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Sample records for standard alkaline method

  1. Application of Scharer's quantitative method for the determination of residual alkaline phosphatase activity in standard Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Soares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk pasteurization is a critical issue in the dairy industry, and failures in this process can affect final product safety. Scharer's enzymatic method is still traditionally used to verify pasteurization efficiency compliance, and it is based on screening for residual alkaline phosphatase in milk. Although several methods are used to quantify enzymatic activity to assess milk pasteurization efficiency, there is a small amount of published data regarding the use of these methods to quantify alkaline phosphatase in cheese. In this study, the Scharer's modified method was used to determine the levels of residual alkaline phosphatase in standard minas cheese, before and after 20 days of ripening. The cheeses were made using raw or pasteurized milk with the addition of different concentrations of raw milk (0; 0.05%; 0.10%; 0.20%; and 0.50%. In the fresh cheese samples, the method showed a sensitivity of only 0.50% with the addition of raw milk to the pasteurized milk used to make cheese. In addition, levels of up 0.20% of raw milk in pasteurized milk, the concentrations of phenol was inferior to 1μg phenol/g of dairy product which is the preconized indicator value for adequate pasteurization.

  2. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  4. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk.

  5. Semi-Automatic Rating Method for Neutrophil Alkaline Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kanae; Hashi, Kotomi; Goto, Misaki; Nishi, Kiyotaka; Maeda, Rie; Kono, Keigo; Yamamoto, Mai; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Miwa, Keiko; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score is a valuable test for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but it has still manually rated. Therefore, we developed a semi-automatic rating method using Photoshop ® and Image-J, called NAP-PS-IJ. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase staining was conducted with Tomonaga's method to films of peripheral blood taken from three healthy volunteers. At least 30 neutrophils with NAP scores from 0 to 5+ were observed and taken their images. From which the outer part of neutrophil was removed away with Image-J. These were binarized with two different procedures (P1 and P2) using Photoshop ® . NAP-positive area (NAP-PA) and granule (NAP-PGC) were measured and counted with Image-J. The NAP-PA in images binarized with P1 significantly (P < 0.05) differed between images with NAP scores from 0 to 3+ (group 1) and those from 4+ to 5+ (group 2). The original images in group 1 were binarized with P2. NAP-PGC of them significantly (P < 0.05) differed among all four NAP score groups. The mean NAP-PGC with NAP-PS-IJ indicated a good correlation (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) to results by human examiners. The sensitivity and specificity of NAP-PS-IJ were 60% and 92%, which might be considered as a prototypic method for the full-automatic rating NAP score. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A green method of graphene preparation in an alkaline environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Bludská, Jana; Ecorchard, Petra; Kormunda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, MAY (2015), s. 65-71 ISSN 1350-4177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Alkaline environment * Exfoliation * Graphene * Ultrasound Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  7. Effective extraction method through alkaline hydrolysis for the detection of starch maleate in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for the determination of maleic acid which was released from starch maleate (SM through the alkaline hydrolysis reaction. The proper alkaline hydrolysis conditions and LC separation are reported in this study. The starch samples were treated with 50% methanol for 30 minutes, and then hydrolyzed by 0.5N KOH for 2 hours to release maleic acid. A C18 column and gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% phosphoric acid and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/minute were used for separation. The method showed a good linearity in the range of 0.01–1.0 ìg/mL, with a limit of quantification (LOQ at 10 mg/kg in starch. The recoveries in corn starch, noodle, and fish balls were between 93.9% and 108.4%. The relative standard deviation (RSD of precision was <4.9% (n = 3. This valid method was rapid, sensitive, precise, and suitable for routine monitoring of the illegal adulteration of SM in foods.

  8. RE/H2 Production Micro-System Based on Standard Alkaline Electrolytic Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschetto, A.; Tina, G.M.; Ferraro, M.; Briguglio, N.; Antonucci, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first task of a more comprehensive research project focused on the development of micro-scale (1-20 kW) Renewable Hydrogen (RE/H 2 ) production systems oriented to carry on a wide campaign of educational and demonstration projects. The paper proposes to rely on low-cost and rugged 'standard' alkaline electrolytic technology, well suited for decentralized hydrogen production, but requiring a certain R and D effort to get technical competitiveness. An electrolyser test facility has been designed and carried out. Then performance assessment of a commercial electrolyser and its sub-systems has been accomplished. First experimental results stated that the unit under test gets an average production efficiency of 51%, versus a stack (cell) efficiency of about 62%, while the aged AC/DC power converter, to be removed or replaced to adapt the unit to DC link with renewables, requires more than 16% of the incoming power. (authors)

  9. RE/H{sub 2} Production Micro-System Based on Standard Alkaline Electrolytic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschetto, A.; Tina, G.M. [UNICT DIEES University of Catania - Electric, Electronic and Systemcs Department, Viale A. Doria, 5 - 95125 Catania, (Italy); Ferraro, M.; Briguglio, N.; Antonucci, V. [CNR ITAE, National Council of Research - Advanced Energy Technology Institute, Via Salita S. Lucia, 5 - 98128 Messina, (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the first task of a more comprehensive research project focused on the development of micro-scale (1-20 kW) Renewable Hydrogen (RE/H{sub 2}) production systems oriented to carry on a wide campaign of educational and demonstration projects. The paper proposes to rely on low-cost and rugged 'standard' alkaline electrolytic technology, well suited for decentralized hydrogen production, but requiring a certain R and D effort to get technical competitiveness. An electrolyser test facility has been designed and carried out. Then performance assessment of a commercial electrolyser and its sub-systems has been accomplished. First experimental results stated that the unit under test gets an average production efficiency of 51%, versus a stack (cell) efficiency of about 62%, while the aged AC/DC power converter, to be removed or replaced to adapt the unit to DC link with renewables, requires more than 16% of the incoming power. (authors)

  10. A new method for alkaline dissolution of uranium metal foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Wilkinson, M.V.; Manzini, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop a production process of 99 Mo by fission of low-enriched uranium, the first purification step, which consists of dissolution of a uranium metal foil target, was studied. It was found that alkaline NaClO gave good results, reaching the dissolution of up to 300 μm of uranium foil. The different conditions for the dissolution were studied and the optimum ones were found. The influence of NaClO and NaOH concentration, temperature, dissolving solution volume per unit of surface and dissolution time were investigated. During this step, a gas identified as H 2 , was generated, and a precipitate characterized as Na 2 U 2 O 7 was observed. A stoichiometric reaction for this uranium dissolution is proposed. (author)

  11. An alkaline separation method for detection of small amount of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kazuo; Okada, Shigefumi

    1981-01-01

    An alkaline separation technique originally established by Ahnstroem is modified to detect small amount of DNA damage in X-irradiated mouse leukemic L5178Y cells. It is made quantitative by calibration with an alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. The present method would make it possible to study DNA damage and its repair within a dose range of X-rays where cell survival and mutation are usually investigated. It is also useful for detecting DNA damage caused by chemicals. (author)

  12. Determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides by a gravimetric alkaline earth addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, T.; Tagawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of a gravimetric method based on alkaline earth metal addition for the determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides of the tupe M-U-O (M=La, Ce and Th) is described. The oxide sample is mixed with MgO or Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) and heated in air under suitable conditions. Because uranium is completely oxidized to the hexavalent state during the reaction, oxygen can be determined from the weight change. Oxygen in Lasub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) is determined up to y = 0.8 with a standard deviation for x of +- 0.006 with MgO. For Thsub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) the value of x is determined with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) with a standard deviation of +- 0.01 at y = 0.8. For Cesub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x), the method can be applied only for low cerium concentrations where y = 0-0.2; the value for x with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) at y = 0.2 showed a standard deviation of +- 0.002. (Auth.)

  13. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND PEROXIDASE DETECTION IN MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felipe Nael Seixas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of strips for colorimetric detection of alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase in milk, comparing them with a kit of reagents for alkaline phosphatase and the official methodology for peroxidase. The samples were analyzed at the Laboratory Inspection of Products of Animal Origin, State University of Londrina. For the comparison tests for the detection of alkaline phosphatase four treatments were made by adding different percentages of raw milk (1%, 2%, 5% and 10% in the pasteurized milk, plus two control treatments. Thirty-eight samples triplicate for each treatment were analyzed. To compare the performance of tests for peroxidase 80 pasteurized milk samples were evaluated simultaneously by official methodology and by colorimetric strips. The performance of the alkaline phosphatase were different for the treatments with 1% and 2% of raw milk which had all the strips change color as the reagent kit showed the presence of phosphatase in just 2.63% and 5.26% the cases, respectively for each treatment. The colorimetric strips for alkaline phosphatase are more sensitive for the identification of small quantities compared to the reagent kit. The performance of tests for peroxidase showed no difference. The strips for the detection of peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase were effective and can replace traditional methods.

  14. Quantification of the histochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase activity using the indoxyl-tetranitro BT method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Jonges, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    The indoxyl-tetranitro BT method for the demonstration of alkaline phosphatase activity has been optimized and its validity for quantitative histochemistry tested. The study has been performed with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating homogenate of rat liver and with cryostat sections

  15. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  16. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  17. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  18. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  19. Development of Preparation Methods for Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Sohn, Joon Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to contribute to the environmentally friendly fuel cell system by developing a radiation grafting method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell and finally to the radiation technology industry. In this project, the preparation methods for the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films using radiation have been developed and anion exchange membranes have been prepared via the reaction between the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films and amines. The prepared anion exchange membranes were characterized and the performance of the membranes were evaluated

  20. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  1. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  2. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  3. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  4. Standard setting: Comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebode Femi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard – setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Methods The norm – reference method of standard -setting (mean minus 1 SD was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ. Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart. We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. Results The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78 and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78. The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% – 87%. The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81 – 0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59–0.74. Conclusion There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  5. Standard setting: comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Haque, M Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi

    2006-09-14

    The outcome of assessments is determined by the standard-setting method used. There is a wide range of standard-setting methods and the two used most extensively in undergraduate medical education in the UK are the norm-reference and the criterion-reference methods. The aims of the study were to compare these two standard-setting methods for a multiple-choice question examination and to estimate the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The norm-reference method of standard-setting (mean minus 1 SD) was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ). Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart). We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method. The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78) and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78). The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% - 87%). The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81-0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59-0.74. There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.

  6. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  7. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  8. Sample preparation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Santos, Mirian C.; Sousa, Rafael A. de; Cadore, Solange; Barnes, Ramon M.; Tatro, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tertiary amines and strongly alkaline reagents for sample treatment involving extraction and digestion procedures is discussed in this review. The preparation of slurries is also discussed. Based on literature data, alkaline media offer a good alternative for sample preparation involving an appreciable group of analytes in different types of samples. These reagents are also successfully employed in tailored speciation procedures wherein there is a critical dependence on maintenance of chemical forms. The effects of these reagents on measurements performed using spectroanalytical techniques are discussed. Several undesirable effects on transport and atomization processes necessitate use of the method of standard additions to obtain accurate results. It is also evident that alkaline media can improve the performance of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and accessories, such as autosamplers coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers

  9. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  10. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  11. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  12. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  13. A gravimetric method for the determination of oxygen in uranium oxides and ternary uranium oxides by addition of alkaline earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Takeo; Tagawa, Hiroaki; Adachi, Takeo; Hashitani, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    A simple gravimetric determination of oxygen in uranium oxides and ternary uranium oxides is described. In alkaline earth uranates which are formed by heating in air at 800-1100 0 C, uranium is in the hexavalent state over certain continuous ranges of alkaline earth-to-uranium ratios. Thus, if an alkaline earth uranate or a compound containing an alkaline earth element, e.g. MgO, is mixed with the oxide sample and heated in air under suitable conditions, oxygen can be determined from the weight change before and after the reaction. The standard deviation of the O:U ratio for a UOsub(2+x) test sample is +-0.0008-0.001, if a correction is applied for atmospheric moisture absorbed during mixing. (Auth.)

  14. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon; Qian Zhongji

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 μm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  15. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji, E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 {mu}m, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  16. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Gordon; Weber, Peter; Evans, Ann; Venezia, Richard

    1998-05-01

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis tubing, and each of these bags was placed inside another dialysis bag made from larger diameter dialysis tubing. Each double-bagged sample was suspended from the cover of the carcass basket of the tissue digestor so that it was completely covered by hot alkaline digestion solution during the carcass digestion process. The following organisms were required by the New York State Department of Health as representative pathogens for testing sterilization capabilities of the procedure: Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, MS-2 bacteriophage, and Giardia muris. Animal carcasses included pigs, sheep, rabbits, dogs, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. The tissue digestor was operated at 110 to 120 C and approximately 15 lb/in2 (gauge) for 18 h before the system was allowed to cool to 50 C and dialysis bags were retrieved and submitted for microbial culture. None of the samples obtained from the dialysis bags after the digestion process yielded indicator bacteria or yeast. Giardia cysts were completely destroyed; only small fragments of what appeared to be cyst wall could be recognized with light microscopic examination. No plaque-forming units were detected with MS-2 bacteriophage after digestion. Samples of the hydrolyzate also did not yield growth on culture media. Animal carcasses were completely solubilized and digested, with only the inorganic components of the bones

  17. Alkaline Peptone Water-Based Enrichment Method for mcr-3 From Acute Diarrheic Outpatient Gut Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3, is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays. Overall, 19.1% (29/152 and 5.3% (8/152 of the stool samples enriched in alkaline peptone water were PCR-positive for mcr-1 and mcr-3, respectively, while 2.7% (4/152 of samples were positive for both mcr-1 and mcr-3. Strains isolated from the samples that were both mcr-1- and mcr-3-positive were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. They were also screened for the presence of other resistance genes by PCR, while multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic environment, respectively, of the resistance genes. mcr-3-positive Aeromonas veronii strain 126-14, containing a mcr-3.8-mcr-3-like2 segment, and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli strain 126-1, belonging to sequence type 1485, were isolated from the sample from a diarrheic butcher with no history of colistin treatment. A. veronii 126-14 had a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2 µg/mL and was susceptible to antibiotics in common use, while E. coli 126-1 produced TEM-1, CTX-M-55, and CTX-M-14 β-lactamases and was resistant to colistin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime. Overall, there was a higher detection rate of mcr-3-carrying strains with low colistin MICs from the samples enriched in alkaline peptone water than from samples grown in LB broth.

  18. Validated stability-indicating methods for the determination of zafirlukast in the presence of its alkaline hydrolysis degradation product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Abou Al Alamein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three simple stability-indicating methods for the analysis of Zafirlukast (ZAF in the presence of its alkaline degradation products were developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines to evaluate the stability-indicating power of the proposed methods. The developed high-performance liquid chromatographic technique was achieved on ZORBAX–ODS (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm, i.d. by isocratic elution with a mixture of acetonitrile/0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 5.0, (50:50; v/v as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1, followed by UV detection at 240 nm. The method could determine ZAF in the range of 2–40 μg mL−1 with a mean percentage recovery of 99.73 ± 0.903. The proposed HPLC method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of alkaline degradation of ZAF. First derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD method was applied to analyze the drug under investigation without any interference from its degradation product with a linearity range of 4–32 μg mL−1 and with a mean percentage recovery of 99.85 ± 0.608. A chemometric method was also developed using the partial least squares (PLS model for selective determination of ZAF in the range of 4–40 μg mL−1, the mean percentage recovery was found to be 100.00 ± 0.336.

  19. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  20. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L.

    1996-06-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed

  1. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  2. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  3. Smart Methods for Linezolid Determination in the Presence of Alkaline and Oxidative Degradation Products Utilizing Their Overlapped Spectral Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Monem Hegazy, M.; Shaaban Eissa, M.; Abd El-Sattar, O. I.; Abd El-Kawy, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Linezolid (LIN) is considered the first available oxazolidinone antibacterial agent. It is susceptible to hydrolysis and oxidation. Five simple, accurate, sensitive and validated UV spectrophotometric methods were developed for LIN determination in the presence of its alkaline (ALK) and oxidative (OXD) degradation products in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A is a second derivative one (D2) in which LIN is determined at 240.9 nm. Method B is a pH-induced differential derivative one where LIN is determined using the fourth derivative (D4) of the difference spectra (ΔA) at 285.3 nm. Methods C, D, and E are manipulating ratio spectra, where C is the double divisor-ratio difference spectrophotometric one (DD-RD) in which LIN was determined by calculating the amplitude difference at 243.7 and 267.6 nm of the ratio spectra. Method D is the double divisor-first derivative of ratio spectra (DD-DD1) in which LIN was determined at 270.2 nm. Method E is a mean centering of ratio spectra one (MCR) in which LIN was determined at 318.0 nm. The developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines. The results were statistically compared to that of a reported HPLC method and there was no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  4. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  5. Comparison of alkaline fusion and acid digestion methods for the determination of rhenium in rock and soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Tabei, Ken

    2005-01-01

    A simple acid digestion method was studied in order to analyze many samples at once to understand Re behavior in the terrestrial environment, because, under normal laboratory conditions, digestion methods generally used, such as Carius tube digestions, Teflon vessel digestions and alkaline fusions, can handle only a small number of samples at one time to ensure complete sample digestion. In this study, the Re results for reference materials (RMs) obtained by the acid digestion method were compared with those by the alkaline fusion digestion method to get applicability of the acid digestion method for Re determination in soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Alkaline fusion was chosen for the comparison because it is known to have the highest capability to dissolve Re in geological materials among digestion methods. The average total Re recoveries measured using the 185 Re spike for RMs, such as rock, soil and sediment, were 90.6 ± 4.0% for alkaline fusion and 92.2 ± 7.3% for acid digestion, showing no differences between them. However, Re results obtained by the acid digestion method were usually slightly lower than those by the alkaline fusion (Student's t-test, P -1 , the acid digestion method could dissolve about 80% of the sample Re. Although the acid digestion method is unable to dissolve all Re in the sample, however, the Re discharged to soils could be more extractable than the Re in the dissolution-resistant part; thus, the acid digestion method could be useful for obtaining Re levels in soil samples

  6. Standardization of methods of maxillofacial roentgenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabukhina, N.A.; Arzhantsev, A.P.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Tombak, M.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1989-01-01

    Typical errors in teeth roentgenography reproduced in experiment, indicate that considerable disproportional distortions of images of anatomical structures which are decisive for radiodiagnosis, may occur in these cases. Standardization of intraoral roentgenography is based on a strict position of the patient's head, angle of inclination and alignment of a tube. Specialized R3-1 film should be used

  7. Antibody reactions methods in safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Sirasdinov, V.G.; Zasedatelev, A.A.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of determinations are presented of autoantibodies in white rats to which the radionuclides 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 90 Sr that show different distribution patterns in the body, have been administered chronically. Autoantiboby production is found to increase when the absorbed doses are close to or exceeding seven- to tenfold the maximum permissible values. The results obtained point to the desirability of autoantibody determination in studies aimed at setting hygienic standards for the absorption of radioactive substances

  8. Micro-Droplet Detection Method for Measuring the Concentration of Alkaline Phosphatase-Labeled Nanoparticles in Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed and evaluated a quantitative image analysis method to measure the concentration of the nanoparticles on which alkaline phosphatase (AP was immobilized. These AP-labeled nanoparticles are widely used as signal markers for tagging biomolecules at nanometer and sub-nanometer scales. The AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration measurement can then be directly used to quantitatively analyze the biomolecular concentration. Micro-droplets are mono-dispersed micro-reactors that can be used to encapsulate and detect AP-labeled nanoparticles. Micro-droplets include both empty micro-droplets and fluorescent micro-droplets, while fluorescent micro-droplets are generated from the fluorescence reaction between the APs adhering to a single nanoparticle and corresponding fluorogenic substrates within droplets. By detecting micro-droplets and calculating the proportion of fluorescent micro-droplets to the overall micro-droplets, we can calculate the AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration. The proposed micro-droplet detection method includes the following steps: (1 Gaussian filtering to remove the noise of overall fluorescent targets, (2 a contrast-limited, adaptive histogram equalization processing to enhance the contrast of weakly luminescent micro-droplets, (3 an red maximizing inter-class variance thresholding method (OTSU to segment the enhanced image for getting the binary map of the overall micro-droplets, (4 a circular Hough transform (CHT method to detect overall micro-droplets and (5 an intensity-mean-based thresholding segmentation method to extract the fluorescent micro-droplets. The experimental results of fluorescent micro-droplet images show that the average accuracy of our micro-droplet detection method is 0.9586; the average true positive rate is 0.9502; and the average false positive rate is 0.0073. The detection method can be successfully applied to measure AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration in fluorescence microscopy.

  9. Micro-Droplet Detection Method for Measuring the Concentration of Alkaline Phosphatase-Labeled Nanoparticles in Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Wang, Yibei; Xu, Hong; Fei, Baowei; Qin, Binjie

    2017-11-21

    This paper developed and evaluated a quantitative image analysis method to measure the concentration of the nanoparticles on which alkaline phosphatase (AP) was immobilized. These AP-labeled nanoparticles are widely used as signal markers for tagging biomolecules at nanometer and sub-nanometer scales. The AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration measurement can then be directly used to quantitatively analyze the biomolecular concentration. Micro-droplets are mono-dispersed micro-reactors that can be used to encapsulate and detect AP-labeled nanoparticles. Micro-droplets include both empty micro-droplets and fluorescent micro-droplets, while fluorescent micro-droplets are generated from the fluorescence reaction between the APs adhering to a single nanoparticle and corresponding fluorogenic substrates within droplets. By detecting micro-droplets and calculating the proportion of fluorescent micro-droplets to the overall micro-droplets, we can calculate the AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration. The proposed micro-droplet detection method includes the following steps: (1) Gaussian filtering to remove the noise of overall fluorescent targets, (2) a contrast-limited, adaptive histogram equalization processing to enhance the contrast of weakly luminescent micro-droplets, (3) an red maximizing inter-class variance thresholding method (OTSU) to segment the enhanced image for getting the binary map of the overall micro-droplets, (4) a circular Hough transform (CHT) method to detect overall micro-droplets and (5) an intensity-mean-based thresholding segmentation method to extract the fluorescent micro-droplets. The experimental results of fluorescent micro-droplet images show that the average accuracy of our micro-droplet detection method is 0.9586; the average true positive rate is 0.9502; and the average false positive rate is 0.0073. The detection method can be successfully applied to measure AP-labeled nanoparticle concentration in fluorescence microscopy.

  10. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing an...

  11. Selection of the treatment method for the West Valley alkaline supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Leonard, I.M.

    1987-02-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), th PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8d-2 will be partially decontaminated before encapsulation in the final glass form. This report discusses selection of a method for removing Cs-137, the major radioactive ion in the supernatant. Methods considered were: (1) electrodialysis; (2) hyperfiltration; (3) precipitation with ferrocyanide, NaTPB, or PTA; (4) organic ion exchange using Cs-100 or a biologically derived media; (5) chelation using DeVoe/Holbein compostions; and (6) inorganic ion exchange using Durasil, natural zeolities, IE-95 or IE-96 media. Several different methods of using inorganic ion exchange media were also reviewed including (1) four columns with elution, and (2) two, three, or four columns without elution. After the careful evaluation of experimental data with all process constraints taken into account, the inorganic exchange media IE-96 (Linde Ionsiv IE-96 synthetic zeolite) was chosen for WVDP cesium recovery. IE-96 was chosen for the following reasons: high sorption rate, a decontamination factor (DF) over 1000, excellent exchange capacity at WVDP conditions, compatability with the glass formers used for borosilicate glass in direct melter feed applications, and a history of successful application in radio chemical seperation for waste streams. 34 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs

  12. Standardized Methods for Detection of Poliovirus Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.

  13. Alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis: Effects of electrolyte feed method and electrode binder content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyung; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Lim, Ahyoun; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Jang, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we investigate the effects of catholyte feed method and anode binder content on the characteristics of anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE) to construct a high-performance electrolyzer, revealing that the initial AEMWE performance is significantly improved by pre-feeding 0.5 M aqueous KOH to the cathode. The highest long-term activity during repeated voltage cycling is observed for AEMWE operation in the dry cathode mode, for which the best long-term performance among membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) featuring polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder-impregnated (5-20 wt%) anodes is detected for a PTFE content of 20 wt%. MEAs with low PTFE content (5 and 9 wt%) demonstrate high initial performance, rapid performance decay, and significant catalyst loss from the electrode during long-term operation, whereas the MEA with 20 wt% PTFE allows stable water electrolysis for over 1600 voltage cycles. Optimization of cell operating conditions (i.e., operation in dry cathode mode at an optimum anode binder content following an initial solution feed) achieves an enhanced water splitting current density (1.07 A cm-2 at 1.8 V) and stable long-term AEMWE performance (0.01% current density reduction per voltage cycle).

  14. Método fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina para el diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencias celulares Alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method for the diagnosis of cell immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta B Socarrás Ferrer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de 25 pacientes con infecciones recurrentes y un grupo control de 25 individuos supuestamente sanos, se aplicó, en nuestro laboratorio, el método inmunocitoquímico de fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina, para la cuantificación de las principales subpoblaciones de linfocitos T identificados con los anticuerpos monoclonales: anti-CD3, anti-CD4 y anti-CD8. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas para las subpoblaciones TCD3 y CD4 positivos (p For the study of 25 patients with recurrent infections and a control group of 25 supposedly healthy individuals, our Laboratory applied the immunocytochemical method of alkaline phosphatase - anti-alkaline phosphatase for the quantitation of the main T-lymphocyte subgroups identified with monoclonal antibodies:antiCD3, anti-CD4 and anti-CD8. There were significant differences in positive TCD3 and CD4 subsets (p<0,05. Because this is a low cost and quick method, it may be applied by other immunodiagnosis labs throughout the country

  15. Standardization of 57Co using different methods of LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T.; Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Tauhata, L.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of a 57 Co solution was determined using four LNMRI different measurement methods. The solution was standardized by live-timed anti-coincidence method and sum-peak method. The efficiency curve and standard-sample comparison methods were also used in this comparison. The results and their measurement uncertainties demonstrating the equivalence of these methods. As an additional contribution, the gamma emission probabilities of 57 Co were also determined. (author)

  16. Standard methods for analysis of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are described for the determination of the radiochemical purity and the absolute disintegration rate of 32 P radioisotope preparations. The 32 P activity is determined by β counting, and other low-energy β radioactive contaminants are determined by aluminum-absorption curve data. Any γ-radioactive contaminants are determined by γ counting. Routine chemical testing is used to establish the chemical characteristics. The presence or absence of heavy metals is established by spot tests; free acid is determined by use of a pH meter; total solids are determined gravimetrically by evaporation and ignition at a temperature sufficient to evaporate the mineral acids, HCl and HNO 3 ; and nonvolatile matter, defined as that material which does not evaporate or ignite at a temperature sufficient to convert C to CO or CO 2 , is determined gravimetrically after such ignition

  17. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  18. Standard methods for sampling North American freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This important reference book provides standard sampling methods recommended by the American Fisheries Society for assessing and monitoring freshwater fish populations in North America. Methods apply to ponds, reservoirs, natural lakes, and streams and rivers containing cold and warmwater fishes. Range-wide and eco-regional averages for indices of abundance, population structure, and condition for individual species are supplied to facilitate comparisons of standard data among populations. Provides information on converting nonstandard to standard data, statistical and database procedures for analyzing and storing standard data, and methods to prevent transfer of invasive species while sampling.

  19. Luminescence investigation of R{sup 3+}-doped alkaline earth tungstates prepared by a soft chemistry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Helliomar P. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kai, Jiang [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Química, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (Brazil); Silva, Ivan G.N.; Rodrigues, Lucas C.V. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felinto, Maria C.F.C. [Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hölsä, Jorma [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, University of Turku,FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland); Malta, Oscar L. [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highly luminescent rare earth (R{sup 3+}) doped alkaline-earth tungstates MWO{sub 4}:R{sup 3+} (M{sup 2+}: Ca, Sr and Ba, R{sup 3+}: Eu, Tb, Gd) were prepared with a room temperature coprecipitation method. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), thermal analysis (TG), infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV excited photoluminescence. The as-prepared MWO{sub 4}:R{sup 3+} particles belong to the tetragonal scheelite phase, and are well crystallized and are of the average size of 16–48 nm. The excitation and emission spectra of the materials were recorded at 300 and 77 K temperatures. The luminescent materials exhibit intense red (Eu{sup 3+}) and green (Tb{sup 3+}) colors under UV excitation. The excitation spectra of the Eu{sup 3+} doped materials show broad bands arising from the ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions (O{sup 2−}→W{sup VI} and O{sup 2−}→Eu{sup 3+}) as well as narrow bands from 4f–4f intraconfigurational transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. 4f–4f emission data of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in the MWO{sub 4} host matrices as well as the values of emission quantum efficiencies of the {sup 5}D{sub 0} level and the 4f–4f experimental intensity parameters of Eu{sup 3+} ion are presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Highly red Europium and green Terbium doped tungstate under UV excitation. • Efficient energy transfer process from tungstate to R{sup 3+} ion. • Promising candidates for a red (Eu{sup 3+}) and green (Tb{sup 3+}) emitting phosphors. • Ligand Metal charge transfer to R{sup 3+} ion. • Charge compensation with Na{sup +}.

  20. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  1. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzorova, Natalie I.; Seitkalieva, Alexandra V.; Rasskazov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  2. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  3. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  5. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  6. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: opportunities for international collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, T. Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D.S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by...

  7. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Témoin-Fardini, S; Servant, J; Sellam, S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test method to evaluate the preservation efficacy for a specific product, a very high-alkaline liquid soap (pH around 10) made by a saponification process. Several manufacturers have experienced contamination issues with these high-pH soaps despite passing a classic preservative efficacy challenge test or even a multi-inoculation challenge test. Bacteria were isolated from contaminated soaps and were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High-alkaline-pH unpreserved soaps were tested using the Thor Personal Care internal multichallenge test method (TM206) with classical microorganisms and then with the bacterial strains isolated from various contaminated soaps (TM768). Preservatives were added to these soaps and assessed for their efficacy using the newly developed test. Four different species of bacteria (Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, Dermacoccus sp., Halomonas sp. and Roseomonas sp.) were identified by sequencing among the contaminants of the various soaps tested. Among these, only one bacterial species, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, appeared to be responsible for the specific contamination of these high-alkaline soaps. Thus, one specific wild-type strain of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, named as strain 768, was used in a new multi-inoculation test (TM768). Unlike the single inoculation challenge test, the multi-inoculation test using the Nesterenkonia strain 768 was able to predict the sensitivity of a product towards this bacterium. Among the 27 different preservatives tested, 10 were able to protect the formula against contamination with this bacterium. This study enabled the development of a test method to evaluate the efficacy of preservation using a specific bacterium, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, responsible for the contamination of very alkaline soaps made by saponification and identify an appropriate preservative system. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Determination of trace elements in standard reference materials by the ko-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Stegnar, P.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    The k o -standardization method is suitable for routine multielement determinations by reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA). Investigation of NIST standard reference materials SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, SRM 1572 Citrus leaves, and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves showed the systematic error of 12 certified elements determined to be less than 8%. Thirty-four elements were determined in NIST proposed SRM 1515 Apple Leaves

  9. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  11. Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2444 by Ca-alginate entrapment method for enhanced alkaline protease production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Mrudula

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of culture conditions and immobilization parameters for alkaline protease production was carried out by employing Bacillus megaterium MTCC2444. The partially purified enzyme was tested for its stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents. The optimum temperature, pH, incubation time and inoculum size were 55 ºC, 11, 48 h, 1 %, respectively. Calcium alginate was used as the immobilization matrix and the effects of gel concentration, bead size, age of immobilized cells, solidification period and initial biomass concentration on alkaline protease production and cell leakage were investigated. The results indicated that the immobilization was most effective with 4 % gel concentration, bead size of 3 mm, 24 h aged immobilized cells for a solidification period of 12 h at 1.5 % initial biomass concentration. The enzyme showed good stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents.

  12. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  13. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  14. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

  15. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  16. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  17. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  18. Toward a standard method for determination of waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitz, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the USEPA specifies the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for any contaminant, a standard method for analysis must be simultaneously stipulated. Promulgation of the proposed MCL and standard method for radon in drinking water is expected by early next year, but a six-month comment period and revision will precede final enactment. The standard method for radon in drinking water will probably specify that either the Lucas cell technique or liquid scintillation spectrometry be used. This paper reports results which support a standard method with the following features: samples should be collected by an explicitly stated technique to control degassing, in glass vials with or without scintillation cocktail, and possibly in duplicate; samples should be measured by liquid scintillation spectroscopy in a specified energy window', in a glass vial with particular types of cocktails; radium standards should be prepared with controlled quench levels and specified levels of carriers, but radium-free controls prepared by a specified method should be used in interlaboratory comparison studies

  19. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Statistical benchmarking in utility regulation: Role, standards and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton Lowry, Mark; Getachew, Lullit

    2009-01-01

    Statistical benchmarking is being used with increasing frequency around the world in utility rate regulation. We discuss how and where benchmarking is in use for this purpose and the pros and cons of regulatory benchmarking. We then discuss alternative performance standards and benchmarking methods in regulatory applications. We use these to propose guidelines for the appropriate use of benchmarking in the rate setting process. The standards, which we term the competitive market and frontier paradigms, have a bearing on method selection. These along with regulatory experience suggest that benchmarking can either be used for prudence review in regulation or to establish rates or rate setting mechanisms directly

  2. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkaline storage battery its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu aruakri chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, it is proposed to employ the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means of rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. So that the utilization of the hydrogen storage alloy is limited. This invention solves the problem. The rare earth-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 20 micrometers on open surface side. The above said alloy is ground to average particle size of 25 - 70 micrometers to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode of metal hydride alkaline storage battery and its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, a proposal was made of employing the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means f rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. This invention solves the problem. The Mm{center_dot}Ni{center_dot}Co{center_dot}Al{center_dot}Mn alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 18 micrometers on open surface side. The alloy is ground to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. The general formula of this alloy is MmR(x) (Mm = mischmetal, R = Ni, Co, Al, Mn). In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  5. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  6. Standardization of Tc-99 by three liquid scintillation counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyngaardt, W.M. van; Staden, M.J. van; Lubbe, J.; Simpson, B.R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The NMISA participated in the international key comparison of the pure beta-emitter Technetium-99, CCRI(II)-K2.Tc-99. The comparison solution was standardized using three methods, namely the TDCR efficiency calculation method, the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method and the 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing method with Co-60 as tracer. Excellent agreement between results obtained with the three methods confirmed the applicability of the beta spectral shape given by the latest (2011) DDEP evaluation of Tc-99 decay data, rather than the earlier (2004) evaluation. - Highlights: • Activity concentration of Tc-99 solution measured using three LSC methods. • Methods used are TDCR, CNET and 4π(LS)β–γ coincidence tracing. • Beta spectral shape confirmed by agreement between three methods

  7. Robust steganographic method utilizing properties of MJPEG compression standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Oravec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents design of steganographic method, which uses video container as cover data. Video track was recorded by webcam and was further encoded by compression standard MJPEG. Proposed method also takes in account effects of lossy compression. The embedding process is realized by switching places of transform coefficients, which are computed by Discrete Cosine Transform. The article contains possibilities, used techniques, advantages and drawbacks of chosen solution. The results are presented at the end of the article.

  8. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  9. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Evaluating the Capacity of Standard Investment Appraisal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe survey findings indicate the existence of gap between theory and practice of capital budgeting. Standard appraisal methods have shown a wider project value discrepancy, which is beyond and above the contingency limit. In addition, the research has found the growing trend in the use

  11. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  12. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  13. Measurement of pH, alkalinity and acidity in ultra-soft waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... A blend composed of the raw water, sodium chloride (to increase conductivity), and standard bicarbonate (to increase buffering capacity) was titrated with standard strong acid in two pH regions: 6.3 pH < 4.0. In both methods, total alkalinity was determined using the latter set of points, ...

  14. Catalytic Activity of Urchin-like Ni nanoparticles Prepared by Solvothermal Method for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Syed Asad; Iqbal, Muhammad Ibrahim; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jung, Kwang-Deog

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Urchin-like Ni is prepared in solvothermal reaction. • Urchin-like Ni is formed via Ni(OH) 2 aggregates in ethanol and oleylamine. • Exchange current density of urchin-like Ni is 0.191 mA cm −2 . • Urchin-like Ni exceeds the catalytic performance of commercial Pt/C in HER. - Abstract: Ni nanoparticles with different morphologies were synthesized for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. Here, Ni(acac) 2 was converted into Ni metal nanoparticles in solvothermal reactions with simple alcohols and oleylamine (OAm). The morphology of the resulting Ni nanoparticles was dependent mainly on the OAm/Ni molar ratio in alcohol solvent. Aggregates of spherical Ni nanoparticles (NiEt-OAm1) were observed at the OAm/Ni molar ratio of 1.0, whereas two echinoid Ni nanoparticles (NiEt-OAm4 and NiEt-OAm6) could be prepared in ethanol at the OAm/Ni molar ratios of 4.0 and 6.0. Ni(OH) 2 formed in ethanol during a reaction time of 5 h was then reduced into echinoid Ni nanoparticles after 8 h. Echinoid Ni nanoparticles were formed by atomic addition on the tops of the multipod Ni particles formed via Ni(OH) 2 /NiO aggregates. Webbed feet-like particles (NiIPA-OAm4) with plate edges were also observed in isopropanol under the same reaction conditions. The catalytic activities of the prepared Ni nanoparticles for the hydrogen evolution reaction were evaluated in alkaline solution. The NiEt-OAm4 with urchin-like morphology was much more active than the NiIPA-OAm4 with webbed feet-like morphology. The exchange current density of Ni catalysts was increased with increasing the OAm/Ni molar ratio. The NiEt-OAm6 exhibited an exchange current of 0.191 mA cm −2 and the NiEt-OAm4 exceeded electrocatalytic performance of a commercial Pt catalysts (40% Pt on Vulcan XC 72) in a stability test for 100 kiloseconds at −1.5 V (vs. Hg/HgO) in 1.0 M NaOH due to its high stability.

  15. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  16. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  17. Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (tailings in the batch system only As dramatically exceeded the limit values at L/S 10 L/kg. The leaching results showed similar patterns to the batch results, though leached Cr, Cu, and Zn showed higher levels in the column tests than in the batch tests. However, when the columns were compared with the batches, the trend for Cu was opposite for the unamended tailings. By contrast, both batch and column results showed that the amendment caused mobilization of As compared with the unamended tailings in the ash-amended tailings. The amount of As released was greatest in the ash column and decreased from the dregs to the lime columns. The leaching of As at high levels can be a potential problem whenever alkaline materials (especially for fly ash) are used as sealing materials over tailings. The column test was considered by the authors to be a more informative method in remediation of the aged tailings with low sulfur content, since it mimics better actual situation in a field.

  18. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E.

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 x 10 -3 M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) x 10 -4 M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH) 3 , Fe(OH) 3 , Cr(OH) 3 , and Mn(OH) 2 obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400

  19. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  20. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  1. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  2. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  3. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  4. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  5. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

  6. Standardization method for alpha and beta surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahagia, M; Grigorescu, E L; Razdolescu, A C; Ivan, C [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest, (Romania)

    1994-01-01

    The installation and method of standardization of large surface alpha and beta sources are presented. A multiwire, flow-type proportional counter and the associated electronics is used. The counter is placed in a lead-shield. The response of the system in (s[sup -1]/Bq) or (s[sup -1]/(particle x s[sup -1])) was determined for [sup 241] Am, [sup 239] Pu, [sup 147] Pm, [sup 204] Tl, [sup 90](Sr+Y) and [sup 137] Cs using standard sources with different dimensions, from some mm[sup 2] to 180 x 220 mm[sup 2]. The system was legally attested for expanded uncertainties of +7%. (Author).

  7. Standard CMMIsm Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPIsm), Version 1.1: Method Definition Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI(Service Mark)) is designed to provide benchmark quality ratings relative to Capability Maturity Model(registered) Integration (CMMI(Service Mark)) models...

  8. Cutibacterium acnes molecular typing: time to standardize the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, M-A; Khammari, A; Dréno, B; Corvec, S

    2018-03-12

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic/aerotolerant bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a commensal of healthy human skin; it is subdivided into six main phylogenetic groups or phylotypes: IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III. To decipher how far specific subgroups of C. acnes are involved in disease physiopathology, different molecular typing methods have been developed to identify these subgroups: i.e. phylotypes, clonal complexes, and types defined by single-locus sequence typing (SLST). However, as several molecular typing methods have been developed over the last decade, it has become a difficult task to compare the results from one article to another. Based on the scientific literature, the aim of this narrative review is to propose a standardized method to perform molecular typing of C. acnes, according to the degree of resolution needed (phylotypes, clonal complexes, or SLST types). We discuss the existing different typing methods from a critical point of view, emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks, and we identify the most frequently used methods. We propose a consensus algorithm according to the needed phylogeny resolution level. We first propose to use multiplex PCR for phylotype identification, MLST9 for clonal complex determination, and SLST for phylogeny investigation including numerous isolates. There is an obvious need to create a consensus about molecular typing methods for C. acnes. This standardization will facilitate the comparison of results between one article and another, and also the interpretation of clinical data. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  10. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  11. Standardization of 18F by coincidence and LSC methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roteta, Miguel; Garcia-Torano, Eduardo; Rodriguez Barquero, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The nuclide 18 F disintegrates to 18 O by β + emission (96.86%) and electron capture (3.14%) with a half-life of 1.8288 h. It is widely used in nuclear medicine for positron emission tomography (PET). A radioactive solution of this nuclide has been standardized by two techniques: coincidence measurements with a pressurized proportional counter and liquid scintillation counting using the CIEMAT/NIST method. One ampoule containing a solution calibrated in activity was sent for measurement at the International Reference System maintained by the BIPM. Results are in excellent agreement with SIR values

  12. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  14. Study by acoustic emission and electrochemical methods of the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) in neutral and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouli, B.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study and characterize, by electrochemical methods and acoustic emission, the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) having a metallographic structure αβ'. The electrochemical measurements, in neutral, chlorinated or alkaline medium have allowed, to study the corrosion resistance of the copper-zinc and to show that the corrosion of this alloy, in the used media, is determined by a diffusional mechanism. The observations to the optical and scanning electron microscopes and the EDX analyzes have confirmed that this corrosion phenomenon is mainly due to the selective dissolution of the β' phase. The acoustic emission has shown, during this corrosion, the presence of two emissive sources whose initiation has been attributed to the relaxation of the micro- and macro- residual stresses of the α phase. These stresses have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and the salvoes emitted during the relaxation of these stresses have been discriminated by the characteristic frequencies and by the barycenter of their spectral density. The protection of this alloy has been carried out by the 2-mercapto-benzimidazole (MBI). This last compound has been tested both as inhibitor added directly in the corrosive medium and/or as polymer film previously deposited by an electrochemical way (p-MBI). The MBI is very efficient for an inhibition in a chlorinated alkaline medium. It is an interphase inhibitor. The p-MBI is efficient too in a neutral chlorinated medium and is moreover non pollutant for the environment. (O.M.)

  15. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  16. 41Ca standardization by the CIEMAT/NIST LSC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for the liquid scintillation counting standardization of the electron-capture nuclide 41 Ca has been successfully developed and applied with 41 CaCl 2 and 41 Ca-(HDEHP) n samples synthesized in the laboratory from 41 CaCO 3 supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Six scintillators were tested: the organic samples were stable in toluene-alcohol, Ultima-Gold TM and HiSafe III TM for 30 d, whereas the inorganic samples were only stable in toluene-alcohol and HiSafe III TM for the same period of time. Despite of the low counting efficiencies (1%-13%) due to the very low-energy of less than 3.6 keV of the X-rays and Auger electrons of 41 Ca, the stable samples were standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method to a combined uncertainty of 2.4% over a range of figures of merit of 1.75 to 7.25 ( 3 H equivalent efficiency of 40% to 7%). (orig.)

  17. Controlled synthesis of La1−xSrxCrO3 nanoparticles by hydrothermal method with nonionic surfactant and their ORR activity in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Hyun; Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Bong Kyu; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We demonstrate that Sr-doped LaCrO 3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and the applicability of La 1−x Sr x CrO 3 to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed enhanced ORR activity. - Highlights: • Sr-doped LaCrO 3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the nonionic surfactant. • Homogeneously shaped and sized Sr-doped LaCrO 3 nanoparticles were readily obtained. • Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed an enhanced ORR activity. • The main origin was revealed to be the decreased particle size due to the nonionic surfactant. - Abstract: Sr-doped LaCrO 3 nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrothermal method with the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 followed by heat treatment at 1000 °C for 10 h. The obtained perovskite nanoparticles had smaller particle size (about 100 nm) and more uniform size distribution than those synthesized by the conventional coprecipitation method. On the other hand, it was identified with the material simulation that the electronic structure change by Sr doping was negligible, because the initially unfilled e g -band was not affected by the p-type doping. Finally, the perovskite nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method showed much higher ORR activity by over 200% at 0.8 V vs. RHE than those by coprecipitation method

  18. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  19. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either .sup.1 H, .sup.13 C, .sup.15 N, or .sup.29 Si may be used as a reference.

  1. A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine in tablet and biological fluid using the reaction of luminol-Ag(III) complex in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hanwen, E-mail: hanwen@hbu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ting; Liu, Xuyang; Chen, Peiyun [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2013-02-15

    A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is developed. The mechanism of the CL reaction between Ag(III) complex {l_brace}[Ag(HIO{sub 6}){sub 2}]{sup 5-}{r_brace} and luminol in alkaline solution was proposed, along with the inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission. The inhibition degree of CL emission was proportional to the logarithm of 6-MP concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and inhibition were examined. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit (s/n=3) was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. The recoveries of 6-MP were in the range of 97.7-105% with the RSD of 2.1-3.4% (n=5) for tablet samples, 103-106% with the RSDs of 1.1-2.1% for spiked serum sample, and 97.2-101% with the RSD of 2.0-4.5% for spiked urine sample. The accuracy of this method for the tablet analysis was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method. The proposed method was used for the determination of 6-MP at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-MP is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accuracy was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method.

  2. Exploitation of phosphorescent labelling reagent of fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate and new method for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase as well as forecast of human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiaming; Huang Xiaomei; Liu Zhenbo; Lin Shaoqin; Li Feiming; Gao Fei; Li Zhiming; Zeng Liqing; Li Lianying; Ouyang Ying

    2009-01-01

    A new phosphorescent labelling reagent consisting of fullerol, fluorescein isothiocyanate and N,N-dimethylaniline (F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA) was developed. The mode of action is based on the reactivity of the active -OH group in F-ol with the -COOH group of FITC to form an F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA complex containing several FITC molecules. F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target of WGA-AP-WGA-F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA (WGA and AP are wheat germ agglutinin and alkaline phosphatase, respectively) which improved the sensitivity using solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) detection. The proposed method provided high sensitivity and strong specificity for WGA-AP. The limit of detection (LD) was 0.15 ag AP spot -1 for F-ol and 0.097 ag AP spot -1 for FITC in F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA, which was lower than the method using single luminescent molecules of F-ol-DMA and FITC-DMA to label WGA (0.20 ag AP spot -1 for F-ol-DMA and 0.22 ag AP spot -1 for FITC-DMA). Results for the determination of AP in human serum were in good agreement with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism of F-ol-(FITC) n -DMA labelling of WGA was discussed.

  3. Influence of initial temperature and heating method in the temperature profile during alkaline dissolution of Al for the production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda C.; Mindrisz, Ana C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O., E-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, E-mail: cruzaraujo22@gmail.com, E-mail: acmindri@ipen.br, E-mail: cforbici@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in nuclear medicine can be used for diagnosis and therapy. The {sup 99m}Tc, son of {sup 99}Mo, is most often used in nuclear medicine as tracer element because of its favorable nuclear properties, accounting for about 80% of all diagnostic procedures in vivo. Aiming to resolve the dependency of Brazil with respect to the supply of {sup 99}Mo was created the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor project (BMR), started in 2008, having as main objective to produce about 1000 Ci/week of {sup 99}Mo. This study is part of the project to obtain {sup 9}'9Mo by alkaline dissolution of UAl{sub x}-Al targets. The initial reaction temperature is an important parameter, since it has great influence on the value of the maximum temperature and dissolution time. According to literature, for security reasons the dissolution process must have its temperature controlled so that the maximum temperature has to be around 90 deg C. The behavior of the temperature during dissolution using three different methods of heating in order to minimize the fluctuation of temperature during dissolution, keeping its maximum value at around 90 deg C was studied. The three methods of heating chosen were: a) initial temperature of 85 deg C with continuous heating, b) heating water bath until it reaches the initial temperature (70 to 95 deg C), turning off after that, and c) external heating until it reached the starting temperature (60-95 deg C). The alkaline solution used was 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH{sub 3} and 2 mol.L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}. In the first study it was observed that after 1 minute of dissolution the solution temperature reached 100 deg C on average, up to a maximum of 109 deg C, ending with values around 95 deg C. In the second study after 3 minutes of dissolution the maximum temperature was 106 deg C and the minimum 100 deg C. In the third study the temperature rise during dissolution increased with increasing initial temperature which practically remains constant until the end

  4. Reducing matrix effect error in EDXRF: Comparative study of using standard and standard less methods for stainless steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muhammad; Wilfred, P.

    2013-01-01

    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arise from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standard less methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austenitic, ferritic and high speed. The standard less method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further improvement on the accuracy of the standard less method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standard less method for Mn. (Author)

  5. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  6. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    . Furthermore, the durability of the silicon carbide is reduced already by small amount of alkaline components in the flue gas. This report is an effort to identify areas for continued research activities. The work is primarily based on conclusions drawn from published articles. The areas in which further studied are most needed are: description of the corroding environment, studies of the mechanism of corrosion and evaluation and development of bonding systems or sintering methods. Two categories of material which can be of special interest due to the inertness of the crystals are different types of mullite and spinel.

  7. A Method for Developing Standard Patient Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Pape-Haugaard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    In Denmark, patients being treated on Haematology Outpatients Departments get instructed to self-manage their blood sample collection from Central Venous Catheter (CVC). However, this is a complex and risky procedure, which can jeopardize patient safety. The aim of the study was to suggest a method for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection procedure by using videos for teaching as well as procedural support. A step-by-step guide was developed and used as basis for making the videos. Quality assurance through evaluation with a nurse was conducted on both the step-by-step guide and the videos. The quality assurance evaluation of the videos showed; 1) Errors due to the order of the procedure can be determined by reviewing the videos despite that the guide was followed. 2) Videos can be used to identify errors - important for patient safety - in the procedure, which are not identifiable in a written script. To ensure correct clinical content of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase.

  8. Analysis of alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells performance at different operating conditions using DC and AC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana; Odgaard, Madeleine; Schlueter, Debbie; Serov, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) were manufactured from commercial materials: Pt/C catalyst, A201 AEM and AS4 ionomer by using an industrial mass-production digital printing method. The MEA designs selected are close to those recommended by US Department of Energy, including low loading of platinum on the cathode side (0.2 mg cm-2). Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied for MEA evaluation in fuel cell conditions with variation of gas humidification and oxygen partial pressure (air vs oxygen). The typical impedance curves recorded at H2/O2 gas configuration consist of high- and medium-frequency arcs responsible for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction, respectively. Operation with air as a cathode feed gas resulted in a decrease in AEMFC performance due to possible CO2 poisoning and mass transfer losses. At the same time, EIS demonstrated formation of a low frequency loop due to diffusion limitations. Despite the low loading of platinum on the cathode (0.2 mg cm-2), a peak power density of ∼330 mW cm-2 was achieved (at 50/50% of RH on anode and cathode), which is substantially higher performance than for AEMFC MEAs tested at similar conditions.

  9. An electrochemical method to prepare of Pd/Cu2O/MWCNT nanostructure as an anode electrocatalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Hussein; Rostami, Abbas Ali; Omrani, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    This study reports an electrochemical method to fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) promoted with cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT). First, Cu 2 O is electrodeposited on treated MWCNTs in the optimum deposition conditions. Then, the Pd nanostructure is electrochemically fabricated on Cu 2 O/MWCNT electrode by cycling the potential between +0.5 to −1.0 V in negative direction. The prepared electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic performance of Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is investigated by cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The formation of the Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT is confirmed by EDX and XRD techniques. The onset potential of Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT shifts to negative values by 120 mV compared to the onset potential of Pd/MWCNT. Much higher I f /I b value is obtained for Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT compared to other Pd-based catalysts indicating Cu 2 O could significantly enhance the stability and CO poisoning tolerance of the Pd towards ethanol electrooxidation. The results revealed that the prepared Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT catalyst can be a promising anode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells.

  10. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  11. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  13. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  14. Standardization of metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin to skeletal striated muscle of mules and donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora H.F. D'Angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at standardizing the pre-incubation and incubation pH and temperature used in the metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin (mATPase used for asses and mules. Twenty four donkeys and 10 mules, seven females and three males, were used in the study. From each animal, fragments from the Gluteus medius muscle were collected and percutaneous muscle biopsy was performed using a 6.0-mm Bergström-type needle. In addition to the metachromatic staining method of mATPase, the technique of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR was also performed to confirm the histochemical data. The histochemical result of mATPase for acidic pre-incubation (pH=4.50 and alkaline incubation (pH=10.50, at a temperature of 37ºC, yielded the best differentiation of fibers stained with toluidine blue. Muscle fibers were identified according to the following colors: type I (oxidative, light blue, type IIA (oxidative-glycolytic, intermediate blue and type IIX (glycolytic, dark blue. There are no reports in the literature regarding the characterization and distribution of different types of muscle fibers used by donkeys and mules when performing traction work, cargo transportation, endurance sports (horseback riding and marching competitions. Therefore, this study is the first report on the standardization of the mATPase technique for donkeys and mules.

  15. Determination of Impurities in Aluminum Alloy by INAA Single Comparator Method (K0-Standardization Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.; Khamis, I.; Somel, N.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement determination by the k0 based INAA using k0-IAEA program has been performed at Syrian Atomic Energy Commission using alloys. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti in addition to aluminum element were determined in an aluminum alloy and Ni, Cr, Mo were determined in dental alloys using INAA k0-standardization method. Al-0.1%Au, Ni and Zn certified reference materials were analyzed to assess the suitability and accuracy of the method. Elements were determined in reference materials and samples after short and long irradiations, according to element half-lives.

  16. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  17. 29 CFR 1630.7 - Standards, criteria, or methods of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards, criteria, or methods of administration. It is unlawful for a covered entity to use standards, criteria, or methods of administration, which are not job-related and consistent with business necessity... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards, criteria, or methods of administration. 1630.7...

  18. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Comparative evaluation of different methods of setting hygienic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, P.V.; Rodionova, L.F.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term experiments were carried out on white mice and rats to study the relative importance of various procedures used in setting hygienic standards for exposure to adverse factors. A variety of radionuclides and chemical substances were tested and the sensitivities to them of various indices of the bodily state were determined. For each index, statistically significant minimal effective concentrations of substances were established

  20. A method for developing standard patient education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Carolina Bryne; Hauch, Sophie Misser Pallesgaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck

    2018-01-01

    for developing standard digital patient education programs for patients in self-administration of blood samples drawn from CVC. The Design Science Research Paradigm was used to develop a digital patient education program, called PAVIOSY, to increase patient safety during execution of the blood sample collection...... of the educational patient system, health professionals must be engaged early in the development of content and design phase....

  1. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  2. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  3. Standard test methods for arsenic in uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are applicable to the determination of total arsenic in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two test methods are given: Test Method A—Arsine Generation-Atomic Absorption (Sections 5-10), and Test Method B—Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (Appendix X1). 1.2 The test methods are equivalent. The limit of detection for each test method is 0.1 μg As/g U when using a sample containing 0.5 to 1.0 g U. Test Method B does not have the complete collection details for precision and bias data thus the method appears as an appendix. 1.3 Test Method A covers the measurement of arsenic in uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) solutions by converting arsenic to arsine and measuring the arsine vapor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.4 Test Method B utilizes a solvent extraction to remove the uranium from the UO2F2 solution prior to measurement of the arsenic by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.5 Both insoluble and soluble arsenic are measured when UF6 is...

  4. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  5. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  6. Standard Method for Analyzing Gases in Titanium and Titanium Alloys. Standard Method for the Chemical Analysis of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-28

    form a non- soluble complex. After filtering and burning the non-pure molybdenum trioxide is weighed. Ammonia water is used to dissolve the molybdenum...niobium and tantalum should use the methyl alcohol distillation - curcumin absorption luminosity 66 method for determination. II. The Methyl Alcohol...Distillation - Curcumin Absorption Luminosity Method 1. Summary of Method In a phosphorus sulfate medium, boron and methyl alcohol produce methyl borate

  7. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  8. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  9. Deformation of two-phase aggregates using standard numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; Yamato, Philippe; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic problems often involve the large deformation of material encompassing material boundaries. In geophysical fluids, such boundaries often coincide with a discontinuity in the viscosity (or effective viscosity) field and subsequently in the pressure field. Here, we employ popular implementations of the finite difference and finite element methods for solving viscous flow problems. On one hand, we implemented finite difference method coupled with a Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique to represent the deforming fluid. Thanks to it Eulerian nature, this method has a limited geometric flexibility but is characterized by a light and stable discretization. On the other hand, we employ the Lagrangian finite element method which offers full geometric flexibility at the cost of relatively heavier discretization. In order to test the accuracy of the finite difference scheme, we ran large strain simple shear deformation of aggregates containing either weak of strong circular inclusion (1e6 viscosity ratio). The results, obtained for different grid resolutions, are compared to Lagrangian finite element results which are considered as reference solution. The comparison is then used to establish up to which strain can finite difference simulations be run given the nature of the inclusions (dimensions, viscosity) and the resolution of the Eulerian mesh.

  10. Standard Test Method for Contamination Outgassing Characteristics of Spacecraft Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a technique for generating data to characterize the kinetics of the release of outgassing products from materials. This technique will determine both the total mass flux evolved by a material when exposed to a vacuum environment and the deposition of this flux on surfaces held at various specified temperatures. 1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and related operating procedures for evaluating the total mass flux that is evolved from a material being subjected to temperatures that are between 298 and 398 K. Pressures external to the sample effusion cell are less than 7 × 10−3 Pa (5 × 10−5 torr). Deposition rates are measured during material outgassing tests. A test procedure for collecting data and a test method for processing and presenting the collected data are included. 1.3 This test method can be used to produce the data necessary to support mathematical models used for the prediction of molecular contaminant generation, migration, and deposition. 1.4 Al...

  11. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  12. Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, J.R.; Bailey, L.; Ball, B.V.; Blanchard, P.; Budge, G.E.; Chejanovsky, N.; Chen, Y.P.; Gauthier, L.; Genersch, E.; Graaf, de D.C.; Ribiere, M.; Ryabov, E.; Smet, de L.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those

  13. Development of an analysis rule of diagnosis error for standard method of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, W. D.; Kang, D. I.; Jeong, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the status of development of Korea standard method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), and proposed a standard procedure and rules for the evaluation of diagnosis error probability. The quality of KSNP HRA was evaluated using the requirement of ASME PRA standard guideline, and the design requirement for the standard HRA method was defined. Analysis procedure and rules, developed so far, to analyze diagnosis error probability was suggested as a part of the standard method. And also a study of comprehensive application was performed to evaluate the suitability of the proposed rules

  14. Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health

    OpenAIRE

    Lengerich, Eugene; Spleen, Angela; Dainat, Benjamin; Cresswell, James; Baylis , Kathy; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Soroker, Victoria; Underwood, Robyn; Human, Hannelie; Le Conte, Yves; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of epidemiological methods to understand and reduce honey bee morbidity and mortality. Essential terms are presented and defined and we also give examples for their use. Defining such terms as disease, population, sensitivity, and specificity, provides a framework for epidemiological comparisons. The term population, in particular, is quite complex for an organism like the honey bee because one can view “epidemiological unit” as individual bees, colonies, ap...

  15. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  16. TL glow ratios at different temperature intervals of integration in thermoluminescence method. Comparison of Japanese standard (MHLW notified) method with CEN standard methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Saito, Kimie; Tsujimoto, Yuka

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the integration temperature intervals of TL intensities on the TL glow ratio was examined in comparison of the notified method of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW method) with EN1788. Two kinds of un-irradiated geological standard rock and three kinds of spices (black pepper, turmeric, and oregano) irradiated at 0.3 kGy or 1.0 kGy were subjected to TL analysis. Although the TL glow ratio exceeded 0.1 in the andesite according to the calculation of the MHLW notified method (integration interval; 70-490degC), the maximum of the first glow were observed at 300degC or more, attributed the influence of the natural radioactivity and distinguished from food irradiation. When the integration interval was set to 166-227degC according to EN1788, the TL glow ratios became remarkably smaller than 0.1, and the evaluation of the un-irradiated sample became more clear. For spices, the TL glow ratios by the MHLW notified method fell below 0.1 in un-irradiated samples and exceeded 0.1 in irradiated ones. Moreover, Glow1 maximum temperatures of the irradiated samples were observed at the range of 168-196degC, and those of un-irradiated samples were 258degC or more. Therefore, all samples were correctly judged by the criteria of the MHLW method. However, based on the temperature range of integration defined by EN1788, the TL glow ratio of un-irradiated samples remarkably became small compared with that of the MHLW method, and the discrimination of the irradiated sample from non-irradiation sample became clearer. (author)

  17. Business transactions and standards. Towards a system of concepts and a method for early problem identification in standard implementation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.

  18. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  19. Standardized method for reproducing the sequential X-rays flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes, Alejandra; Molina, Katherine; Gudino, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    A method is validated to estandardize in the taking, developing and analysis of bite-wing radiographs taken in sequential way, in order to compare and evaluate detectable changes in the evolution of the interproximal lesions through time. A radiographic positioner called XCP® is modified by means of a rigid acrylic guide, to achieve proper of the X ray equipment core positioning relative to the XCP® ring and the reorientation during the sequential x-rays process. 16 subjects of 4 to 40 years old are studied for a total number of 32 registries. Two x-rays of the same block of teeth of each subject have been taken in sequential way, with a minimal difference of 30 minutes between each one, before the placement of radiographic attachment. The images have been digitized with a Super Cam® scanner and imported to a software. The measurements in X and Y-axis for both x-rays were performed to proceed to compare. The intraclass correlation index (ICI) has shown that the proposed method is statistically related to measurement (mm) obtained in the X and Y-axis for both sequential series of x-rays (p=0.01). The measures of central tendency and dispersion have shown that the usual occurrence is indifferent between the two measurements (Mode 0.000 and S = 0083 and 0.109) and that the probability of occurrence of different values is lower than expected. (author) [es

  20. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  1. A comparative study between the dissolution and the leaching methods for the separation of rare earths, uranium and thorium from hydrous metal oxide cake obtained by the alkaline digestion of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayavadhanangkur, C.; Busamongkol, A.; Hongsirinirachorn, S.; Rodthongkom, C.; Sirisena, K.

    1986-12-01

    Methods for the group-separation of rare-earths, thorium and uranium from hydrous metal oxide cake obtained by the alkaline digestion of monazite were studied. Leaching of the hydrous metal oxide cake at pH between 4-5 separates the elements under investigation into 3 major groups which are suitable to be used as feed materials for further purification. Total dissolution and gradient precipitation at pH 4-5 yields a poorer separation in comparison to the leaching method

  2. Standard methods for sampling and sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaeva, M.; Taskaev, E.; Nikolov, P.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy for sampling and sample preparation is outlined: necessary number of samples; analysis and treatment of the results received; quantity of the analysed material according to the radionuclide concentrations and analytical methods; the minimal quantity and kind of the data needed for making final conclusions and decisions on the base of the results received. This strategy was tested in gamma spectroscopic analysis of radionuclide contamination of the region of Eleshnitsa Uranium Mines. The water samples was taken and stored according to the ASTM D 3370-82. The general sampling procedures were in conformity with the recommendations of ISO 5667. The radionuclides was concentrated by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide and ion exchange. The sampling of soil samples complied with the rules of ASTM C 998, and their sample preparation - with ASTM C 999. After preparation the samples were sealed hermetically and measured. (author)

  3. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  4. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  5. Comparison between sensitivity of a viscometric method and sensitivity of the alkaline elution assay for the determination of DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Balbi, C; Taningher, M; Abelmoschi, M L; Pala, M; Parodi, G; Santi, L

    1982-03-01

    DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate (DMS) was measured with a new oscillating crucible viscometer, having a U-shaped circular channel. Rat liver nuclei were treated in vitro. Viscosity was measured by lysing nuclei in an aklaline lysing solution (pH 12.5; 25 degrees C). Nuclei were lysed immediately in the viscometer and released DNA started to uncoil. In control samples the viscosity increased very slowly with time, reaching a maximum only after about 8 h. A progressively more rapid increase in viscosity was seen with increasing concentrations of DMS. The time of DNA disentanglement was sensitive to about 30 times less breaks than the alkaline elution assay.

  6. Standardization of Laser Methods and Techniques for Vibration Measurements and Calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans-Juergen von

    2010-01-01

    The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations. The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s 2 ). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.

  7. Comparison of two standardized methods of methacholine inhalation challenge in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersted, H C; Walker, C M; O'Shaughnessy, A D

    2000-01-01

    In the European Community Respiratory Health Study (ECRHS), airway responsiveness to methacholine was determined using the Mefar dosimeter protocol. Elsewhere, the 2-min tidal breathing method has become the preferred standardized method. The relationship between measurements of responsiveness by...

  8. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  9. 42 CFR 440.260 - Methods and standards to assure quality of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods and standards to assure quality of services. 440.260 Section 440.260 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.260 Methods and standards to assure quality of services...

  10. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards. Regulation 13 of Annex VI provides for certification of Approved Methods, which are retrofit procedures that...

  11. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  12. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... After 72 h incubation in a shaker incubator ... different incubation times (0 to 72 h) were investigated. Alkaline .... of alkaline protease (75%) and 24% of total protein is precipitated. ... starches and wheat flour as carbon source on protease production .... JP 395, method of making and detergent composition.

  13. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  14. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  15. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  16. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  17. Study of polyoxide catalysts of methane combustion on Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base by the X-ray fluorescence analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.P.; Popova, N.M.; Zheksenbaeva, Z.T.; Sass, A.S.; Salakhova, R.Kh.; Dosumov, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of polyoxide catalysts on of Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base supported on 2 % Ce/θ-Al 2 O 3 are presented. This polyoxide catalysts are using for deep methane oxidation. DRON-4-7 X-ray diffractometers was applied for the analysis. It was found, that oxides in Ni-Cu-Cr catalysts after long time heating up to 1200 deg. C have been interacted with catalyst supports with Ni(Cu)Al 2 O 3 aluminates formation and due to its decomposition transformation degree of CH 4 to CO 2 are reduced. Activity of MnBaSrCeLa catalysts after heating up to 1200 deg. C does not changed

  18. The study of the influence of surfactant charge on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) using spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrit, Mónica; del Valle, Carmen; Martínez, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    In this research, the effects of micellar systems on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) were found to be dependant upon the surfactant charge within the micelle. In cationic micelles, there is a catalytic effect at low concentrations of surfactant. However, this reaction is inhibited at higher surfactant concentrations. In anionic micelles, a catalytic effect occurs, while in zwitterionic and non-ionic micelles there is an inhibitory effect. Such reactions are attributable to changes in reactants on the micellar surface, or to the fact that both reactants are found in different microenvironments. The pseudophase (PS) and ion-exchange (PPIE) models were found to be consistent with the experimental result. Furthermore, the association constants for both drugs could be determined together with micellar rate constants in heterogeneous media.

  19. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdănoiu Cristiana-Luminiţa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

  20. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  1. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  2. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES DISCLAIMER The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-14 METHOD FOR ESTIMATING EVAPORATIVE POTENTIAL (IM/CLO) FROM ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY... ASTM STANDARD SINGLE WIND VELOCITY MEASURES Adam W. Potter Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental

  3. Standardization of waste acceptance test methods by the Materials Characterization Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the role of standardized test methods in demonstrating the acceptability of high-level waste (HLW) forms for disposal. Key waste acceptance tests are standardized by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established as the central agency in the United States for the standardization of test methods for nuclear waste materials. This paper describes the basic three-step process that is used to show that waste is acceptable for disposal and discusses how standardized tests are used in this process. Several of the key test methods and their areas of application are described. Finally, future plans are discussed for using standardized tests to show waste acceptance. 9 refs., 1 tab

  4. Developing content standards for teaching research skills using a delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.

    2005-01-01

    The increased attention for teacher assessment and current educational reforms ask for procedures to develop adequate content standards. For the development of content standards on teaching research skills, a Delphi method based on stakeholders’ judgments has been designed and tested. In three

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic tests when there is no gold standard. A review of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, A. W. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Coomarasamy, A.; Khan, K. S.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To generate a classification of methods to evaluate medical tests when there is no gold standard. METHODS: Multiple search strategies were employed to obtain an overview of the different methods described in the literature, including searches of electronic databases, contacting experts

  6. Stability and non-standard finite difference method of the generalized Chua's circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.; Moaddy, K.; Momani, Shaher M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the fractional-order Chua's circuit with Memristor using a non-standard finite difference method. Chaotic response is obtained with fractional-order elements as well

  7. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  8. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of uranium isotopes in urine by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of uranium in urine at levels of detection dependent on sample size, count time, detector background, and tracer yield. It is designed as a screening tool for detection of possible exposure of occupational workers. 1.2 This test method is designed for 50 mL of urine. This test method does not address the sampling protocol or sample preservation methods associated with its use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  10. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  11. A Standardized Method for 4D Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blockade and Catheter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Clendenen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound.

  12. Choose of standard materials in the method of β-testing new materials' mass thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong

    2007-01-01

    To make sure of the standard mass thickness in beta radials testing mass thickness, this paper calculate using M. C. method and get the result of the relations between the beta radials' transmission rate of different energies and mass thickness in different materials. This result prove that in method of beta test mass thickness choosing materials whose elements are close as standard materials are viable. (authors)

  13. Standard test method for drop-weight tear tests of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers drop-weight tear tests (DWTT) on ferritic steels with thicknesses between 3.18 and 19.1 mm. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard test method for uranium analysis in natural and waste water by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method applies for the determination of trace uranium content in waste water. It covers concentrations of U between 0.05 mg/L and 2 mg/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. An ecological method to understand agricultural standardization in peach orchard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Hao-Zhang

    2016-02-22

    While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological two-sidedness and ecological processes affect the standardization of agricultural production which was divided into three phrases (pre-, mid- and post-production), considering both the positive and negative effects of agricultural processes. We constructed evaluation indicator systems for the pre-, mid- and post-production phases and here we presented a Standardization of Green Production Index (SGPI) based on the Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator (FPPSI) method which we used to assess the superiority of three methods of standardized production for peaches. The values of SGPI for pre-, mid- and post-production were 0.121 (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), 0.379 (Level III, "Good" standard), and 0.769 × 10(-2) (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), respectively. Here we aimed to explore the integrated application of ecological two-sidedness and ecological process in agricultural production. Our results are of use to decision-makers and ecologists focusing on eco-agriculture and those farmers who hope to implement standardized agricultural production practices.

  17. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  18. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Loayza, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  19. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs

  1. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Neutralization potential as an assay of alkalinity of environmental solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grube, W.E.Jr.; Ammons, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The method to determine neutralizing equivalence of agricultural limestone has been applied to quantify the amount of bases present in a broad diversity of mineral materials, solid reagents, and products involved in environmental processes. The capacity to neutralize native or imposed acidity must be known in many processes in order to preserve near-neutral material. The standard method for assaying agricultural limestones was adapted to quantify native alkalinity in calcareous rocks exposed by coal surface mining. Data from these analyses continue to provide the surface mining industry and regulating agencies with a measure of the extent to which acidic mine drainage may be neutralized by the natural components of surrounding rock strata and disturbed materials. This approach to determine base content has also been applied to commercially available industrial byproducts added to soils or wastes. Kiln dust, fly ash, sludge, and other additives have been evaluated routinely to measure their alkalinity contribution and also batch-to-batch uniformity. The application of this technique to monitor amounts of reagents added to neutralize acid waste materials by adding alkalis is discussed. Use of this procedure to evaluate different materials is documented with exemplary data. Results of analyses of a broad variety of rock and soil materials, amended soils, soil additives or amendments, industrial waste byproducts, sludge, and treated wastes are presented. Utility of the procedure for routine quality control in soil treatment, amendment uniformity, and product analysis is discussed

  3. Standard Test Method for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) array (or its component strings), that is, the electrical resistance between the array's internal electrical components and is exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces of the array. 1.2 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  6. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  8. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  9. Another Look at the Method of Y-Standardization in Logit and Probit Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes another look at the derivation of the method of Y-standardization used in sociological analysis involving comparisons of coefficients across logit or probit models. It shows that the method can be derived under less restrictive assumptions than hitherto suggested. Rather than...

  10. An Investigation of Undefined Cut Scores with the Hofstee Standard-Setting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Hofstee standard-setting method and illustrates several situations where the Hofstee method will produce undefined cut scores. The situations where the cut scores will be undefined involve cases where the line segment derived from the Hofstee ratings does not intersect the score distribution curve based on…

  11. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, L.

    1976-07-01

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  12. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Design of a new torque standard machine based on a torque generation method using electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)

  14. A Mapmark method of standard setting as implemented for the National Assessment Governing Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Mapmark standard setting procedure, developed under contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). The procedure enhances the bookmark method with spatially representative item maps, holistic feedback, and an emphasis on independent judgment. A rationale for these enhancements, and the bookmark method, is presented, followed by a detailed description of the materials and procedures used in a meeting to set standards for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. The use of difficulty-ordered content domains to provide holistic feedback is a particularly novel feature of the method. Process evaluation results comparing Mapmark to Anghoff-based methods previously used for NAEP standard setting are also presented.

  15. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Ghildyal, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32 P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  16. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eley, Charles [Eley and Associates, Hobe Sound, FL (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  17. Standard test method for measurement of web/roller friction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the simulation of a roller/web transport tribosystem and the measurement of the static and kinetic coefficient of friction of the web/roller couple when sliding occurs between the two. The objective of this test method is to provide users with web/roller friction information that can be used for process control, design calculations, and for any other function where web/roller friction needs to be known. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the ability of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and pavers to be bonded to portland cement paste. This test method includes both face-mounted and back-mounted tile. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Standard test method for the radiochemical determination of americium-241 in soil by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of americium–241 in soil by means of chemical separations and alpha spectrometry. It is designed to analyze up to ten grams of soil or other sample matrices that contain up to 30 mg of combined rare earths. This method allows the determination of americium–241 concentrations from ambient levels to applicable standards. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precaution statements, see Section 10.

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  1. Introducción del método inmunocitoquímico de la fosfatasa alcalina-antifosfatasa alcalina para la clasificación inmunológica de los Síndromes Linfo y Mieloproliferativos Agudos Introduction of the alkaline phosphatase-alkaline antiphosphatase immunocytochemical method for the immunological classification of the acute lympho-and myeloproliferative syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta B Socarrás Ferrer

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el inmunofenotipaje celular en 30 pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndromes linfo y mieloproliferativos agudos por el método inmunoenzimático fosfatasa alcalina-antifosfatasa alcalina (APAAp introducido en nuestro laboratorio. Los marcadores estudiados fueron: CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD13, CD15, CD22, CD33, CD34 y CD41 mediante los anticuerpos monoclonales correspondientes, según cada caso. De las leucemias agudas, 16 resultaron ser leucemias linfoides (LLA (53,3 % y 12 mieloides (LMA (40 %. Entre las LLA, el 50 % fue del fenotipo B y del resto, 1 caso del tipo T (LLA-T (3,33 %. Un paciente se diagnosticó como leucemia aguda híbrida (LAH (3,33 % y el otro se clasificó como leucemia aguda indiferenciada (LAI (3,33 %. Se concluye que el APAAP es un método más rápido y tan eficaz como otros métodos enzimáticos para la clasificación inmunológica de los síndromes linfo y mieloproliferativosThe cellular immunophenotyping was carried out in 30 patients with the diagnosis of acute lympho- and myeloproliferative syndromes by the alkaline phosphatase-alkaline antiphosphatase immunoenzimatic method (APAA introduced in our laboratory. The CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10; CDl3, CDl5, CD22, CD33 and CD41 markers were studied by using the corresponding monoclonal antibodies, according to each case. Of the acute leukemias, 16 were lymphoid leukemias (ALL (53.3 % and 12 were myeloid leukemias (AML (40 %. Among the ALL, 50 % were phenotype B and of the rest, 1 case was type T (ALL-T (3.33 %. A patient was diagnosed acute hybrid leukemia (AHL (3.33 % and the other was classified as acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL (3.33 %. It is concluded that the APAA is faster and as efficient as other enzimatic methods for the immunologic classification of the lympho- and myeloproliferative syndromes

  2. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of resin flow that will take place from prepreg tape or sheet under given conditions of temperature and pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  6. Standard method of test for atom percent fission in uranium fuel - radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The determination of the U at. % fission that has occurred in U fuel from an analysis of the 137 Cs ratio to U ratio after irradiation is described. The method is applicable to high-density, clad U fuels (metal, alloys, or ceramic compounds) in which no separation of U and Cs has occurred. The fuels are best aged for several months after irradiation in order to reduce the 13-day 136 Cs activity. The fuel is dissolved and diluted to produce a solution containing a final concentration of U of 100 to 1000 mg U/l. The 137 Cs concentration is determined by ASTM method E 320, for Radiochemical Determination of Cesium-137 in Nuclear Fuel Solutions, and the U concentration is determined by ASTM method E 267, for Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations and Isotopic Abundances, ASTM method E 318, for Colorimetric Determination of Uranium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry. Calculations are given for correcting the 137 Cs concentration for decay during and after irradiation. The accuracy of this method is limited, not only by the experimental errors with which the fission yield and the half-life of 137 Cs are known

  7. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  9. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  10. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo2O4 nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 , and 523 mAh g −1 at 1.5 A g −1 after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g −1 is achieved at 2 A g −1 and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport

  11. Use of the ion exchange method for the determination of stability constants of trivalent metal complexes with humic and fulvic acids II. Tb3+, Yb3+ and Gd3+ complexes in weakly alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wenming; Li Weijuan; Tao Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    The conditional stability constants for tracer concentrations of Tb(III), Yb(III), and Gd(III) with three soil humic acids, three soil fulvic acids and a fulvic acid from weathered coal were determined at pH 9.0-9.1 (these values are similar to those in calcareous soils) in the presence of NaHCO 3 by using the anion exchange method. It was found that 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes were simultaneously formed in the weakly alkaline conditions. The conditional stability constants of these 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes were calculated from the distribution coefficients of rare earth elements at various concentrations of humate or fulvate. The stability constants indicate the very high stability of trivalent Tb 3+ , Yb 3+ and Gd 3+ complexes with humic substances in weakly alkaline conditions. The key parameters necessary for the experimental determination of the conditional stability constants of metal ions with humic substances in the presence of NaHCO 3 by using an anion exchange method were discussed. The conditional stability constants of these 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes were compared in this paper. It was found that stabilities of Tb 3+ 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes with humic acid are greater than the corresponding ones with fulvic acid from the same soil. In addition, the effect of the presence of Ca 2+ as a competitor on the stabilities of 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes of Yb was examined and no pronounced change of stabilities of 1 : 1 complex was found, even though Ca 2+ is in a 10 3 excess to Yb 3+

  12. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  13. An external standard method for quantification of human cytomegalovirus by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongsen, Shen; Liren, Ma; Fengqi, Zhou; Qingliang, Luo

    1997-01-01

    An external standard method for PCR quantification of HCMV was reported. [α- 32 P]dATP was used as a tracer. 32 P-labelled specific amplification product was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. A gel piece containing the specific product band was excised and counted in a plastic scintillation counter. Distribution of [α- 32 P]dATP in the electrophoretic gel plate and effect of separation between the 32 P-labelled specific product and free [α- 32 P]dATP were observed. A standard curve for quantification of HCMV by PCR was established and detective results of quality control templets were presented. The external standard method and the electrophoresis separation effect were appraised. The results showed that the method could be used for relative quantification of HCMV. (author)

  14. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  15. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  16. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  17. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter metho...

  18. Non-standard finite difference and Chebyshev collocation methods for solving fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new numerical technique for solving the fractional order diffusion equation is introduced. This technique basically depends on the Non-Standard finite difference method (NSFD) and Chebyshev collocation method, where the fractional derivatives are described in terms of the Caputo sense. The Chebyshev collocation method with the (NSFD) method is used to convert the problem into a system of algebraic equations. These equations solved numerically using Newton's iteration method. The applicability, reliability, and efficiency of the presented technique are demonstrated through some given numerical examples.

  19. Standard test method for determination of surface lubrication on flexible webs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method has been used since 1988 as an ANSI/ISO standard test for determination of lubrication on processed photographic films. Its purpose was to determine the presence of process-surviving lubricants on photographic films. It is the purpose of this test method to expand the applicability of this test method to other flexible webs that may need lubrication for suitable performance. This test measures the breakaway (static) coefficient of friction of a metal rider on the web by the inclined plane method. The objectives of the test is to determine if a web surface has a lubricant present or not. It is not intended to assign a friction coefficient to a material. It is not intended to rank lubricants. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  20. METHODOLOGY COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS AND EDUCATION STANDARDS WITH THE USE OF NON-NUMERIC DATA PROCESSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V. Abramov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of a technique that allows for a comparative assessment of the requirements of the professional standard and the federal state educational standards. The results can be used by universities to adjust the learning process for the analysis of their curricula to better compliance with professional standards

  1. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Primary activity standardization of {sup 57}Co by sum-peak method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Tauhata, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The sum-peak method was applied to standardize a {sup 57}Co solution within the framework of an international comparison organized by International Atomic Energy Agency, in 2008, aimed toward international traceability of activity measurements. A planar germanium detector was used with the sources placed on top of the detector for activity determination measurements. An analytical expression for accidental summing correction was derived and the effect of the germanium characteristic KX-ray escape peak of 112 keV was taken into account. The standard uncertainty associated to the activity concentration value was 0.37% and the result was compared with other measurement methods.

  4. The Potts models and flows. III, standard and subgraph break-collapse methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de; Essam, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the exact calculation of the many spin correlation functions of Potts model clusters which is more efficient than the standard break-collapse method traditionally used in real space renormalization group calculations. The improved performance is based on a relationship which, at any stage of the calculation, allows the replacement of certain subgraphs by single effective edges. Our method avoids, as in the standard one, the time consuming summation over spin states and can be very useful in series expansions and real space renormalisation group calculations on crystal lattices. (Author) [pt

  5. Validation of the k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubesova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to validate the k 0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis for use by the Nuclear Physics Institute's NAA Laboratory. The precision and accuracy of the method were examined by using two types of reference materials: the one type comprised a set of synthetic materials and served to check the implementation of k 0 standardization, the other type consisted of matrix NIST SRMs comprising various different matrices. In general, a good agreement was obtained between the results of this work and the certified values, giving evidence of the accuracy of our results. In addition, the limits were evaluated for 61 elements

  6. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted

  7. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  8. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  9. Use of sum-peak and coincidence counting methods for activity standardization of {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.M. de, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, M.A.L. da [Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Nucleares/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, R. Gal. Severiano, 90 - Botafogo, CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Av. Erasmo Braga, 118-6 Degree-Sign andar, CEP 20020-000 Centro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    A solution containing the positron emitter {sup 22}Na has been absolutely standardized using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting method and the sum-peak spectrometry counting method. In the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method two ways for the activity concentration measurements were used: gating on the 1275 keV photopeak and on the 1786 keV sum-peak where the knowledge of the {beta}{sup +}-branching ratio is required. In the sum-peak method the measurements were carried out using three experimental arrangements: the first composed by a well type 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal, the second by a 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal placed on the top of the first, resulting in a 4{pi} counting geometry and the third arrangement is a high purity coaxial germanium detector. The results that are obtained by these two methods are compatible within the standard uncertainty values with a coverage factor of k=2 ({approx}95% of the confidence level). This means that the sum-peak counting with its more simple experimental setup than the complex coincidence 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} counting system gives consistent results for the activity standardization of {sup 22}Na with smaller uncertainties. Besides, the time period involved to attain the result of the standardization was quite shorter than the coincidence measurements used in this work.

  10. Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for determining the wear of materials during sliding using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Materials are tested in pairs under nominally non-abrasive conditions. The principal areas of experimental attention in using this type of apparatus to measure wear are described. The coefficient of friction may also be determined. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard test methods for elevated temperature tension tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures. 1.2 Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included. 1.3 Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. CrowdMapping: A Crowdsourcing-Based Terminology Mapping Method for Medical Data Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajian; Chi, Chenyang; Huang, Boyu; Meng, Haibin; Yu, Jinghui; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology is the prerequisite of data exchange in analysis of clinical processes. However, data from different electronic health record systems are based on idiosyncratic terminology systems, especially when the data is from different hospitals and healthcare organizations. Terminology standardization is necessary for the medical data analysis. We propose a crowdsourcing-based terminology mapping method, CrowdMapping, to standardize the terminology in medical data. CrowdMapping uses a confidential model to determine how terminologies are mapped to a standard system, like ICD-10. The model uses mappings from different health care organizations and evaluates the diversity of the mapping to determine a more sophisticated mapping rule. Further, the CrowdMapping model enables users to rate the mapping result and interact with the model evaluation. CrowdMapping is a work-in-progress system, we present initial results mapping terminologies.

  13. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  16. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

  18. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

  19. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  20. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  2. More recent robust methods for the estimation of mean and standard deviation of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Outliers in a data set result in biased values of mean and standard deviation. One way to improve the estimation of a mean is to apply tests to identify outliers and to exclude them from the calculations. Tests according to Grubbs or to Dixon, which are frequently used in practice, especially within laboratory intercomparisons, are not very efficient in identifying outliers. Since more than ten years now so-called robust methods are used more and more, which determine mean and standard deviation by iteration and down-weighting values far from the mean, thereby diminishing the impact of outliers. In 1989 the Analytical Methods Committee of the British Royal Chemical Society published such a robust method. Since 1993 the US Environmental Protection Agency published a more efficient and quite versatile method. Mean and standard deviation are calculated by iteration and application of a special weight function for down-weighting outlier candidates. In 2000, W. Cofino et al. published a very efficient robust method which works quite different from the others. It applies methods taken from the basics of quantum mechanics, such as ''wave functions'' associated with each laboratory mean value and matrix algebra (solving eigenvalue problems). In contrast to the other ones, this method includes the individual measurement uncertainties. (orig.)

  3. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Standard guide for qualification of measurement methods by a laboratory within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for selecting, validating, and qualifying measurement methods when qualification is required for a specific program. The recommended practices presented in this guide provide a major part of a quality assurance program for the laboratory data (see Fig. 1). Qualification helps to assure that the data produced will meet established requirements. 1.2 The activities intended to assure the quality of analytical laboratory measurement data are diagrammed in Fig. 1. Discussion and guidance related to some of these activities appear in the following sections: Section Selection of Measurement Methods 5 Validation of Measurement Methods 6 Qualification of Measurement Methods 7 Control 8 Personnel Qualification 9 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitati...

  5. Standard Reference Test Method for Making Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for checking experimental technique and instrumentation. If followed, this test method will provide repeatable potentiostatic and potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements that will reproduce data determined by others at other times and in other laboratories provided all laboratories are testing reference samples from the same lot of Type 430 stainless steel. 1.2 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  9. Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Susan; Megowan, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) science and engineering practices are ways of eliciting the reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. As research has revealed barriers to states and schools adopting the NGSS, this mixed-methods study attempts to identify characteristics of professional development (PD) that will support NGSS…

  10. Non-standard perturbative methods for the effective potential in λφ4 QFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okopinska, A.

    1986-07-01

    The effective potential in scalar QFT is calculated in the non-standard perturbative methods and compared with the conventional loop expansion. In the space time dimensions 0 and 1 the results are compared with the ''exact'' effective potential obtained numerically. In 4 dimensions we show that λφ 4 theory is non-interacting. (author)

  11. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to

  12. Instructional Basics: Oppelt Standard Method of Therapeutic and Recreational Ice Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, Kurt

    Detailed in the booklet is the standard ice skating method and considered are the benefits of therapeutic ice skating for the handicapped and aged. Values for the mentally retarded and physically handicapped are seen to include physiological (such as increased flexibility and improved posture), psychological (including satifaction and enhanced…

  13. Fluor determination by alkaline hydrolysis of the uranium and thorium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, L.; Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1961-01-01

    The alkaline hydrolysis of the uranium and thorium fluorides is studded and a new method for the determination of the fluoride, on the basis of a indirect volumetric titration with standard soda, is proposed. The compounds that may influence the hydrolysis of the uranium fluoride and that may be occasionally found in it as impurities are also studied. the method can be applied to the uranium fluoride except when there is a great quantity of F 2 UO 2 or UO 3 present in the sample. (Author) 20 refs

  14. Comparison of PCR with Standard Method (MPN for detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dehghan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water by culture method is a time and cost consuming method and spends a few days depending on contamination degree. However, the people use the tap water during that time. Molecular methods are rapid and sensitive. In this study a rapid Multiplex PCR method was used for rapid analysis both coliform bacteria and E.coli, and probable detection of VBNC bacteria in drinking water, the experiments were performed in bacteriological lab of water and Wastewater Corporation in Markazi province. Material and Methods:Amplification of a fragment from each of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR was used for detection of coliforms. Eight samples was taken from Arak drinking water system including 36 samples of wells, 41 samples of water distribution network and 3 samples from water storages were examined by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR. Equivalently, the MPN test was applied as a standard method for all samples for comparison of results. Standard bacteria, pure bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM were examined by PCR and MPN method. Results: The result of most samples water network, water storages, and water well were same in both MPN and PCR method .The results of standard bacteria and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM confirmed the PCR method. Five samples were positive in PCR but negative in MPN method. Duration time of PCR was decreased about 105 min by changing the PCR program and electrophoreses factors. Conclusion: The Multiplex PCR can detect coliform bacteria and E.coli synchronous in drinking water.

  15. Standard test method for guided bend test for ductility of welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a guided bend test for the determination of soundness and ductility of welds in ferrous and nonferrous products. Defects, not shown by X rays, may appear in the surface of a specimen when it is subjected to progressive localized overstressing. This guided bend test has been developed primarily for plates and is not intended to be substituted for other methods of bend testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Note 1—For additional information see Terminology E 6, and American Welding Society Standard D 1.1. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  17. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  18. Controlled synthesis of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} nanoparticles by hydrothermal method with nonionic surfactant and their ORR activity in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hyun; Park, Shin-Ae [Energy System Major, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Kyu [GIFT Center, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ho Hwan, E-mail: chunahh@pusan.ac.kr [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants(GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Tae, E-mail: yongtae@pusan.ac.kr [Energy System Major, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We demonstrate that Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and the applicability of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed enhanced ORR activity. - Highlights: • Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the nonionic surfactant. • Homogeneously shaped and sized Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were readily obtained. • Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed an enhanced ORR activity. • The main origin was revealed to be the decreased particle size due to the nonionic surfactant. - Abstract: Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrothermal method with the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 followed by heat treatment at 1000 °C for 10 h. The obtained perovskite nanoparticles had smaller particle size (about 100 nm) and more uniform size distribution than those synthesized by the conventional coprecipitation method. On the other hand, it was identified with the material simulation that the electronic structure change by Sr doping was negligible, because the initially unfilled e{sub g}-band was not affected by the p-type doping. Finally, the perovskite nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method showed much higher ORR activity by over 200% at 0.8 V vs. RHE than those by coprecipitation method.

  19. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  20. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of plutonium in Soil by alpha spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in soils at levels of detection dependent on count time, sample size, detector, background, and tracer yield. This test method describes one acceptable approach to the determination of plutonium in soil. 1.2 This test method is designed for 10 g of soil, previously collected and treated as described in Practices C998 and C999, but sample sizes up to 50 g may be analyzed by this test method. This test method may not be able to completely dissolve all forms of plutonium in the soil matrix. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 9.

  1. Stability and non-standard finite difference method of the generalized Chua's circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the fractional-order Chua\\'s circuit with Memristor using a non-standard finite difference method. Chaotic response is obtained with fractional-order elements as well as integer-order elements. Stability analysis and the condition of oscillation for the integer-order system are discussed. In addition, the stability analyses for different fractional-order cases are investigated showing a great sensitivity to small order changes indicating the poles\\' locations inside the physical s-plane. The GrnwaldLetnikov method is used to approximate the fractional derivatives. Numerical results are presented graphically and reveal that the non-standard finite difference scheme is an effective and convenient method to solve fractional-order chaotic systems, and to validate their stability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  4. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  7. Standard test method for measurement of roll wave optical distortion in heat-treated flat glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the peak-to-valley depth and peak-to-peak distances of the out-of-plane deformation referred to as roll wave which occurs in flat, heat-treated architectural glass substrates processed in a heat processing continuous or oscillating conveyance oven. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This test method does not address other flatness issues like edge kink, ream, pocket distortion, bow, or other distortions outside of roll wave as defined in this test method. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Standard method for economic analyses of inertial confinement fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A standard method for calculating the total capital cost and the cost of electricity for a typical inertial confinement fusion electric power plant has been developed. A standard code of accounts at the two-digit level is given for the factors making up the total capital cost of the power plant. Equations are given for calculating the indirect capital costs, the project contingency, and the time-related costs. Expressions for calculating the fixed charge rate, which is necessary to determine the cost of electricity, are also described. Default parameters are given to define a reference case for comparative economic analyses

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  11. Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Robert; Shinn, Walter; Green, Carol; Drover, David R.; Hammer, Gregory B.; Schulman, Scott R.; Zajicek, Anne; Jett, David A.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Most hospital laboratories do not measure blood cyanide concentrations, and samples must be sent to reference laboratories. A simple method is needed for measuring cyanide in hospitals. The authors previously developed a method to quantify cyanide based on the high binding affinity of the vitamin B12 analog, cobinamide, for cyanide and a major spectral change observed for cyanide-bound cobinamide. This method is now validated in human blood, and the findings include a mean inter-assay accuracy of 99.1%, precision of 8.75% and a lower limit of quantification of 3.27 µM cyanide. The method was applied to blood samples from children treated with sodium nitroprusside and it yielded measurable results in 88 of 172 samples (51%), whereas the reference laboratory yielded results in only 19 samples (11%). In all 19 samples, the cobinamide-based method also yielded measurable results. The two methods showed reasonable agreement when analyzed by linear regression, but not when analyzed by a standard error of the estimate or paired t-test. Differences in results between the two methods may be because samples were assayed at different times on different sample types. The cobinamide-based method is applicable to human blood, and can be used in hospital laboratories and emergency rooms. PMID:23653045

  12. Reproducibility Between Brain Uptake Ratio Using Anatomic Standardization and Patlak-Plot Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Tomoki; Tsuchihashi, Hiroko; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    The Patlak-plot and conventional methods of determining brain uptake ratio (BUR) have some problems with reproducibility. We formulated a method of determining BUR using anatomic standardization (BUR-AS) in a statistical parametric mapping algorithm to improve reproducibility. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of mean cerebral blood flow as determined using BUR-AS in comparison to the conventional-BUR (BUR-C) and Patlak-plot methods. The images of 30 patients who underwent brain perfusion SPECT were retrospectively used in this study. The images were reconstructed using ordered-subset expectation maximization and processed using an automatic quantitative analysis for cerebral blood flow of ECD tool. The mean SPECT count was calculated from axial basal ganglia slices of the normal side (slices 31-40) drawn using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template after anatomic standardization. The mean cerebral blood flow was calculated from the mean SPECT count. Reproducibility was evaluated using coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plotting. For both inter- and intraoperator reproducibility, the BUR-AS method had the lowest coefficient of variation and smallest error range about the Bland-Altman plot. Mean CBF obtained using the BUR-AS method had the highest reproducibility. Compared with the Patlak-plot and BUR-C methods, the BUR-AS method provides greater inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of cerebral blood flow measurement. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  14. Method for matching customer and manufacturer positions for metal product parameters standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadij; Danilova, Yulija

    2018-04-01

    Decision making is the main stage of regulation the relations between customer and manufacturer during the design the demands of norms in standards. It is necessary to match the positions of the negotiating sides in order to gain the consensus. In order to take into consideration the differences of customer and manufacturer estimation of the object under standardization process it is obvious to use special methods of analysis. It is proposed to establish relationships between product properties and its functions using functional-target analysis. The special feature of this type of functional analysis is the consideration of the research object functions and properties. It is shown on the example of hexagonal head crew the possibility to establish links between its functions and properties. Such approach allows obtaining a quantitative assessment of the closeness the positions of customer and manufacturer at decision making during the standard norms establishment.

  15. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Atomizer Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1965-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of fractional molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Aplicación del método inmunocitoquímico de la fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina para la clasificación inmunológica de las leucemias mieloides agudas Application of the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase immunocytochemical method for the immunological classification of acute myeloid leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha B Socarrás Ferrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el inmunofenotipaje celular de 30 pacientes con el diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda por el método inmunocitoquímico fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina (APAAP introducido en nuestro laboratorio. Los marcadores estudiados fueron: CD3, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD33 y CD41. Para el estudio se utilizaron extendidos de médula ósea o sangre periférica fijados en acetona pura e incubados con el respectivo anticuerpo monoclonal. Posteriormente se añadió la inmunoglobulina anti ratón obtenida en conejo ( Linking y por último, el complejo APAAP. Los períodos de incubación fueron de 30 minutos y se realizaron lavados con solución amortiguadora entre cada uno de los pasos. La lectura de las láminas se realizó en microscopio óptico y se consideró positivo cuando el número de células marcadas era mayor o igual a 20 %. De los pacientes estudiados, el 93,3 % y el 90 %, respectivamente, expresaron antígenos pan mieloides CD13 y CD33; 16 de ellos expresaron el CD15 (53,3 %; 3 el CD19 (10 % y 2 el CD41 (6,6 %. Se concluyó que el método APAAP es rápido y de bajo costo y puede ser aplicado con confiabilidad en la clasificación inmunológica de las leucemias mieloides agudasThe cellular immunophenotyping of 30 patients with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was conducted by the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase immunocytochemical method (APAAP introduced in our laboratory. The markers studied were: CD3, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD33 y CD41. Specimens of bone marrow or peripheral blood fixed in pure acetone and incubated with the respective monoclonal antibody were used for the study. Later on, the anti-mouse immunoglobulin obtained in rabbit (Linking was added and, finally, the APAAP complex. The incubation periods were of 30 minutes and lavages with buffer solution were carried out between one step and the other. The reading of the slides was performed on the optical microscope and it was considered positive when

  18. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.

    2014-01-01

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  19. Standard Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide procedures to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) module, i.e. the electrical resistance between the module's internal electrical components and its exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces. 1.2 The insulation integrity procedures are a combination of wet insulation resistance and wet dielectric voltage withstand test procedures. 1.3 These procedures are similar to and reference the insulation integrity test procedures described in Test Methods E 1462, with the difference being that the photovoltaic module under test is immersed in a wetting solution during the procedures. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.6 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety conce...

  20. Microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS): a new method applicable to standard clinical MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Kolanko, Magdalena A; Leff, Alexander P; Jäger, Hans R; Gregoire, Simone M; Werring, David J

    2011-03-23

    Cerebral microbleeds, visible on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2* MRI, have generated increasing interest as an imaging marker of small vessel diseases, with relevance for intracerebral bleeding risk or brain dysfunction. Manual rating methods have limited reliability and are time-consuming. We developed a new method for microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS) and compared it with a validated visual rating system. In thirty consecutive stroke service patients, standard GRE T2* images were acquired and manually rated for microbleeds by a trained observer. After spatially normalizing each patient's GRE T2* images into a standard stereotaxic space, the automated microbleed detection algorithm (MIDAS) identified cerebral microbleeds by explicitly incorporating an "extra" tissue class for abnormal voxels within a unified segmentation-normalization model. The agreement between manual and automated methods was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa statistic. We found that MIDAS had generally moderate to good agreement with the manual reference method for the presence of lobar microbleeds (Kappa = 0.43, improved to 0.65 after manual exclusion of obvious artefacts). Agreement for the number of microbleeds was very good for lobar regions: (ICC = 0.71, improved to ICC = 0.87). MIDAS successfully detected all patients with multiple (≥2) lobar microbleeds. MIDAS can identify microbleeds on standard MR datasets, and with an additional rapid editing step shows good agreement with a validated visual rating system. MIDAS may be useful in screening for multiple lobar microbleeds.

  1. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  2. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P

    1990-01-01

    ) no expensive equipment is required, (ii) only minute amounts of blood are needed, and (iii) slides can be stored for long periods before labelling and can be preserved for later reading. The method is suitable for community studies where there is a need for assessing the immune status of the population....

  3. Analysis of Indonesian educational system standard with KSIM cross-impact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridjal, F.; Aldila, D.; Bustamam, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Result of The Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) on 2012 shows that Indonesia is on 64'th position from 65 countries in Mathematics Mean Score. The 2013 Learning Curve Mapping, Indonesia is included in the 10th category of countries with the lowest performance on cognitive skills aspect, i.e. 37'th position from 40 countries. Competency is built by 3 aspects, one of them is cognitive aspect. The low result of mapping on cognitive aspect, describe the low of graduate competences as an output of Indonesia National Education System (INES). INES adopting a concept Eight Educational System Standards (EESS), one of them is graduate competency standard which connected directly with Indonesia's students. This research aims is to model INES by using KSIM cross-impact. Linear regression models of EESS constructed using the accreditation national data of Senior High Schools in Indonesia. The results then interpreted as impact value on the construction of KSIM cross-impact INES. The construction is used to analyze the interaction of EESS and doing numerical simulation for possible public policy in the education sector, i.e. stimulate the growth of education staff standard, content, process and infrastructure. All simulations of public policy has been done with 2 methods i.e with a multiplier impact method and with constant intervention method. From numerical simulation result, it is shown that stimulate the growth standard of content in the construction KSIM cross-impact EESS is the best option for public policy to maximize the growth of graduate competency standard.

  4. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 (Standard 90.1-2010).The PRM is used for rating the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM. It should be noted that this document is created independently from ASHRAE and SSPC 90.1 and is not sanctioned nor approved by either of those entities . Potential users of this manual include energy modelers, software developers and implementers of “beyond code” energy programs. Energy modelers using ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for beyond code programs can use this document as a reference manual for interpreting requirements of the Performance Rating method. Software developers, developing tools for automated creation of the baseline model can use this reference manual as a guideline for developing the rules for the baseline model.

  5. SGC method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from their molecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albahri, Tareq A.; Aljasmi, Abdulla F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ΔH° f is predicted from the molecular structure of the compounds alone. • ANN-SGC model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. • ANN-MNLR model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. • Better definition of the atom-type molecular groups is presented. • The method is better than others in terms of combined simplicity, accuracy and generality. - Abstract: A theoretical method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from various chemical families is presented. Back propagation artificial neural networks were used to investigate several structural group contribution (SGC) methods available in literature. The networks were used to probe the structural groups that have significant contribution to the overall enthalpy of formation property of pure compounds and arrive at the set of groups that can best represent the enthalpy of formation for about 584 substances. The 51 atom-type structural groups listed provide better definitions of group contributions than others in the literature. The proposed method can predict the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds with an AAD of 11.38 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient of 0.9934 from only their molecular structure. The results are further compared with those of the traditional SGC method based on MNLR as well as other methods in the literature

  6. Standard test method for color and color difference of whitewares by abriged spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the instrumental measurement of the reflection properties and color of ceramic glazes and other whitewares by the use of a spectrophotometer or spectrocolorimeter with a hemispherical optical measuring system, such as an integrating sphere. 1.2 The test method is suitable for use with most specimens having an exterior flat surface large enough to cover the spectrophotometer sample port. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Standard test method for initial screening of corrosion inhibiting admixtures for steel in concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures by themselves or in a chloride environment. This test is not applicable for emulsions. 1.2 &solely-SI-units; 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Standardization of method to determine 241Pu in urine samples by liquid scintillation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Yadav, J.R.; Baburajan, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of radiation protection programme, occupational workers of fuel reprocessing plant are checked for internal contamination by analyzing urine samples periodically. Urine samples are analyzed to determine 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu by using standard conventional method and are counted by alpha spectrometry. 241 Pu is also one of the contaminant present in the urine sample of radiation workers. It is a low beta emitter with E max 21 keV. A methodology for the determination of this nuclide was standardized by using radiochemical analysis followed by Liquid Scintillation Counting. The method was tested and found suitable for the determination of 241 Pu in urine sample for the assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED). (author)

  10. Selection and evaluation of gamma decay standards for detector calibration using coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence method for calibration of gamma detectors using suitable calibration standards with two cascading gamma rays is analyzed. From the list of recommended gamma ray standards currently under reevaluation by the CRP, 14 radionuclides were selected as the potential source candidates for the coincidence method. The following sources were selected 24 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 66 Ga, 75 Se, 88 Y, Nb 94 , 111 In, 123m Te, 133 Ba, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 207 Bi. Reaction 11 B (p,γ) 12 C* was also selected as a source of high energy gamma rays. Experimental data on angular correlation coefficients for selected sources were collected from the literature and evaluated according to the recommended procedure. Theoretical angular correlation coefficients were calculated and compared to the evaluated data. (author)

  11. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  12. Multigrid techniques with non-standard coarsening and group relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danaee, A.

    1989-06-01

    In the usual (standard) multigrid methods, doubling of grid sizes with different smoothing iterations (pointwise, or blockwise) has been considered by different authors. Some have indicated that a large coarsening can also be used, but is not beneficial (cf. H3, p.59). In this paper, it is shown that with a suitable blockwise smoothing scheme, some advantages could be achieved even with a factor of H l-1 /h l = 3. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Standardization of the method for measurement of plasma estrone by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, M.S.V.; Moreira, A.C.; Sala, M.M. de; Sa, M.F.S. de

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has as objective standardize a radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma estrone. Ethyl ether was used for plasma extraction. The sensitivity (Minimal detectable dose) was 3,7 pg/tube; the reproducibility (inter assay error) was 8,6%; the precision (intra assay error) was 4,1%. As a biological control the plasma estrone was ml) and in 24 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (median = 77,9 pg/ml). (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Design of γ measurement system of neutron source strength standard with a manganese sulphate bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Chen Mingchi; Zhang Hui

    2010-01-01

    It mostly introduced the hardware and software design and test of Measurement System of Neutron Source Strength Standard with a Manganese Sulphate Bath Method. Hardware of system mainly contains six modules named detector, high voltage source, head amplifier, main amplifier, single channel pulse-amplitude analyzer and data acquisition system. The software program of system data acquisition is made up of four functional modules: user login, parameter setting, data collection, and data saving. (authors)

  15. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  16. Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the electrical corrosion potential of uncoated reinforcing steel in field and laboratory concrete, for the purpose of determining the corrosion activity of the reinforcing steel. 1.2 This test method is limited by electrical circuitry. Concrete surface in building interiors and desert environments lose sufficient moisture so that the concrete resistivity becomes so high that special testing techniques not covered in this test method may be required (see 5.1.4.1). Concrete surfaces that are coated or treated with sealers may not provide an acceptable electrical circuit. The basic configuration of the electrical circuit is shown in Fig. 1. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It ...

  17. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  18. A Case Study of Academic Writing Development Through Principled Versus Standard Clt Method at Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (experimental and control. The experimental group will receive the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Survey is then conducted to the two groups so as to find out their comments on the two teaching methods. From the results of the questionnaires, it is found that Principled CLT method is favored for its knowledge and accuracy factors, while the Standard CLT is preferred for its fun and independence factors.   

  19. Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes procedures for the tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. The format is similar to that of other ASTM tension test standards, but the contents include modifications for cryogenic testing which requires special apparatus, smaller specimens, and concern for serrated yielding, adiabatic heating, and strain-rate effects. 1.2 To conduct a tension test by this standard, the specimen in a cryostat is fully submerged in normal liquid helium (He I) and tested using crosshead displacement control at a nominal strain rate of 10−3 s−1 or less. Tests using force control or high strain rates are not considered. 1.3 This standard specifies methods for the measurement of yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. The determination of the elastic modulus is treated in Test Method E 111. Note 1—The boiling point of normal liquid helium (He I) at sea level is 4.2 K (−269°C or −452.1°F or 7.6°R). It decreases with geographic elevation and is...

  20. The preparation of nucleotides uniformly labelled with carbon-14 by biosinthetic methods. Isolation of adenilic, uridilic, cytidilic and guanlic acids, from the alkaline hydrolisate of escherichia coli RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Pineda, D.; Pacheco Lopez, J.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation and analysis of adenilic, uridilic, cytidylic and guanilic acids, labelled with carbon 14. Escherichia coli cells have been labelled by growing them in media containing glucose-carbon 14 as their only source of carbon. RNA is isolated from the cells, and after hydrolisis of the molecule the resulting nucleotides are separated by gel filtration and exchange chromatography. Chemical and radiochemical purity of the isolated nucleotides is determined and also its specific radioactivity. The distribution of radioactivity incorporated in the cell among different groups of molecular species is analyse. (author)

  1. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction method. Standard method using angular dispersion method and trial of using neutron IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takago, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlined a stress measurement method using neutrons, and introduced the application examples to stress measurement for metal-based composite materials. In the angular dispersion type measurement using a steady-state reactor type neutron source, the white beams taken out from a nuclear reactor are monochromatized (wavelength λ is a constant value) with a single crystal monochromator and utilized. As an example of measurement, there was the case as follows: the stress of a sintered material which has been put to practical use as valve seat part for automobiles was measured by the neutron method, and the deformation behavior during load was studied. This study performed neutron diffraction measurement using a residual stress analyzer (RESA: Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis) installed at JAEA's experimental reactor JRR-3. As a result, it was found that the stress state of the sintered composite material of Fe-Cr and TiN can be predicted with a micromechanics model. A neutron diffraction ring can be obtained using a neutron image plate (IP), where fine powder of gadolinium (Gd) was incorporated into IP for X-rays, and it can be used as an IP reader in the same way as the case of X-rays. A report has been introduced on the examination results of the highly accurate stress measurement by applying the cos α method devised for X-ray stress measurement to neutron diffraction ring. (A.O.)

  2. Standardization of a method to study the distribution of Americium in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapolikar, T.T.; Pant, D.K.; Kapur, H.N.; Kumar, Rajendra; Dubey, K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work the distribution of Americium in PUREX process is investigated in various process streams. For this purpose a method has been standardized for the determination of Am in process samples. The method involves extraction of Am with associated actinides using 30% TRPO-NPH at 0.3M HNO 3 followed by selective stripping of Am from the organic phase into aqueous phase at 6M HNO 3 . The assay of aqueous phase for Am content is carried out by alpha radiometry. The investigation has revealed that 100% Am follows the HLLW route. (author)

  3. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  5. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  6. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  7. The measurement of magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel - survey on methods and situation of standards

    CERN Document Server

    Sievert, J

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the different requirements for magnetic measurement techniques for material research, modelling of material properties and grading of the electrical sheet steel for trade purposes is presented. In relation to the main application of laminated electrical steel, this paper deals with AC measurement techniques. Two standard methods, Epstein frame and Single Sheet Tester (SST), producing different results, are used in parallel. This dilemma was analysed in detail. The study leads to a possible solution of the problem, i.e. the possibility of converting the results of one of the two methods into the results of the other in order to satisfy the users of the Epstein method and, at the same time, to improve the acceptance of the more economical SST method.

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Nickel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 58Ni(n,p)58Co. 1.2 This activation reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 2.1 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 200 days in the absence of high thermal neutron fluence rates (for longer irradiations, see Practice E 261). 1.3 With suitable techniques fission-neutron fluence rates densities above 107 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note—The burnup corrections were com...

  9. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Uranium-238

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by assaying a fission product (F.P.) from the fission reaction 238U(n,f)F.P. 1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies from approximately 1.5 to 7 MeV and for irradiation times up to 30 to 40 years. 1.3 Equivalent fission neutron fluence rates as defined in Practice E 261 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other unites of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Neptunium-237

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by assaying a fission product (F.P.) from the fission reaction 237Np(n,f)F.P. 1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies from approximately 0.7 to 6 MeV and for irradiation times up to 30 to 40 years. 1.3 Equivalent fission neutron fluence rates as defined in Practice E 261 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from gloves used in cleanrooms where spacecraft are assembled, cleaned, or tested. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from gloves using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extracting qualities, or because it is representative of solvents used in the particular facility. Alternative solvents may be used, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Searching for beyond the Standard Model physics using direct and indirect methods at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Samuel C P; Golutvin, Andrey

    It is known that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete in its description of nature at a fundamental level. For example, the Standard Model can neither incorporate dark matter nor explain the matter dominated nature of the Universe. This thesis presents three analyses undertaken using data collected by the LHCb detector. Each analysis searches for indications of physics beyond the Standard Model in dierent decays of B mesons, using dierent techniques. Notably, two analyses look for indications of new physics using indirect methods, and one uses a direct approach. The rst analysis shows evidence for the rare decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ with greater than 3 $\\sigma$ signicance; this also constitutes the rst evidence for a fullyhadronic annihilation-type decay of a $B^{+}$ meson. A measurement of the branching fraction of the decay $B^{+} \\rightarrow D^{+}_{s}\\phi$ is seen to be higher than, but still compatible with, Standard Model predictions. The CP-asymmetry of the decay is also ...

  13. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  15. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al 3+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Hg 2+ , Ni 2+ , Th 4+ , or UO 2 2+ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 μmoles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure

  16. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of uranium isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of alpha-emitting uranium isotopes in soil. This test method describes one acceptable approach to the determination of uranium isotopes in soil. 1.2 The test method is designed to analyze 10 g of soil; however, the sample size may be varied to 50 g depending on the activity level. This test method may not be able to completely dissolve all forms of uranium in the soil matrix. Studies have indicated that the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve soil has resulted in lower values than results using total dissolution by fusion. 1.3 The lower limit of detection is dependent on count time, sample size, detector, background, and tracer yield. The chemical yield averaged 78 % in a single laboratory evaluation, and 66 % in an interlaboratory collaborative study. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ass...

  17. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reactions 46Ti(n,p) 46Sc + 47Ti(n, np)46Sc. Note 1—Since the cross section for the (n,np) reaction is relatively small for energies less than 12 MeV and is not easily distinguished from that of the (n,p) reaction, this test method will refer to the (n,p) reaction only. 1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 4.4 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 250 days (for longer irradiations, see Practice E 261). 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm–2·s–1 can be determined. However, in the presence of a high thermal-neutron fluence rate, 46Sc depletion should be investigated. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all...

  19. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  20. No-gold-standard evaluation of image-acquisition methods using patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric

    2017-02-11

    Several new and improved modalities, scanners, and protocols, together referred to as image-acquisition methods (IAMs), are being developed to provide reliable quantitative imaging. Objective evaluation of these IAMs on the clinically relevant quantitative tasks is highly desirable. Such evaluation is most reliable and clinically decisive when performed with patient data, but that requires the availability of a gold standard, which is often rare. While no-gold-standard (NGS) techniques have been developed to clinically evaluate quantitative imaging methods, these techniques require that each of the patients be scanned using all the IAMs, which is expensive, time consuming, and could lead to increased radiation dose. A more clinically practical scenario is where different set of patients are scanned using different IAMs. We have developed an NGS technique that uses patient data where different patient sets are imaged using different IAMs to compare the different IAMs. The technique posits a linear relationship, characterized by a slope, bias, and noise standard-deviation term, between the true and measured quantitative values. Under the assumption that the true quantitative values have been sampled from a unimodal distribution, a maximum-likelihood procedure was developed that estimates these linear relationship parameters for the different IAMs. Figures of merit can be estimated using these linear relationship parameters to evaluate the IAMs on the basis of accuracy, precision, and overall reliability. The proposed technique has several potential applications such as in protocol optimization, quantifying difference in system performance, and system harmonization using patient data.

  1. The k0-NAA Standardization Method Using an Am-Be Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.; Mohamed, G.Y.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is a well established technique for the analysis of trace elements in different samples. Precise elemental concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg and Na in two unknown geological samples were determined by using the k 0 -standardization method. For such measurements two sets of standard monitors of Gold (Au), Indium (In), Tungsten (W) and Titanium (Ta) were used. One set is bare and the other is cadmium covered. These monitors were used for measuring the irradiation position factors f and α and using the cadmium ratios of the 115 In(n,γ) 116 In and 182 Ta(n,γ) 183 Ta interactions. Neutrons were obtained from CNIF 2 facility that uses an Am-Be radio-isotopic neutron source with a modification to have thermal and epi-thermal neutrons. Measurements were carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of a hyper pure germanium detector and necessary associated electronics. The k 0 -standardization method can be used for quality control tests.

  2. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  3. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKALINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    There was no clear decrease in the yield seen in the bands and the loss of enzyme was not observed with the gel analysis. It may ... The native gel results show clear distinct bands for the 3 alkaline phosphotase isoenzymes ..... British Medical.

  4. Standard test method for compressive (crushing) strength of fired whiteware materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers two test procedures (A and B) for the determination of the compressive strength of fired whiteware materials. 1.2 Procedure A is generally applicable to whiteware products of low- to moderately high-strength levels (up to 150 000 psi or 1030 MPa). 1.3 Procedure B is specifically devised for testing of high-strength ceramics (over 100 000 psi or 690 MPa). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 27Al(n,α)24Na. 1.2 This activation reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 6.5 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 2 days (for longer irradiations, see Practice E261). 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 106 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E261. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Implementation of a standardized out-of-hospital management method for Parkinson dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Sun, Dongxiu; Liu, Meiping

    2017-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a swallowing management clinic to implement out-of-hospital management for Parkinson disease (PD) patients with dysphagia. Two-hundred seventeen (217) voluntary PD patients with dysphagia in a PD outpatient clinic were divided into a control group with 100 people, and an experimental group with 117 people. The control group was given dysphagia rehabilitation guidance. The experimental group was presented with the standardized out-of-hospital management method as overall management and information and education materials. Rehabilitation efficiency and incidence rate of dysphagia, as well as relevant complications of both groups were compared after a 6-month intervention. Rehabilitation efficiency and the incidence rate of dysphagia including relevant complications of patients treated with the standardized out-of-hospital management were compared with those seen in the control group. The differences have distinct statistics meaning (pdysphagia complications and improve the quality of life in patients with PD.

  7. Preparation and LSC standardization of ''89 Sr (DNP) using the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Arcos Merino, J.M. Los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89 Sr, is described. The chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of ''89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using Hisafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.38%. (Author)

  8. Paediatric rehabilitation treatment standards: a method for quality assurance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ahnert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the German Pension Insurance has implemented a new method of quality assurance for inpatient rehabilitation of children and adolescents diagnosed with bronchial asthma, obesity, or atopic dermatitis: the so-called rehabilitation treatment standards (RTS. They aim at promoting a comprehensive and evidence-based care in rehabilitation. Furthermore, they are intended to make the therapeutic processes in medical rehabilitation as well as potential deficits more transparent. The development of RTS was composed of five phases during which current scientific evidence, expert knowledge, and patient expectations were included. Their core element is the specification of evidence-based treatment modules that describe a good rehabilitation standard for children diagnosed with bronchial asthma, obesity, or atopic dermatitis. Opportunities and limitations of the RTS as a tool for quality assurance are discussed.

  9. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  10. Preparation and LSC Standardization of ''89Sr (DNP) Using the CIEMAT/NIST Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples of the strontium DNP complex, labelled with ''89Sr, is described, the chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of this compound is studied in six scintillators, Toluene, Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphthalene, HiSafe II, Ultima- Gold and Instagel. The liquid scintillation standardization of 89Sr-DNP by the CIEMAT/NIST method, using HiSafe II and Ultima-Gold scintillators, has been carried out. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 0.38% and 0.48%, respectively. The solution has been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0,38%. (Author) 10 refs

  11. Standardization of Nanoparticle Characterization: Methods for Testing Properties, Stability, and Functionality of Edible Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, Jake; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-10

    There has been a rapid increase in the fabrication of various kinds of edible nanoparticles for oral delivery of bioactive agents, such as those constructed from proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and/or minerals. It is currently difficult to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of nanoparticle-based delivery systems because researchers use different analytical instruments and protocols to characterize them. In this paper, we briefly review the various analytical methods available for characterizing the properties of edible nanoparticles, such as composition, morphology, size, charge, physical state, and stability. This information is then used to propose a number of standardized protocols for characterizing nanoparticle properties, for evaluating their stability to environmental stresses, and for predicting their biological fate. Implementation of these protocols would facilitate comparison of the performance of nanoparticles under standardized conditions, which would facilitate the rational selection of nanoparticle-based delivery systems for different applications in the food, health care, and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Standard methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    All methods described for subsampling and analysis of UF 6 are in routine use at United States Atomic Energy Commission installations. A gravimetric method is included for U and titrimetric methods, for Cl 2 and U. Mass spectrometric methods are given for both double and single standard procedures for U-isotopic content and for semiquantitative determination of hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons, and partially substituted halohydrocarbons. Spectroscopic methods are described for 232 U, fission products, Pu, and Np. In some instances an ion exchange- or extraction-separation is specified prior to the spectroscopic determination. Mass spectroscopic procedures for 31 trace elements are included, as are spectrophotometric methods for Br 2 , Si, P, Ti, V, W, Th, and Mo. Following a preliminary separation for some elements, emission spectroscopic procedures are described for B, Si, Ru, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Zr, V, Th, rare earths, and other elements. Procedures for the determination of Sb, Ru, Al, Cd, Co, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, and Zn by atomic absorption methods are included. The preparation of high-purity U 3 O 8 by the hydrolysis of UF 6 to UO 2 F 2 which upon drying and pyrohydrolysis yields U 3 O 8 is described

  13. H-Point Standard Addition Method for Simultaneous Determination of Eosin and Erytrosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, sensitive and selective H-point standard addition method (HPSAM has been developed for resolving binary mixture of food colorants eosin and erythrosine, which show overlapped spectra. The method is based on the complexation of food dyes eosin and erythrosine with Fe(III complexing reagent at pH 5.5 and solubilizing complexes in triton x-100 micellar media. Absorbances at the two pairs of wavelengths, 540 and 550 nm (when eosin acts as analyte or 518 and 542 nm (when erythrosine act as analyte were monitored. This method has satisfactorily been applied for the determination of eosin and erythrosine dyes in synthetic mixtures and commercial products.

  14. Standard test method for determination of "microwave safe for reheating" for ceramicware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the suitability of ceramicware for use in microwave re-heating applications. Microwave ovens are mainly used for reheating and defrosting frozen foods. Severe thermal conditions can occur while reheating foods. Typical reheating of foods requires one to five min. in the microwave at the highest power settings. Longer periods than five minutes are considered cooking. Cooking test methods and standards are not addressed in this test method. Most ceramicware is minimally absorbing of the microwave energy and will not heat up significantly. Unfortunately there are some products that absorb microwave energy to a greater extent and can become very hot in the microwave and pose a serious hazard. Additionally, the nature of microwave heating introduces radiation in a non-uniform manner producing temperature differentials in the food being cooked as well as the ceramic container holding it. The differential may become great enough to thermal shock the ware and create dangerous condition...

  15. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  16. A Bayesian method for comparing and combining binary classifiers in the absence of a gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Jonathan M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many problems in bioinformatics involve classification based on features such as sequence, structure or morphology. Given multiple classifiers, two crucial questions arise: how does their performance compare, and how can they best be combined to produce a better classifier? A classifier can be evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity using benchmark, or gold standard, data, that is, data for which the true classification is known. However, a gold standard is not always available. Here we demonstrate that a Bayesian model for comparing medical diagnostics without a gold standard can be successfully applied in the bioinformatics domain, to genomic scale data sets. We present a new implementation, which unlike previous implementations is applicable to any number of classifiers. We apply this model, for the first time, to the problem of finding the globally optimal logical combination of classifiers. Results We compared three classifiers of protein subcellular localisation, and evaluated our estimates of sensitivity and specificity against estimates obtained using a gold standard. The method overestimated sensitivity and specificity with only a small discrepancy, and correctly ranked the classifiers. Diagnostic tests for swine flu were then compared on a small data set. Lastly, classifiers for a genome-wide association study of macular degeneration with 541094 SNPs were analysed. In all cases, run times were feasible, and results precise. The optimal logical combination of classifiers was also determined for all three data sets. Code and data are available from http://bioinformatics.monash.edu.au/downloads/. Conclusions The examples demonstrate the methods are suitable for both small and large data sets, applicable to the wide range of bioinformatics classification problems, and robust to dependence between classifiers. In all three test cases, the globally optimal logical combination of the classifiers was found to be

  17. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  18. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  19. Standard Test Methods for Insulation Integrity and Ground Path Continuity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for (1) testing for current leakage between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components while a user-specified voltage is applied and (2) for testing for possible module insulation breakdown (dielectric voltage withstand test). 1.2 A procedure is described for measuring the insulation resistance between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components (insulation resistance test). 1.3 A procedure is provided for verifying that electrical continuity exists between the exposed external conductive surfaces of the module, such as the frame, structural members, or edge closures, and its grounding point (ground path continuity test). 1.4 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.5 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if a...

  20. Reducing the risk of failure: Software Quality assurance standards and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphick, J.; Cope, H.

    1992-01-01

    An effective Software Quality Assurance (SQA) program provides an overall approach to software engineering and the establishment of proven methods for the production of reliable software. And, in the authors experience, the overall costs for the software life are diminished with the application of quality methods. In their experience, the issues for implementing quality standards and practices are many. This paper addresses those issues as well as the lessons learned from developing and implementing a number of software quality assurance programs. Their experience includes the development and implementation of their own NRC accepted SQA program and an SQA program for an engineering software developer, as well as developing SQA procedures, standards, and methods for utilities, medical and commercial clients. Some of the issues addressed in this paper are: setting goals and defining quality; applying the software life cycle; addressing organizational issues; providing flexibility and increasing productivity; producing effective documentation; maintaining quality records; Imposing software configuration management; conducting reviews, audits, and controls; verification and validation; and controlling software procurement

  1. Standard Test Method for Oxyacetylene Ablation Testing of Thermal Insulation Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the screening of ablative materials to determine the relative thermal insulation effectiveness when tested as a flat panel in an environment of a steady flow of hot gas provided by an oxyacetylene burner. 1.2 This test method should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  2. Standardization of fixation, processing and staining methods for the central nervous system of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Marcos, H J; Ferrari, C C; Benitez, I; Affanni, J M

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the standardization of methods used for processing and embedding various vertebrate brains of different size in paraffin. Other technical details developed for avoiding frequent difficulties arising during laboratory routine are also reported. Some modifications of the Nissl and Klüver-Barrera staining methods are proposed. These modifications include: 1) a Nissl stain solution with a rapid and efficient action with easier differentiation; 2) the use of a cheap microwave oven for the Klüver-Barrera stain. These procedures have the advantage of permitting Nissl and Klüver-Barrera staining of nervous tissue in about five and fifteen minutes respectively. The proposed procedures have been tested in brains obtained from fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals of different body sizes. They are the result of our long experience in preparing slides for comparative studies. Serial sections of excellent quality were regularly obtained in all the specimens studied. These standardized methods, being simple and quick, are recommended for routine use in neurobiological laboratories.

  3. Standardization of a method to study angiogenesis in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID FEDER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult organism, angiogenesis is restricted to a few physiological conditions. On the other hand, uncontrolled angiogenesis have often been associated to angiogenesis-dependent pathologies. A variety of animal models have been described to provide more quantitative analysis of in vivo angiogenesis and to characterize pro- and antiangiogenic molecules. However, it is still necessary to establish a quantitative, reproducible and specific method for studies of angiogenesis factors and inhibitors. This work aimed to standardize a method for the study of angiogenesis and to investigate the effects of thalidomide on angiogenesis. Sponges of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm were implanted in the back of mice groups, control and experimental (thalidomide 200 mg/K/day by gavage. After seven days, the sponges were removed. The dosage of hemoglobin in sponge and in circulation was performed and the ratio between the values was tested using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results have shown that sponge-induced angiogenesis quantitated by ratio between hemoglobin content in serum and in sponge is a helpful model for in vivo studies on angiogenesis. Moreover, it was observed that sponge-induced angiogenesis can be suppressed by thalidomide, corroborating to the validity of the standardized method.

  4. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  5. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  6. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkaline Extraction of DNA from Pathogenic Fungi for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Mishima, Shinobu; Matsuyama, Nobuaki; 松元, 賢; 松山, 宣明

    1997-01-01

    For the preparation of DNA samples from fungal mycelia alkaline extraction method was applied and assessed its usefulness for PCR-RFLP analysis. Using alkaline treatment protocols, 18S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA) derived from fungal genomic DNA of Pyricularia oryzae, P. zingiberi, Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae were PCR-amplified and digested with Hha I, Msp I and Hae ill. RFLP analysis with HhaI showed the divergent polymorphism between genus Pyricularia and Rhizoctonia. The alkaline DNA extract...

  8. Effect of alkaline treatment on the sulfate content and quality of semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... quality of semi-refined carrageenan prepared from seaweed Kappaphycus ... importance for industry to deliver a standard product and to develop new ..... alkaline extraction media (compared to pure water) have also been ...

  9. Measurement of pH, alkalinity and acidity in ultra-soft waters | Lahav ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the "blend" method, equilibrium chemistry data were used to calculate total acidity for each point based on the known total alkalinity, pH reading, temperature and ionic strength. The two methods gave excellent results (in terms of both repetition and accuracy) as compared to characterisation based on total alkalinity and ...

  10. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen particip...

  11. A computer aided measurement method for unstable pelvic fractures based on standardized radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Li-cheng; Su, Xiu-yun; Du, Hai-long; Zhang, Li-ning; Zhang, Li-hai; Tang, Pei-fu

    2015-01-01

    To set up a method for measuring radiographic displacement of unstable pelvic ring fractures based on standardized X-ray images and then test its reliability and validity using a software-based measurement technique. Twenty-five patients that were diagnosed as AO/OTA type B or C pelvic fractures with unilateral pelvis fractured and dislocated were eligible for inclusion by a review of medical records in our clinical centre. Based on the input pelvic preoperative CT data, the standardized X-ray images, including inlet, outlet, and anterior-posterior (AP) radiographs, were simulated using Armira software (Visage Imaging GmbH, Berlin, Germany). After representative anatomic landmarks were marked on the standardized X-ray images, the 2-dimensional (2D) coordinates of these points could be revealed in Digimizer software (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Subsequently, we developed a formula that indicated the translational and rotational displacement patterns of the injured hemipelvis. Five separate observers calculated the displacement outcomes using the established formula and determined the rotational patterns using a 3D-CT model based on their overall impression. We performed 3D reconstruction of all the fractured pelvises using Mimics (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium) and determined the translational and rotational displacement using 3-matic suite. The interobserver reliability of the new method was assessed by comparing the continuous measure and categorical outcomes using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa statistic, respectively. The interobserver reliability of the new method for translational and rotational measurement was high, with both ICCs above 0.9. Rotational outcome assessed by the new method was the same as that concluded by 3-matic software. The agreement for rotational outcome among orthopaedic surgeons based on overall impression was poor (kappa statistic, 0.250 to 0.426). Compared with the 3D reconstruction outcome, the

  12. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  13. The application of the k0-standardization method at the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, Radojko; Benedik, Ljudmila; Stegnar, Peter; Smodis, Borut

    2002-01-01

    The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) was launched in the 1970s and since then continuously developed. Nowadays, k 0 -NAA became widespread as a practical analytical tool used to analyse different sample matrices. At the Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), the KAYZERO/SOLCOI software package has been introduced for data processing after extensive testing and comparison with other available programs. In the process of validation of the software a suite of natural matrix reference materials (RMs) were used. Five certified reference materials (CRMs) from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), two standard reference materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), three RMs from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and one RM from IJS were analysed. Altogether, results for ten elements in inorganic matrices and twenty-one elements in organic matrices, obtained by k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA), were compared to certified values. The results obtained show good agreement with certified or assigned values except for Fe and U in inorganic matrices, and Al and Cr in organic matrices. (author)

  14. Dissemination of the National Standard of Mass from INACAL using the gauss Markov method by generalized least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Taipe, Donny

    2017-01-01

    This article sustains the transfer of the national standard of mass (KP1) of INACAL to two reference standards ‘Weight 1’, ‘Weight 2’ and also KP2 (as witnessed mass standard and with known error). The dissemination was done using the Gauss Markov method by Generalized Least Squares. The uncertainty calculation was performed using Univariate Gaussian Distribution and Multivariate Gaussian Distribution; the latter was developed with the Monte Carlo method using a programming language called 'R...

  15. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Givianrad, M. H.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard a...

  16. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 7, 0.07 Conveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    System information is given for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for elevators and special conveyors.

  17. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 3, 0.03 Superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented on asset determinant factor/CAS profile codes/CAS cost process; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for beams; pre-engineered building systems; floors; roof structure; stairs; and fireproofing.

  18. Developing a Standard Method of Test for Packaged, Solid-Desiccant Based Dehumidification Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    A draft Method of Test (MOT) has been proposed for packaged, air-to-air, desiccant-based dehumidifier systems that incorporate a thermally-regenerated desiccant material for dehumidification. This MOT is intended to function as the ''system'' testing and rating compliment to the desiccant ''component'' (desiccant wheels and/or cassettes) MOT (ASHRAE 1998) and rating standard (ARI 1998) already adopted by industry. This draft standard applies to ''packaged systems'' that: Use desiccants for dehumidification of conditioned air for buildings; Use heated air for regeneration of the desiccant material; Include fans for moving process and regeneration air; May include other system components for filtering, pre-cooling, post-cooling, or heating conditioned air; and May include other components for humidification of conditioned air. The proposed draft applies to four different system operating modes depending on whether outdoor or indoor air is used for process air and regeneration air streams . Only the ''ventilation'' mode which uses outdoor air for both process and regeneration inlets is evaluated in this paper. Performance of the dehumidification system is presented in terms that would be most familiar and useful to designers of building HVAC systems to facilitate integration of desiccant equipment with more conventional hardware. Parametric performance results from a modified, commercial desiccant dehumidifier undergoing laboratory testing were used as data input to evaluate the draft standard. Performance results calculated from this experimental input, results from an error-checking/heat-balance verification test built into the standard, and estimated comparisons between desiccant and similarly performing conventional dehumidification equipment are calculated and presented. Some variations in test procedures are suggested to aid in analytical assessment of individual component performance

  19. The PolyMAX Frequency-Domain Method: A New Standard for Modal Parameter Estimation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peeters

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new non-iterative frequency-domain parameter estimation method was proposed. It is based on a (weighted least-squares approach and uses multiple-input-multiple-output frequency response functions as primary data. This so-called “PolyMAX” or polyreference least-squares complex frequency-domain method can be implemented in a very similar way as the industry standard polyreference (time-domain least-squares complex exponential method: in a first step a stabilisation diagram is constructed containing frequency, damping and participation information. Next, the mode shapes are found in a second least-squares step, based on the user selection of stable poles. One of the specific advantages of the technique lies in the very stable identification of the system poles and participation factors as a function of the specified system order, leading to easy-to-interpret stabilisation diagrams. This implies a potential for automating the method and to apply it to “difficult” estimation cases such as high-order and/or highly damped systems with large modal overlap. Some real-life automotive and aerospace case studies are discussed. PolyMAX is compared with classical methods concerning stability, accuracy of the estimated modal parameters and quality of the frequency response function synthesis.

  20. Analysis of Power Transfer Efficiency of Standard Integrated Circuit Immunity Test Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Au Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct power injection (DPI and bulk current injection (BCI methods are defined in IEC 62132-3 and IEC 62132-4 as the electromagnetic immunity test method of integrated circuits (IC. The forward power measured at the RF noise generator when the IC malfunctions is used as the measure of immunity level of the IC. However, the actual power that causes failure in ICs is different from forward power measured at the noise source. Power transfer efficiency is used as a measure of power loss of the noise injection path. In this paper, the power transfer efficiencies of DPI and BCI methods are derived and validated experimentally with immunity test setup of a clock divider IC. Power transfer efficiency varies significantly over the frequency range as a function of the test method used and the IC input impedance. For the frequency range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz, power transfer efficiency of the BCI test was constantly higher than that of the DPI test. In the DPI test, power transfer efficiency is particularly low in the lower test frequency range up to 10 MHz. When performing the IC immunity tests following the standards, these characteristics of the test methods need to be considered.

  1. A radiochemical study of gold electrodeposition kinetics in alkaline cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poshkus, D.; Agafonovas, G.; Zhebrauskas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetics of gold electrodeposition from alkaline cyanide solutions was investigated by the use of labelled gold 195 atoms. The absorption of cyanide containing species from alkaline cyanide and dicyanoaurate solutions on a gold electrode by the use of labelled carbon atoms was investigated. Polarization curves of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions were obtained. The values of standard potential, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and standard polarization rate were determined from polarization curves. The errors in current density caused by the nuclear disintegration statistics were evaluated. 28 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  2. Standard test methods for the strong-base resins used in the recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.A.; Lombaard, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    There are no detailed specifications for the strong-base ion-exchange resins used in continuous ion-exchange plants, and it was considered that a very useful purpose would be served by the publication of a series of standard laboratory tests on which such specifications could be based. This report describes test methods that are relevant to the ion-exchange recovery of uranium. They include tests of the physical properties of strong-base resins (relative density, particle-size distribution, and moisture content) and of their chemical properties (theoretical capacity, equilibrium capacity, kinetics of loading and elution). Included are several supporting procedures that are used in conjunction with these methods

  3. Standardization of 56Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardiyanto, Gatot; Pujadi

    2000-01-01

    Standardization of exp.56 Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods. The radionuclide use for calibration of nuclear instruments on range of energy over 1500 keV. The exp.56 Co had been produced by irradiation of proton by using a cyclotron with 15 MeV of energy and 300 mb of cross-section to natural iron target (99,5% of purity) at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after the irradiated source was dissolved in 8N HCI solution. The disintegration rate had been measured using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus, where the gamm gets sets on 511 and 847 keV gamma-rays. The result measurement is fairly good with the specific activity is 3078 n 15 Bq/mg

  4. Method of simulating spherical voids for use as a radiographic standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of simulating small spherical voids in metal is provided. The method entails drilling or etching a hemispherical depression of the desired diameter in each of two sections of metal, the sections being flat plates or different diameter cylinders. A carbon bead is placed in one of the hemispherical voids and is used as a guide to align the second hemispherical void with that in the other plate. The plates are then bonded together with epoxy, tape or similar material and the two aligned hemispheres form a sphere within the material; thus a void of a known size has been created. This type of void can be used to simulate a pore in the development of radiographic techniques of actual voids (porosity) in welds and serve as a radiographic standard

  5. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  6. Reduced time for urinary alkalinization before high-dose methotrexate with preadmission oral bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Campbell, Alan D; Yost, Kathleen J; Brinker, Brett T; Arradaza, Nicole V; Frobish, Daniel; Wehr, Alison M; O'Rourke, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Hydration and urinary alkalinization are essential for reducing renal dysfunction with high dose methotrexate (HDMTX). This report presents an analysis of institutional methods used to achieve adequate urinary alkalinization and output for patients receiving single agent HDMTX. Renal and metabolic parameters of tolerance were examined. Medical records of adult patients receiving HDMTX during the calendar years of 2008-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the time to achieve urine pH > 7. Number of hospital days, bicarbonate dose, ordered hydration rate, urine output, and urine pH were assessed. A survival analysis model was run for time to urine pH > 7 using preadmission oral bicarbonate as a predictor variable and including a frailty term. Observational statistics were performed for other parameters. The analysis included 79 encounters for ten patients. Urine pH > 7 was achieved more rapidly in patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (P = 0.012). The number of patients receiving HDMTX on the same day as admission was greater for those receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (47%) in comparison to those who did not (2%), and they spent less time in the hospital. A standard regimen for hydration and urinary alkalinization based on this project is reported. The nature and frequency of adverse events were as expected for this treatment. At our institution, the time to achieve urinary alkalinization was reduced for patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate which facilitated chemotherapy infusion on the same day as admission and decreased the number of calendar days that patients stayed in the hospital.

  7. Implementation of a standardized out-of-hospital management method for Parkinson dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Wei

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Our objective is to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a swallowing management clinic to implement out-of-hospital management for Parkinson disease (PD patients with dysphagia. Method: Two-hundred seventeen (217 voluntary PD patients with dysphagia in a PD outpatient clinic were divided into a control group with 100 people, and an experimental group with 117 people. The control group was given dysphagia rehabilitation guidance. The experimental group was presented with the standardized out-of-hospital management method as overall management and information and education materials. Rehabilitation efficiency and incidence rate of dysphagia, as well as relevant complications of both groups were compared after a 6-month intervention. Results: Rehabilitation efficiency and the incidence rate of dysphagia including relevant complications of patients treated with the standardized out-of-hospital management were compared with those seen in the control group. The differences have distinct statistics meaning (p<0.01. Conclusion: Establishing a swallowing management protocol for outpatient setting can effectively help the recovery of the function of swallowing, reduce the incidence rate of dysphagia complications and improve the quality of life in patients with PD.

  8. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  9. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  10. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  11. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the K D value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative K D values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The K D values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the K D values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  13. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Patients’ handling of a standardized medication plan: a pilot study and method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botermann L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lea Botermann,1,2 Katrin Krueger,1 Christiane Eickhoff,1 Charlotte Kloft,2 Martin Schulz1–31Department of Medicine, ABDA – Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists, Berlin, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, 3Department of Pharmacology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, GermanyPurpose: The Action Plan for Medication Safety by the German Federal Ministry of Health introduced a standardized medication plan (MP, a printable document for the patient. The practical handling needs to be tested before the nationwide implementation in Germany. Therefore, the aims of our study were 1 to develop an instrument to evaluate the usage of the standardized MP, 2 to assess if patients can locate, and 3 understand important information. Moreover, we explored patients’ opinion and suggestions regarding the standardized MP template.Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the practical handling of the standardized MP. We interviewed 40 adult patients in seven community pharmacies in Germany, who took at least five medicines regularly and gave their written informed consent. The interview consisted of questions regarding finding and understanding information provided on a mock-up MP, patients’ opinion and the execution of the information on the MP by filling pill boxes. We eventually developed a new evaluation method to quantify the practical handling of the MP by rating the pill boxes filled by the patients.Results: Overall, the participants rated the MP positively. Thirty-nine (98% participants found important information on a mock-up standardized MP. Patients were questioned to identify if they understood information on medical intake as it relates to meals. In particular, they were questioned about medicine intake “1 hour before a meal”, which 98% (n=39 interpreted correctly, and “during a meal”, which 100% (n=40

  15. Standard test method for compressive strength of grouts for preplaced-aggregate concrete in the laboratory. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    DoD adopted. This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.41 on Concrete for Radiation Shielding. Current edition approved Feb. 10, 1986 and published October 1998. Originally published as C 942-81. Last previous edition was C 942-86(1991)

  16. Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycles and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.07 on Waste Materials. The current edition was approved July 10, 1998, and published in October 1998. It was originally published as C 1220-92. The last previous edition was C 1220-92

  17. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK_a_2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO_2"−) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK_a_2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10"−"4 mM"1"−"("a "+ "b") h"−"1) × [NB]"a "= "1"."3"5 "± "0"."1"0[AA]"b "= "0"."8"9 "± "0"."0"1. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  18. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  19. Multiplex cDNA quantification method that facilitates the standardization of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Osamu; Murakami, Yasufumi; Suyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Microarray-based gene expression measurement is one of the major methods for transcriptome analysis. However, current microarray data are substantially affected by microarray platforms and RNA references because of the microarray method can provide merely the relative amounts of gene expression levels. Therefore, valid comparisons of the microarray data require standardized platforms, internal and/or external controls and complicated normalizations. These requirements impose limitations on the extensive comparison of gene expression data. Here, we report an effective approach to removing the unfavorable limitations by measuring the absolute amounts of gene expression levels on common DNA microarrays. We have developed a multiplex cDNA quantification method called GEP-DEAN (Gene expression profiling by DCN-encoding-based analysis). The method was validated by using chemically synthesized DNA strands of known quantities and cDNA samples prepared from mouse liver, demonstrating that the absolute amounts of cDNA strands were successfully measured with a sensitivity of 18 zmol in a highly multiplexed manner in 7 h. PMID:21415008

  20. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  1. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of river habitants by the k(0)-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Toyoshima, T.; Matsushita, R.; Fukuda, A.; Hibino, K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of metal concentrations in samples use reference materials for determination, which means elements out of the references are not possible to be determined. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k(O)-standardization method makes possible to determine metals without use of reference materials, which is very attractive for environmental sample analysis, River habitants would be available as a bio-indicator from which river water quality or metal contamination level could be evaluated. We analyzed river fishes and river insects by INAA with k(O)-standardization to examine the possibility of these habitants as a bio-indicator of water system. Small fishes, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia affinis were collected at 3 different rivers every month and river insects, families of Heptageniidae, Baetidae, Perlidae, Hydropsychidae, Psephenidae were collected at a fixed point of the river. The dried samples were irradiated at the research reactor, JRR-4 (3.5MW), JAERI for 10 min and 3 h. 17 elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce and Sm) were determined by the NAA-k(0) method, showing effectiveness of the present method for environmental sample analysis. The metals observed in the fishes were the highest in Ca and the lowest in Sc, ranging from 10 5 mg/kg-dry weigh in Ca to 10 -2 mg/kg-dry weight in Sc. The differences in metal concentrations were examined by statistical analysis with t-test. Ca, Na and Br concentrations differ between species, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia, and Fe, Sc, Co, Zn and Se concentrations differ among rivers. No difference was observed on K, Rb and Sr concentrations.

  3. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  4. Characterization of an absorbed dose standard in water through ionometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas V, M.X.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the unit of absorbed dose at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Mexico, is characterized by means of the development of a primary standard of absorbed dose to water, D agua . The main purpose is to diminish the uncertainty in the service of dosimetric calibration of ionization chambers (employed in radiotherapy of extemal beams) that offers this laboratory. This thesis is composed of seven chapters: In Chapter 1 the position and justification of the problem is described, as well as the general and specific objectives. In Chapter 2, a presentation of the main quantities and units used in dosimetry is made, in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) that establish the necessity to have a coherent system with the international system of units and dosimetric quantities. The concepts of equilibrium and transient equilibrium of charged particles (TCPE) are also presented, which are used later in the quantitative determination of D agua . Finally, since the proposed standard of D agua is of ionometric type, an explanation of the Bragg-Gray and Spencer-Attix cavity theories is made. These theories are the foundation of this type of standards. On the other hand, to guarantee the complete validity of the conditions demanded by these theories it is necessary to introduce correction factors. These factors are determined in Chapters 5 and 6. Since for the calculation of the correction factors Monte Carlo (MC) method is used in an important way, in Chapter 3 the fundamental concepts of this method are presented; in particular the principles of the code MCNP4C [Briesmeister 2000] are detailed, making emphasis on the basis of electron transport and variance reduction techniques used in this thesis. Because a phenomenological approach is carried out in the development of the standard of D agua , in Chapter 4 the characteristics of the Picker C/9 unit, the ionization chamber type

  5. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-11-02

    Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4-102.1%; LGCS, 10.9-65.6%; CG, 1.8-20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays.

  6. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  7. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  8. Improved retrieval of cloud base heights from ceilometer using a non-standard instrument method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Zhanqing; Hu, Shuzhen; Chen, Tianmeng; Tao, Fa; Wang, Yuzhao

    2018-04-01

    Cloud-base height (CBH) is a basic cloud parameter but has not been measured accurately, especially under polluted conditions due to the interference of aerosol. Taking advantage of a comprehensive field experiment in northern China in which a variety of advanced cloud probing instruments were operated, different methods of detecting CBH are assessed. The Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) and the Vaisala ceilometer (CL51) provided two types of backscattered profiles. The latter has been employed widely as a standard means of measuring CBH using the manufacturer's operational algorithm to generate standard CBH products (CL51 MAN) whose quality is rigorously assessed here, in comparison with a research algorithm that we developed named value distribution equalization (VDE) algorithm. It was applied to both the profiles of lidar backscattering data from the two instruments. The VDE algorithm is found to produce more accurate estimates of CBH for both instruments and can cope with heavy aerosol loading conditions well. By contrast, CL51 MAN overestimates CBH by 400 m and misses many low level clouds under such conditions. These findings are important given that CL51 has been adopted operationally by many meteorological stations in China.

  9. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  10. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Wasim Aktar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  11. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLCplates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  12. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEVRIESE, Joke; POTTEL, Hans; BEELS, Laurence; MAES, Alex; VAN DE WIELE, Christophe; GHEYSENS, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method’s specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  13. Standard Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the standard test methods available for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of interlayer materials used in multi-ply aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 Interlayer materials are used to laminate glass-to-glass, glass-to-plastic, and plastic-to-plastic. Interlayer materials are basically transparent adhesives with high-quality optical properties. They can also serve as an energy absorbing medium, a fail-safe membrane to contain cockpit pressure and to prevent entry of impact debris; a strain insulator to accommodate different thermal expansion rates of members being laminated and as an adherent to prevent spalling of inner surface ply material fragments. The relative importance of an interlayer characteristic will be a function of the prime use it serves in its particular application. 1.3 This guide, as a summary of various methods in Section 2, is intended to facilitate the selection of tests that can be applied to interlayer materials. 1.4 The test methods list...

  14. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  15. Standardization of HPTLC method for the estimation of oxytocin in edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Roopa; Medhe, Sharad; Raj, Kumar Rohit; Srivastava, Manmohan

    2013-12-01

    Adulteration in food stuff has been regarded as a major social evil and is a mind-boggling problem in society. In this study, a rapid, reliable and cost effective High Performance thin layer Chromatography (HPTLC) has been established for the estimation of oxytocin (adulterant) in vegetables, fruits and milk samples. Oxytocin is one of the most frequently used adulterant added in vegetables and fruits for increasing the growth rate and also to enhance milk production from lactating animals. The standardization of the method was based on simulation parameters of mobile phase, stationary phase and saturation time. The mobile phase used was MeOH: Ammonia (pH 6.8), optimized stationary phase was silica gel and saturation time of 5 min. The method was validated by testing its linearity, accuracy, precision, repeatability and limits of detection and quantification. Thus, the proposed method is simple, rapid and specific and was successfully employed for quality and quantity monitoring of oxytocin content in edible products.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  17. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

  18. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  19. Standard Guide for Application of Neutron Transport Methods for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IID)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Need for Neutronics Calculations—An accurate calculation of the neutron fluence and fluence rate at several locations is essential for the analysis of integral dosimetry measurements and for predicting irradiation damage exposure parameter values in the pressure vessel. Exposure parameter values may be obtained directly from calculations or indirectly from calculations that are adjusted with dosimetry measurements; Guide E944 and Practice E853 define appropriate computational procedures. 1.2 Methodology—Neutronics calculations for application to reactor vessel surveillance encompass three essential areas: (1) validation of methods by comparison of calculations with dosimetry measurements in a benchmark experiment, (2) determination of the neutron source distribution in the reactor core, and (3) calculation of neutron fluence rate at the surveillance position and in the pressure vessel. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is th...

  20. Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, E.; Berz, M.

    1988-06-01

    We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Standard guide for preparing and interpreting precision and bias statements in test method standards used in the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers terminology useful for the preparation and interpretation of precision and bias statements. 1.2 In formulating precision and bias statements, it is important to understand the statistical concepts involved and to identify the major sources of variation that affect results. Appendix X1 provides a brief summary of these concepts. 1.3 To illustrate the statistical concepts and to demonstrate some sources of variation, a hypothetical data set has been analyzed in Appendix X2. Reference to this example is made throughout this guide. 1.4 It is difficult and at times impossible to ship nuclear materials for interlaboratory testing. Thus, precision statements for test methods relating to nuclear materials will ordinarily reflect only within-laboratory variation.

  2. A standardized method to determine the concentration of extracellular vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vogel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicles such as exosomes and the availability of various technologies to measure nanosized particles, each technology having its own limitations. Materials and Methods: A standardized methodology to measure the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs has been developed and tested. The method is based on measuring the EV concentration as a function of a defined size range. Blood plasma EVs are isolated and purified using size exclusion columns (qEV and consecutively measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS. Six independent research groups measured liposome and EV samples with the aim to evaluate the developed methodology. Each group measured identical samples using up to 5 nanopores with 3 repeat measurements per pore. Descriptive statistics and unsupervised multivariate data analysis with principal component analysis (PCA were used to evaluate reproducibility across the groups and to explore and visualise possible patterns and outliers in EV and liposome data sets. Results: PCA revealed good reproducibility within and between laboratories, with few minor outlying samples. Measured mean liposome (not filtered with qEV and EV (filtered with qEV concentrations had coefficients of variance of 23.9% and 52.5%, respectively. The increased variance of the EV concentration measurements could be attributed to the use of qEVs and the polydisperse nature of EVs. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of this standardized methodology to facilitate comparable and reproducible EV concentration measurements.

  3. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Results: Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4–102.1% LGCS, 10.9–65.6% CG, 1.8–20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Conclusions: Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays. PMID:29095427

  4. Simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Rao N V S; Benjamin, Biju; Ramesh, Mullangi; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2003-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, bioanalytical methods to determine rosiglitazone in human plasma reported in literature use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop a simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in plasma employing a commercially available internal standard (IS). After the addition of celecoxib (IS), plasma (0.25 mL) samples were extracted into ethyl acetate. The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 750 microL of mobile phase and 50 microL was injected on to HPLC. The separation was achieved using a Hichrom KR 100, 250 x 4.6 mm C(18) with a mobile phase composition potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.01 m, pH 6.5):acetonitrile:methanol (40:50:10, v/v/v). The flow-rate of the mobile phase was set at 1 mL/min. The column eluate was monitored by fluorescence detector set at an excitation wavelength of 247 nm and emission wavelength of 367 nm. Linear relationships (r(2) > 0.99) were observed between the peak area ratio rosiglitazone to IS vs rosiglitazone concentrations across the concentration range 5-1000 ng/mL. The intra-run precision (%RSD) and accuracy (%Dev) in the measurement of rosiglitazone were 80% for both rosiglitazone and IS from human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 5 ng/mL. In summary, the methodology for rosiglitazone measurement in plasma was simple, sensitive and employed a commercially available IS. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  8. Comparison of Electronic Data Capture (EDC) with the Standard Data Capture Method for Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Brigitte; Hossin, Safayet; Townend, John; Abernethy, Neil; Parker, David; Jeffries, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditionally, clinical research studies rely on collecting data with case report forms, which are subsequently entered into a database to create electronic records. Although well established, this method is time-consuming and error-prone. This study compares four electronic data capture (EDC) methods with the conventional approach with respect to duration of data capture and accuracy. It was performed in a West African setting, where clinical trials involve data collection from urban, rural and often remote locations. Methodology/Principal Findings Three types of commonly available EDC tools were assessed in face-to-face interviews; netbook, PDA, and tablet PC. EDC performance during telephone interviews via mobile phone was evaluated as a fourth method. The Graeco Latin square study design allowed comparison of all four methods to standard paper-based recording followed by data double entry while controlling simultaneously for possible confounding factors such as interview order, interviewer and interviewee. Over a study period of three weeks the error rates decreased considerably for all EDC methods. In the last week of the study the data accuracy for the netbook (5.1%, CI95%: 3.5–7.2%) and the tablet PC (5.2%, CI95%: 3.7–7.4%) was not significantly different from the accuracy of the conventional paper-based method (3.6%, CI95%: 2.2–5.5%), but error rates for the PDA (7.9%, CI95%: 6.0–10.5%) and telephone (6.3%, CI95% 4.6–8.6%) remained significantly higher. While EDC-interviews take slightly longer, data become readily available after download, making EDC more time effective. Free text and date fields were associated with higher error rates than numerical, single select and skip fields. Conclusions EDC solutions have the potential to produce similar data accuracy compared to paper-based methods. Given the considerable reduction in the time from data collection to database lock, EDC holds the promise to reduce research-associated costs

  9. Comparison of electronic data capture (EDC with the standard data capture method for clinical trial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Walther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditionally, clinical research studies rely on collecting data with case report forms, which are subsequently entered into a database to create electronic records. Although well established, this method is time-consuming and error-prone. This study compares four electronic data capture (EDC methods with the conventional approach with respect to duration of data capture and accuracy. It was performed in a West African setting, where clinical trials involve data collection from urban, rural and often remote locations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three types of commonly available EDC tools were assessed in face-to-face interviews; netbook, PDA, and tablet PC. EDC performance during telephone interviews via mobile phone was evaluated as a fourth method. The Graeco Latin square study design allowed comparison of all four methods to standard paper-based recording followed by data double entry while controlling simultaneously for possible confounding factors such as interview order, interviewer and interviewee. Over a study period of three weeks the error rates decreased considerably for all EDC methods. In the last week of the study the data accuracy for the netbook (5.1%, CI95%: 3.5-7.2% and the tablet PC (5.2%, CI95%: 3.7-7.4% was not significantly different from the accuracy of the conventional paper-based method (3.6%, CI95%: 2.2-5.5%, but error rates for the PDA (7.9%, CI95%: 6.0-10.5% and telephone (6.3%, CI95% 4.6-8.6% remained significantly higher. While EDC-interviews take slightly longer, data become readily available after download, making EDC more time effective. Free text and date fields were associated with higher error rates than numerical, single select and skip fields. CONCLUSIONS: EDC solutions have the potential to produce similar data accuracy compared to paper-based methods. Given the considerable reduction in the time from data collection to database lock, EDC holds the promise to reduce research

  10. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  11. Risk assessment for mineral oil : development of standardized analitical methods in soil and soil-like materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Hutter, J.W.; Win, T.; Barnabas, I.; Whittle, P.; Hansen, N.; Sakai, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present standard methods for the determination of mineral oil in environmental matrices give a total concentration. This concentration is not found to be a good estimate for ecotoxicological, human and agricultural risks. It is shown that the existing ISO standards for mineral oil and volatile

  12. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 8, 0.08 Mechanical, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    System information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet too & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards are given for plumbing, fire protection, heating, cooling, and special (drinking water cooling systems).

  13. Evaluation of the H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, E; Massart, D L; Smeyers-Verbeke, J

    1999-10-01

    The H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and two versions of the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) are evaluated for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures. Synthetic mixtures of anhydrous caffeine and phenazone as well as of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride were used. Furthermore, the method was applied to pharmaceutical formulations that contain these compounds as active drug substances. This paper shows both the difficulties that are related to the methods and the conditions by which acceptable results can be obtained.

  14. Update of Standard Practices for New Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Sarah M R; Coucke, Wim; De Baere, Thierry; Peters, Frank T

    2017-01-01

    International agreement concerning validation guidelines is important to obtain quality forensic bioanalytical research and routine applications as it all starts with the reporting of reliable analytical data. Standards for fundamental validation parameters are provided in guidelines as those from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the German speaking Gesellschaft fur Toxikologie und Forensische Chemie (GTFCH) and the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX). These validation parameters include selectivity, matrix effects, method limits, calibration, accuracy and stability, as well as other parameters such as carryover, dilution integrity and incurred sample reanalysis. It is, however, not easy for laboratories to implement these guidelines into practice as these international guidelines remain nonbinding protocols, that depend on the applied analytical technique, and that need to be updated according the analyst's method requirements and the application type. In this manuscript, a review of the current guidelines and literature concerning bioanalytical validation parameters in a forensic context is given and discussed. In addition, suggestions for the experimental set-up, the pros and cons of statistical approaches and adequate acceptance criteria for the validation of bioanalytical applications are given. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Development of the H-point standard additions method for coupled liquid-chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campins-Falco, Pilar; Bosch-Reig, Francisco; Herraez-Hernandez, Rosa; Sevillano-Cabeza, Adela (Universidad de Valencia (Spain). Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica)

    1992-02-10

    This work establishes the fundamentals of the H-point standard additions method for liquid chromatography for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixtures with overlapped chromatographic peaks. The method was compared with the deconvolution method of peak suppression and the second derivative of elution profiles. Different mixtures of diuretics were satisfactorily resolved. (author). 21 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs.

  16. Handbook for Conducting Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) B and C Appraisals, Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Will; Miluk, Gene; Ming, Lisa; Glover, Margaret; Bisgrove, Jane; Cort, Corrine; Penn, Lynn; Jacobson, Nils; Beynon, Don; Allgood, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) provides a well-defined, publicly available set of methodologies for providing appraisals relative to Capability Maturity Model (trademark) Integration (CMMI) models...

  17. A prospective randomised study comparing the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing for total hip and knee replacements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-08-01

    It is important to reduce potential wound complications in total hip and total knee arthroplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing.

  18. A Comparison of Kernel Equating and Traditional Equipercentile Equating Methods and the Parametric Bootstrap Methods for Estimating Standard Errors in Equipercentile Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sae Il

    2009-01-01

    This study used simulation (a) to compare the kernel equating method to traditional equipercentile equating methods under the equivalent-groups (EG) design and the nonequivalent-groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and (b) to apply the parametric bootstrap method for estimating standard errors of equating. A two-parameter logistic item response…

  19. Standard test method to determine the performance of tiled roofs to wind-driven rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which roof coverings can resist water penetration from the combination of wind and rain, commonly referred to as wind driven rain, is important for the design of roofs. A new project of European Standard prEN 15601 (1 specifies a method of test to determine the performance of the roof covering against wind driven rain. The combined action of wind and rain varies considerably with geographical location of a building and the associated differences in the rain and wind climate. Three windrain conditions and one deluge condition covering Northern Europe Coastal, Central Europe and Southern Europe are specified in the project standard, each subdivided into four wind-speeds and rainfall rates to be applied to the test. The project does not contain information on the level of acceptable performance.Para el diseño de los tejados es importante determinar el punto hasta el cual éstos pueden resistirse a la penetración de agua causada por la combinación de viento y lluvia. Un nuevo proyecto de Norma Europeo prEN 15601 (1 especifica un método de ensayo para determinar el comportamiento del tejado frente a la combinación de viento y lluvia. La acción combinada de viento y lluvia varía considerablemente con la situación geográfica de un edificio y las diferencias asociadas al clima de la lluvia y del viento. El proyecto de norma especifica las condiciones de viento y lluvia y una condición de diluvio para cada una de las tres zonas de Europa: Europa del Norte y Costera, Europa Central y Europa del Sur, cada una subdividida en cuatro condiciones de velocidades de viento y caudal de lluvia para ser aplicadas en los ensayos. El proyecto no contiene la información sobre condiciones aceptables.

  20. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  1. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  2. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 12, 0.12 Sitework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for utility distribution systems, central heating, central cooling, electrical, utility support structures, paving roadways/walkways, and tunnels.

  3. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 11, 0.11 Specialty systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for canopies; loading dock systems; tanks; domes (bulk storage, metal framing); louvers & vents; access floors; integrated ceilings; and mezzanine structures.

  4. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 6, 0.06 Interior construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for conventional and specialty partitions, toilet partitions & accessories, interior doors, paint finishes/coatings/ wall covering systems; floor finishing systems; and ceiling systems.

  5. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 5, 0.05 Roofing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for built-up membrane; single- ply membrane; metal roofing systems; coated foam membrane; shingles; tiles; parapets; roof drainage system; roof specialties; and skylights.

  6. Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P.; Sheh, Yiauchung; Lewis, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immunoPET due to the favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high purity and high specific-activity 89Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52 ± 0.11 mCi/μA·h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 μA using a solid, commercially available 89Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). 89Zr was isolated in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity (>99.99%) as [89Zr]Zr-oxalate by using a solid-phase hydroxamate resin with >99.5% recovery of the radioactivity. The effective specific-activity of 89Zr was found to be in the range 5.28 – 13.43 mCi/μg (470 – 1195 Ci/mmol) of zirconium. New methods for the facile production of [89Zr]Zr-chloride are reported. Radiolabeling studies using the trihydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) gave 100% radiochemical yields in 7 days. Small-animal PET imaging studies have demonstrated that free 89Zr(IV) ions administered as [89Zr]Zr-chloride accumulate in the liver whilst [89Zr]Zr-DFO is excreted rapidly via the kidneys within <20 min. These results have important implication for the analysis of immunoPET imaging of 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The detailed methods described can be easily translated to other radiochemistry facilities and will facilitate the use of 89Zr in both basic science and clinical investigations. PMID:19720285

  7. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical method for determination of free acidity in all SRP process solutions has been developed. Free acidity was successfully determined in solutions of nitric acid and the nitrates of aluminum, chromium(III), iron(III), mercury(II), nickel(II), thorium, and uranium(VI), at metal-to-acid ratios <2.5. Sample requirements, instrumentation, and mode of operation are similar to those currently used in the Laboratories Department free acid procedures. The simple procedure would be suitable for automation and microprocessor control. The method consists of two additions of known increments of acid into a solution containing the sample aliquot (10 μmoles free acid) and 10 mL 1M potassium thiocyanate. The potential is determined in the initial solution and after each addition with a glass electrode and pH meter. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. Two programs for this iterative computation are available: one written for the PDP-15 computer and another for a Hewlett-Packard 67 (or 97) programmable calculator. The accuracy of the result is verified by a slope that approximates the theoretical Nernst value. The relative standard deviation is <2.5%. This memorandum includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which this particular system and technique logically evolved. The appendix includes a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure. The final step for completion of this RTA is training and consultation at the convenience of the Laboratories Department for demonstration of the method with process samples

  8. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    as well as carbonates in porefluids under different pCO2 levels. In a second step, we will let the minerals react to a thermodynamically stable state and thereby observe the resulting alkalinity effect and the effect on carbonate precipitation. So far, modeling showed that saturation states of some of the most common clay minerals, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and chlorite in a standard seawater solution strongly depend on silica and aluminum concentrations, but they show very little dependence on the pH. This is understandable since a congruent dissolution of clay minerals does not significantly increase or decrease the alkalinity. However, partial leaching of structural ions by incongruent dissolution/precipitation should have a strong effect on porewater alkalinity. Hence, substitution reactions will have to be simulated as part of this study. Calculated mineral alteration and rock-fluid interactions in deep sediments will contribute to a better understanding of carbonate diagenesis but also of long-term effects in subsurface CO2 storage reservoirs. Mavromatis et al. (2014) Chem. Geol. 385, 84-91. Parkhurst, D.L, and Appelo, C.A.J. (2013) U.S Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, 497 p. Wallmann et al. (2008) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 3067-3090.

  9. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  10. Highly precise Re-Os dating for molybdenite using alkaline fusion and NTIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, R; Stein, H; Morgan, J

    1998-03-01

    The technique described in this paper represents the modification and combination of two previously existing methods, alkaline fusion and negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We have used this technique to analyze repeatedly a homogeneous molybdenite powder used as a reference standard in our laboratory. Analyses were made over a period of 18 months, using four different calibrations of two different spike solutions. The age of this standard reproduces at a level of +/-0.13%. Each individual age analysis carries an uncertainty of about 0.4% that includes the uncertainty in the decay constant for (187)Re. This new level of resolution has allowed us to recognize real differences in ages for two grain-size populations of molybdenite from some Archean samples.

  11. Application of the 4 pigammaMethod to the Absolute Standardization of Radioactive Sources of Positron Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres Medina, V.; Garcia-Torano Martinez, E.; Roteta Ibarra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the application of the method known as 4 p i g amma c ounting t o the standardization of positron emitters. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the detection efficiency of positrons emitted by the nuclides 22Na and 18F. Two experimental setups are used, both based on a NaI(Tl) well detector. The results of the standardizations are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. It is shown that the 4 p i g amma m ethod can be successfully used for the absolute standardization of sources of positron emitters. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  13. Standard Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the degree of linearity of a photovoltaic device parameter with respect to a test parameter, for example, short-circuit current with respect to irradiance. 1.2 The linearity determined by this test method applies only at the time of testing, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.3 This test method applies only to non-concentrator terrestrial photovoltaic devices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  15. Customisation and Desirable Characteristics of a Standard Method of Measurement for Building Works in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study that identified andcategorised the modifications to the 5thEdition of the British Standard Method ofMeasurement (SMM5 of building works inGhana. Typical modifications involved ‘costinsignificant items’, ‘minor labour items’,‘custom units of measurement’, ‘methodrelated items’, ‘combinable items’,‘subordinate items’, and ‘items of minorinformative impact’. It was also observed thatthe desirable characteristics/ qualities ofstandard methods of measurement (SMM ofbuilding work were noteworthy, since theyprovide insight into the nature of a SMMrequired for the construction industry inGhana.The research reviewed available literature,various SMMs and bills of quantities (BQs.The relevance of the modifications andSMM characteristics identified wasconfirmed by a survey of the opinions ofprofessional quantity surveyors conductedthrough a carefully designed questionnaire.Inferences from the opinion survey formedthe basis for grouping both SMMmodifications found and the desired qualitiesof a SMM for Ghana.Survey respondents confirmed all theidentified modifications to the British SMM,except for the elimination of items of minorinformative impact. It was held that allinformation was relevant in measurement.Desirable characteristics of a SMM were ratedin decreasing order of relevance as: easylocation of items; cost significance; simplicity;thoroughness; ease of cost analysis; goodpractice; conciseness; adoptability; precision;industry practice; stakeholders’ opinion;custom classification; regional relevance; andinclusion of jargon. It was noted that therelevance of these characteristics may varyform one region to the other as a result oftechnological, cultural and legal differences.However, the desired SMM characteristicswere recommended as fundamental indeveloping an appropriate SMM for Ghana.

  16. Antipsychotic dose equivalents and dose-years: a standardized method for comparing exposure to different drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Nancy C; Pressler, Marcus; Nopoulos, Peg; Miller, Del; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2010-02-01

    A standardized quantitative method for comparing dosages of different drugs is a useful tool for designing clinical trials and for examining the effects of long-term medication side effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Such a method requires establishing dose equivalents. An expert consensus group has published charts of equivalent doses for various antipsychotic medications for first- and second-generation medications. These charts were used in this study. Regression was used to compare each drug in the experts' charts to chlorpromazine and haloperidol and to create formulas for each relationship. The formulas were solved for chlorpromazine 100 mg and haloperidol 2 mg to derive new chlorpromazine and haloperidol equivalents. The formulas were incorporated into our definition of dose-years such that 100 mg/day of chlorpromazine equivalent or 2 mg/day of haloperidol equivalent taken for 1 year is equal to one dose-year. All comparisons to chlorpromazine and haloperidol were highly linear with R(2) values greater than .9. A power transformation further improved linearity. By deriving a unique formula that converts doses to chlorpromazine or haloperidol equivalents, we can compare otherwise dissimilar drugs. These equivalents can be multiplied by the time an individual has been on a given dose to derive a cumulative value measured in dose-years in the form of (chlorpromazine equivalent in mg) x (time on dose measured in years). After each dose has been converted to dose-years, the results can be summed to provide a cumulative quantitative measure of lifetime exposure. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative 4D Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MR Imaging as a Method to Standardize Angiographic Chemoembolization Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Brian; Wang, Dingxin; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Larson, Andrew C.; Salem, Riad; Omary, Reed A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to test the hypothesis that subjective angiographic endpoints during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit consistency and correlate with objective intraprocedural reductions in tumor perfusion as determined by quantitative four dimensional (4D) transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent TACE in a combined MR/interventional radiology (MR-IR) suite. Three board-certified interventional radiologists independently graded the angiographic endpoint of each procedure based on a previously described subjective angiographic chemoembolization endpoint (SACE) scale. A consensus SACE rating was established for each patient. Patients underwent quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging immediately before and after TACE, from which mean whole tumor perfusion (Fρ) was calculated. Consistency of SACE ratings between observers was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The relationship between SACE ratings and intraprocedural TRIP-MR imaging perfusion changes was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS The SACE rating scale demonstrated very good consistency among all observers (ICC = 0.80). The consensus SACE rating was significantly correlated with both absolute (r = 0.54, P = 0.022) and percent (r = 0.85, P SACE rating scale demonstrates very good consistency between raters, and significantly correlates with objectively measured intraprocedural perfusion reductions during TACE. These results support the use of the SACE scale as a standardized alternative method to quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging to classify patients based on embolic endpoints of TACE. PMID:22021520

  18. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    DESIG: E 263 09 ^TITLE: Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron ^SIGNUSE: Refer to Guide E 844 for guidance on the selection, irradiation, and quality control of neutron dosimeters. Refer to Practice E 261 for a general discussion of the determination of fast-neutron fluence rate with threshold detectors. Pure iron in the form of foil or wire is readily available and easily handled. Fig. 1 shows a plot of cross section as a function of neutron energy for the fast-neutron reaction 54Fe(n,p)54Mn (1). This figure is for illustrative purposes only to indicate the range of response of the 54Fe(n,p)54Mn reaction. Refer to Guide E 1018 for descriptions of recommended tabulated dosimetry cross sections. 54Mn has a half-life of 312.13 days (3) (2) and emits a gamma ray with an energy of 834.845 keV (5). (2) Interfering activities generated by neutron activation arising from thermal or fast neutron interactions are 2.57878 (46)-h 56Mn, 44.95-d (8) 59Fe, and 5.27...

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Copper

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 63Cu(n,α)60Co. The cross section for 60Co produced in this reaction increases rapidly with neutrons having energies greater than about 5 MeV. 60Co decays with a half-life of 1925.27 days (±0.29 days)(1) and emits two gamma rays having energies of 1.1732278 and 1.332492 MeV (1). The isotopic content of natural copper is 69.17 % 63Cu and 30.83 % 65Cu (2). The neutron reaction, 63Cu(n,γ)64Cu, produces a radioactive product that emits gamma rays which might interfere with the counting of the 60Co gamma rays. 1.2 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. The 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction can be used to determine fast-neutron fluences for irradiation times up to about 15 years (for longer irradiations, see Practice E261). 1.3 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E261. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the...

  1. Standard metrics and methods for conducting Avian/wind energy interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis, H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Kendall, W. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The awareness of the problem of avian fatalities at large scale wind energy developments first emerged in the late 1980`s at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA) in Central California. Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass WRA triggered concern on the part of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries. This led the California Energy Commission staff, along with the planning departments of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties, to commission a study of bird mortality at the Altamont Pass WRA. In addition to the Altamont Pass WRA, other studies and observations have established that windplants kill birds. Depending upon the specific factors, this may or may not be a serious problem. The current level of scrutiny and caution exhibited during the permitting of a new windplant development in the United States results in costly delays and studies. This is occurring during a highly competitive period for electrical production companies in the USA. Clarification of the bird fatality issue is needed to bring it into perspective. This means standardizing metrics, defining terms, and recommending methods to be used in addressing or studying wind energy/bird interactions.

  2. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-02-12

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N{sub f}=1 operators.

  3. Limiting the costs of renewable portfolio standards: A review and critique of current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmayer, Gabriella; Finch, Vanessa; Komor, Paul; Mignogna, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Over half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) mandating that a minimum percentage of electricity sold derives from renewable sources. State RPSs vary widely in how they attempt to control or limit the costs of these RPSs. Approaches utilized include alternative compliance payments, direct rate caps, and cost caps on resource acquisitions, while some states employ no specific limitation at all. This paper describes how states attempt to control RPS costs and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these various cost controls. There is no one best method; however the experience to date suggests that the most important factors in implementing an effective mechanism to curtail costs are clarity of the rule, consistency in application, and transparency for customers. - Highlights: ▶ We review states' RPS statutes and regulations for mechanisms that attempt to control overall compliance costs. ▶ We categorize the major cost curtailment mechanisms. ▶ For each mechanism, we describe policy designs that are or could be implemented by states. ▶ We identify strengths and weaknesses of the various designs for consideration by policymakers.

  4. Standardization of a 89Sr solution from a BIPM intercomparison using a liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, P.A.L.; Loureiro, J.S.; Bernardes, E.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure to standardize 89 Sr (as strontium chloride) solutions, within the frame of a BIPM intercomparison, by the CIEMAT/NIST method was presented for Instagel Plus, HiSafe III and Ultima Gold liquid scintillation cocktails. The stability was studied for two types of samples: those obtained by direct addition of the 89 Sr solution and those by the extra addition of 0.5 ml of HCl (0.1 mol l -1 ) to the cocktails. The results only showed good stability with the three scintillants used when additional HCl was added to the cocktails. The activities per unit mass determined for 89 Sr were: 26.344 kBq g -1 for Instagel Plus; 26.335 kBq g -1 for HiSafe III; and 26.310 kBq g -1 for Ultima Gold (at a reference time of 2000.10.01, 00 h UT) with a total uncertainty of 0.5% in each case (k=1)

  5. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N_f=1 operators.

  6. Application of a method to measure uranium enrichment without use of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saule, F.A.; Righetti, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The determination of uranium enrichment in the many different stages present at a gaseous diffusion enrichment plant (diffusers, cisterns, deposits in pipes, drums with rests of process), or materials of deposit (plates of fuel elements not irradiated and recipients with uranium oxide), that have several geometries and physics properties of the containers, is very important for safeguards inspections. In this work is tested a non destructive analysis technique to determine the value of uranium enrichment of different samples with uranium materials without use of standards, to apply in safeguards inspections. It was used a hyper pure germanium detector with efficiency of 20% to obtain the gamma spectrum of the samples. In each spectrum, were used the net area values corresponding to four lines of U-235 (at 143, 163, 186 and 205 keV) and three lines of U-238 (258, 766 and 1001 keV); these values were analysed with two different methods. The comparison of the calculated and declared values showed a discrepancy of about 10%. (author) [es

  7. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  8. Standardizing hysteroscopy teaching: development of a curriculum using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marie-Emmanuelle; Debras, Elodie; Niro, Julien; Fernandez, Hervé; Panel, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Hysteroscopy is performed often and in many indications but is challenging to learn. Hands-on training in live patients faces ethical, legal, and economic obstacles. Virtual reality simulation may hold promise as a hysteroscopy training tool. No validated curriculum specific in hysteroscopy exists. The aim of this study was to develop a hysteroscopy curriculum, using the Delphi method to identify skill requirements. Based on a literature review using the key words "curriculum," "simulation," and "hysteroscopy," we identified five technical and non-technical areas in which skills were required. Twenty hysteroscopy experts from different French hospital departments participated in Delphi rounds to select items in these five areas. The rounds were to be continued until 80-100% agreement was obtained for at least 60% of items. A curriculum was built based on the selected items and was evaluated in residents. From November 2014 to April 2015, 18 of 20 invited experts participated in three Delphi rounds. Of the 51 items selected during the first round, only 25 (49%) had 80-100% agreement during the second round, and a third round was therefore conducted. During this last round, 80-100% agreement was achieved for 31 (61%) items, which were used to create the curriculum. All 14 residents tested felt that a simulator training session was acceptable and helped them to improve their skills. We describe a simulation-based hysteroscopy curriculum focusing on skill requirements identified by a Delphi procedure. Its development allows standardization of training programs offered to residents.

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  10. Selective methods for the maintainability and standardization of the engineering of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The main point of this work consists of a selective method for the engineering of a research reactor based on parameters, which determine a safer design, installation, operation and maintenance. The variety of tasks in a research reactor are: research, development, production of radioisotopes, etc. They are developed within the installation and the different specialties gathered for these activities. It is necessary to count on an intrinsically safe environment, from the point of view of the investigator, the operator and the maintenance personnel. In general, in both nuclear and conventional installation, independent of its size, certain investment necessities prevail, starting from its design, such as: Nuclear Security, Engineering, Versatility, Production (both for investigation and development)), Conventional Security and Physical Protection, Profitability, etc. The concepts which help us accentuate a greater benefit for the research are not found within these parameters, purpose for which this facility was created. When obtaining a simple engineering the results show an increase in security, decrease in maintenance and operative costs, less ageing and an easy operation. The plant engineering of research reactors could be titled, from the engineering and maintenance point of view, as a technological chaos. Not only for its aspect but for its physiognomy too: inaccessible to certain areas; impassable in its circulation aisles; hard to check and measure; disassemble; clean its components; thus increasing unnecessarily the personnel's exposure time. The facilities of research reactors have different disciplines used as rules for the development of the design, such as nuclear, mechanical, thermodynamical, electronic, chemical, electrical, etc. Common guide lines - from design to operation - are non-existent. This is why different manufacturers and models are found within instruments, pumps, electrical engines, illumination, etc. even when they perform

  11. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  12. A NEW APPROACH FOR CULTURING LEMNA MINOR (DUCKWEED) AND STANDARDIZED METHOD FOR USING ATRAZINE AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  13. The use of innovative teaching methods subject in training of bachelor «Standardization and metrology»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushchik E. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article considers the application of innovative teaching methods by the example of a method of collaborative learning in the laboratory practice in teaching subject «Network information technologies» to guide the preparation of 27.03.01 «Standardization and metroliya».

  14. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 2, 0.02 Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    System information is given for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. System assembly/component deficiencies and inspection methods are given for slabs-on-grade, columns, and column fireproofing.

  15. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard additions method revealed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:35 to 60:1 in the mixed samples. In addition, the limits of detections were 0.26 and 0.23 μmol L-1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The proposed method has been effectively applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  16. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  17. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  18. New clinical validation method for automated sphygmomanometer: a proposal by Japan ISO-WG for sphygmomanometer standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Osamu; Asou, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Owing to fast or stepwise cuff deflation, or measuring at places other than the upper arm, the clinical accuracy of most recent automated sphygmomanometers (auto-BPMs) cannot be validated by one-arm simultaneous comparison, which would be the only accurate validation method based on auscultation. Two main alternative methods are provided by current standards, that is, two-arm simultaneous comparison (method 1) and one-arm sequential comparison (method 2); however, the accuracy of these validation methods might not be sufficient to compensate for the suspicious accuracy in lateral blood pressure (BP) differences (LD) and/or BP variations (BPV) between the device and reference readings. Thus, the Japan ISO-WG for sphygmomanometer standards has been studying a new method that might improve validation accuracy (method 3). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriateness of method 3 by comparing immunity to LD and BPV with those of the current validation methods (methods 1 and 2). The validation accuracy of the above three methods was assessed in human participants [N=120, 45+/-15.3 years (mean+/-SD)]. An oscillometric automated monitor, Omron HEM-762, was used as the tested device. When compared with the others, methods 1 and 3 showed a smaller intra-individual standard deviation of device error (SD1), suggesting their higher reproducibility of validation. The SD1 by method 2 (P=0.004) significantly correlated with the participant's BP, supporting our hypothesis that the increased SD of device error by method 2 is at least partially caused by essential BPV. Method 3 showed a significantly (P=0.0044) smaller interparticipant SD of device error (SD2), suggesting its higher interparticipant consistency of validation. Among the methods of validation of the clinical accuracy of auto-BPMs, method 3, which showed the highest reproducibility and highest interparticipant consistency, can be proposed as being the most appropriate.

  19. New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Seiko; Yoshimura, Mana; Shindo, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Utsumi, Hiroya; Abe, Kimihiko

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123 I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; p s =-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (r s =-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

  20. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  1. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  2. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  3. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Determination of the delivered hemodialysis dose using standard methods and on-line clearance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatković Vlastimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Delivered dialysis dose has a cumulative effect and significant influence upon the adequacy of dialysis, quality of life and development of co-morbidity at patients on dialysis. Thus, a great attention is given to the optimization of dialysis treatment. On-line Clearance Monitoring (OCM allows a precise and continuous measurement of the delivered dialysis dose. Kt/V index (K = dialyzer clearance of urea; t = dialysis time; V = patient's total body water, measured in real time is used as a unit for expressing the dialysis dose. The aim of this research was to perform a comparative assessment of the delivered dialysis dose by the application of the standard measurement methods and a module for continuous clearance monitoring. Methods. The study encompassed 105 patients who had been on the chronic hemodialysis program for more than three months, three times a week. By random choice, one treatment per each controlled patient was taken. All the treatments understood bicarbonate dialysis. The delivered dialysis dose was determined by the calculation of mathematical models: Urea Reduction Ratio (URR singlepool index Kt/V (spKt/V and by the application of OCM. Results. Urea Reduction Ratio was the most sensitive parameter for the assessment and, at the same time, it was in the strongest correlation with the other two, spKt/V indexes and OCM. The values pointed out an adequate dialysis dose. The URR values were significantly higher in women than in men, p < 0.05. The other applied model for the delivered dialysis dose measurement was Kt/V index. The obtained values showed that the dialysis dose was adequate, and that, according to this parameter, the women had significantly better dialysis, then the men p < 0.05. According to the OCM, the average value was slightly lower than the adequate one. The women had a satisfactory dialysis according to this index as well, while the delivered dialysis dose was insufficient in men. The difference

  5. ARE METHODS USED TO INTEGRATE STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A CONDITIONING FACTOR OF THE LEVEL OF INTEGRATION? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Bernardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing multiple Management System Standards (M SSs and considering managing the related Management Systems (MSs as a single system.The aim of this paper is to analyze if methods us ed to integrate standardized MSs condition the level of integration of those MSs. A descriptive methodology has been applied to 343 Spanish organizations registered to, at least, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. Seven groups of these organizations using different combinations of methods have been analyzed Results show that these organizations have a high level of integration of their MSs. The most common method used, was the process map. Organizations using a combination of different methods achieve higher levels of integration than those using a single method. However, no evidence has been found to confirm the relationship between the method used and the integration level achieved.

  6. International Harmonisation Of Accounting Standards: The Case For A Mandatory Requirement For The Direct Method Of Reporting Operating Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Yap

    2011-01-01

    Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standa...

  7. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of ''125 I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''125 I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%

  8. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of 125I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''I25I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%. (Author) 14 refs

  9. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  11. Next-generation mass standard using the superconducting magnetic levitation method; Chodendo jiki fujoho ni yoru jisedai shitsuryo hyojun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Yukinobu; Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Fujii, Yusaku [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-10-25

    The Present mass standard based on the prototype of the kilogram has some serious problems such as surface contamination and unrecoverablity in the case of damage or loss. Research on monitoring and finally replacing the present mass standard are therefore encouraged and some approaches have been proposed. In this article, the superconducting magnetic levitation method, which is one of the approaches that also makes use of the unique properties of superconductivity, is reviewed together with a brief description about mass and electric standards. (author)

  12. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  13. Standard Test Method for Testing Polymeric Seal Materials for Geothermal and/or High Temperature Service Under Sealing Stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the initial evaluation of (screening) polymeric materials for seals under static sealing stress and at elevated temperatures. 1.2 This test method applies to geothermal service only if used in conjunction with Test Method E 1068. 1.3 The test fluid is distilled water. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  15. Ethanol tolerant precious metal free cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, Ilena; Zorn, Paul; Weinberger, Stephan; Grimmer, Christoph; Pichler, Birgit; Cermenek, Bernd; Gebetsroither, Florian; Schenk, Alexander; Mautner, Franz-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective ORR catalysts are presented for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells. • Perovskite based cathode catalysts show high tolerance toward ethanol. • A membrane-free alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell is presented. - Abstract: La 0.7 Sr 0.3 (Fe 0.2 Co 0.8 )O 3 and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 −based cathode catalysts are synthesized by the sol-gel method. These perovskite cathode catalysts are tested in half cell configuration and compared to MnO 2 as reference material in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). The best performing cathode is tested in single cell setup using a standard carbon supported Pt 0.4 Ru 0.2 based anode. A backside Luggin capillary is used in order to register the anode potential during all measurements. Characteristic processes of the electrodes are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Physical characterizations of the perovskite based cathode catalysts are performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction showing phase pure materials. In half cell setup, La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 shows the highest tolerance toward ethanol with a performance of 614 mA cm −2 at 0.65 V vs. RHE in 6 M KOH and 1 M EtOH at RT. This catalyst outperforms the state-of-the-art precious metal-free MnO 2 catalyst in presence of ethanol. In fuel cell setup, the peak power density is 27.6 mW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.345 V and a cathode potential of 0.873 V vs. RHE.

  16. Genotoxicity of cadmium in marine diatom Chaetoceros tenuissimus using the alkaline Comet assay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.; Nagarajappa; Goswami, U.

    of Cd increased growth of the diatom decreased. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) method, which is highly sensitive in detection of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, was used to observe genomic changes in marine diatom cells. DNA...

  17. Standardized patients in audiology: a proposal for a new method of evaluating clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Brooke Freeman; Bohnert, Carrie; Preminger, Jill E

    2013-05-01

    While accrediting organizations require AuD programs to provide evidence that their students are able to demonstrate knowledge and competencies in specific content areas, there are no generally accepted mechanisms for the assessment and the measurement of these proficiencies. We propose that AuD programs consider developing standardized patient (SP) cases in order to develop consistent summative assessment programs within and across universities. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for establishing SP programs to evaluate competencies in AuD students by detailing the history of SP cases and their use, developing a rationale for this method of assessment, and outlining the steps for writing and implementing SP cases. Literature review. SPs have been used to assess clinical competence in medical students for over 50 yr. The prevalence of SP assessment in allied health professions (e.g., dentistry, psychology, pharmacy) has increased over the last two decades but has only gained a limited following in audiology. SP assessment has been implemented in medical education using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, a multistation, timed exam that uses fictional cases to assess students' clinical abilities. To date, only one published report has been completed that evaluates the use of SPs to assess clinical abilities in audiology students. This article expands upon the work of English et al (2007) and their efforts to use SPs to evaluate counseling abilities. To this end, we describe the steps necessary to write a case, procedures to determine performance requirements, and the need to develop remediation plans. As an example, we include a case that we have developed in order to evaluate vestibular assessment and patient communication skills. Utilizing SP assessment in audiology education would provide useful means to evaluate competence in a uniform way. Future research is necessary to develop reliable and valid cases that may be implemented

  18. Standardized 15N tracer method for the determination of parameters of the whole-body protein metabolism in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Jung, K.; Matkowitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    A standardized 15 N tracer method is described for the assessment of nitrogen and protein metabolism in healthy and pathological changed organisms. The method represents an isotope technical procedure for the application in clinical research and practice. The clinical preparation of the patient/proband by means of a standardized nutritional regime, the tracer administration (single dose) and the sampling (urine, blood), the 15 N tracer technique (sample chemistry, emissionsspectrometric isotope analysis) and the mathematical evaluation of 15 N tracer data are described. (author)

  19. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  20. A Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry and Other Voltammetry Methods and a Comparison to Different Thin Film Electrodes on the Detection of Glucose in an Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer served as the base for a non-enzymatic glucose sensor in an alkaline medium, 0.1 NaOH solution, with a linear range of 50–200 mg/dL using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV measurement. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study confirmed the formation of the cuprous oxide layer on the thin gold film sensor prototype. Quantitative detection of glucose in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and undiluted human serum was carried out. Neither ascorbic acid nor uric acid, even at a relatively high concentration level (100 mg/dL in serum, interfered with the glucose detection, demonstrating the excellent selectivity of this non-enzymatic cuprous oxide thin layer-based glucose sensor. Chronoamperometry and single potential amperometric voltammetry were used to verify the measurements obtained by DPV, and the positive results validated that the detection of glucose in a 0.1 M NaOH alkaline medium by DPV measurement was effective. Nickel, platinum, and copper are commonly used metals for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The performance of these metal-based sensors for glucose detection using DPV were also evaluated. The cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer-based sensor showed the best sensitivity for glucose detection among the sensors evaluated.