluation of alternative internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Andres Avendaño Florez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global migration test for plastic packaging intended for fatty foods, glyceryl triheptadecanoate (GTM is used as the internal standard for the quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs by gas chromatography. In this work, ethyl 3-phenyl propanoate (EFP and tetradecanoic acid (AM were evaluated as alternative internal standards. The use of (AM presented linear behavior (r > 0.99 and %Sb < 5%, good intermediate precision (HORRATr = 0.9, and accuracy (%R = 100.6%. In contrast, the evaluation of (EFP demonstrated that this is not an adequate internal standard for the quantification of FAMEs. In addition, it was statistically evaluated that there are no significant differences in the calculation of the global migration from FAMEs quantified using GTM or AM as internal standards, but the use of EFP presents significant differences.

  3. Standard Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the impact resistance of an aerospace transparent enclosure, hereinafter called windshield, during hailstorm conditions using simulated hailstones consisting of ice balls molded under tightly controlled conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements see Section 7.

  4. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  6. Interpretive Issues with the Roberts Apperception Test for Children: Limitations of the Standardization Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy L.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the validity of the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) by examining the appropriateness of the standardization norms with other nonclinical samples. Findings suggest that the children in this study form a separate and distinct group from the well-adjusted children upon which the RATC scales were normed and supports previous…

  7. The Development and Validation of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    The Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) is a comprehensive assessment instrument designed to measure students' general astronomy content knowledge. Built upon the research embedded within a generation of astronomy assessments designed to measure single concepts, the TOAST is appropriate to measure across an entire astronomy course. The TOAST's…

  8. The Quest for Standard Tests in Prioritizing Water Use Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, there are problems of depletion, pollution, water grabbing, wastage of water, and water crisis that are attributable to lack of comprehensive regulations, or confusions in putting policy options. The regulatory tools lack clarity and sufficiency with regard to the incorporation of standard tests. There is thus the need for ...

  9. Standard guide for conducting and evaluating galvanic corrosion tests in electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1981-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers conducting and evaluating galvanic corrosion tests to characterize the behavior of two dissimilar metals in electrical contact in an electrolyte under low-flow conditions. It can be adapted to wrought or cast metals and alloys. 1.2 This guide covers the selection of materials, specimen preparation, test environment, method of exposure, and method for evaluating the results to characterize the behavior of galvanic couples in an electrolyte. Note 1—Additional information on galvanic corrosion testing and examples of the conduct and evaluation of galvanic corrosion tests in electrolytes are given in Refs (1) through (7). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabil...

  10. The Introduction of Standardized External Testing in Ukraine: Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Koroliuk, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Standardized external testing (SET) began to be implemented in Ukraine in 2008 as an instrument for combating corruption in higher education and ensuring fair university admission. This article examines the conditions and processes that led to the introduction of SET, overviews its implementation over three years (2008-10), analyzes SET and…

  11. Chaos and Complexities Theories. Superposition and Standardized Testing: Are We Coming or Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of using the principle of "superposition of states" (commonly illustrated by Schrodinger's Cat experiment) to understand the process of using standardized testing to measure a student's learning. Comparisons from literature, neuroscience, and Schema Theory will be used to expound upon the…

  12. The resident-intruder paradigm : a standardized test for aggression, violence and social stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Jacob; Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Buwalda, Bauke; Meerlo, Peter; Timmermans, Paul J. A.

    2013-01-01

    This video publication explains in detail the experimental protocol of the resident-intruder paradigm in rats. This test is a standardized method to measure offensive aggression and defensive behavior in a semi natural setting. The most important behavioral elements performed by the resident and the

  13. Developing Effective Physical Fitness Testing Standards for Pre Service Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kory; Thornburg, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators are often held to a higher standard of physical fitness. The ability to effectively convey the importance of physical fitness may depend upon the ability to appear physically fit. The ability to perform at a minimal level of proficiency on fitness tests was deemed important by the faculty of one physical education teacher…

  14. Precision tests of the standard model, the Higgs, and new physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. February 2004 physics pp. 149-161. Precision tests of the standard model, the Higgs, and new physics. GUIDO ALTARELLI. Theory Division, CERN ... the Pascos-Wolfenstein ratio of neutral to charged current deep inelastic cross- .... with the direct limit on СА can be improved with respect to the sM, even in the.

  15. Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…

  16. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  17. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of clumps through a thin layer of absorbent cotton in a Buchner funnel with the aid of suction. The... absorbent cotton in a Buchner funnel with the aid of suction. The antigen then should be centrifuged. The... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test...

  18. The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

  19. Assessing Resilience in Students Who Are Deaf or Blind: Supplementing Standardized Achievement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle A.; Katayama, Andrew D.; Schindling, Casey; Dials, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Although testing accommodations for standardized assessments are available for students with disabilities, interpretation remains challenging. The authors explored resilience to see if it could contribute to the interpretation of academic success for students who are deaf or hard of hearing or blind or have low vision. High school students (30…

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51—Steady-State...

  1. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  2. The Quest for Standard Tests in Prioritizing Water Use Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zbelo Haileslassie

    agricultural uses, industrial uses for electricity production other industrial uses, aquaculture, recreational uses ... in this article as additional standard test.16 The case laws of United States and. English court cases are relevant ...... need for “… increasing production of export crops and food ...”.110 It accords first priority to the ...

  3. Effects of triclosan on aquatic invertebrates in tropics and the influence of pH on its toxicity on microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Price, Oliver R.; Den Brink, van Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) has been detected in household wastewaters (untreated and treated) and receiving environments across the globe. The toxic effects of TCS on temperate standard aquatic test organisms have been widely reported with microalgae being the most sensitive. However,

  4. Development of PFOS and PFOA criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suwen; Xu, Fanfan; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Shengrui; Zheng, Binghui

    2014-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are two widely used perfluorinated compounds. They have been detected in various environmental media and have harmed aquatic life and systems. The toxic effects of PFOS and PFOA on freshwater organisms were explored with the goal of protecting aquatic ecosystems in this study. Data from acute toxicity tests using nine aquatic species and chronic toxicity tests using three species were analyzed, along with PFOS and PFOA toxicity data for representative Chinese aquatic biota that have been published in the Chinese and international literature. Using the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for PFOS was calculated to be 3.78 mg/L, and the criterion continuous concentration (CCC) was calculated to be 0.25mg/L. For PFOA, the CMC was calculated to be 45.54 mg/L, and the CCC was calculated to be 3.52 mg/L. The criteria derived in this study provide the scientific basis for development of water quality standards and aquatic ecosystem risk evaluation. © 2013.

  5. Effect of aquatic exercise on the multiple sclerosis patients' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeeyan, Zahra; Azarbarzin, Mehrdad; Moosa, Farhad Mustafa; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of a new innovation in medical science named aquatic exercise has faded the effects of other preventive exercises in patients with multiple sclerosis to a large extent. Since exercise is one of the beneficial factors in enhancement of quality of life, researchers decided to investigate the role of aquatic exercise on the patients' quality of life. This study is a semi experimental research that was performed on 22 patients chosen by simple random sampling. The standard SF-36 questionnaire was used and data was gathered by interview before and after aquatic exercise. Data was analyzed by paired t test via SPSS software version 10. The mean age of participants was 32.86 years. 68.2% of participants were married and 45.5% of them were high school graduates. The paired t test showed the significant differences between different aspects of quality of life before and after aquatic exercise. The findings of this research revealed that aquatic exercise has enhanced the aspects of multiple sclerosis patients' quality of life; therefore the program of this exercise is suggested to be used for the patients with multiple sclerosis along with other methods of treatment for improvement in quality of their lives.

  6. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  7. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  8. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The nation's first, and the world's largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 ± 2 degree C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples

  9. Bayesian analysis of longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data without a gold standard test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, C.; Turnbull, B.W.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian methodology was developed based on a latent change-point model to evaluate the performance of milk ELISA and fecal culture tests for longitudinal Johne's disease diagnostic data. The situation of no perfect reference test was considered; that is, no “gold standard.” A change-point proc...... an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.984, and is superior to the raw ELISA (AUC = 0.911) and fecal culture (sensitivity = 0.358, specificity = 0.980) tests for Johne's disease diagnosis....

  10. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of plutonium in Soil by alpha spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in soils at levels of detection dependent on count time, sample size, detector, background, and tracer yield. This test method describes one acceptable approach to the determination of plutonium in soil. 1.2 This test method is designed for 10 g of soil, previously collected and treated as described in Practices C998 and C999, but sample sizes up to 50 g may be analyzed by this test method. This test method may not be able to completely dissolve all forms of plutonium in the soil matrix. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 9.

  11. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  12. Standard practice for preparation and use of direct tension stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using ASTM standard tension test specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. Axially loaded specimens may be stressed quantitatively with equipment for application of either a constant load, constant strain, or with a continuously increasing strain. 1.2 Tension test specimens are adaptable for testing a wide variety of product forms as well as parts joined by welding, riveting, or various other methods. 1.3 The exposure of specimens in a corrosive environment is treated only briefly because other standards are being prepared to deal with this aspect. Meanwhile, the investigator is referred to Practices G35, G36, G37, and G44, and to ASTM Special Technical Publication 425 (1).

  13. Standard practice for conducting wire-on-bolt test for atmospheric galvanic corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the evaluation of atmospheric galvanic corrosion of any anodic material that can be made into a wire when in contact with a cathodic material that can be made into a threaded rod. 1.2 When certain materials are used for the anode and cathode, this practice has been used to rate the corrosivity of atmospheres. 1.3 The wire-on-bolt test was first described in 1955 (1), and has since been used extensively with standard materials to determine corrosivity of atmospheres under the names CLIMAT Test (CLassify Industrial and Marine ATmospheres) (2-5) and ATCORR (ATmospheric CORRosivity) (6-9). 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations p...

  14. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Alice; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool...... for species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony...... the potential to become the next-generation tool for ecological studies and standardized biodiversity monitoring in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon [Korean Institute for Accreditation of Medical Imaging, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sang Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Koon [Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  16. Standard test method for measurement of 235U fraction using enrichment meter principle

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the fraction of 235U in uranium using measurement of the 185.7 keV gamma-ray produced during the decay of 235U. 1.2 This test method is applicable to items containing homogeneous uranium-bearing materials of known chemical composition in which the compound is considered infinitely thick with respect to 185.7 keV gamma-rays. 1.3 This test method can be used for the entire range of 235U fraction as a weight percent, from depleted (0.2 % 235U) to highly enriched (97.5 % 235U). 1.4 Measurement of items that have not reached secular equilibrium between 238U and 234Th may not produce the stated bias when low-resolution detectors are used with the computational method listed in Annex A2. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety co...

  17. Simpler standards for local performance examinations: the Yes/No Angoff and whole-test Ebel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkowsky, Rachel; Downing, Steven M; Wirth, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The whole-test Ebel and Yes/No Angoff methods offer the possibility of faster and easier standard-setting exercises for local, medium-stakes performance exams. We sought to establish if these less demanding methods might be substituted for the traditional but complex case-level Ebel. Six faculty judges each used all three methods to set standards for six standardized-patient checklists used for 178 fourth-year medical students. We compared the cut scores, passing rates, reliability, ease of use, and credibility of the three methods. The three methods produced roughly equivalent cut scores. Generalizability of judgments was .94 and .96 for the case-level and whole-test Ebel, and .76 for the Yes/No Angoff. Judges found the simplified methods more credible than the case-level Ebel. The Yes/No Angoff method was preferred by five of six judges. The whole-test Ebel and the Yes/No Angoff may be simple and realistic options for setting standards for local performance exams.

  18. Standard test method for Young's modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of Young's modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus of structural materials. This test method is limited to materials in which and to temperatures and stresses at which creep is negligible compared to the strain produced immediately upon loading and to elastic behavior. 1.2 Because of experimental problems associated with the establishment of the origin of the stress-strain curve described in 8.1, the determination of the initial tangent modulus (that is, the slope of the stress-strain curve at the origin) and the secant modulus are outside the scope of this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory require...

  19. Standard test method for measurement of roll wave optical distortion in heat-treated flat glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the peak-to-valley depth and peak-to-peak distances of the out-of-plane deformation referred to as roll wave which occurs in flat, heat-treated architectural glass substrates processed in a heat processing continuous or oscillating conveyance oven. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This test method does not address other flatness issues like edge kink, ream, pocket distortion, bow, or other distortions outside of roll wave as defined in this test method. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Helm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

  1. Field-testing the WHO child growth standards in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes; Caroli, Margherita; Shah, Uzma; Sguassero, Yanina; Redondo, Nora; Carroli, Berenise

    2007-01-01

    In April 2006 the WHO released a set of growth standards for children from birth to the age of 5 y. Prior to their release, the standards were field-tested in 4 countries. The main objective was to compare children's length/height-for-age and weight-for-length/height based on the new standards with clinician assessments of the same children. The study sampled children Argentina and Italy) and 2 less-affluent ones (Maldives and Pakistan). Length/height and weight were measured by doctors and epidemiologists who also recorded a clinical assessment of each child's length/height in relation to age and weight relative to length/height. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were generated based on the WHO standards. As expected, Pakistan and the Maldives had higher rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight than Italy and Argentina, and the reverse was true for overweight and obesity. Where stunting was prevalent, the children classified as short were a mean children classified as thin were indeed wasted (<-2 SD for weight-for-height) and a positive association in trend was evident between weight-for-height and the line-up of groups from thin to obese. The overall concordance between clinical assessments and the WHO standards-based indicators attested to the clinical soundness of the standards.

  2. Philippine National Standards PNS 146:1987. Qualification and certification of non-destructive testing personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The National Coordinating Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (NCC-NDT) of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in collaboration with the Bureau of Products and Standards (BPS) adopted the following standard which contains 1) scope and field application, 2) abbreviations, 3) definitions, 4) level of competence, 5) general principles of certification, 6) eligibility for examination, 7) examination, 8) certification, 9) validity and renewal and, 10) files. It includes the following annexes: a) Requirements of technical knowledge of NDT personnel, b) Physical requirements and, c) Administration of examinations. (ELC)

  3. Standard test method for uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Towards standardized testing methodologies for optical properties of components in concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Morales, Angel; Vicente, Gema San; Sutter, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the components used in the solar field of concentrating solar thermal power plants is primordial to ensure their optimum power production. Those properties are measured and evaluated by different techniques and equipment, in laboratory conditions and/or in the field. Standards for such measurements and international consensus for the appropriate techniques are in preparation. The reference materials used as a standard for the calibration of the equipment are under discussion. This paper summarizes current testing methodologies and guidelines for the characterization of optical properties of solar mirrors and absorbers.

  5. Testing of Models for Predicting the Behaviour of Radionuclides in Freshwater Systems and Coastal Areas. Report of the Aquatic Working Group of EMRAS Theme 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During last decades a number of projects have been launched to validate models for predicting the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. Such projects took advantage from the great deal of experimental data gathered, following the accidental introduction of radionuclides into the environment (the accident at the Chernobyl power plant was the most obvious example), to assess the contamination levels of components of the ecosystem and of the human food chain. These projects stimulated intensive efforts for improving the reliability of the models aimed at predicting the migration of 137 Cs in lakes and of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in rivers. However, there are few examples of similar extensive model validation studies for other aquatic systems, such as coastal waters, or for other long lived radionuclides of potential radiological importance for freshwater systems. The validation of models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in the freshwater environment and coastal areas was the object of the EMRAS working group on testing of models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in freshwater systems and coastal areas. Five scenarios have been considered: (1) Wash-off of 90 Sr and 137 Cs deposits from the Pripyat floodplain (Ukraine). Modellers were asked to predict the time dependent water contamination of Pripyat River following the inundation of the river floodplain heavily contaminated following the Chernobyl accident. Available input data were the deposits of radionuclides in the floodplain, the time dependent contamination of water in the river entering the floodplain, the water fluxes and several other morphological, meteorological and hydrological data. Concentrations of radionuclides in the water of the River Prypiat down-stream of the floodplain were supplied to assess the performances of the models. (2) Radionuclide discharge from the Dnieper River (Ukraine) into its estuary in the Black Sea. Modellers were asked to predict the time

  6. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  7. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  8. Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the electrical corrosion potential of uncoated reinforcing steel in field and laboratory concrete, for the purpose of determining the corrosion activity of the reinforcing steel. 1.2 This test method is limited by electrical circuitry. Concrete surface in building interiors and desert environments lose sufficient moisture so that the concrete resistivity becomes so high that special testing techniques not covered in this test method may be required (see 5.1.4.1). Concrete surfaces that are coated or treated with sealers may not provide an acceptable electrical circuit. The basic configuration of the electrical circuit is shown in Fig. 1. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It ...

  9. Developing a Standard Method of Test for Packaged, Solid-Desiccant Based Dehumidification Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    A draft Method of Test (MOT) has been proposed for packaged, air-to-air, desiccant-based dehumidifier systems that incorporate a thermally-regenerated desiccant material for dehumidification. This MOT is intended to function as the ''system'' testing and rating compliment to the desiccant ''component'' (desiccant wheels and/or cassettes) MOT (ASHRAE 1998) and rating standard (ARI 1998) already adopted by industry. This draft standard applies to ''packaged systems'' that: Use desiccants for dehumidification of conditioned air for buildings; Use heated air for regeneration of the desiccant material; Include fans for moving process and regeneration air; May include other system components for filtering, pre-cooling, post-cooling, or heating conditioned air; and May include other components for humidification of conditioned air. The proposed draft applies to four different system operating modes depending on whether outdoor or indoor air is used for process air and regeneration air streams . Only the ''ventilation'' mode which uses outdoor air for both process and regeneration inlets is evaluated in this paper. Performance of the dehumidification system is presented in terms that would be most familiar and useful to designers of building HVAC systems to facilitate integration of desiccant equipment with more conventional hardware. Parametric performance results from a modified, commercial desiccant dehumidifier undergoing laboratory testing were used as data input to evaluate the draft standard. Performance results calculated from this experimental input, results from an error-checking/heat-balance verification test built into the standard, and estimated comparisons between desiccant and similarly performing conventional dehumidification equipment are calculated and presented. Some variations in test procedures are suggested to aid in analytical assessment of individual component performance

  10. Reliability and validity of arm function assessment with standardized guidelines for the Fugl-Meyer Test, Action Research Arm Test and Box and Block Test: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Pinkowski, Cosima; van Wijck, Frederike; Kim, In-Ha; di Bella, Paolo; Johnson, Garth

    2005-06-01

    To establish: (1) inter-rater and test-retest reliability of standardized guidelines for the Fugl-Meyer upper limb section, Action Research Arm Test and Box and Block Test in patients with paresis secondary to stroke, multiple sclerosis or traumatic brain injury and (2) correlation between these arm motor scales and more general measures of impairment and activity limitation. Multicentre cohort study. Three European referral centres for neurorehabilitation. Thirty-seven stroke, 14 multiple sclerosis and five traumatic brain injury patients. Scores of the Fugl-Meyer Test (arm section), Action Research Arm Test, and Box and Block Test derived from video information. All three motor tests showed very high inter-rater and test-retest reliability (ICC and rho for main variables > 0.95). Correlation between the motor scales was very high (rho > 0.92). Motor scales correlated moderately highly with the Hemispheric Stroke Scale, a measure of impairment (rho = 0.660-0.689), but not with the Modified Barthel Index, a measure of the ability to cope with basic activities of daily living (rho = 0.044-0.086). The standardized guidelines assured comparability of test administration and scoring across clinical facilities. The arm motor scales provided information that was not identical to information from the Hemispheric Stroke Scale or the Modified Barthel Index.

  11. [Standardization of a direct agglutination test for the immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviarez, Yenny; Lares, María; Viettri, Mercedes; Aguilar, Cruz M; Herrera, Leidi; Ferrer, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Chagas' disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its immunological diagnosis is mainly based on the detection of antibodies against T. cruzi using tests such as the ELISA, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). The main disadvantage of the IHAT is the need to prepare sheep erythrocytes, whose availability is limited and they have a short duration once prepared. However, there are alternative tests, such as the direct agglutination test (DAT). To standardize the direct agglutination test for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were prepared using two protocols, with and without trypsin treatment. The parasites were stained and optimal conditions for parasitic concentration and serum dilutions were determined. We evaluated the technique using sera from patients with Chagas disease, from healthy individuals and from individuals with other parasitic diseases. The optimal parasitic concentration was 500 x 10(6) parasites/ml using stained parasites without trypsin treatment. The optimal serum dilutions were 1/25, 1/50 y 1/100 and the cut-off point was the 1/50 dilution. The diagnostic indices for the standardized technique were as follows: Sensitivity, 94.3% (95% CI: 79.5-99.0) and specificity, 96.3% (95% CI: 88.8-99.0), with positive and negative predictive values of 91.7% (95% CI: 76.4-97.8) and 97.5% (95% CI: 90.4-99.6), respectively. Cross-reaction was observed only in three sera from individuals with visceral leishmaniasis. The results were compared with those obtained by IHA, ELISA, and IFA, and the concordance rate was 96% and the kappa index, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99). The standardized direct agglutination test could be useful for immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.

  12. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  13. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  14. Determination of soil properties from standard penetration test complemented by torque measurement (SPT-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. P. Peixoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The major problem on geotechnical work is to ensure that no settlements occur during the life cycle of the construction. This involves proper design of foundations and their bearing capacity. The Brazilian standard for design and execution of foundations, ABNT (2010 NBR 6122 imposes the utilization of field tests when designing building foundations. The Standard Penetration Test, SPT, ABNT (2001 NBR 6484, is still the most common in-situ test for those purposes. Ranzini (1988 suggested supplementing the conventional SPT with the measurement of the torque (SPT-T required to turn the split spoon after driving, in order to provide a ‘static’ component to a ‘dynamic’ test. The adhesion between the soil and the sampler, obtained by the torque measurement, could be used to calculate the lateral skin friction of piles. This paper describes the SPT-T procedure including both a supplementary equipment and practical aspects. Also it presents an accurate torque measurement, a prediction method to calculate the bearing capacity of piles used in building foundations using the SPT-T test and a comparison between the estimated bearing capacities of building foundations with instrumented load tests in order to validate the method.

  15. Standard Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the size distribution and quantity of particulate matter contamination from aerospace fluids isolated on a membrane filter. The microscopical techniques described may also be applied to other properly prepared samples of small particles. Two test methods are described for sizing particles as follows: 1.1.1 Test Method A—Particle sizes are measured as the diameter of a circle whose area is equal to the projected area of the particle. 1.1.2 Test Method B—Particle sizes are measured by their longest dimension. 1.2 The test methods are intended for application to particle contamination determination of aerospace fluids, gases, surfaces, and environments. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 These test methods do not provide for sizing particles smaller than 5 μm. Note 1—Results of these methods are subject to variables inherent in any statistical method. The...

  16. Problems in Standardization of Orthodontic Shear Bond Strength Tests; A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. A. Akhoundi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bonding brackets to the enamel surface has gained much popularity today. New adhesive systems have been introduced and marketed and a considerable increase in research regarding bond strength has been published. A considerable amount of these studies deal with shear bond strength of adhesives designed for orthodontic purpose.Previous studies have used variety of test designs. This diversity in test design is due to the fact that there is no standard method for evaluating shear bond strength in orthodontics. Therefore comparison of data obtained from different study is almost impossible.This article tries to briefly discuss the developments occurred in the process of shear bond strength measurement of orthodontic adhesives with an emphasis on the type of test set up and load application.Although the test designs for measuring shear bond strength in orthodontics are still far from ideal, attempts must be made to standardize these tests especially in order to makecomparison of different data easier. It is recommended that test designs be set up in such a manner that better matches with the purpose of the study.

  17. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  1. National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reports information on the condition of our nation's waters using probabilistic surveys. The National Aquatic Resource Surveys assess the status of and changes in water quality of the nation's coastal waters, lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

  2. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  3. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  4. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  5. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  6. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  7. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  8. BARTTest: Community-Standard Atmospheric Radiative-Transfer and Retrieval Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph; Himes, Michael D.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative transfer (RT) codes are used both to predict planetary and brown-dwarf spectra and in retrieval algorithms to infer atmospheric chemistry, clouds, and thermal structure from observations. Observational plans, theoretical models, and scientific results depend on the correctness of these calculations. Yet, the calculations are complex and the codes implementing them are often written without modern software-verification techniques. The community needs a suite of test calculations with analytically, numerically, or at least community-verified results. We therefore present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Test Suite, or BARTTest. BARTTest has four categories of tests: analytically verified RT tests of simple atmospheres (single line in single layer, line blends, saturation, isothermal, multiple line-list combination, etc.), community-verified RT tests of complex atmospheres, synthetic retrieval tests on simulated data with known answers, and community-verified real-data retrieval tests.BARTTest is open-source software intended for community use and further development. It is available at https://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BARTTest. We propose this test suite as a standard for verifying atmospheric RT and retrieval codes, analogous to the Held-Suarez test for general circulation models. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G, NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G, and NASA Exoplanets Research Program grant NNX17AB62G.

  9. Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Myers, Gary L; Miller, W Greg

    2016-01-01

    Effective patient care, clinical research, and public health efforts require comparability of laboratory results independent of time, place, and measurement procedure. Comparability is achieved by establishing metrological traceability, which ensures that measurement procedures measure the same quantity and that the calibration of measurement procedures is traceable to a common reference system consisting of reference methods and materials. Whereas standardization ensures traceability to the International System of Units, harmonization ensures traceability to a reference system agreed on by convention. This article provides an overview of standardization and harmonization with an emphasis on commutability as an important variable that affects testing accuracy. Commutability of reference materials is required to ensure that traceability is established appropriately and that laboratory results are comparable. The use of noncommutable reference materials leads to inaccurate results. Whereas procedures and protocols for standardizing measurements are established and have been successfully applied in efforts such as the Hormones Standardization Program of the CDC, harmonization activities require new, more complex procedures and approaches. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, together with its domestic and international partners, formed the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to coordinate harmonization efforts. Reference systems, as well as procedures and protocols to establish traceability of clinical laboratory tests, have been established and continue to be developed by national and international groups and organizations. Serum tests of thyroid function, including those for the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are among the clinical procedures for which standardization efforts are well under way. Approaches to the harmonization of measurement procedures for serum concentrations of thyroid

  10. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from gloves used in cleanrooms where spacecraft are assembled, cleaned, or tested. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from gloves using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extracting qualities, or because it is representative of solvents used in the particular facility. Alternative solvents may be used, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Towards standardization of in-site parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; de Jalón, Alberto García; Leon, Javier; Bernad, Ignacio David

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the testing procedure and a validation of the methodology of parabolic trough collector in solar thermal power plants. The applied testing methodology is the one proposed within the Spanish standardization sub-committee AEN/CTN 206/SC117 working group WG2 related to the components for solar thermal power plants. This methodology is also proposed within the international committee IEC TC 117 (Standard draft IEC 62862-3-2 Ed. 1.0). This study is done at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Almeria within the European project STAGE-STE. This paper presents the results of the optical and thermal efficiency of a large-size parabolic trough collector. The obtained values are similar to the previous analysis on this collector by PSA. The results of the tracking system have a good accuracy compared to the acceptance angle of the concentrator.

  12. Standard test method for color and color difference of whitewares by abriged spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the instrumental measurement of the reflection properties and color of ceramic glazes and other whitewares by the use of a spectrophotometer or spectrocolorimeter with a hemispherical optical measuring system, such as an integrating sphere. 1.2 The test method is suitable for use with most specimens having an exterior flat surface large enough to cover the spectrophotometer sample port. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  16. Standard test method for atom percent fission in uranium and plutonium fuel (Neodymium-148 Method)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of stable fission product 148Nd in irradiated uranium (U) fuel (with initial plutonium (Pu) content from 0 to 50 %) as a measure of fuel burnup (1-3). 1.2 It is possible to obtain additional information about the uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances on the same sample taken for burnup analysis. If this additional information is desired, it can be obtained by precisely measuring the spike and sample volumes and following the instructions in Test Method E267. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  18. The "Last Mile" in Standards-Based Reform: Conducting a Match Study Linking Teacher-Certification Tests to Student Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    States have invested significant resources in developing student academic standards. Mr. Murphy argues that, for these standards to be effective, teacher preparation and certification must be aligned with them. He proposes "match studies" as a way to ensure this alignment. (Contains 3 endnotes.)

  19. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal modelling of gypsum plasterboard assemblies exposed to standard fire tests

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Urrutia, David; Puente González, Eduardo; Lázaro Urrutia, Mariano; Lázaro Urrutia, Pedro Gervasio; Peña Guijarro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gypsum plasterboards are widely used for compartmentation and for retarding the spread of fire in buildings. Although numerous heat transfer studies have been conducted, literature indicates there are extensive differences in the thermal properties used in these studies. Comprehensive experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to elucidate the leading factor in the ablation of a gypsum board system when it is exposed to the standard fire resistance test. A methodology based on bo...

  1. MobiQiyas: A Mobile Learning Standardized Test Preparation for Saudi Arabian Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohssen Mohammed Alabbadi

    2010-01-01

    A mobile learning system, called MobiQiyas, for preparing Saudi Arabian students for one of the standardized tests, given by the National Center for Assessment in Higher Education (NCAHE), has been developed, using ready-made commercial products and tools. The learning material of MobiQiyas consists of practice questions with their answers, both provided by NCAHE, to be loaded by the students into their own mobile phones; after installation, the students can interact with MobiQiyas any number...

  2. Improving Hispanic students' performance on science standardized tests: Successful practices from four elementary campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Yvonne Lynne

    This qualitative, descriptive multiple case study took place in a Southwest Texas city bordering Mexico. The study examined specific resources and practices used in four different exemplary-rated elementary school campuses, with standardized test data reflecting 93% or more of their 5th-grade Hispanic student population passing the state mandated standardized science test. The sample for this study included one principal, one assistant principal, and three 5th-grade teachers from each campus. In total, the sample participants consisted of four principals, four assistant principals, and 12 5th-grade teachers. Data collection involved conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews guided by five literature-based, researcher-generated questions. Fifth grade teachers and administrators reflected and reported upon their pedagogy for best practices in helping Hispanic students achieve success. Analysis of the data revealed eight themes: (a) successful schools have committed teachers, an environment conducive to learning, and incorporate best practices that work for all students; (b) curriculum alignment is very important; (c) teachers have access to a variety of resources; (d) teacher collaboration and planning is very important; (e) science camps, science reviews, and hands-on centers are effective in preparing students for the standardized test; (f) the most effective instructional practices include high emphasis on vocabulary, hands-on and differentiated instruction, and the 5E Model; (g) teachers see value in self-contained, dual-language classes; and (h) professional development and performance feedback are important to educators. The results of this study provide educational leaders with specific science instructional resources, practices, and interventions proven effective for the 5 th-grade Hispanic student population in passing the science state standardized test.

  3. Selected Standardized Tests and Assessment Instruments for Measuring Occupational Competencies. Teaching Basic Skills through Vocational Education. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Clinton B.

    Based on a review of standardized tests and competency assessment instruments, recommendations are made for identifying and selecting standardized tests to help secondary vocational instructors to develop students' basic skills. Chapter 1 focuses on identifying diagnostic tests of basic skills in reading, mathematics, and communication. It…

  4. Numerical simulation of non-standard tensile tests of thin metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzon, Gabriella; Shahmardani, Mahdieh

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of the fracture processes occurring in thin metal foils can be evidenced by tensile tests performed on samples of non-standard dimensions. The load versus displacement record of these experiments does not return directly the local stress-strain relationship and the fracture characteristics of the investigated material. In fact, the overall response of thin foils is sensitive to local imperfections, size and geometric effects. Simulation models of the performed tests can support the interpretation of the experimental results, provided that the most significant physical phenomena are captured. The present contribution focuses on the role of modelling details on the numerical output that can be obtained in this context.

  5. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error.

  6. Correlation of Standard and Cone Penetration Tests: Case Study from Tekirdag (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feda Aral, I.; Gunes, Ekrem

    2017-10-01

    In geotechnical engineering, the Standard Penetration Test (SPT-N value) is often used as an in-situ test. The Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is based on design and cone resistance (qc) and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, there is also a need for a SPT-CPT correlation association that can be used in the basic design. In this study, the values of the SPT-CPT tests applied to the ground were compared and tried to generate a certain statistical data. SPT and CPT experiments were performed side by side to determine the soil properties. Formulas have been developed using various statistical methods and correlation coefficients have been established between the data obtained for “high-medium-low plastic clay” and “sand and sandy clayey soils”. The obtained data were compared with the studies in the literature.

  7. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Standard test methods for determining average grain size using semiautomatic and automatic image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are used to determine grain size from measurements of grain intercept lengths, intercept counts, intersection counts, grain boundary length, and grain areas. 1.2 These measurements are made with a semiautomatic digitizing tablet or by automatic image analysis using an image of the grain structure produced by a microscope. 1.3 These test methods are applicable to any type of grain structure or grain size distribution as long as the grain boundaries can be clearly delineated by etching and subsequent image processing, if necessary. 1.4 These test methods are applicable to measurement of other grain-like microstructures, such as cell structures. 1.5 This standard deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the materials tested. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  9. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  10. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  11. Is It Working? Distractor Analysis Results from the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument is a multiple-choice survey tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. Researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science and Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have been conducting a question-by-question distractor analysis procedure to determine the sensitivity and effectiveness of each item. In brief, the frequency each possible answer choice, known as a foil or distractor on a multiple-choice test, is determined and compared to the existing literature on the teaching and learning of astronomy. In addition to having statistical difficulty and discrimination values, a well functioning assessment item will show students selecting distractors in the relative proportions to how we expect them to respond based on known misconceptions and reasoning difficulties. In all cases, our distractor analysis suggests that all items are functioning as expected. These results add weight to the validity of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument, which is designed to help instructors and researchers measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for undergraduate science survey courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of the astronomy education community.

  12. Vulnerability of Canadian aquatic ecosystems to nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Lars; Rowan, David J

    2017-11-29

    Several cesium and strontium bioaccumulation models are used widely in national and international guidance for ecological and human health risk assessments for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) and radiostrontium ( 90 Sr), but have not been used to make predictions of radiological risk from nuclear accidents under variable environmental conditions on broad geographical scales. In this paper, we first present models for predicting the bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by aquatic biota based on ambient concentrations of dissolved potassium and calcium, respectively, and then test these models using independent data from aquatic ecosystems at Canadian nuclear sites. Secondly, models yielding the best predictions across a wide range of input parameters were selected to estimate bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for cesium and strontium in aquatic ecosystems across Canada, using trophic level of organisms and dissolved potassium for cesium and calcium concentrations for strontium as predictor variables, and presented as contour maps of radiological risk. The models show that risk from bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on site-specific environmental conditions and trophic ecology. Overall, our results suggest that single-parameter approaches taken by regulatory standards may either over- or under-predict radiological risk at many locations, and are thus not readily suitable to inform siting decisions for new nuclear developments.

  13. Development of a standard test procedure for devices on thermal weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the standard evaluation of the efficacy of pesticides and the testing of spraying equipment there are no comparable testing procedure for equipment of thermal weed control. It is the aim of the investigations described here to develop a standard procedure for assessing temperature distribution and biological efficacy. This will be the basis for quality testing which can be directly used by practical users. Also it can help engineers to improve devices if constructive gaps will be identified by these tests. The results from testing a flaming device (Green-Flame 850 E demonstrated such a potential for technical improvement: The temperature decreased from 159 °C to 89 °C by increasing driving speed from 0.35 m/s to 0.81 m/s. The variation of the temperature related to the working width was extremely high: The range was 60 °C at highest speed and 79 °C at lowest speed, respectively. The biological efficacy against the test plant species Sinapis arvensis was also affected by the driving speed and the corresponding temperature. A driving speed not higher than 0.53 m/s resulted in efficacy rates of almost 95%. However, the efficacy was only 66% at the highest tested speed of 0.81 m/s. Thus, the needed effective temperature is between 89 °C und 106 °C. In contrast, Lolium perenne was controlled by only 72% under the tested conditions. Here a dose-response relationship was not observed. The variation of the temperature, as well as the biological efficacy, was extremely heterogeneous and not satisfying in terms of an economic and safe use. Similar results were found for other devices on thermal weed control.

  14. Adaption and Standardization of the Test of Visual-Motor Skills Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Farahbod

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research has been carried out with the aim of adaptation, standardization and finding the validity and reliability of Visual-Motor Skills-revised Test for children. Materials & Methods: A multi-stage sampling from the children of the city of Tehran resulted in a sample of 1281 subjects, ages 2,11 through 13,11.the test consisted of 23 geometric designs and each of the designs was assessed through a definite criteria and was scored as errors(weakness and accuracies(strength.For adaptation and standardization of this test, at first step the examiner`s manual and the test items were translated into Farsi. The final form of the test was obtained after performing the pre-tryout and tryout stages, and doing the data analysis by classic model of reliability. Internal consistency coefficients of the subtests were obtained by Cronbach`s Alpha time consistency of the subtests and compound scores were obtained by test-retest. Alpha coefficients for the compound scores were obtained by Guilford formula, which is designed for estimating the compound scores. To obtain the content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity of the subtests and compound scores, appropriate methods were used. Results: The results obtained ensure the applicability of this test for the evaluation of visual-motor skills of children of Tehran. Conclusion: According to the findings, this test can be used for the disorders in eye-hand coordination, the identification of children with disorders in visual – motor skills. It can also be used for the documentation of the development of fine – motor skills specially in visual – motor skills in 3-14 years – old children.

  15. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Binici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosisof brucellosis with standard dilution titers.Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated.Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standardagglutination test (SAT and Coombs test were performed to all patients.Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in titers up to 1/640 in all cases. The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. Since the clinical and laboratoryfindings suggested the brucellosis, the serums were restudied by diluting up to 1/10240 titer and we saw that the first3 cases became positive at a titer of 1/1280. The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilutionCoombs test. This time the test gave a positive result at 1/10240 titer beginning from 1/2560 titer. B.melitensis wasisolated from two cases.Conclusion: SAT and Coombs’ test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity incases with clinical and laboratory findings suggesting brucellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:110-113

  16. Evaluating operational specifications of point-of-care diagnostic tests: a standardized scorecard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Lehe

    Full Text Available The expansion of HIV antiretroviral therapy into decentralized rural settings will increasingly require simple point-of-care (POC diagnostic tests that can be used without laboratory infrastructure and technical skills. New POC test devices are becoming available but decisions around which technologies to deploy may be biased without systematic assessment of their suitability for decentralized healthcare settings. To address this, we developed a standardized, quantitative scorecard tool to objectively evaluate the operational characteristics of POC diagnostic devices. The tool scores devices on a scale of 1-5 across 30 weighted characteristics such as ease of use, quality control, electrical requirements, shelf life, portability, cost and service, and provides a cumulative score that ranks products against a set of ideal POC characteristics. The scorecard was tested on 19 devices for POC CD4 T-lymphocyte cell counting, clinical chemistry or hematology testing. Single and multi-parameter devices were assessed in each of test categories. The scores across all devices ranged from 2.78 to 4.40 out of 5. The tool effectively ranked devices within each category (p0.80; p<0.001. Use of this tool enables the systematic evaluation of diagnostic tests to facilitate product selection and investment in appropriate technology. It is particularly relevant for countries and testing programs considering the adoption of new POC diagnostic tests.

  17. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  18. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or `representative', organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are

  19. Inter-rater reliability of three standardized functional tests in patients with low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidstrand, Johan; Horneij, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Background Of all patients with low back pain, 85% are diagnosed as "non-specific lumbar pain". Lumbar instability has been described as one specific diagnosis which several authors have described as delayed muscular responses, impaired postural control as well as impaired muscular coordination among these patients. This has mostly been measured and evaluated in a laboratory setting. There are few standardized and evaluated functional tests, examining functional muscular coordination which are also applicable in the non-laboratory setting. In ordinary clinical work, tests of functional muscular coordination should be easy to apply. The aim of this present study was to therefore standardize and examine the inter-rater reliability of three functional tests of muscular functional coordination of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain. Methods Nineteen consecutive individuals, ten men and nine women were included. (Mean age 42 years, SD ± 12 yrs). Two independent examiners assessed three tests: "single limb stance", "sitting on a Bobath ball with one leg lifted" and "unilateral pelvic lift" on the same occasion. The standardization procedure took altered positions of the spine or pelvis and compensatory movements of the free extremities into account. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and by percentage agreement. Results The inter-rater reliability for the right and the left leg respectively was: for the single limb stance very good (κ: 0.88–1.0), for sitting on a Bobath ball good (κ: 0.79) and very good (κ: 0.88) and for the unilateral pelvic lift: good (κ: 0.61) and moderate (κ: 0.47). Conclusion The present study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability for two standardized tests, that is, the single-limb stance and sitting on a Bobath-ball with one leg lifted. Inter-rater reliability for the unilateral pelvic lift test was moderate to good. Validation of the tests in their ability to evaluate lumbar

  20. Inter-rater reliability of three standardized functional tests in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidstrand Johan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all patients with low back pain, 85% are diagnosed as "non-specific lumbar pain". Lumbar instability has been described as one specific diagnosis which several authors have described as delayed muscular responses, impaired postural control as well as impaired muscular coordination among these patients. This has mostly been measured and evaluated in a laboratory setting. There are few standardized and evaluated functional tests, examining functional muscular coordination which are also applicable in the non-laboratory setting. In ordinary clinical work, tests of functional muscular coordination should be easy to apply. The aim of this present study was to therefore standardize and examine the inter-rater reliability of three functional tests of muscular functional coordination of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain. Methods Nineteen consecutive individuals, ten men and nine women were included. (Mean age 42 years, SD ± 12 yrs. Two independent examiners assessed three tests: "single limb stance", "sitting on a Bobath ball with one leg lifted" and "unilateral pelvic lift" on the same occasion. The standardization procedure took altered positions of the spine or pelvis and compensatory movements of the free extremities into account. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ and by percentage agreement. Results The inter-rater reliability for the right and the left leg respectively was: for the single limb stance very good (κ: 0.88–1.0, for sitting on a Bobath ball good (κ: 0.79 and very good (κ: 0.88 and for the unilateral pelvic lift: good (κ: 0.61 and moderate (κ: 0.47. Conclusion The present study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability for two standardized tests, that is, the single-limb stance and sitting on a Bobath-ball with one leg lifted. Inter-rater reliability for the unilateral pelvic lift test was moderate to good. Validation of the tests in their