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Sample records for stagonospora nodorum produces

  1. The cysteine rich necrotrophic effector SnTox1 produced by Stagonospora nodorum triggers susceptibility of wheat lines harboring Snn1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. SnTox1 was the first necrotrophic effector identified in S. nodorum, and was shown to induce necrosis on wheat lines carrying Snn1. Here, we report the molecular cloning and validation of SnTox1 as well as the preliminary characterization of the mechanism underlying the SnTox1-Snn1 interaction which leads to susceptibility. SnTox1 was identified using bioinformatics tools and verified by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. SnTox1 encodes a 117 amino acid protein with the first 17 amino acids predicted as a signal peptide, and strikingly, the mature protein contains 16 cysteine residues, a common feature for some avirulence effectors. The transformation of SnTox1 into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate was sufficient to make the strain pathogenic. Additionally, the deletion of SnTox1 in virulent isolates rendered the SnTox1 mutated strains avirulent on the Snn1 differential wheat line. SnTox1 was present in 85% of a global collection of S. nodorum isolates. We identified a total of 11 protein isoforms and found evidence for strong diversifying selection operating on SnTox1. The SnTox1-Snn1 interaction results in an oxidative burst, DNA laddering, and pathogenesis related (PR gene expression, all hallmarks of a defense response. In the absence of light, the development of SnTox1-induced necrosis and disease symptoms were completely blocked. By comparing the infection processes of a GFP-tagged avirulent isolate and the same isolate transformed with SnTox1, we conclude that SnTox1 may play a critical role during fungal penetration. This research further demonstrates that necrotrophic fungal pathogens utilize small effector proteins to exploit plant resistance pathways for their colonization, which provides important insights into the molecular

  2. SnTox5-Snn5: A novel Stagonospora nodorum effector-wheat gene interaction and its relationship with the SnToxA-Tsn1 and SnTox3-Snn3-B1 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stagonospora nodorum-wheat interaction consists of multiple pathogen - produced necrotrophic effectors that interact directly or indirectly with specific host gene products to induce the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). Here, we used a tetraploid wheat mapping population to identify an...

  3. Genetic Analysis of Disease Susceptibility Caused by Compatible Tsn1-SnToxA and Snn1-SnTox1 Interactions in the Wheat-Stagonospora Nodorum Pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagonospora nodorum is a foliar pathogen of wheat that produces several host-selective toxins (HSTs) and causes the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). The wheat genes Snn1 and Tsn1 confer sensitivity to the HSTs SnTox1 and SnToxA, respectively. The objectives of this study were to dissect, ...

  4. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  5. Development,Identification and Validation of Markers for Mmarker-Assisted Selection Against the Stagonospora nodorum Toxin Ssensitivity Genes Tsn1 and Snn2 in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat-Stagonospora nodorum pathosystem involves a number of pathogen-produced host-selective toxins that interact with host genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner to cause disease. The wheat intervarietal recombinant inbred population derived from BR34 and Grandin (BG population) segregates f...

  6. Re-Evaluation of a Tetraploid Wheat Population Indicates That the Tsn1-ToxA Interaction is the Only Factor Governing Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat Tsn1 gene on chromosome 5B confers sensitivity to the host-selective toxin ToxA produced by the pathogens that cause tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). A compatible Tsn1-ToxA interaction is known to play a major role in conferring susceptibility of hexaploid (common) wheat to...

  7. Characterising the role of GABA and its metabolism in the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mead

    Full Text Available A reverse genetics approach was used to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism in the wheat pathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The creation of mutants lacking Sdh1, the gene encoding succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, resulted in strains that grew poorly on γ-aminobutyric acid as a nitrogen source. The sdh1 mutants were more susceptible to reactive oxygen stress but were less affected by increased growth temperatures. Pathogenicity assays revealed that the metabolism of γ-aminobutyric acid is required for complete pathogenicity. Growth assays of the wild-type and mutant strains showed that the inclusion of γ-aminobutyric acid as a supplement in minimal media (i.e., not as a nitrogen or carbon source resulted in restricted growth but increased sporulation. The addition of glutamate, the precursor to GABA, had no effect on either growth or sporulation. The γ-aminobutyric acid effect on sporulation was found to be dose dependent and not restricted to Stagonospora nodorum with a similar effect observed in the dothideomycete Botryosphaeria sp. The positive effect on sporulation was assayed using isomers of γ-aminobutyric acid and other metabolites known to influence asexual development in Stagonospora nodorum but no effect was observed. These data demonstrate that γ-aminobutyric acid plays an important role in Stagonospora nodorum in responding to environmental stresses while also having a positive effect on asexual development.

  8. Dissection of effector-induced host susceptibility pathways in Stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrotrophic Stagonospora nodorum-wheat interaction is characterized by several pathogen-derived proteinaceous host-selective toxins (SnToxA, SnTox1, SnTox2, SnTox3 and SnTox4) that induce diseases in the host carrying a corresponding dominant susceptibility gene (Tsn1, Snn1, Snn2, Snn3 and Snn4...

  9. Dothideomycete-plant interactions illuminated by genome sequencing and EST analysis of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hane, J.K.; Lowe, R.G.T.; Solomon, P.S.; Tan, K.C.; Schoch, C.L.; Spatafora, J.W.; Crous, P.W.; Kodira, C.; Birren, B.W.; Galagan, J.E.; Torriani, S.F.F.; McDonald, B.A.; Oliver, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Stagonospora nodorum is a major necrotrophic fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a member of the Dothideomycetes, a large fungal taxon that includes many important plant pathogens affecting all major crop plant families. Here, we report the acquisition and initial analysis of a draft

  10. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  11. Determining the order of resistance genes against Stagonospora nodorum blotch, Fusarium head blight and stem rust on wheat chromosome arm 3BS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rima; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Ohm, Herbert W; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Wise, Kiersten A; Goodwin, Stephen B

    2016-02-02

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust (SR), caused by the fungi Parastagonospora (synonym Stagonospora) nodorum, Fusarium graminearum and Puccinia graminis, respectively, significantly reduce yield and quality of wheat. Three resistance factors, QSng.sfr-3BS, Fhb1 and Sr2, conferring resistance, respectively, to SNB, FHB and SR, each from a unique donor line, were mapped previously to the short arm of wheat chromosome 3B. Based on published reports, our hypothesis was that Sr2 is the most distal, Fhb1 the most proximal and QSng.sfr-3BS is in between Sr2 and Fhb1 on wheat chromosome arm 3BS. To test this hypothesis, 1600 F2 plants from crosses between parental lines Arina, Alsen and Ocoroni86, conferring resistance genes QSng.sfr-3BS, Fhb1 and Sr2, respectively, were genotyped and phenotyped for SNB along with the parental lines. Five closely linked single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to make the genetic map and determine the gene order. The results indicate that QSng.sfr-3BS is located between the other two resistance genes on chromosome 3BS. Knowing the positional order of these resistance genes will aid in developing a wheat line with all three genes in coupling, which has the potential to provide broad-spectrum resistance preventing grain yield and quality losses.

  12. Toward the molecular cloning of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn2 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoria nodorum blotch is a disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. In the wheat-P. nodorum pathosystem, recognition of pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) by dominant host genes leads to host cell death, which allows the pathogen to gain nutrients an...

  13. A Review of the Interactions between Wheat and Wheat Pathogens: Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium spp. and Parastagonospora nodorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Duba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. There are no sources of complete resistance to the above pathogens in wheat. Defense mechanisms in wheat are controlled by many genes encoding resistance traits. In the wheat genome, the characteristic features of loci responsible for resistance to pathogenic infections indicate that at least several dozen genes encode resistance to pathogens. The molecular interactions between wheat and Z. tritici, P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. pathogens have been insufficiently investigated. Most studies focus on the mechanisms by which the hemibiotrophic Z. tritici suppresses immune responses in plants and the role of mycotoxins and effector proteins in infections caused by P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. fungi. Trichothecene glycosylation and effector proteins, which are involved in defense responses in wheat, have been described at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have produced interesting findings which should be further elucidated in studies of molecular interactions between wheat and fungal pathogens. The Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/ CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas system can be used to introduce targeted mutations into the wheat genome and confer resistance to selected fungal diseases. Host-induced gene silencing and spray-induced gene

  14. Mapping of SnTox3-Snn3 as a major determinant of field susceptibility to Septoria nodorum leaf blotch in the SHA3/CBRD x Naxos population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen of wheat, causing Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) affecting both the leaf and glume. P. nodorum is the major leaf blotch pathogen on spring wheat in Norway. Resistance to the disease is quantitative, but several host-specific interactions between nec...

  15. Map-Based Cloning of the Fungal Toxin Sensitivity Gene Tsn1 in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL confers sensitivity to the host-selective proteinaceous toxins Ptr ToxA and SnToxA produced by the pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Stagonospora nodorum, respectively. Compatible Tsn1-ToxA interactions lead to extensive cell death and...

  16. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and its close relatives indicate cryptic species and an origin in the Fertile Crescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Megan C; Razavi, Mohammad; Friesen, Timothy L; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2012-11-01

    The origin of the fungal wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum remains unclear despite earlier intensive global population genetic and phylogeographical studies. We sequenced 1683 bp distributed across three loci in 355 globally distributed Phaeosphaeria isolates, including 74 collected in Iran near the center of origin of wheat. We identified nine phylogenetically distinct clades, including two previously unknown species tentatively named P1 and P2 collected in Iran. Coalescent analysis indicates that P1 and P2 are sister species of P. nodorum and the other Phaeosphaeria species identified in our analysis. Two species, P. nodorum and P. avenaria f. sp. tritici 1 (Pat1), comprised ~85% of the sampled isolates, making them the dominant wheat-infecting pathogens within the species complex. We designed a PCR-RFLP assay to distinguish P. nodorum from Pat1. Approximately 4% of P. nodorum and Pat1 isolates showed evidence of hybridization. Measures of private allelic richness at SSR and sequence loci suggest that the center of origin of P. nodorum coincides with its host in the Fertile Crescent. We hypothesize that the origin of this species complex is also in the Fertile Crescent, with four species out of nine found exclusively in the Iranian collections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance in barley against Drechslera teres induced by Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Lobeck, P.S.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    1998-01-01

    1.4.31 RESISTANCE IN BARLEY AGAINST DRECHSLERA TERES INDUCED BY BIPOLARIS MAYDIS AND SEPTORIA NODORUM HJL JORGENSEN, PS LOBECK, H THORDAL-CHRISTENSEN, E de NEERGAARD and V SMEDEGAARD-PETERSEN Department of Plant Biology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaidsensvej 40, DK-1871 Fr...

  18. SnTox1, a Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector, is a dual-function protein that facilitates infection while protecting from wheat-produced chitinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gao, Yuanyuan; Kim, Yong Min; Faris, Justin D.; Shelver, Weilin L.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Xu, Steven S.; Friesen, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    SnTox1 induces programmed cell death and the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes including chitinases. Additionally, SnTox1 has structural homology to several plant chitin-binding proteins. Therefore, we evaluated SnTox1 for chitin binding and localization. We transformed an avirulent

  19. SnTox3 acts in effector triggered susceptibility to induce disease on wheat carrying the Snn3 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple proteinaceous host-selective toxins (HSTs which act in effector triggered susceptibility. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the SnTox3-encoding gene, designated SnTox3, as well as the initial characterization of the SnTox3 protein. SnTox3 is a 693 bp intron-free gene with little obvious homology to other known genes. The predicted immature SnTox3 protein is 25.8 kDa in size. A 20 amino acid signal sequence as well as a possible pro sequence are predicted. Six cysteine residues are predicted to form disulfide bonds and are shown to be important for SnTox3 activity. Using heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and transformation into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate, we show that SnTox3 encodes the SnTox3 protein and that SnTox3 interacts with the wheat susceptibility gene Snn3. In addition, the avirulent S. nodorum isolate transformed with SnTox3 was virulent on host lines expressing the Snn3 gene. SnTox3-disrupted mutants were deficient in the production of SnTox3 and avirulent on the Snn3 differential wheat line BG220. An analysis of genetic diversity revealed that SnTox3 is present in 60.1% of a worldwide collection of 923 isolates and occurs as eleven nucleotide haplotypes resulting in four amino acid haplotypes. The cloning of SnTox3 provides a fundamental tool for the investigation of the S. nodorum-wheat interaction, as well as vital information for the general characterization of necrotroph-plant interactions.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a ToxA-like gene from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxA, the first discovered fungal proteinaceous host-selective toxin, was originally identified from the tan spot fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Homologues of the PtrToxA gene have not been identified from any other ascomycetes except the leaf/glume blotch fungus Stagonospora nodorum, w...

  1. Diversity of Mn oxides produced by Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2011-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are environmentally abundant, highly reactive mineral phases that mediate the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, contaminants, carbon, and numerous other elements. Despite the belief that microorganisms (specifically bacteria and fungi) are responsible for the majority of Mn oxide formation in the environment, the impact of microbial species, physiology, and growth stage on Mn oxide formation is largely unresolved. Here, we couple microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the Mn oxides produced by four different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi ( Plectosphaerella cucumerina strain DS2psM2a2 , Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, and Acremonium strictum strain DS1bioAY4a) isolated from acid mine drainage treatment systems in central Pennsylvania. The site of Mn oxide formation varies greatly among the fungi, including deposition on hyphal surfaces, at the base of reproductive structures (e.g., fruiting bodies), and on envisaged extracellular polymers adjacent to the cell. The primary product of Mn(II) oxidation for all species growing under the same chemical and physical conditions is a nanoparticulate, poorly-crystalline hexagonal birnessite-like phase resembling synthetic δ-MnO 2. The phylogeny and growth conditions (planktonic versus surface-attached) of the fungi, however, impact the conversion of the initial phyllomanganate to more ordered phases, such as todorokite ( A. strictum strain DS1bioAY4a) and triclinic birnessite ( Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a). Our findings reveal that the species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi impacts the size, morphology, and structure of Mn biooxides, which will likely translate to large differences in the reactivity of the Mn oxide phases.

  2. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly eDzhavakhiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or chemosensitization. Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of A. alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of F. sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  3. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Jin, Yue; Turnipseed, Brent; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-01-01

    Tan spot (TS), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died) Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i) acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii) incorporation of ...

  4. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  5. Producing Against Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypeij, Annelou

    2000-01-01

    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison

  6. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  7. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  8. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  9. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  10. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  11. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-04

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  12. TRIAL: Producing Media Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWeeney, Mark G.

    TRIAL (Technique for Retrieving Information from Abstracts of Literature) is an information storage and retrieval system which can be used by school media specialists to produce indexes of non-print materials. This manual provides a step by step approach for media specialists to automate their non-print holdings. These procedures can also be…

  13. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...

  14. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    ’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  15. (PHB)-producing bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of two novel polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing bacteria. ... subsequently studied using phenotype microarray panels which allowed the testing of the effect of more than 90 different carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus sources as well as pH on the growth characteristics of these strains.

  16. Producing colloids with microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Willaime, Herve; Tabeling, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Submicronic emulsions are commonly used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and material industries. Standard microfluidic tool is particularly convenient to produce in a very controlled way either droplets of typical diameter ranging from 10 to 300 microns with a perfect monodispersity (nanodrops in a way that is slightly dependent on the fluids used. The control on such a flow authorizes the adjustment of the diameter of the colloids formed. We will show brownian particles from 860 nm to 1.3 μm in diameter obtained in such way and their clustering into crystals thanks to their high monodispersity. These first experimental results are very promising and make evident the great potential of micro and nano-fluidics to produce nano-emulsions or colloids with very controlled size that metamaterials can require.

  17. Means for producing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhelm, G.L.

    1929-01-22

    This patent describes a gas-generating apparatus which works in combination with a gas-generating receptacle. The process requires a means for supplying finely divided carbon to said receptable, means for supplying a flame under pressure to hold said carbon in suspension, a conduit for conducting the combustible gas produced from said receptacle, and synchronously operating mechanical means for controlling said carbon-supplying means and said flame-supplying means.

  18. Producing images by ionography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullan, B.R.; Dovas, T.; Mootes, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for producing images by ionography and recording and storing same for display, comprising means for forming and recording a latent ionographic image on an electrically insulating film within a gas ionisation chamber between electrodes, scanning the latent image formed by an X-ray source, by means of an array of scanning electrodes movable on a platform to scan the latent image, the output signals from said scanning electrodes being amplified and digitised and thereafter placed in a digital storage and display device. (author)

  19. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  20. Colorectal adenomas produce lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C A

    2003-01-01

    Lysozyme is an innate non-immunologic antibacterial enzyme produced by the Paneth cells of the upper intestinal tract. Lysozyme is not normally secreted in the lower intestinal tract. Previous reports indicate, however, that lysozyme may be secreted by colorectal neoplasias. The aim was to audit lysozyme expression in colorectal diseases including neoplasias. For that purpose, sections were stained with lysozyme (Muramidase), Ki67 (MIB1) and CD 68. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was compared among 177 colorectal tissues: 35 having normal mucosa, 20 regenerative mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 2 inflammatory polyps, 3 collagenous colitis, 2 melanosis coli, 21 hyperplastic polyps, 42 tubular adenomas, 9 serrated adenomas, 30 villous adenomas and 13 invasive carcinomas. Intense lysozyme overexpression (+++) was found in 9.5% of the hyperplastic polyps, in 97.6% of the tubular adenomas, in 88.9% of the serrated adenomas, in 93.3% of the villous adenomas, in 76.9% of the carcinomas, but in none of the other tissues investigated. Neoplastic colorectal cells may acquire the capacity to produce lysozyme. The presence of that enzyme may not be a haphazard, capricious event in mutated colorectal epithelial cells but part of a more elaborate molecular behavior, not necessarily antibacterial. Recently, it was demonstrated that patients having lysozyme-secreting breast carcinomas were associated with a favorable prognosis. Whether lysozyme expression has any bearing on the biological behavior of colorectal carcinomas remains to be elucidated. Lysozyme overexpression (+++) also occurred in 2 of the 21 hyperplastic polyps, suggesting that intense lysozyme production might herald a possible dysplastic evolution in some hyperplastic polyps.

  1. Development of Producibility Evaluation Criteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkins, Jr., James R; Kraine, Gilbert L; Thompson, Daniel H; Borchers, Kenneth H; Borchers, Marilyn M

    1993-01-01

    .... To accept this definition is to equate producibility with productivity, and normally leads to consideration of many more elements than should be taken into account for evaluating producibility...

  2. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  3. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  4. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  5. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  6. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  7. Producing energy efficiently; Energieeffizient produzieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass, H.W.; Schumacher, M.; Coy, C; Pfister, J.; Finkbeiner, M.; Kuehnle, J.; Kiel, E.; Duerrschmidt, R.; Diede, J.; Scheffels, G.; Kranz, H.; Simon, J.; Diebold, K.; Koch, H.R.; Lehnhardt, M.

    2008-04-07

    Producing energy efficiently means saving much energy and money. Drives are responsible for the accounting of power for companies. The fair shows examples on the complete field of producing sector, hits the advantages of heat recovery and an efficient cooling. (GL)

  8. The War Against Drug Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Herschel I. Grossman; Daniel Mejia

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a war against the producers of illegal hard drugs. This war occurs on two fronts. First, to prevent the cultivation of crops that are the raw material for producing drugs the state engages the drug producers in conflict over the control of arable land. Second, to impede further the production and exportation of drugs the state attempts to eradicate crops and to interdict drug shipments. The model also includes an interested outsider who uses both a stick and a c...

  9. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  10. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  11. User producer interaction in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream

  12. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    in E.coli is increasing and especially isolates producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) have been reported worldwide. Treatment of UTI is usually initiated by the general practitioners and a significant proportion of clinical isolates are now resistant to first line antibiotics. The global...... dissemination of resistant E.coli has in particular been driven by the spread of a few specific E.coli-lineages and it seems that there is a difference between the sequence types found among resistant E.coli, ESBL-producing E.coli and antibiotic susceptible E.coli. The overall objectives of this thesis were...... to investigate (i) antibiotics involved in selection of ESBL-producing E.coli, in an experimental mouse model in vivo, (ii) risk factors for UTI with ESBL-producing E.coli and (iii) to describe the phylogenetic composition of E.coli populations with different resistance patterns. We found that different...

  13. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  16. Smoke producing and inflammable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms EB; van Xanten NHW; Meulenbelt J

    1990-01-01

    On behalf of the AMGB (Afdeling Militair Geneeskundig Beleid) toxicological reviews have been made about several smoke producing and inflammable materials. The reviews have been made after a literature search and are meant to complete or to replace the concerning chapters in the NATO handbook on

  17. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  18. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  19. Cattle producers' perceptions of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marnie L; Christley, Robert M

    2013-04-10

    The limited use of biosecurity practices by many in the farming community is likely to be due to a range of factors; further understanding of this issue is required. In this study, attitudes and behaviours of producers relating to selected biosecurity practices and the farming industry were studied by interviewing cattle farmers within a 100 km2 study area in north-west England using an interview-based questionnaire. Most producers appeared to be familiar with the broad concept of the term biosecurity, although risks due to indirect contacts, rather than direct (animal) contacts, were more frequently highlighted. Most producers felt the nominated biosecurity practices were in some way useful, however there was not always agreement between the usefulness of a practice and it being undertaken, and vice versa. In agreement with other studies conducted in the UK, farmers most preferred to obtain information and advice on biosecurity from private veterinarians, but also highlighted DEFRA as a source. This study highlights the importance of understanding the motivators and barriers behind the uptake of biosecurity practices on farms, as perceptions are variable. Further understanding of these issues is needed in order to more effectively communicate information in regards to herd health and disease prevention. By identifying differences in producers' attitudes, programs can be tailored specifically to individuals' needs.

  20. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  1. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  2. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  3. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  4. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  5. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are ...... for environmental sustainability. This is exemplified by soy, whose cultivation undermines the climate benefit claimed for soy-based biodiesel. This paper concludes that to certify soy monocultures as sustainable would exacerbate existing climatic and environmental problems....

  6. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  7. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  8. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  9. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  10. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced.......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...

  11. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  12. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  13. Electromagnetic pulses produced by expanding laser-produced Au plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, J.; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Krouský, Eduard; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Limpouch, J.; Margarone, Daniele; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 239-243 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * electromagnetic pulse (EMP) * return target current * Moebius loop antenna * inductive target probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2015

  14. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  15. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  16. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  17. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  18. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  19. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  1. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  2. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  3. Genetic engineering of to produce Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHAs), in the sense of an environmental precaution appears meaningful and necessary. In order to more economically produce microbial products, this investigation was focused on suitable producers, like the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.19 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, honey beyond personal use and having value at first point of sale. ... person who is engaged in the production and sale of honey in any State and who owns, or shares the...

  5. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by bacteria and fungi to reduce surface and interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of submerge cashew bagasse (Anacardium occidentale) using a microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proximate ...

  6. Off shore produced water treatment with pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas also water is produced. This produced water contains dispersed and dissolved oil components. The impact of offshore emissions of produced water on the environment and the treatment of technologies for it are currently under discussion. Emission limits tend to

  7. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  13. 7 CFR 983.24 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 983.24 Section 983.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.24 Producer. Producer means any person engaged within the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...

  15. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (TS, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii incorporation of TS susceptibility during development stem rust resistant cultivars led to an increase in TS epidemics globally. Most genotypes were susceptible to stem rust; however, a range of reactions to TS and Ptr ToxA were observed. Four combinations of disease-toxin reactions were observed among the genotypes; TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA sensitive, TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA insensitive, TS resistant-Ptr ToxA insensitive, and TS resistant-Ptr ToxA toxin sensitive. A weak correlation (r = 0.14 for bread wheat and −0.082 for durum was observed between stem rust susceptibility and TS resistance. Even though there were no reported epidemics in the pre-1940s, TS sensitive genotypes were widely grown in that period, suggesting that Ptr ToxA may not be an important factor responsible for enhanced prevalence of TS.

  16. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Jin, Yue; Turnipseed, Brent; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-04-01

    Tan spot (TS), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died) Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i) acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii) incorporation of TS susceptibility during development stem rust resistant cultivars led to an increase in TS epidemics globally. Most genotypes were susceptible to stem rust; however, a range of reactions to TS and Ptr ToxA were observed. Four combinations of disease-toxin reactions were observed among the genotypes; TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA sensitive, TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA insensitive, TS resistant-Ptr ToxA insensitive, and TS resistant-Ptr ToxA toxin sensitive. A weak correlation (r = 0.14 for bread wheat and -0.082 for durum) was observed between stem rust susceptibility and TS resistance. Even though there were no reported epidemics in the pre-1940s, TS sensitive genotypes were widely grown in that period, suggesting that Ptr ToxA may not be an important factor responsible for enhanced prevalence of TS.

  17. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  18. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  19. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  20. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  1. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  2. Music Teacher as Writer and Producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    In this article I attempt to redefine the role of a music teacher as being more than a director, the more traditional term ascribed to this position. I do this by using descriptions of the role of "writer" and "producer" of student lives borrowed from music education philosophy, screenwriting, and professional music producers. This vision is…

  3. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  4. Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verotoxigenic producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) or Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli. (STEC) are recognized as an important human pathogen of public health concern (Bettelheim & Beutin, 2003). Whereas STEC isolates belong to many different sero- types, E. coli O157:H7 and an occasional non-motile.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first point of sale. ... producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the United States and who owns, or shares the ownership and risk of loss of the crop for sale in the U.S. market or...

  6. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water.

  7. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  8. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  11. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and

  12. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  13. Producer services, economic geography, and services tradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vaal, A; van den Berg, M

    We investigate how the incorporation of producer services linkages affects the outcome of an economic geography model. We specify the production of manufactures such that a variety of producer services is needed to transform tradable unfinished goods into final consumption goods. We find that

  14. Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced from local starch sources. ... The syrups were produced, using acid hydrolysis, from starches obtained from Colocasia esculenta, Zea mays and Manihot palmata. The viable bacterial count gave low counts of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus subtills ...

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing bacteria from Malaysia hot springs. ... The strains were further analyzed in broth culture using sodium phytate as substrate. Among them, strain L3 was selected as the best producer (0.16 U/ml after 72 h of culture). This phytase showed optimal activity at 37 °C ...

  16. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  17. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  18. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  19. US producers in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.

    1987-01-01

    The current (1986) situation in the world-wide uranium market is explained and the competitiveness of United States producers is considered in this context. Historical export contracts by US producers are examined to evaluate how sales quantities by region have changed. The influence of inflation and exchange rates on production costs are considered. The threat of US protectionism is discussed. Despite the contraction of the US uranium industry in recent years a number of US producers have remained competitive. Factors which could increase US competitiveness are listed. (U.K.)

  20. Benefits and Pitfalls: Producing TV News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Laura

    1974-01-01

    Examines the live television news show produced by students and faculty at Northern Illinois University with the aim of helping others avoid some difficulties and frustrations when setting up a similar show in their journalism curriculum. (TO)

  1. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430... in 1999 or 2000 and not affiliated with other eligible producers may receive payments from sums made...

  2. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  3. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Schmidt, Andrew J [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine, J [Decatur, IL

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  4. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  5. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  6. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  7. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  8. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  9. Quest II produce quality research overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.C.; Paillart, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Quest II control algorithm (patent pending), developed by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research together with Maersk Line and Carrier Transicold, reduces the energy consumption of reefer containers by approx. 65% without impairing produce quality.

  10. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L; O& #x27; Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  11. Handbook of fresh produce transportation to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borbon-Galvez, Yari

    1998-01-01

    This handbook presents the current logistics operations for fresh produce exports and lists relevant service providers. For each logistics section such as packing, transportation, insurance, customs brokerage, and other related services, there is a list of quoting firms and those related with the investigation. The handbook was designed not only to identify the cheapest routes to move cargo from Mexico to Europe, but also provided various alternatives according to the fresh produce shelf-life.

  12. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  13. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  14. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, D T; Shotwell, O L; Adams, G L

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  15. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  18. Learning to produce predicted static handgrip forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Karsai, I

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prove the hypothesis that kinaesthetic sensations, without visual or verbal guidance, give sufficient information to produce predictive handgrip forces. The ability of 70 girls and 70 boys aged 11 to 17 years to produce predicted static handgrip force was examined. The subjects were requested to produce 50% of their individual maximum handgrip force and maintain it for 2 seconds without visual control. Ten trials were done first by the right-hand and then by the left-hand. The maximum grip strength increased parallel with age, but significant differences were found between both the right and the left-hand, and the genders. Close correlations were found between the desired and the exerted forces. The differences between the desired forces and the exerted forces produced by the fifth trials were significantly smaller than that of the first trials. The verbal information about each exerted force contributed to the learning with right-hand since it caused a further decrease in the difference between the desired force and the exerted force. In contrast, the learning with left-hand was not enhanced by verbal feedback. These results suggest that kinaesthetic feedback information from the hand plays an effective role in learning to produce predicted grip strengths without visual and verbal information.

  19. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  20. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and humic substances. Microbial polysaccharides are multifunctional and can be divided into intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides, and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of marine microorganisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of current knowledge on extracellular polysaccharides producing marine bacteria isolated from marine environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficient...... at developing important kayaking product innovations than were producers in aggregate. We speculate that this result is driven by what we term “efficiencies of scope” in problem-solving. These can favor an aggregation of many user innovators, each spending a little, over fewer producer innovators benefitting...... from higher economies of scale in product development. We also note that the present study explores only one initial point on what is likely to be a complex efficiency landscape....

  2. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  3. A method for producing cable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, V.V.; Atarukov, A.G.; Borisenko, P.N.; Filippov, F.I.; Kazanskii, V.L.; Khromova, G.K.; Musaev, D.D.; Prokof' ev, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The method for producing cable oil, which involves mixing petroleum oil with a polymer product, is improved by using a polymerization product which contains polyisobutylene with a 9,000-15,000 molecular mass. Following the mixing, easily combustible fractions and gaseous products are separated out to the point where the concentrations of polyisobutylene in the prepared oil reaches 16-20 percent. Adding 5 percent colophony into the cable oil makes it possible to produce a product which has increased stability and high electric indicators. In aging the existing cable soaking oil, the oil's specific volumetric resistance falls from -.65 X 10/sup 9/ to -2 X 10/sup 10/ Om X cm, while the dielectric loss increases 10 times or more; the oil, produced by the proposed method, has a resistivity which drops from 0.88 X 10/sup 14/ Om X cm; the sample, containing colophony, has a dielectric loss increase by a factor of two.

  4. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  5. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  6. Polyamic Acid Nanofibers Produced by Needleless Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Jirsak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyimide precursor (polyamic acid produced of 4,4′-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 4,4′-oxydianiline was electrospun using needleless electrospinning method. Nonwoven layers consisting of submicron fibers with diameters in the range about 143–470 nm on the polypropylene spunbond supporting web were produced. Filtration properties of these nanofiber layers on the highly permeable polypropylene support—namely filtration effectivity and pressure drop—were evaluated. Consequently, these polyamic acid fibers were heated to receive polyimide nanofibers. The imidization process has been studied using IR spectroscopy. Some comparisons with the chemically identical polyimide prepared as the film were made.

  7. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    of the foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on-line writing in Web presences. The Web changes writing as a knowledge-making practice by offering...... perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers...

  8. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  9. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  10. Article and process for producing an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Jacala, Ariel Caesar Prepena; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Schick, David Edward

    2017-10-24

    An article and a process of producing an article are provided. The article includes a base material, a cooling feature arrangement positioned on the base material, the cooling feature arrangement including an additive-structured material, and a cover material. The cooling feature arrangement is between the base material and the cover material. The process of producing the article includes manufacturing a cooling feature arrangement by an additive manufacturing technique, and then positioning the cooling feature arrangement between a base material and a cover material.

  11. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  12. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  13. Atmospheric signals produced by cavity rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; App, F.N.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the atmospheric acoustic signals produced by a class of low-yield tests conducted just below the base of the alluvial cover in Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has revealed a clear manifestation of an elastic, cavity rebound signal. We use modeling as the basis for understanding the observed phenomena

  14. Interaction of multiwalled carbon nanotube produces structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been found to produce structural changes in Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA). The interaction or binding of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was investigated in order to discover if it brings about any significant changes of the DNA double helix using CD spectra ...

  15. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  16. Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Three services were given particular attention in the case studies: marketing, access to technology, and business and management skills acquisition. Each case study – from Bolivia, Bangladesh, El Salvador, Ghana, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe – shows how small producers were introduced to new production and marketing ...

  17. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    to be combined in a patterned way. – Web services stacks, iOS, Android, LAMP stack, AUTOSAR, SCADA and controls, ERP/ SCM / CRM infrastructure, network...At the core of the ability to achieve integration and maintain mission agility is the ability of the DoD to produce and evolve software. – Critical

  18. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  19. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  20. Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Metabolic Engineering: Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals. Ram Kulkarni. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 233-237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. User producer interaction in context: a classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Roel; Moors, Ellen; Smits, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation Studies show that intensified user producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations, especially in the case of emerging technology. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This paper

  2. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  3. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-06

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  4. Producing Liquid Oxygen in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 "Classic Chemistry Demonstrations" (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 221-2). The method…

  5. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  6. 7 CFR 955.9 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 955.9 Section 955.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions...

  7. Hexamethonium produces both twitch and tetanic depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexamethonium, however does not produce tetanic fade at the same concentration. We hypothesized that the cholinoceptors of the neuromuscular junction of the common African toad (Bufo regularis) resemble the developing synapse of African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) and may contain muscarinic M1 autoreceptors ...

  8. Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important agent of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children less than five years old and elderly people. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of verotocytoxin producing E. coli 0157 (VTEC O157) among human patients with diarrhoea in ...

  9. Isolation of phytohormones producing plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of phytohormones producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from weeds growing in Khewra salt range, Pakistan and their implication in providing ... salt range and the results were compared with strain Rak isolated from rhizosphere (EC: 0.2 dS/m) of Solanum surratense grown in arid area of district Attock.

  10. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  11. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Micha; Nielsen, Marc Trunjer Kusk; Möller, Sören

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhoeal disease, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of STEC and the clinical features of STEC patients from a well-defined Danish population in which all fecal...

  12. Distribution of urease producing bacteria in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prerogative of any particular group, birt rather spread over representatives of both facultative and obligately anaerobic genera. Wozny et al (1977) reported 5,890 urease producers in bovine rumen contents and 140/o in human faeces. These figures did not take into consideration the significant contribution to total ...

  13. Isolation of phytohormones producing plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... tion of these PGPR strains as bio-inoculant on soybean has been demonstrated. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... SIM) produced by Azospirillum brasilense Az39 and. Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109. .... early seedling growth in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). Eur. J. Soil. Biol. 45: 28-35.

  14. Producing alpha-olefins using polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Katz, Leonard; Steen, Eric J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-02

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an .alpha.-olefin, such as 1-hexene or butadiene. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the .alpha.-olefin.

  15. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  16. How to Produce a Small Newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward; And Others

    A how-to manual for people interested in the mechanics of newspaper production, this book was produced by the editors of a small town newspaper. Chapters about content, printing, typography, pasteup, design and layout, advertising, circulation and distribution, financial matters, and deadlines contain practical discussions of details such as what…

  17. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  18. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics, total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) and some heavy metal levels of produced water from terminals of two oil industry facilities in Nigeria, using standard methods. Appropriate sample bottles were used in the collection of samples for analyses of BOD, other ...

  19. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  20. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  1. (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... carbapenems (Patricia, 2001; Bush, 2001). The β-lactamases produced by bacteria are ... among clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (Sanders and Sanders, 1992). ESBLs have ..... lactamases among multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species causing urinary tract infections in ...

  2. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, W.; Bailey, W.H.; Leary, D.F.; Lansley, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles and more particularly to a method and apparatus which are particularly useful in connection with the sol-gel process for the production of nuclear fuel kernels. (U.K.)

  4. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  5. Isolation and characterisation of actinomycin D producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudanese soil is an unexplored source of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. Here, we reported the screening of soil samples from Sudan for actinomycetes that have antibacterial activity. Two isolates, AH11.4 and AH47, displaying a broad antimicrobial spectrum were selected for further study. Morphological ...

  6. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  7. Transforming business education to produce global managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis-Danskin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of businesses has occurred faster than the internationalization of business schools—in terms of faculty, students, and curriculum. Indeed, there is now a disconnect between global economic realities and the ability of business schools to produce global managers. This

  8. Potential cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase producer from locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of CGTase producer involves the use of solid media containing phenolphthalein and methyl orange as indicators that was detected by the colour changes. The formations of clearance zone around the bacterial colony in the starch-containing medium were observed and the diameters were measured to ...

  9. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  10. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  11. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  12. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  13. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  14. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have a... of the loan; (4) Store the honey pledged as loan collateral in eligible storage and in eligible... paragraph (a) of this section, who enters into a contract to sell the honey used as collateral for a loan...

  16. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  17. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-06

    Jun 6, 2012 ... Biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria were isolated from oil-spilled seawater collected from harbors and docks in Mumbai, India. ... pollution of the environment especially soil and water. A spill of over 800 tonnes of oil .... substrates (agro-industrial wastes) and efficient methods for cultivation of microbes ...

  18. Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Enterobacter cloacae, emulsification index, exopolysaccharide, osmotic pressure. INTRODUCTION. Some microorganisms (mainly strains of bacteria and yeast) are able to produce biosurfactants, and may enhance hydrophobic substrate utilization or/and detoxifi- cation (Banat et al., 2000).

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  20. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    Endophytic and epiphytic fungi isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Cyperus ligularis. L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones were identified by means of the rDNA region sequencing.

  1. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... rubber tree, are known to produce large amounts of rubber with high molecular weight: a shrub named .... applications. DISTRIBUTION. H. brasiliensis was introduced to tropical Asia in 1876 through Kew garden from the seeds brought from Rio. Tapajo'z ...... However, there is very little molecular data.

  2. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... inhibitory effect against A. niger. Growth, protein and biopolymers production of bacteria were ... bacterium colonized plant roots and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Scanning electron ...... siderophores producing Pseudomonas fluorescence on crown rot. Haggag 1577 disease ...

  3. Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and L. brevis OG1 isolated from Nigerian fermented food products, produced bacteriocins that had broad spectrum of inhibition against both pathogenic, food spoilage organisms and various lactic acid bacteria. The test organisms exhibited activities of 6400 and 3200 AU/ml respectively against ...

  4. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  5. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  6. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  7. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U 3 O 8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  8. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  9. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ikue; Dufresne, Raymond; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous neoplasm that may be associated with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Tumors typically present as slow-growing, flesh-colored, nonspecific papules or nodules that favor the eyelids in older individuals. Histologic examination usually reveals basaloid nodules composed of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, with focal mucin production and occasional glandular structures. Definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemical staining. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinomas have been noted to stain positively with neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranins as well as cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Complete excision with close follow-up is important given EMPSGC's association with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery is an appropriate choice for treatment. We report 2 cases of EMPSGC presenting on the eyelids in a 72-year-old woman and a 74-year-old man.

  10. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent...... naturally occurring carcinogen. Acute aflatoxicosis epidemics occur in several parts of Asia and Africa leading to the death of several hundred people. Aflatoxin production has incorrectly been claimed for a long list of Aspergillus species and also for species assigned to other fungal genera. Recent data...... indicate that aflatoxins are produced by 13 species assigned to three sections of the genus Aspergillus: section Flavi (A. flavus, A. pseudotamarii, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. bombycis, A. parvisclerotigenus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. arachidicola), section Nidulantes (Emericella astellata, E...

  11. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  12. Characterization of briquettes produced with agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present was to characterize the quality of briquettes produced with fines of vegetable coal and bamboo residues, under different formulations. Specific gravity density, bulk density mass, moisture content and speed or rate of thermic degradation were evaluated. Compressive strength and rotation test were applied to the briquettes. Superior and inferior calorific values from briquettes were estimate by adjusted equations. Briquettes produced with the highest percentages of vegetable coal fines presented higher specific gravity, bulk density, ash content and fixed carbon. It also presented resistance to fall and abrasion. Briquettes with higher bamboo residues content presented faster degradation, higher compressive strength, beyond higher volatile matters and calorific value.

  13. Producing Mono-energetic Neutrons for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepeal, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Free neutrons are seldom produced in nature and are unstable, decaying back to protons with a mean life of 881s. The only natural sources are spontaneous fission of actinides and cosmic ray interactions, both of which are rare processes. The detection of neutrons indicates unusual nuclear activity, allowing neutron detection the roll of the ``smoking gun'' for seeking potential nuclear terrorism. Recently, there has been a push for the development of new neutron detectors, ideally sufficiently inexpensive that a detector can be carried by all first responders such as police and fire fighters. One promising new material is the inorganic scintillator CLYC, a crystal of chlorine, lithium, yttrium and cesium. CLYC has a high energy resolution not only for gamma rays, but also for fast neutrons. At the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, CLYC is being developed in collaboration with local industrial companies. To evaluate its response to neutrons, in to 500 keV to 4 MeV energy range, the CN Van de Graaff generator is used to produce neutrons, via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. However, the important energy regime of 4--10 MeV is currently inaccessible. This current project is to build a gas-cell target to enable the D(d,n)3He reaction and produce neutrons of energy up to 9 MeV, an approach that has been used successfully at the University of Kentucky. The project involves some mechanical engineering management, then chamber construction, vacuum testing, developing thin window technology, and finally commissioning of the gas cell using accelerated beams. The commissioning will be physics rich in quantifying the flux and energy resolution of the neutron beam produced. Free neutrons are seldom produced in nature and are unstable, decaying back to protons with a mean life of 881s. The only natural sources are spontaneous fission of actinides and cosmic ray interactions, both of which are rare processes. The detection of neutrons indicates unusual nuclear activity, allowing

  14. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2016-04-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of (24)Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that (24)Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  16. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  17. The hijacking of a receptor kinase–driven pathway by a wheat fungal pathogen leads to disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Zengcui; Friesen, Timothy L.; Raats, Dina; Fahima, Tzion; Brueggeman, Robert S.; Lu, Shunwen; Trick, Harold N.; Liu, Zhaohui; Chao, Wun; Frenkel, Zeev; Xu, Steven S.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Faris, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens live and feed on dying tissue, but their interactions with plants are not well understood compared to biotrophic pathogens. The wheat Snn1 gene confers susceptibility to strains of the necrotrophic pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum that produce the SnTox1 protein. We report the positional cloning of Snn1, a member of the wall-associated kinase class of receptors, which are known to drive pathways for biotrophic pathogen resistance. Recognition of SnTox1 by Snn1 activates programmed cell death, which allows this necrotroph to gain nutrients and sporulate. These results demonstrate that necrotrophic pathogens such as P. nodorum hijack host molecular pathways that are typically involved in resistance to biotrophic pathogens, revealing the complex nature of susceptibility and resistance in necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogen interactions with plants. PMID:27819043

  18. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  19. Method to produce a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The neutron shielding for armoured vehicles consists of preshaped plastic plates which are coated on the armoured vehicle walls by conversion of the thermoplast. Suitable plastics or thermoplasts are PVC, PVC acetate, or mixtures of these, into which more than 50% B, B 4 C, or BN is embedded. The colour of the shielding may be determined by the choice of the neutron absorber, e.g. a white colour for BN. The plates are produced using an extruder or calender. (DG) [de

  20. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  1. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  2. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  3. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  4. Applications of irradiation in horticultural produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1985-01-01

    In the case of horticultural produce, the usefulness of irradiation is selective and irradiation may be most beneficial when used in conjunction with other preservative treatments such as mild refrigeration. Big benefits may be derived from energy saving in the degree of chilling required, in extended shelf-life and in quality retention with particular reference to mushrooms and strawberries. Research in the Irish context is urgently required

  5. Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Maren A

    2007-11-01

    SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk.

  6. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  7. Radiation Dosages Produced by Telephone Cellular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    This research includes the problem of protection against the none-ionized electromagnetic field radiation. In this respect, we highlight one of the advanced methods d igital simulation of the electric field , which is called the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD). This method aims at solving the problem of measuring the radiation dosages produced by the cellular (phone). Therefore, we have got numerical mathematical results to be presented as proofs and examples. (author)

  8. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  9. Particles produced in association with PSI(3098)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.O.

    1979-01-01

    Dimuon production was studied at 217 GeV/c in π - -hydrogen and π - -beryllium collisions with a multiparticle spectrometer to detect associated particles. Particular attention was paid to the phiγ spectrum which shows an excess of events in the region 3.5 GeV. Attributing this to the presence of the chi(approx. 3.5) states implies that 94 +- 50% of psis are produced via radiative chi decay

  10. Building Businesses with Small Producers : Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Businesses with Small Producers présente les constatations et une analyse comparative de sept études de cas qui remettent en question les croyances actuelles sur la bonne pratique dans ... Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU.

  11. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  12. Mn nanoparticles produced by inert gas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M B; Brydson, R; Cochrane, R F

    2006-01-01

    The results from experiments using the inert gas condensation method to produce nanoparticles of manganese are presented. Structural and compositional data have been collected through electron diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy). Both Mn 3 O 4 and pure Mn particles have been produced. Moisture in untreated helium gas causes the particles to oxidize, whereas running the helium through a liquid nitrogen trap removes the moisture and produces β-Mn particles in a metastable state. The particle sizes and the size distribution have been determined. Particle sizes range from 2nm to above 100 nm, however the majority of particles lie in the range below 20 nm with a modal particle size of 6 nm. As well as the modal particle size of 6 nm, there is another peak in the frequency curve at 16 nm that represents another group particles that lie in the range 12 to 20 nm. The smaller particles are single crystals, but the larger particles appear to have a dense region around their edge with a less dense centre. Determination of their exact nature is ongoing

  13. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  14. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  16. Producing affordable high-quality biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draak, H. D.

    2004-12-31

    A novel process to produce biodiesel fuel, used to power an automobile and heat a single-family home, including a domestic hot water heater, is discussed. Although currently used on a very small scale, the process is said to be capable of producing biodiesel on a commercial scale and marketed at the same wholesale price as petro-diesel, with enough price flexibility to adjust up or down to keep pace with fluctuations in oil prices. The basic materials used are canola oil and used fryer oil from restaurants. The crucial points are to pre-treat the used fryer oil to remove impurities, and to wash the newly-produced biodiesel afterwards. Using these materials, production cost is 19 cents per liter (before overhead). Public apathy and the lack of an infrastructure for distribution are major obstacles to commercial-scale production, but the inventor of the process is confident that with a dwindling oil supply and ever-rising oil prices, the opportunities for change to alternative sources of energy are constantly improving. photos.

  17. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  18. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  20. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  2. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60......% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has...

  3. Contract miner is a major producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, P.C.; Chironis, N.P.

    1983-10-01

    Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc. is a major construction company and a major coal producer. It is now broadening its engineering capabilities, moving into other coal areas, and is aiming to shift into midwestern and eastern USA coalfields, as well as expanding into foreign markets. The major subsidiaries of the company are given, illustrating its diversity. The organization of Morrison-Knudsen's Mining Group is discussed. Three major computer systems for geologic modelling, mine planning and operation monitoring are outlined, and, the operation of some of its mines, including brown coal mines in Texas, is detailed.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report.

  5. Produce documents and media information. [on lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzmann, Melanie A.; Miller, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightning data and information were collected from the United States, Germany, France, Brazil, China, and Australia for the dual purposes of compiling a global lightning data base and producing publications on the Marshall Space Flight Center's lightning program. Research covers the history of lightning, the characteristics of a storm, types of lightningdischarges, observations from airplanes and spacecraft, the future fole of planes and spacecraft in lightning studies, lightning detection networks, and the relationships between lightning and rainfall. Descriptions of the Optical Transient Dectector, the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and the Lightning Mapper Sensor are included.

  6. Hydrogen producing method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Takehiko; Goto, Nobuo; Toyota, Ichiro; Tonegawa, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for producing hydrogen from water by utilizing a γ · X ray radiation source such as spent nuclear fuels. Hydrogen is formed from water by combining a scintillator which uses a γ · X ray radiation source as an energy source to emit UV light and an optical catalyst or an optical catalyst electrode which undergoes UV light to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The present invention provides a method of effectively using spent fuel assemblies which have not been used at present and capable of converting them into hydrogen as storable chemical energy. (N.H.)

  7. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Paul C.; Argetsinger, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  8. Process for producing uranium carbide spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to produce UC spheroids which are filled into molded bodies of fire-proof material for fuel elements. The UC fuel particles are doubly coated: a first thin layer of pyrolytic carbon is coated at low temperature (1,200-1,400 0 C), a second layer of fire-proof material (e.g. SiC) is coated at a higher temperature (above 1,500 0 C) which holds back the fission products. The process is explained in more detail using an example. (GSCH) [de

  9. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Horita, Mitsuo; Cai, Yimin; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-11-01

    In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM) of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM) was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions) were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber) content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to scale-up the fermentation volume, develop an efficient

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  11. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamoto Hiroko K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to

  12. Guidance for Industry: Food Producers, Processors, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... สํานักงานอาหารและยาได้ตีพิมพ์เอกสารไว้สองฉบับประกอบคําแนะนําเรื่องความปลอดภัย ของอาหารชื่อ "Food Producers, Processors, and Transporters: Food ...

  13. Neutron fluence produced in medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.C.; Silva, A.X. da; Crispim, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy with photon and electron beams still represents the most diffused technique to control and treat tumour diseases. To increase the treatment efficiency, accelerators of higher energy are used, the increase of electron and photon energy is joined with generation of undesired fast neutron that contaminated the therapeutic beam and give a non-negligible contribution to the patient dose. In this work we have simulated with the MCNP4B code the produced neutron spectra in the interaction between the beam and the head to the accelerator and estimating the equivalent dose for neutrons by x-ray dose for aims far from the targets. (author)

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  15. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Mendoza, Daniel [Santa Fe, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Method of producing radioactive technetium-99M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karageozian, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic process of producing high purity and high yield radioactive Technetium-99m. A solution containing Molybdenum-99m and Technetium-99m is placed on a chromatographic column and eluted with a neutral solvent system comprising an organic solvent and from about 0.1 to less than about 10% of water or from about 1 to less than about 70% of a solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having 1 to 6 carbon atoms. The eluted solvent system containing the Technetium-99m is then removed leaving the Technetium-99m as a dry, particulate residue

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  18. ECOLOGICAL REGIONALIZATION METHODS OF OIL PRODUCING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Ivanovna Pivovarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses territory zoning methods with varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution risk. The summarized results of spatial analysis of oil pollution of surface water in the most developed oil-producing region of Russia. An example of GIS-zoning according to the degree of environmental hazard is presented. All possible algorithms of cluster analysis are considered for isolation of homogeneous data structures. The conclusion is made on the benefits of using combined methods of analysis for assessing the homogeneity of specific environmental characteristics in selected territories.

  19. Jets instabilities producing the slot-tone

    OpenAIRE

    Billon, Alexis; Valeau, Vincent; Sakout, Anas

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the instability governing the self-sustained tones produced by a low Mach number free plane jet impinging on a slotted plate, known as slot-tone, is identified experimentally. The experimental apparatus permits to control the Reynolds number and the distance from the jet outlet to the plate. For a Reynolds number, the shear-layer natural frequency and the jet column mode frequency of the free jet without the obstacle are estimated and compared to the minimal and maximal frequenc...

  20. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  1. Screening for novel laccase-producing microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, L-L; Rättö, M; Kruus, K

    2004-01-01

    To discover novel laccases potential for industrial applications. Fungi were cultivated on solid media containing indicator compounds that enabled the detection of laccases as specific colour reactions. The indicators used were Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Poly R-478, guaiacol and tannic acid. The screening work resulted in isolation of 26 positive fungal strains. Liquid cultivations of positive strains confirmed that four efficient laccase producers were found in the screening. Biochemical characteristics of the four novel laccases were typical for fungal laccases in terms of molecular weight, pH optima and pI. The laccases showed good thermal stability at 60 degrees C. Plate-test screening based on polymeric dye compounds, guaiacol and tannic acid is an efficient way to discover novel laccase producers. The results indicated that screening for laccase activity can be performed with guaiacol and RBBR or Poly R-478. Laccases have many potential industrial applications including textile dye decolourization, delignification of pulp and effluent detoxification. It is essential to find novel, efficient enzymes to further develop these applications. This study showed that relatively simple plate test screening method can be used for discovery of novel laccases. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  2. ACTIVE PRODUCERS OF PEROXIDASE BASIDIOMYCETES STRAINS SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Voloshko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis of the research data peroxidase activity of the strains of xylotrophic basidiomycetes in the dynamics of the growth. The objects of study were 57 strains, 5 of which belongs to 5 species of the order Polyporales, and 52 of which belongs to 7 species of the order Agaricales. In order to search for active producers of peroxidase the strains were cultured by the surface method in a liquid glucosepeptone medium. The accumulation of oven-dry biomass was determined by the weight method. The content of soluble protein and peroxidase activity were determined by the spectrophotometry. The studies set the level of accumulation of oven-dry biomass and peroxidase activity of the strains in 9 and 12 days of growth. The results allowed selecting the strains, which are characterized by high levels of peroxidase activity in mycelium and in the culture filtrate, including Agrocybe cylindracea 167, Pleurotus ostreatus Р-кл, Agrocybe cylindracea 960 and 218. These strains which are active producers of peroxidase may be used in the enzyme preparations obtaining technology.

  3. Janus microgels produced from functional precursor polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Sebastian; Romanowsky, Mark B; Weitz, David A

    2010-09-21

    Micrometer-sized Janus particles of many kinds can be formed using droplet microfluidics, but in existing methods, the microfluidic templating is strongly coupled to the material synthesis, since droplet solidification occurs through rapid polymerization right after droplet formation. This circumstance limits independent control of the material properties and the morphology of the resultant particles. In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic technique to produce functional Janus microgels from prefabricated, cross-linkable precursor polymers. This approach separates the polymer synthesis from the particle gelation, thus allowing the microfluidic droplet templating and the functionalization of the matrix polymer to be performed and controlled in two independent steps. We use microfluidic devices to emulsify semidilute solutions of cross-linkable, chemically modified or unmodified poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) precursors and solidify the drops via polymer-analogous gelation. The resultant microgel particles exhibit two distinguishable halves which contain most of the modified precursors, and the unmodified matrix polymer separates these materials. The spatial distribution of the modified precursors across the particles can be controlled by the flow rates during the microfluidic experiments. We also form hollow microcapsules with two different sides (Janus shells) using double emulsion droplets as templates, and we produce Janus microgels that are loaded with a ferromagnetic additive which allows remote actuation of the microgels.

  4. Artificial chromosomes for antibiotic-producing actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosio, M; Giusino, F; Cappellano, C; Bossi, E; Puglia, A M; Donadio, S

    2000-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the order Actinomycetales produce most microbial metabolites thus far described, several of which have found applications in medicine and agriculture. However, most strains were discovered by their ability to produce a given molecule and are, therefore, poorly characterized physiologically and genetically. Thus, methodologies for genetic manipulation of actinomycetes are not available and efficient tools have been developed for just a few strains. This constitutes a serious limitation to applying molecular genetics approaches to strain development and structural manipulation of microbial metabolites. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) that can be shuttled among Escherichia coli, where they replicate autonomously, and a suitable Streptomyces host, where they integrate site-specifically into the chromosome. The existence of gene clusters and of genetically amenable host strains, such as Streptomyces coelicolor or Streptomyces lividans, makes this a sensible approach. We report here that 100 kb segments of actinomycete DNA can be cloned into these vectors and introduced into genetically accessible S. lividans, where they are stably maintained in integrated form in its chromosome.

  5. Laser-produced X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Seely, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A formidable array of advanced laser systems are emerging that produce extreme states of light and matter. By irradiating solid and gaseous targets with lasers of increasing energy densities, new physical regimes of radiation effects are being explored for the first time in controlled laboratory settings. One result that is being accomplished or pursued using a variety of techniques, is the realization of novel sources of X-rays with unprecedented characteristics and light-matter interactions, the mechanisms of which are in many cases still being elucidated. Examples include the megajoule class of laser-produced plasmas designed in pursuit of alternative-energy and security applications and the petawatt class of lasers used for fast ignition and X-ray radiographic applications such as medical imaging and real-time imaging of plasma hydrodynamics. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced instrumentation and diagnostic metrology to characterize the spectra, time structure, and absolute brightness of X-rays emitted by these unconventional sources. Such customized and absolutely calibrated measurement tools will serve as an enabling technology that can help in assessing the overall system performance and progress, as well as identification of the underlying interaction mechanisms of interest to basic and applied strong-field and high-energy-density science.

  6. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  7. Producer controlled transportation and other innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of producer-driven natural gas pipelines in Alberta was chronicled, providing a brief history of gas pipeline development in the province. The relationship between risk taking and reward expectations was explained as a prelude to a description of Alliance Pipelines, and its proposal to establish a competitive transportation market and international commodity pricing for Alberta gas. Owners of Alliance represent about 25 per cent of gas production in Western Canada. Equity participation is by way of ownership of units in three limited liability partnerships, and of shares of three general partners that manage the affairs of the limited liability partnership. This arrangement allows participating gas producers to avoid putting Alliance Pipelines' debt on their balance sheets, and to achieve certain tax advantages. Equally important, the partnership structure provides a solid foundation for risk/reward allocation among the partners. Details about proposed operating procedures, Alliance Pipelines' obligations to its owners, and the benefits of ownership were discussed. Alliance Pipelines Co. has the tacit approval of the Alberta government to let the market decide and its promise not do anything to jeopardize Alliance's competitive position vis-a-vis other pipelines. Applications have been submitted for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Energy Board (NEB) approvals

  8. Cellulose pulp produced from bulrush fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Karine Dick Wille

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Brazil continues to use wood as the principal raw material source for the pulp industry; although, non-wood fibers have been revealed to be a competent substitute to produce paper with different and exceptional properties. Keeping this in focus, this study aimed to assess potential of Schoenoplectus californicus fibers (C. A. Mey. Soják, commonly identified as bulrush or reed, in cellulosic pulp generation, as an alternative fiber source for the pulp and paper industry. On analyzing the chemical composition of reed fibers, extractives of lignin, carbohydrates, uronic acids and minerals were reported. Physico-chemical characteristics of reed-based cellulosic pulp were estimated including viscosity, hexenuronic acids, etc., as well as anatomical features of length, width, etc. From the chemical analyses of the reed the presence of high concentrations of extractives and silica was clear, making them unfit as raw material for cellulosic pulp production. Pulp kraft pulping process produced brown pulps low in viscosity (34.5m Pa.s and hexenuronic acid content. Reed is thus classifiable as short-fiber source for pulp and paper industries.

  9. CERN to start producing medical isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    A promising project that was hailed at the ICTR-PHE 2012 medical conference (see Bulletin issues 10-11/2012 and 12-13/2012) has seen the light of day at CERN. The project, known by the name of MEDICIS, will make it possible to produce a large variety of radioactive isotopes for medical research.   This image of a brain, superimposed on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, was taken by a PET scanner after injecting a molecule containing a positron-emitting isotope. CERN-MEDICIS will produce new isotopes for imaging which will be able to show up cancerous tissues and destroy them by emitting local radiation as the isotopes decay. In the United States, a new radium-based drug which targets bone metastases is about to go on the market. Radium, which can be brought to bear at the cell level, is a potent weapon in the fight against certain types of cancer, and is opening the way to a new form of medicine. This is the direction that CERN has decided to follow through the CERN-MEDICIS* (Medical Isotopes...

  10. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  11. Method of producing pitch (distillation residue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, M.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.

    1979-08-15

    A method is proposed for producing pitch by mixing hard coal pitch with anthracene fraction and thermal treatment of the mixture. The method is distinguished in that in order to increase the quality of the pitch, the anthracene fraction is subjected to thermal treatment at 250-300/sup 0/ for 10-13 hours in the presence of air. This duration of heat treatment allows one to build up in the anthracene fraction up to 20-24% of material which is not soluble and toluene, without the formation of products which are not soluble in quinoline. The fraction prepared in this manner is inserted into the initial pitch in the ratio 1:2 up to 1:9, the mixture is subject to heat treatment at temperature 360-380/sup 0/ and air consumption 7-91/kgX hours until the production of pitch with softening temperature of 85-90/sup 0/. As the initial raw material we used pitch with softening temperature of 60/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in quinoline, 2.0% which are not soluble and toluene 20.6% and coking residue of 49.2%. Example. 80 grams of anthracene fraction is added to 320 grams of pitch. The anthracene fraction is subjected previously to heat treatment at 300/sup 0/ for 13 hours in the presence of air, supplied in the amount of 9 liters per hour. As a result of the heat treatment of the content of materials which are not soluble in toluence in the anthracene fraction is 24.0%, in quinoline it is 0.1%. The ratio of a pitch and thermally treated anthracene fraction in the mixture was 4:l. The produced mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 360/sup 0/ for 1.5 hours with air supply in the amount of 7 liters/ kilograms/hours. Pitch is produced with the following characteristics: softening temperature 88/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in toluene 32.5%, in quinilone, 6.0%, coking residue, 56.7%. The invention can be used in the chemical coking and petrochemical industry.

  12. Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Silva, E; Cruz de Carvalho, T; Parshikov, I A; Alves dos Santos, R; Silva Emery, F; Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, N A

    2014-07-01

    Probiotics are currently added to a variety of functional foods to provide health benefits to the host and are commonly used by patients with gastrointestinal complaints or diseases. The therapeutic effects of lapachol continue to inspire studies to obtain derivatives with improved bioactivity and lower unwanted effects. Therefore, the general goal of this study was to show that probiotics are able to convert lapachol and are important to assess the effects of bacterial metabolism on drug performance and toxicity. The microbial transformations of lapachol were carried out by Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and different metabolites were produced in mixed and isolated cultures. The cytotoxic activities against breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell lines of the isolated metabolites (4α-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,4α,5,9β-hexahydroindeno[1,2-β]pyran-9β-carboxilic acid, a new metabolite produced by mixed culture and dehydro-α-lapachone produced by isolated cultures) were assessed and compared with those of lapachol. The new metabolite displayed a lower activity against a breast cancer cell line (IC50 = 532.7 μmol l(-1) ) than lapachol (IC50 = 72.3 μmol l(-1) ), while dehydro-α-lapachone (IC50 = 10.4 μmol l(-1) ) displayed a higher activity than lapachol. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. Probiotics have been used in dairy products to promote human health and have the ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics. Naphthoquinones, such as lapachol, are considered privileged scaffolds due to their high propensity to interact with biological targets. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. The developed approach highlights the importance of probiotics to assess

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  14. Producing scientific knowledge in Africa today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Mehmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mbow, Cheikh

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses a life-history interview with an African climate change researcher, Mbow, to explore the conditions for scientific knowledge production in Africa. Mbow’s history points to three important and intertwined issues that played out differently through the different phases of his...... life: an inherited or colonial curriculum; universality of knowledge, namely the transfer of methods and theories from the Global North; and the cultural production of African researchers. The chapter shows how the post-colonial school system in Senegal was modelled over the French system and thus how...... difficult it was for Mbow to become independent of the colonial heritage. Through a capacity building programme, Mbow gained the competences necessary to question the transfer of theories and methods from the Global North and become an African emancipated researcher producing knowledge of relevance...

  15. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  17. Method for producing zeolites and zeotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype particles comprising the steps of: 1 ) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina...... source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticle to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite......-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon template and structure directing agent and isolating...

  18. Method of producing zeolite encapsulated nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention therefore relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype encapsulated metal nanoparticles, the method comprises the steps of: 1) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal...... nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticles to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent...... to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon...

  19. The crisis of the radio producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raúl Garcés

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In a media world highly influenced by new technologies revolution and the increasing impact of television, speeches on radio are frequently polarized: in one side, some scholars argue radio belongs to the past and it is no longer able of attracting younger audiences. In the other, lay those who predict long life to radio as a source of alternative and communitarian communication experiences. The author reviews the arguments that sustain both perspectives and emphasizes the need of renovating radio producing with audacious and creative formulas. At the same time, he discusses some of the challenges Cuban radio has ahead to attract new audiences, when television and printed press are recovering from the economic crack the Island suffered after Eastern European socialism disappeared.

  20. Method for producing nano-embedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to a rapid, high-throughput and continuous method for producing nano-embedded microparticles in powder form, thereby providing a cost- effective process which can be performed aseptically. The invention further relates to an apparatus for performing the method...... of the invention. (FR)La présente invention concerne un procédé rapide, à haut rendement et continu de production de nano-microparticules intégrées sous forme de poudre, ce qui permet d'obtenir un procédé économique qui peut être mis en oeuvre de manière aseptique. L'invention concerne, en outre, un appareil pour...

  1. System and method for producing metallic iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  2. Properties of heavyweight concrete produced with barite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Ilker Bekir

    2003-01-01

    Heavyweight concrete has been used for the prevention of seepage from radioactive structures due to the harmful effect of radioactive rays to living bodies (i.e., carcinogenic, etc.). The most important point about heavyweight concrete is the determination of w/c ratio. Selected cement dosage should be both high enough to allow for radioactive impermeability and low enough to prevent splits originating from shrinkage. In this study, heavyweight concrete mixtures at different w/c ratios were prepared in order to determine the most favorable w/c ratio of heavyweight concrete produced with barite. Physical and mechanical experiments were first carried out, and then by comparison with the results of other related studies the findings of this study were obtained. At the end of the study, it was found that the most favorable w/c ratio for heavyweight concrete is 0.40 and the cement dosage should not be lower than 350 kg/m 3

  3. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  4. Electrochemically produced alumina as TL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvay, M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work was to compare the TL properties of various electrochemically produced alumina layers (E-AIO) in order to investigate the effect of the electrolyte and the Mg content on the alloys. It has been found that the TL sensitivity of oxidised layers is more influenced by the type of electrolyte, than by the composition of alloy. Hard oxide layer evolved in reduction electrolyte has rather different character compared to other alumina production investigated. The effect of reducing media seems to be very important during preparation of alumina layer. One of the advantages properties of E-AIO is, that it serve a promising method to increase the measuring range of TL method above 10 kGy as well. (author)

  5. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  6. Producing a steady-state population inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced

  7. Method for producing size selected particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumdick, Gregory K.; Shin, Young Ho; Takeya, Kaname

    2016-09-20

    The invention provides a system for preparing specific sized particles, the system comprising a continuous stir tank reactor adapted to receive reactants; a centrifugal dispenser positioned downstream from the reactor and in fluid communication with the reactor; a particle separator positioned downstream of the dispenser; and a solution stream return conduit positioned between the separator and the reactor. Also provided is a method for preparing specific sized particles, the method comprising introducing reagent into a continuous stir reaction tank and allowing the reagents to react to produce product liquor containing particles; contacting the liquor particles with a centrifugal force for a time sufficient to generate particles of a predetermined size and morphology; and returning unused reagents and particles of a non-predetermined size to the tank.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  9. Tourists Co-producing Guided Tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas; Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2013-01-01

    The guided tour is a stigmatized tourist practice. In contrast to studies portraying sightseeing tours as an over-determined stage where tourists passively follow prescripted routes and scripts, this article also uncovers creativity, detours and productive practices. We examine how tourists can...... be said to perform both in and out of tune with guide's script and the interaction order of guiding more broadly. What is distinctive and innovative about the perspective is that we regard guides and tourists as mutual depending co-producers of the guided tour. First, the article begins with a short...... discussion of some of Goffman's central concepts. Second, we move on to a more general discussion of how front-stage tourism services are performances where both tourist staff and guests play their part. Third, we examine ethnographically how participants on guided tours in Copenhagen co...

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  11. Possibilities for producing and using activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Roubicek, V.; Rojak, A.; Kmostak, V.

    1986-02-01

    Feasibility of replacing activated carbon by activated coke in sewage treatment plants is analyzed. The following procedure for production of activated coke was used: black coal from the Ostrava-Karvina basin in Czechoslovakia was crushed to below 1.0 mm and heated to 900 C at a rate of 3 C/min, steam was used for coke activation. Design of laboratory equipment used for production of activated coke is shown. Properties of 2 types of activated coke are compared to those of FU activated carbon produced in Czechoslovakia and Degussa activated carbon imported from the FRG. The activated coke and activated carbon were used for treatment of waste water in a sewage treatment plant in Prague. Efficiency of waste water treatment using activated coke was similar to that achieved using activated carbon. Efficiency of three-stage waste water treatment is analyzed. Recommendations for use of activated coke for waste water treatment are made.

  12. Trametes suaveolens as ligninolytic enzyme producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Trametes represent one of the most efficient lignin-degraders which can be attributed to a well developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Current trends are screening of ability of new species to produce these enzymes, as well as the optimization of conditions for their overproduction. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of T. suaveolens to synthesize laccase and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases during fermentation of the selected plant raw materials. Level of enzyme activities was measured on 7, 10 and 14th day of submersion, as well as the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw and oak sawdust in the presence of NH4NO3 in previously determined optimal nitrogen concentration of 25 mM. The enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically using ABTS and phenol red as the substrates. The highest level of laccase activity (1087.1 U/L was noted after 7 days of wheat straw solid-state fermentation, while during the submerged cultivation the production of the enzyme was not noted. Submerged cultivation in oak sawdust-enriched medium was the optimal for activity of Mn-dependent peroxidase (1767.7 U/L on day 14 and Mn-independent peroxidase (1113.7 U/L on day 7. Introduction of T. suaveolens to produce ligninolytic enzyme represented the base for further study, as well as the determination of relation between enzyme activity and rate of lignin degradation. It could lead to greater possibility of fungal species selection with high delignification capacity, which could take participation in sustainable production of food, feed, fibres, and energy, environmentally friendly pollution prevention, and bioremediation.

  13. Producing chopped firewood with firewood processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Jouhiaho, A.

    2009-01-01

    The TTS Institute's research and development project studied both the productivity of new, chopped firewood processors (cross-cutting and splitting machines) suitable for professional and independent small-scale production, and the costs of the chopped firewood produced. Seven chopped firewood processors were tested in the research, six of which were sawing processors and one shearing processor. The chopping work was carried out using wood feeding racks and a wood lifter. The work was also carried out without any feeding appliances. Altogether 132.5 solid m 3 of wood were chopped in the time studies. The firewood processor used had the most significant impact on chopping work productivity. In addition to the firewood processor, the stem mid-diameter, the length of the raw material, and of the firewood were also found to affect productivity. The wood feeding systems also affected productivity. If there is a feeding rack and hydraulic grapple loader available for use in chopping firewood, then it is worth using the wood feeding rack. A wood lifter is only worth using with the largest stems (over 20 cm mid-diameter) if a feeding rack cannot be used. When producing chopped firewood from small-diameter wood, i.e. with a mid-diameter less than 10 cm, the costs of chopping work were over 10 EUR solid m -3 with sawing firewood processors. The shearing firewood processor with a guillotine blade achieved a cost level of 5 EUR solid m -3 when the mid-diameter of the chopped stem was 10 cm. In addition to the raw material, the cost-efficient chopping work also requires several hundred annual operating hours with a firewood processor, which is difficult for individual firewood entrepreneurs to achieve. The operating hours of firewood processors can be increased to the required level by the joint use of the processors by a number of firewood entrepreneurs. (author)

  14. OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Causing Bacteremia, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsoo Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OXA-48-producing isolates were identified in approximately 4% and less than 1% of ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing bacteremia at the largest tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi.

  15. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D; Feng, Peter C H

    2015-11-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named "activation." Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice.

  16. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  17. Laser-produced plasma source system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Brandt, David C.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Ershov, Alexander I.; Partlo, William N.; Myers, David W.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Simmons, Rodney D.; Chavez, Juan A.; Chrobak, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the development of laser produced plasma (LPP) technology as an EUV source for advanced scanner lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for critical layer patterning below 32 nm beginning with beta generation scanners in 2009. This paper describes the development status of subsystems most critical to the performance to meet joint scanner manufacturer requirements and semiconductor industry standards for reliability and economic targets for cost of ownership. The intensity and power of the drive laser are critical parameters in the development of extreme ultraviolet LPP lithography sources. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser light into EUV light is strongly dependent on the intensity of the laser energy on the target material at the point of interaction. The total EUV light generated then scales directly with the total incident laser power. The progress on the development of a short pulse, high power CO2 laser for EUV applications is reported. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. The deposition of target materials and contaminants, as well as sputtering of the collector multilayer coating and implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror substantially over the exposure time even though debris mitigation schemes are being employed. The results of measurements of high energy ions generated by a short-pulse CO2 laser on a laser-produced plasma EUV light source with Sn target are presented. Droplet generation is a key element of the LPP source being developed at Cymer for EUV lithography applications. The main purpose of this device is to deliver small quantities of liquid target material as droplets to the laser focus. The EUV light in such configuration is obtained as a result of creating a highly ionized plasma from the material of the

  18. Adaptive evolution of drug targets in producer and non-producer organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Sun, Xin E.; Genee, Hans Jasper

    2012-01-01

    MPA (mycophenolic acid) is an immunosuppressive drug produced by several fungi in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. This toxic metabolite is an inhibitor of IMPDH (IMP dehydrogenase). The MPA-biosynthetic cluster of Penicillum brevicompactum contains a gene encoding a B-type IMPDH, IMPDH-B, which......-B of Penicillium chrysogenum, which does not produce MPA, is also a very poor enzyme. The MPA-binding site is completely conserved among sensitive and resistant IMPDHs. Mutational analysis shows that the C-terminal segment is a major structural determinant of resistance. These observations suggest...

  19. Hadron cascades produced by electromagnetic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.

    1986-12-01

    A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps

  20. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-04-07

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustively tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project is presented.

  1. Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Ping, Liu Yu; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; Silva, Maria C P; Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Itamar S; Tasic, Ljubica; De Souza, Ana O

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus tubingensis and Bionectria ochroleuca showed excellent extracellular ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NP), spherical in shape and 35 ± 10 nm in size. Ag NP were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photon correlation spectroscopy for particle size and zeta potential. Proteins present in the fungal filtrate and in Ag NP dispersion were analyzed by electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Ag NP showed pronounced antifungal activity against Candida sp, frequently occurring in hospital infections, with minimal inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.11-1.75 μg/mL. Regarding antibacterial activity, nanoparticles produced by A. tubingensis were more effective compared to the other fungus, inhibiting 98.0 % of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa growth at 0.28 μg/mL. A. tubingensis synthesized Ag NP with surprisingly high and positive surface potential, differing greatly from all known fungi. These data open the possibility of obtaining biogenic Ag NP with positive surface potential and new applications.

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  3. Gas marketing strategies for Ontario producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Activity in natural gas exploration and production in the province of Ontario has recently increased due to higher natural gas prices. This paper discussed the issue of how the gas from the new reserves should be marketed. A review of historical pricing and consumption patterns was also presented to better identify how prices of natural gas are determined in Ontario and to forecast the future demand for natural gas. The first trend of interest is the increased use of natural gas in generating electricity to meet cooling needs in the summer months. The second trend is the increase in gas consumption by the industrial sector resulting from increases in process load. Several marketing options are available to Ontario natural gas producers. They can market their gas to third parties at various trading points in the province or they can market it directly to Union Gas Limited, the local gas utility. This paper briefly described how a gas supply contract works with the union, how gas marketing agreement is conducted with a gas marketer, and how a gas marketing arrangement works with a consultant. Some of the pitfalls of marketing natural gas were also described and some recommended some strategies for selling natural gas in the future were presented. 7 figs

  4. Producing Uniform Lesion Pattern in HIFU Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Kargl, Steven G.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a modality for treatment of solid tumors. The temperature at the focus can reach over 65° C denaturing cellular proteins resulting in coagulative necrosis. Typically, HIFU parameters are the same for each treated spot in most HIFU control systems. Because of thermal diffusion from nearby spots, the size of lesions will gradually become larger as the HIFU therapy progresses, which may cause insufficient treatment of initial spots, and over-treatment of later ones. It is found that the produced lesion pattern also depends on the scanning pathway. From the viewpoint of the physician creating uniform lesions and minimizing energy exposure are preferred in tumor ablation. An algorithm has been developed to adaptively determine the treatment parameters for every spot in a theoretical model in order to maintain similar lesion size throughout the HIFU therapy. In addition, the exposure energy needed using the traditional raster scanning is compared with those of two other scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and from the outside to the center. The theoretical prediction and proposed algorithm were further evaluated using transparent gel phantoms as a target. Digital images of the lesions were obtained, quantified, and then compared with each other. Altogether, dynamically changing treatment parameters can improve the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation.

  5. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  6. Enhancing image quality produced by IR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulski, R.; Powalisz, P.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2010-10-01

    Images produced by IR cameras are a specific source of information. The perception and interpretation of such image greatly depends on thermal properties of observed object and surrounding scenery. In practice, the optimal settings of the camera as well as automatic temperature range control do not guarantee the displayed images is optimal from observer's point of view. The solution to this could be the methods and algorithms of digital image processing implemented in the camera. Such solution should provide intelligent, dynamic contrast control applied not only across entire image but also selectively to specific areas in order to maintain optimal visualization of observed scenery. The paper discusses problems dealing with improvement of the visibility of low-contrast objects and presents method of image enhancement. The algorithm is based on adaptive histogram equalization. The image enhancement algorithm was tested on real IR images. The algorithm significantly improves the image quality and the effectiveness of object detection for the majority of thermal images. Due to its adaptive nature it should be effective for any given thermal image. The application of such algorithm is promising alternative to more expensive opto-electronic components like improved optics and detectors.

  7. Dutch chemical producers pledge emissions cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Schoenmakers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dutch chemical producers have negotiated a long-term agreement with government ministries to reduce emissions of a wide range of chemicals. Industry association Vereniging van de Nederlandse Chemische Industrie (VNCI; Leidschendam) says implementing the commitment will cost companies Dfl 10 billion ($5.4 billion) between 1993 and 2000. VNCI technical director Wim Quik welcomes the accord, which he describes as a management contract, saying, Rather than have legislation, there is a certain adjustment available. Peter Santen, managing director of midsized chemicals player Cindu Chemicals (Uithoorn, the Netherlands) voices some concern about the details of the accord, but adds, we are flexible in trying to agree with the contents of the covenant [it] is better than having new rules from law. The Dutch government, traditionally eager for consensus, has struck a number of such deals with Dutch industries - including packaging, metal, and tire - to reduce emissions and set up environmental management programs. The effort is based on the government's National Environmental Policy Plans - NMP and NMP Plus. Targets for emissions reduction by the chemical industry were provided by a government-funded environmental research institute

  8. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO 2 . Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  9. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry

  10. Gold nanoparticles produced in a microalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangpipat, Tiyaporn; Beattie, Isabel R.; Chisti, Yusuf; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient biological route to production of gold nanoparticles which allows the nanoparticles to be easily recovered remains elusive. Live cells of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris were incubated with a solution of gold chloride and harvested by centrifugation. Nanoparticles inside intact cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and confirmed to be metallic gold by synchrotron based X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These intracellular gold nanoparticles were 40–60 nm in diameter. At a concentration of 1.4% Au in the alga, a better than 97% recovery of the gold from solution was achieved. A maximum of 4.2% Au in the alga was obtained. Exposure of C. vulgaris to solutions containing dissolved salts of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium also resulted in the production of the corresponding nanoparticles within the cells. These were surmised to be also metallic, but were produced at a much lower intracellular concentration than achieved with gold. Iridium was apparently toxic to the alga. No nanoparticles were observed using platinum solutions. C. vulgaris provides a possible route to large scale production of gold nanoparticles.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  13. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  14. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-06-24

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustingly tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss their observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project are presented. The current project that involves LLNL and industrial participants is discussed.

  15. Membrane emulsification to produce perfume microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuemiao

    Microencapsulation is an efficient technology to deliver perfume oils from consumer products onto the surface of fabrics. Microcapsules having uniform size/mechanical strength, may provide better release performance. Membrane emulsification in a dispersion cell followed by in-situ polymerization was used to prepare narrow size distribution melamine-formaldehyde (MF) microcapsules containing several types of oil-based fragrances or ingredients. Investigated in this study are the parameters impacting to the size and size distribution of the droplets and final MF microcapsules. A pilot plant-scale cross-flow membrane system was also used to produce MF microcapsules, demonstrating that the membrane emulsification process has potential to be scaled up for industrial applications. In this study, health and environmental friendly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules with narrow size distribution were also prepared for the first time using the dispersion cell membrane emulsification system. Characterization methods previously used for thin-shell microcapsules were expanded to analyse microcapsules with thick shells. The intrinsic mechanical properties of thick shells were determined using a micromanipulation technique and finite element analysis (FEM). The microcapsules structure was also considered in the determination of the permeability and diffusivity of the perfume oils in good solvents..

  16. Producing and optimizing novel materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahdi

    2011-12-01

    A series of detailed experimental and finite element investigations were carried out to study the response of selected objects which are currently utilized for load carrying. These investigations were later applied to optimize the mechanical performance of the studied structures and materials. First, a number of experiments and detailed finite element simulations were carried out to study the response and failure of single lap joints with non-flat interface under uniaxial tension. The adherents were made from fiber reinforced epoxy composite and the custom-made mold allowed the fibers to follow the profile of the bonded joint interface. The experiments showed that the interface shape has significant effect on the mechanical behavior and strength of the bonded joints. Finite element simulations were performed to estimate the distribution of shear and peeling stresses along the bonded joints and the results were linked to the experimental investigations. Additional parametric calculations were also carried out to highlight the role of interface shape on the distribution of stresses, and inherently the overall strength and behavior of the bonded joints. In addition, the role of a central void on the distribution of the stresses in a bonded joint with flat and non-flat sinusoidal interfaces was investigated. The second topic concerns Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) which are widely used in the industry due to its durability, low cost, and anti-moisture properties in comparison with the natural wood. In this research, we have produced flout shaped WPC samples using African black wood powder and Phenolic resin in a hot compression molding set-up. Initial WPC composites were produced by systematically changing the wood volume fraction. Based on these results the optimum temperature, pressure and wood volume fraction for developing WPC in a form of a flute is developed. A series of experimental procedures were performed to improve mechanical properties of WPC samples by

  17. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  18. Irradiation of spices produced in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Narvaiz, P.; Lescano, G.; Kaupert, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    Some spices produced in Argentina ground red pepper, anise, fennel, laurel, paprika, Cayenne pepper, cumin (seed), and mayoram (leaves and flowers), were irradiated to inactivate microbial lead, without causing significant chemical or sensory alterations. They were packed in polyethylene bags of 100 m thickness, and irradiated at the 60 Co semi-industrial facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with doses of 7 and 10 kGy, and dose rate of 93.87 Gy/min. Dosimetric data were evaluated with potassium nitrate. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Chemical analysis were performed to verify the Argentine Alimentary Codex specifications: water content; essence; total ash; ash insoluble in acid; alcoholic, volatile ether and non-volatile ether extracts; starch; and crude fiber. Besides, colour and volatile substances were analyzed. No differences were found between control and irradiated samples, with the exception of an increase in the total amount of volatiles released by irradiated spices, and a slight colour loss in mayoram. Microbiological determinations consisted of aerobic plate count, yeasts and moulds, coliform bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophilic and thermophilic sporeformers, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. Microbial load in control samples oscillated between 10 3 and 10 6 microorganisms per gram, and was inhibited with 10 kGy to undetectable level. With 7 kGy, survivors were still detected in: cumin, anise, laurel, red pepper, fennel and paprika. So, the purpose of this work was accomplished with the dose of 10 kGy. Great improvement on the quality of those products which being stored at room temperature are consumed in the raw state, would be attained. (Author) [es

  19. Romania, producer and consumer of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberius

    1998-01-01

    A historical sketch of the activity of Romanian Rare Metals Enterprises is presented stressing the valorization of rare metals like: - radioactive metals, uranium and thorium; - dispersed rare metals, molybdenum, monazite; - heavy and refractory metals, titanium and zirconium; rare earths, lanthanides and yttrics. The beginning and developing of research in the nuclear field is in closed relation to the existence on the domestic territory of important uranium ores the mining of which begun early in 1954. The exploitation of Baita-Bihor orebody was followed by that at Ciudanovita, Natra and Dobrei ores in Caras-Severin county. Concomitantly with the ore mining, geological research was developed covering vast areas of country's surface and using advanced investigation tools suitable for increasing depths. The next step in the nuclear fuel program was made by building a uranium concentrate (as ammonium or sodium diuranate) plant. Two purification units for processing the uranium concentrate to sintered uranium dioxide powder were completed and commissioned at Feldioara in 1986. The quality of the uranium dioxide product meets the quality standards requirements for CANDU type nuclear fuel as certified in 1994. Currently, part of the fuel load of Cernavoda reactor is fuel element clusters produced by Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti of sintered powder processed at Feldioara. A list of strategic objectives of the Uranium National Company is presented among which: - maintaining the uranium mining and milling activities in close relation with the fuel requirements of Cernavoda NPP; continuing geological research in promising zones, to find new uranium orebodies, easy to mill cost effectively; decreasing the environmental impact in the geological research areas, in mining and transport affected areas and in the processing plants. The fuel demand of current operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 as well as of future Unit 2 after commissioning are and will be satisfied by the

  20. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.108 Goods produced for commerce. Goods are “produced for commerce” if they are “produced, manufactured, mined, handled or...

  1. 7 CFR 955.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer-handler. 955.10 Section 955.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.10 Producer-handler. Producer-Handler means a producer who handles Vidalia onions. ...

  2. Prime Time Power: Women Producers, Writers and Directors on TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Sally

    This report analyzes the number of women working in the following six decision making jobs in prime time television: (1) executive producer; (2) supervising producer; (3) producer; (4) co-producer; (5) writer; and (6) director. The women who hold these positions are able to influence the portrayal of women on television as well as to improve the…

  3. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region. Cotton-producing region means each of the following groups of cotton-producing States: (a) Southeast Region: Alabama...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and management of the producer-handler and are operated as the producer-handler's own enterprise and... as the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its sole risk. (3) The producer-handler neither... care and management of the dairy animals and the other resources and facilities designated in paragraph...

  5. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the

  6. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  7. Project INOVEMAR: Innovation in Sea Produce Processment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberta Araújo

    2014-06-01

    these products into the market. Consequently, fishing communities will be able to sell all their produce, reducing waste, and increasing their economic situation.

  8. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  9. Produced water challenges : influence of production chemicals on flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Zangaeva, Elmara

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology : offshore engineering Produced water is the largest volume waste from offshore oil and gas exploration and production processes. Water in varying quantities is always produced along with oil, and has to be separated from the oil. The quantity of “produced water” generally increases substantially with the age of the oil field. Produced water handling tactic depends on the composition of produced water, location, quantity and the availability of r...

  10. Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

  11. Modification of Diesel Engine to Producer Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Nay Zar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes considerations and procedure of conversion from diesel engine to producer gas engine. In this paper, the performance of producer gas engine is compared to the original diesel engine and the factors affecting on performance of the producer gas engine are mentioned. After converting the 26.5 kW diesel engines to producer gas engine, the power output of producer gas engine is 40% less than that of original diesel engine. However producer gas engines are used for saving fuel ...

  12. Environmental Conservation And Sustainable Development In Oil Producing Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbon, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of oil and gas exploration, development and production on the environment and local environmental standards and guidelines are highlighted and compared to prevailing environmental conditions in some of the oil producing communities. The effect of environmental pollution on the sustainable development of oil producing communities is analyzed. The responses of the inhabitants of oil producing communities to environmental degradation in detail. So also are the reactions of the oil producing companies and the Federal government. Special emphasis is placed on the activities of relevant governmental institutions in oil producing areas. Finally, a strategy for ensuring environmental conservation and sustainable development in oil producing communities is proposed

  13. Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Goodwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. Control of the disease has been hampered by a limited understanding of the genetic and biochemical bases of pathogenicity, including mechanisms of infection and of resistance in the host. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it evades host defenses. Although this type of stealth pathogenicity occurs commonly in Mycosphaerella and other Dothideomycetes, the largest class of plant-pathogenic fungi, its genetic basis is not known. To address this problem, the genome of M. graminicola was sequenced completely. The finished genome contains 21 chromosomes, eight of which could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. This eight-chromosome dispensome is dynamic in field and progeny isolates, is different from the core genome in gene and repeat content, and appears to have originated by ancient horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. Synteny plots of the M. graminicola chromosomes versus those of the only other sequenced Dothideomycete, Stagonospora nodorum, revealed conservation of gene content but not order or orientation, suggesting a high rate of intra-chromosomal rearrangement in one or both species. This observed "mesosynteny" is very different from synteny seen between other organisms. A surprising feature of the M. graminicola genome compared to other sequenced plant pathogens was that it contained very few genes for enzymes that break down plant cell walls, which was more similar to endophytes than to pathogens. The stealth pathogenesis of M. graminicola probably involves degradation of proteins rather than carbohydrates to evade host defenses during the biotrophic

  14. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  15. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Rasmussen

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%. Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3. The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20 was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats

  16. Screening of potential biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seawater represents a specific environment harboring complex bacterial community which is adapted to harsh conditions. Hence, biosurfactant produced by these bacteria under these conditions have interesting proprieties. The screening of biosurfactant producing strains isolated from seawater biofilm was investigated.

  17. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  18. Improved Methods of Producing and Administering Extracellular Vesicles | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient method of producing purified extracellular vesicles (EVs), in conjunction with a method that blocks liver macrophages from clearing EVs from the body, has produced promising results for the use of EVs in cancer therapy.

  19. Teknologi Ultrafiltrasi Untuk Pengolahan Air Terproduksi (Produced Water)

    OpenAIRE

    Safitri, Henny Ikka; A., Fella Ryanitha; Aryanti, Nita

    2013-01-01

    Produced water generated from crude oil exploitation contains compounds such as BTEX, ammonia, phenol, and mercury that are dangerous for human health and environment. Some technologies have been applied for produced water treatment such as biological wastewater treatment with microorganism, coagulation and flocculation. In this research, produced water was treated using ultrafiltration membrane. Specifically this research is aimed to obtain characteristic of produced water and ultrafiltratio...

  20. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.109 - Personal liability of the producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.109 Personal liability of the producer. (a) When a producer obtains a commodity marketing... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability of the producer. 1421.109 Section...

  2. 7 CFR 1416.302 - Eligible crops and producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible crops and producers. 1416.302 Section 1416... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.302 Eligible crops and producers. (a) A producer must be... crop and is entitled to share in the crop available for marketing from the farm or would have shared...

  3. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between ...

  4. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    groups where compared to each other, healthcare association and hospital admission proved to be independent risk factors for UTI with ESBL-producing E.coli. When typing uropathogenic E.coli, we less frequently saw ST131 among non-ESBL than among ESBL-producing E.coli. We found that ESBL-producing E...

  5. HACCP implementation in the production of fresh-cut produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of foodborne illness outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the last few years. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella have been implicated as major bacterial pathogens of concern to produce safety. Microbial contamination of produce may occur anytime during the prod...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be refined further to produce domestic kerosene and gasoline. The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water ...

  7. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive of...

  8. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). This new date..., that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121...

  9. Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water on low carbon steel. Akpofure Rim-Rukeh. Abstract. The corrosion effect of produced water on low carbon has been investigated using the weight loss technique. The composite produced water sample was found to contain pH (5.3), turbidity (82 NTU), ...

  10. Isolation of hydrogen-producing bacteria from biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, S.V.; Servulo, E.F.C.; Da Silva, I.M.; Martelli, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Two H2-producing strains belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from biodigesters, fed sugarcane distillation slops, from acetone-butanol fermentation, under anaerobic conditions. H2 and CO2 were the only gases produced from glucose. H2 was 40.87% of the total gas produced by Citrobacter freundii, and 57.74% when Enterobacter agglomerans was assayed.

  11. Evaluating the quality characteristics of kunun produced from dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunun is a traditional beverage in Nigeria produced by wet milling from sorghum, maize or millet. This work evaluates kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum flour. The sorghum was dehulled, milled and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was steeped for 24 h and mixed with spices to produce kunun and the quality of the ...

  12. Poverty and Poverty Status in Oil Producing Communities of Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined poverty and poverty status in the oil producing communities of Nigeria; using oil-producing communities of Ondo state, Nigeria as a case study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data on economic characteristics of the household. In the first stage, oil-producing communities were ...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations, are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations, are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  16. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping eLiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of blaCTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in E. coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for blaCTX-M-14 and then the blaCTX-M-14 –positive isolates were detected by other resistance determinants (ESBLs, PMQR, rmtB and floR and analyzed by phylogenetic grouping analysis, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analysis. The genetic environments of blaCTX-M-14 were also determined by PCR. The results showed that fourteen CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were identified, belonging to groups A (7/14, B1 (4/14 and D (3/14. The most predominant resistance gene was blaTEM (n= 8, followed by floR (n=7, oqxA (n=3, aac(6’-1b-cr (n=2 and rmtB (n=1. Plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14 were classified to IncK, IncHI2, IncHI1, IncN, IncFIB, IncF or IncI1, ranged from about 30kb to 200kb, and with insertion sequence of ISEcp1, IS26 or ORF513 located upstream and IS903 downstream of blaCTX-M-14. The result of MLST showed that 14 isolates had 11 STs, and the 11 STs belonged to 5 groups. Many of the identified STs are reported to be common in E. coli isolates associated with extraintestinal infections in humans, suggesting possible transmission of blaCTX-M-14 between animals and humans. The difference in the flanking sequences of blaCTX-M-14 between the 2009 isolates and the early ones suggests that the resistance gene context continues to evolve in E. coli of food producing animals.

  17. Method of producing Pb-stabilized superconductor precursors and method of producing superconductor articles therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Hsu, Huey S.; Brynestad, Jorulf

    1995-01-01

    Metal oxide superconductor powder precursors are prepared in an aerosol pyrolysis process. A solution of the metal cations is introduced into a furnace at 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. for 0.1 to 60 seconds. The process produces micron to submicron size powders without the usual loss of the lead stabilizer. The resulting powders have a narrow particle size distribution, a small grain size, and are readily converted to a superconducting composition upon subsequent heat treatment. The precursors are placed in a metal body deformed to form a wire or tape and heated to form a superconducting article. The fine powders permit a substantial reduction in heat treatment time, thus enabling a continuous processing of the powders into superconducting wire, tape or multifilamentary articles by the powder-in-tube process.

  18. A new approach to produce drug nanosuspensions CO2-assisted effervescence to produce drug nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangfei; Wang, Menglin; Ma, Zhihui; Xue, Peng; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    The exploration of a simple and robust approach to produce nanosuspensions is a meaningful attempt for clinical translation. CO2-assisted effervescence was firstly developed to prepare nanosuspensions and was found to be easy for scale-up. Drug nanosuspensions were easily obtained by adding aqueous carbonate to the pre-treated mixture of drug, stabilizer and organic acid. The burst of CO2 bubbles resulted from the acid-base reaction insert a micro gas bubble smashing and mixing effect to the formation of nanosuspensions, leading to smaller sizes and a refined size distribution. We successfully prepared nanosuspensions with twelve structurally diverse drugs. Alternatively, solid carbonate blended with the mixture, allowing for later addition of water, also facilitates the formation of amorphous nanosuspensions. We defined this approach as in situ nanoamorphization (ISN). Intensive in vitro and in vivo investigations for itraconazole and cabazitaxel nanosuspensions validate the availability for administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported...... as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were...... chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed...

  20. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  1. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries.

  2. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  3. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedar, Yusran; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  4. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedar Yusran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  5. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  6. Oilfield Produced Water Reuse and Reinjection with Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siagian Utjok W.R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Produced water has become a global environmental issue due to its huge volume and toxicity that may pose detrimental effects on receiving environment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for produced water handling such as reinjection, reuse, or discharge. With various advantages, membrane technology has been increasingly used in produced water treatment replacing the conventional technologies. However, fouling is a major drawback of membrane processes in this application which needs to be controlled. This paper gives an overview and comparison of different produced water management. Special attention is given to produced water treatment for reuse purpose. Furthermore, the use of membrane processes in produced water reuse including performance, challenges, and future outlook are discussed.

  7. INTERNET CONNECTIVITY FOR MASS PRODUCED UNITS WITHOUT USER INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    To the manufacturer of mass produced units without a user interface, typically field level units, connection of these units to a communications network for enabling servicing, control and trackability is of interest. To provide this connection, a solution is described in which an interface compri...... comprising an ASIC is built into a mass produced unit, whereby the ASIC is incorporating selected portions of selected layers of the Internet Protocol. The mass produced unit is then allocated a unit address....

  8. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black pepper in Vietnam and promote root and shoot development of the ‘King of Spices’. Biosurfactant-producing P. fluorescens strain SS101 was also effective in controlling tomato late blight caused by P...

  9. THE IMPACT OF POLLUTION CONTROLS ON LIVESTOCK-CROP PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitkey, Gary D.; Miranda, Mario J.

    1993-01-01

    A discrete-time, continuous-space model of a livestock- crop producer is used to examine the long-run effects of phosphorus runoff controls on optimal livestock production and manure application practices. Quantity restrictions and taxes on phosphorus application are shown to reduce livestock supply and impose greater costs on livestock-crop producers than on crop-only producers. Restrictions on manure application, without accompanying restrictions on commercial fertilizer application, will h...

  10. Selection and fitness in bacteriocin-producing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Dykes, G A; Hastings, J W

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous anticompetitor molecules produced by bacteria against closely related species. A number of theoretical models have been used to explain experimental data that indicate high polymorphisms among bacteriocins and a frequency-dependent nature of selection for bacteriocin-producing strains. The majority of these experimental data were, however, obtained from investigations into the colicin group of bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The conclusions draw...

  11. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  12. Oilfield Produced Water Reuse and Reinjection with Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian Utjok W.R.; Widodo Setyo; Khoiruddin; Wardani Anita K.; Wenten I Gede

    2018-01-01

    Produced water has become a global environmental issue due to its huge volume and toxicity that may pose detrimental effects on receiving environment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for produced water handling such as reinjection, reuse, or discharge. With various advantages, membrane technology has been increasingly used in produced water treatment replacing the conventional technologies. However, fouling is a major drawback of membrane processes in this applicat...

  13. Study on Laser Induced Plasma Produced in Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, N.; Yamada, J.

    2003-01-01

    When an intense laser light is focused in liquid, a hot plasma is produced at the focal spot. The breakdown threshold and the transmittance of sodium choroids solution are observed using excimer laser or YAG laser. The breakdown threshold decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. Threshold intensity of plasma produced by YAG laser is lower than excimer laser. The behavior of plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The plasma produced by a YAG laser develops only backward. However, the plasma produced by excimer laser develops not only backward but also forward same as the plasma development in high-pressure gases

  14. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  15. Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic marine actinomycetes ( Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces hygroscopicus ) in the production of ecofriendly alternative energy from waste.

  16. Review of extended producer responsibility: A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupt, Yamini; Sahay, Samraj

    2015-07-01

    Principles of extended producer responsibility have been the core of most of the recent policies and legislation dealing with the end-of-life management of recyclable goods. This article makes an exploratory review of 27 cases of extended producer responsibility from developed and developing economies with and without informal recycling, to ascertain the most important aspect of extended producer responsibility. A comparative analysis of the cases with respect to role of stakeholders in the upstream and downstream stages of the extended producer responsibility has been carried out. Further, the study uses exploratory factor analysis to determine the important aspects of the extended producer responsibility in practice using 13 variables identified from the review. Findings of the comparative analysis reveal that financial responsibility of the producers and separate collecting and recycling agencies contributed significantly to the success of the extended producer responsibility-based environmental policies. Regulatory provisions, take-back responsibility and financial flow come out to be the three most important aspects of the extended producer responsibility. Presence of informal sector had a negative impact on the regulatory provisions. The outcomes of this study could serve as a guideline for designing of effective extended producer responsibility-based policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Isolation and characterization of renal erythropoietin-producing cells from genetically produced anemia mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Pan

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of renal erythropoietin-producing cells (REPs remains a central challenge for elucidating the mechanisms involved in hypoxia and/or anemia-induced erythropoietin (Epo production in adult mammals. Previous studies have shown that REPs are renal peritubular cells, but further details are lacking. Here, we describe an approach to isolate and characterize REPs. We bred mice bearing an Epo gene allele to which green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter cDNA was knocked-in (Epo(GFP with mice bearing an Epo gene allele lacking the 3' enhancer (Epo(Δ3'E. Mice harboring the mutant Epo(GFP/Δ3'E gene exhibited anemia (average Hematocrit 18% at 4 to 6 days after birth, and this perinatal anemia enabled us to identify and purify REPs based on GFP expression from the kidney. Light and confocal microscopy revealed that GFP immunostaining was confined to fibroblastic cells that reside in the peritubular interstitial space, confirming our previous observation in Epo-GFP transgenic reporter assays. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the GFP fraction constitutes approximately 0.2% of the whole kidney cells and 63% of GFP-positive cells co-express CD73 (a marker for cortical fibroblasts and Epo-expressing cells in the kidney. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that Epo expression was increased by approximately 100-fold in the purified population of REPs compared with that of the unsorted cells or CD73-positive fraction. Gene expression analyses showed enrichment of Hif2α and Hif3α mRNA in the purified population of REPs. The genetic approach described here provides a means to isolate a pure population of REPs, allowing the analysis of gene expression of a defined population of cells essential for Epo production in the kidney. This has provided evidence that positive regulation by HIF2α and negative regulation by HIF3α might be necessary for correct renal Epo induction.

  18. Characterization of Kentucky dairy producer decision-making behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R A; Bewley, J M

    2013-07-01

    To address dairy clientele needs, industry professionals need to understand how dairy producers make decisions. A survey was distributed to all licensed Kentucky milk producers (n=1,074) to better understand factors that influence dairy producer decisions. A total of 236 surveys were returned; 7 were omitted because they were incomplete, leaving 229 for subsequent analyses (21% response rate). The survey consisted of questions about dairy operational success criteria, decision evaluation criteria, information sources, and technology adoption. The mean response to each survey question was calculated after assigning the following numeric values to producer response categories: 1 = not important, 3 = important, 5 = very important. The most important source of influence or information in decision making was advice from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians (3.70±1.23), followed by consultation with business partners and family members (3.68±1.29), and intuition and gut feeling (3.10±1.45). Producers with large herds (≥200 cows) relied more heavily on information from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians and on employee input than did producers with small herds (1 to 49 cows). Producers with small herds did not use effect on employee morale as a criterion to evaluate decisions as much as those with larger herds did. In regard to adoption of automated monitoring technologies, producers indicated that modest adoption rates were a result of (1) not being familiar with technologies that are available (55%), (2) undesirable cost to benefit ratios (42%), and (3) too much information provided without knowing what to do with it (36%). As herd size increased, the percentage of producers selecting poor technical support and training and compatibility issues as reasons for slow adoption of automated technologies increased. This insight into dairy producer decision making should help industry professionals address dairy producer issues and concerns. Copyright

  19. Ionising energy treatment for fresh horticultural produce -mandarins and other produce, Trials 1 and 2, May-July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLauchlan, R.L.; Brown, B.I.; Mitchell, G.E.; Aston, J.W.; Wood, A.F.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, S.M.; Nottingham, S.M.; Wilson, P.R.; Juffs, H.S.; Johnson, G.I.; Heather, N.W.; Giles, J.E.; Wills, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two trials are described on the effect of ionising energy treatment, or irradiation, on the quality, shelf-life and composition of fresh produce, mainly at doses consistent with disinfestation treatment for quarantine purposes. Trial 1, carried out in May 1987, deals with replicated treatments of Imperial mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on a range of other produce. Trial 2 deals with replicated treatments of Ellendale mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on other produce

  20. Analysis of activity in swine producers group based on agricultural producers association in Biała district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Knecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of pigs producer groups formation in Poland is quite dynamic. Currently on the pork market 181 groups operate, which includes about 4000 swine producers. The aim of this study was to characterize the activities of the Agricultural Producers Association in Biała District. The research tool was a personal questionnaire and the research sample consisted of 30 farmers. It has been shown that after joining the producers group, the investigated households reported an increase in sales volume and improved the flock production parameters. Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the cooperation with meat processing companies.

  1. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of butyrate-producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butyrate-producing gut microflora synthesizes and secretes butyrate which serves as source of energy and stimulates rumen development in young animals. The present study was undertaken to characterize and screen butyrate-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for probiotic use in animals in order to manipulate their gut ...

  3. Mechanical Property of Plastic Lumber Produced from Recycled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling is a strategy to combat environmental pollution due to plastic wastes. Of the many plastic wastes, researchers confirmed the possibility to produce plastic lumber from used HDPE plastics. The aim of this study is to experimentally determine the mechanical property of the plastic lumber produced from pure HDPE ...

  4. Evolutionary Relationships among Aspergillus Species Producing Economically Important Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycotoxins are produced by aspergilli, which contaminate our foods and feeds. Economically the most important of these mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. Recent studies indicate that these compounds can be produced by a number of unrelated Aspergillus species. Evolutionary relationships among sections involving these mycotoxin producing species (Aspergillus sections Circumdati, Flavi, Nigri, Fumigati and Clavati were evaluated using phylogenetic analysis of -tubulin and ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetically unrelated species were found to produce the same mycotoxins. For example, aflatoxins have been produced under laboratory conditions by species belonging to three different sections, while ochratoxin A (OA and patulin have been produced by a variety of unrelated species. Based on this observation, mycotoxin-producing abilities of the isolates were lost (or gained several times during the evolution of the genus. Previous studies revealed that biosynthetic genes of several mycotoxins are clustered in the genome, leading to the idea that these clusters could be horizontally transferred as a unit to unrelated species, leading to the biosynthesis of the same mycotoxins in phylogenetically unrelated fungi. Such a mechanism could also explain the widespread occurrence of ochratoxin and patulin production in aspergilli. The organisation of biosynthetic genes of patulin and ochratoxins is unknown. Research is in progress in our laboratory to clarify the genetic background of biosynthesis of these mycotoxins, and to develop biosynthetic gene based probes for the molecular detection of these mycotoxin producing organisms.

  5. Evaluation Of Soursop Wine Produced With Baker's Yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Soursop Wine Produced With Baker's Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisae ) ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Soursop pulp was fermented for wine production using baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) and the wine produced was evaluated using some wine quality parameters (pH, Titrable acidity (TA), ...

  6. Quality evaluation of 'lafun' produced from stored cassava roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshly harvested cassava roots were stored in the soil and some were stored heaped on the floor of a well ventilated store room. These roots were stored for periods ranging from 1 to 9 days and samples were drawn from them respectively at 3 days interval and used to produce Lafun. Also, Lafun was produced from ...

  7. comparative analysis of calorific value of briquettes produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yanky

    between the densities, Percentage Ash content, Percentage Volatile matter and Percentage. Fixed carbon of the samples. A progressive increase in heating value was observed among briquettes produced as the starch level increased. Briquettes produced at the tertiary combination of Afzelia africana + Daniella oliveri + ...

  8. Millimeterwave spectroscopy of transient molecules produced in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combined with a free space glass discharge cell. Millimeterwave radiation has been produced using a frequency multiplier, the fundamental radiation source being klystrons. The spectrometer has been used to study the millimeterwave spectrum of carbon monosulfide (CS) and fluorine cyanide (FCN) produced inside the ...

  9. Value addition to locally produced soybean in Ghana: production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana produces about 50,000 metric tons of soy beans per annum, of which only about 15 metric tons are utilized. One aspect of utilizing the beans is in the production of soy sauce, a product whose demand is on the increase due to changing food habits of the Ghanaian society. A preliminary attempt to produce soy sauce ...

  10. Hyper-saline produced water treatment for beneficial use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Furaiji, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Producing oil and gas is always accompanied with large amounts of effluent water, called “produced water” (PW). These huge quantities of water can be used (if treated efficiently and economically) for many useful purposes like industrial applications, irrigation, cattle and animal consumption, and

  11. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  12. 7 CFR 1124.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or management of, nor has a financial interest in, another handler's operation; nor is any other... farm(s) that supply milk to the producer-handler's plant operation is: (i) Subject to inclusion and... resources and facilities of the producer-handler is subject to inclusion and participation in a marketwide...

  13. Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria. ... Due to the increased demand for and increased use of maize, it is recommended that maize producers should be provided with essential input at subsidized rate so as to increase their output to meet the demand. In addition, maize import should therefore be ...

  14. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  15. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including spirits...

  16. Evaluation of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Fresh Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred forty (240) samples of fresh vegetables were examined for aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and presence of Escherichia coli, toxigenic ... This study shows that the outer parts/ leaves of fresh produce are heavily contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and the fresh produce should be pre- treated ...

  17. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  18. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Uropathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other producers include Escherichia coli 6(38%), Klebsiella oxytoca 1(6%) and Enterobacter cloacae 1(6%).These ESBL producing isolates showed resistance to Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (100%), Ceftazidime (100%) and Cefotaxime (100%). They were however sensitive to Imipenem (100%), Azetronam (100%) ...

  19. Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Crum, L. A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1989-01-01

    ; the second occurs for some impacts but not others. A range of conditions is described in which a bubble is produced for every drop impact, and it is shown that these conditions are likely to be met by a significant fraction of the raindrops in a typical shower. Underwater sound produced by artificial as well...

  20. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained... justifying dumping shall be forwarded to the consignor or joint account partner with the accounting and a...

  1. community acquired pneumonia or βhcg - Producing lung tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed signs suggestive of βhCG-producing lung tumor with metastasis to the brain and succumbed to the illness before she could be referred for further evaluations and management. Key Words: Community acquired pneumonia, βhCG-producing lung tumor, Paraneoplastic Syndrome, Oculomotor Nerve Palsy.

  2. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1030.44 Section 1030... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1030.44 Classification of producer milk...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each month...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1124.44 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1124.44 Classification of producer milk...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1005.44 Section 1005... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1005.44 Classification of producer milk...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  13. The Necessity of ASEAN Community in Producing Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saowaros, Thanoo; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to identify the reasons for the shortage of pilots; the necessity of producing Pilots and the obstacles and problems faced by ASEAN Community in producing pilots. The study is conducted by official documents, observations, in-depth interview from personnel who are working for Airports Authority of Thailand,…

  14. Quantification of microcystin-producing microcystis in freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total Microcystis spp (microcystinproducing and non-producing strains) were quantified in the three selected study areas with the determination of the copy numbers of the phycocyanin (PC) operon. Microcystin-producing gene copy numbers were quantified using specific primer pair, amplifying the mcyB gene. Microcystis ...

  15. Aflatoxin B 1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) producing potential of different strains of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from 1,200 stored rice grains collected from 43 locations in 20 rice growing states in India was investigated. Eighty-five strains of A. flavus were isolated from the discolored rice grains and tested for their AFB1 producing potential on ...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sharing processors' allocations with producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.310 Sharing processors' allocations with producers. (a) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor...

  17. Management Practices of Soybean Producers in Marion County, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A.; And Others

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine some major characteristics of Marion County soybean producers and their farms; (2) more accurately determine which recommended production practices soybean producers were using in 1968 and 1969; (3) study the relation between use of recommended production practices and yield levels; and (4) identify…

  18. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene.

  19. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the disaster period; and (4) Not have been produced and maintained for reasons other than commercial... roaming animals or animals used for recreational purposes, such as pleasure, hunting, pets, or for show...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...

  20. TEE Beam Manufacturing Analysis for Weight Reduction and Producibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomquist, Paul A

    1994-01-01

    .... Tees produced by the traditional method of deflanging hot-rolled I-beams (I/T shapes) have been compared to fabricated tee-shapes produced from plate for a target group of 1700 tees used in a DDG-51 class vessel...

  1. Understanding characteristics of families who buy local produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Laditka, Sarah B; Lowe, Anna E

    2013-01-01

    To examine individual characteristics associated with local produce purchasing among North Carolina families with children. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program (NC CHAMP), a representative sample of adults who have land-line telephones. North Carolina. Families with children who participated in the NC CHAMP (n = 2,932). Frequency of buying local produce from local vendors in the past year. Bivariate and multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression identified characteristics associated with not buying local produce and, among those who purchased local produce, the frequency of purchasing. About half of families reported buying local produce on average once a month during the past year. In adjusted results, buying local produce was more likely among white families, lower income families, families living in rural areas, families with children who ate 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and families with children in poor health. Findings suggest that it may be useful for dietitians and health promotion professionals to assess the availability of local produce in urban areas and to focus interventions to promote local produce purchases among black families. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot

  3. Screening of thermophilic neutral lipase-producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From oil-contaminated soil, three lipase-producing microorganisms were selected as good lipase producers using rhodamine B-olive oil plate agar and they were identified as from Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Klebsiella genera by morphology, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ...

  4. Acetate enhances startup of a H2-producing microbial biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Croese, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    H2 can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H2 at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H2 production

  5. Nutritional evaluation of cookies produced from pigeon pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cookies were produced from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour blends. Ten different cookie formulations were produced. The cookies were evaluated for proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein quality. The protein content ranged from ...

  6. Screening and identification of antibacterial agents produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to isolate antibiotic producing fungi in soil samples collected from Bayero University, Kano. Soil samples were suspended in deionised distilled water and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) by spread-plate method for the isolation of fungi. Primary screening of antibiotic producers was ...

  7. 32 CFR 705.16 - Navy produced public information material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navy produced public information material. 705... Chief of Information releases TV featurettes directly to local TV stations and the Office of Information... information material. (a) Still photo—(1) General. (i) The policy and procedures given for media produced...

  8. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  9. Using Economics and Genetics To Produce Leaner Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The booklet describes the STAGES (Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System) program developed at Purdue University (Indiana), along with the USDA, National Pork Producers Council and swine breed associations. By selecting breeding stock from a coded catalogue developed by STAGES, producers are able to select the best breeding stock for more…

  10. Market participation among rice producing households in Abia state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the factors affecting market participation among rice producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. Four major rice producing areas of the state namely Bende, Umuahia North, Ikwuano, and Isukwuato local government areas were identified, within which four communities each were selected. Random ...

  11. achieving improved financing for low-income producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their goods immediately, whether market prices are favorable or not. This paper reviews the second set of approaches for improving low-income producers access to financing. Second Set of Approaches for Achievement of. Improved Financing for Low-Income Producers. Collateral substitutes: Farmers operating in areas.

  12. Comparison of Journalistic Values of Television Reporters and Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Conrad; Becker, Lee B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the contention that television producers are representative of the show business side of news production whereas the reporter is the protector of the more noble journalistic goals. Finds little evidence that reporters are fighting producers to protect journalistic integrity. (RS)

  13. Organoleptic properties and quality of yoghurt produced from goat milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goat milk samples were collected from the Research Farm of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Uinversity, Bauchi, Nigeria were used in investigating the shelf life of fresh and pasteurized milk as well as organoleptic properties of four yoghurt samples produced from them. Sensory evaluation was done on the yoghurt produced ...

  14. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  15. Characterisation of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Crypthecodinium cohnii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaf, de M.E.; Grobben, G.J.; Eggink, G.; Rijk, de T.C.; Meer, van der P.; Sijtsma, L.

    2001-01-01

    The valuable polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, can be produced by cultivation of the heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium cohnii. During batch growth of C. cohnii on glucose, sea salt and yeast extract for 5 days, so far unreported extracellular polysaccharides were produced.

  16. METAL-CERAMIC INTERFACES PRODUCED BY LASER MELT INJECTION PROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHOSSON, JTM; VANDENBURG, M; Burg, M. van den

    1995-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. It is concluded that a firmly bonded coating of Cr2O3 on steel could be produced by high power laser processing. The actual interface strength of a

  17. Method for producing bonded nonwoven fabrics using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drelich, A.H.; Oney, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing a resin-bonded nonwoven fabric. The preparation involves forming a fibrous web annealing it and compressing it to provide fiber to fiber contact. A polymerizable binder is applied to the fibrous web which is then treated by ionizing radiation to produce the material. 9 figures, 3 drawing

  18. Responses of primary producers to mouth closure in the temporarily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of primary producers to mouth closure in the temporarily open/closed Great Brak Estuary in the warm-temperate region of South Africa. ... The response of primary producers to this prolonged period of mouth closure was investigated in 2010/2011. Urban and agricultural development in the river catchment and ...

  19. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... However, 65% of the strains produced AFB1 on Czapek's agar, 53% of the strains on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and none of the strains on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar media (AFPA). The strain, DRAf 009 produced maximum AFB1 (4.0 – 40 µg/g agar) on all the agar media tested. Five strains of ...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  2. 7 CFR 1126.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  4. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  5. A method of producing a body comprising porous alpha silicon carbide and the body produced by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body and porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body produced by that method. The porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body shows a characteristic microstructure providing a high degree of mechanical stability...

  6. A modified Tessari method for producing more foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Yi-Fei; Chen, An-Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Shao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a modified Tessari method for producing more sclerosing foam in treatment of extensive venous malformations. Sclerosing foam was produced by using Tessari method and the modified Tessari method. The procedure of the later was as follows: prepared foam in a sclerosant-air ratio of 1:4; connected three disposable 10 ml syringes to two medical three-way taps; drawn 4 ml of liquid sclerosant into one syringe and 16 ml averagely of air into the other two; then moved the plungers of all syringes back and forth for 20 times to produce sclerosing foam. The volume and foam half time (FHT) of foam produced by the two methods were compared. The average volume of sclerosing foam produced by Tessari method and the modified Tessari method were 9.8 and 19.7 ml, and assessed to have statistical difference. The FHT of foam produced by the two methods were 120 and 150 s, and assessed to have statistical difference. In conclusion, the modified Tessari method could produce more fresh and stable sclerosing foam.

  7. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  8. Reactor-produced radioisotopes from ORNL for bone pain palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F F; Mirzadeh, S; Beets, A L; O'Doherty, M; Blower, P J; Verdera, E S; Gaudiano, J S; Kropp, J; Guhlke, J; Palmedo, H; Biersack, H J

    1998-04-01

    The treatment of painful skeletal metastases is a common clinical problem, and the use of therapeutic radionuclides which localize at metastatic sites has been found to be an effective method for treatment of pain, especially for multiple sites for which the use of external beam irradiation is impractical. There are currently several metastatic-targeted agents radiolabeled with various therapeutic radionuclides which are in various stages of clinical investigation. Since neutron-rich radionuclides are produced in research reactors and often decay by emission of beta- particles, most radionuclides used for bone pain palliation are reactor-produced. Key examples of radionuclides produced by single neutron capture of enriched targets include rhenium-186 and samarium-153. In addition, generator systems are also of interest which provide therapeutic daughter radionuclides from the decay of reactor-produced parent radionuclides. One important example is rhenium-188, available from generators via decay of reactor-produced tungsten-188. Tin-117m is an example of a reactor-produced radionuclide which decays with the emission of low-energy conversion electrons rather than by beta- decay. Each of these agents and/or radionuclides has specific advantages and disadvantages, however, the ideal agent for bone pain palliation has not yet been identified. The goal of this paper is to briefly review the production and use of several reactor-produced radionuclides for bone pain palliation, and to discuss the role of the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for the production of many of these radionuclides.

  9. Pool Strategy of a Price-Maker Wind Power Producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of a wind power producer trading energy in short-term electricity markets. The producer is a price-taker in the day-ahead market, but a price-maker in the balancing market, and aims at optimizing its expected revenues from these market floors. The problem is formulated...... or median forecast of wind power distribution. Finally, sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact on the offering strategy of the producer's penetration in the market, of the correlation between wind power production and residual system deviation, and of the shape of the forecast...

  10. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... aflatoxins G(1) and G(2), aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to A. flavus group II and three Australian soil isolates. A. arachidicola produces aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2), kojic acid, chrysogine...

  11. Process to Produce Iron Nanoparticle Lunar Dust Simulant Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a method for producing nanophase iron lunar dust composite simulant by heating a mixture of carbon black and current lunar simulant types (mixed oxide including iron oxide) at a high temperature to reduce ionic iron into elemental iron. The product is a chemically modified lunar simulant that can be attracted by a magnet, and has a surface layer with an iron concentration that is increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be -iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The simulant produced with this method contains iron nanoparticles not available previously, and they are stable in ambient air. These nanoparticles can be mass-produced simply.

  12. Marketing advisors and their role for junior gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The role of marketing advisors in the new deregulated natural gas industry was discussed. These producer-oriented marketing consultants are specialists in providing affordable marketing services to junior gas producers on an 'as-needed' basis. The most important service provided by marketing advisors is helping the client identify management problems, analyze such problems and recommend solutions. Accordingly, the marketing advisor should be independent and objective, with no conflict of interests. He/she should be prepared to invest a lot of time and effort in providing the junior producer with a customized diagnosis of its marketing problems. 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Speed of sound in biodiesel produced by low power ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    The quality control of the biodiesel produced is an important issue to be addressed for every manufacturer or retailer. The speed of sound is a property that has an influence on the quality of the produced fuel. This work presents the evaluation about the speed of sound in biodiesel produced with the aid of low power ultrasound in the frequencies of 1 MHz and 3 MHz. The speed of sound was measured by pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic frequency used during reaction affects the speed of sound in biodiesel. The larger expanded uncertainty for adjusted curve was 4.9 m.s-1.

  14. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic c...... ochratoxin A production in coffee, rice, beverages and other foodstuffs are A. ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae and A. steynii....... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  15. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  16. Sounds produced by Australian Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, S M; Parra, G J; Corkeron, P J

    2000-10-01

    Sounds produced by Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris, were recorded in coastal waters off northern Australia. They exhibit a varied repertoire, consisting of broadband clicks, pulsed sounds and whistles. Broad-band clicks, "creaks" and "buzz" sounds were recorded during foraging, while "squeaks" were recorded only during socializing. Both whistle types were recorded during foraging and socializing. The sounds produced by Irrawaddy dolphins do not resemble those of their nearest taxonomic relative, the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Pulsed sounds appear to resemble those produced by Sotalia and nonwhistling delphinids (e.g., Cephalorhynchus spp.). Irrawaddy dolphins exhibit a vocal repertoire that could reflect the acoustic specialization of this species to its environment.

  17. Extended spectrum ß-lactamase- and constitutively AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae on fresh produce and in the agricultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke E; Lynch, Gretta; van Overbeek, Wendy M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2014-01-03

    The attribution of fresh produce to the overall community-associated exposure of humans to ESBL- or AmpC-producing bacteria is currently unknown. To address this issue, the prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae on fresh produce produced in the Netherlands was determined. Seven vegetable types that are consumed raw were selected: blanched celery, bunched carrots, chicory, endive, iceberg lettuce, mushrooms, and radish. The vegetables were mostly obtained from supermarkets. To determine whether the agricultural environment is the source of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae on fresh produce, iceberg lettuce was also obtained directly from three farms, in conjunction with soil and irrigation water. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables and environment were all environmental species: Rahnella aquatilis (n = 119), Serratia fonticola (n = 45) and Pantoea agglomerans (n = 1). ESBL genes of R. aquatilis and S. fonticola were identified as blaRAHN-1 and blaRAHN-2 and blaFONA-1, blaFONA-2, blaFONA-3/6 and blaFONA-5, respectively. For R. aquatilis and S. fonticola, different prevalence numbers were observed using different isolation methods, which could at least partially be explained by an inverse correlation between the level of cefotaxime resistance of these species and incubation temperature. R. aquatilis was isolated from 0 to 46% of soil samples and 11 to 83% of vegetable samples, and S. fonticola from 2 to 60% of soil samples and 0 to 1.3% of vegetable samples. Third generation cephalosporin-resistant faecal Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 2.7%, 1.3% and 1.1% of supermarket vegetables, iceberg lettuce from farms, and agricultural soil respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae were all identified as Citrobacter and Enterobacter species and, with the exception of one Citrobacter koseri strain, all had phenotypes indicative of constitutive AmpC production. Comparison of fresh produce and its agricultural environment indicates

  18. Consumer preferences for organically and locally produced apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    components of questions. Component 1 concerns benefits related to organic products while component 2 relates to positive features of locally produced products. When the components are included in analysis of data from the choice experiment a random parameter error component model suggests that respondents...... who recognize the benefits of organic products have relatively high preferences for both organically and locally produced apples. Respondents who, on the other hand, recognize the benefits of locally produced products have high preferences for domestically and locally produced apples......This study investigates organic consumers’ preferences for local production of apples. The analysis is based on a choice experiment among 637 Danish consumers used in combination with a principal component analysis of a set of opinion questions. The principal component analysis identifies two...

  19. Junior High Students Produce Daily TV Today Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzala, Louise Hicks

    1976-01-01

    Describes the seven-minute, closed-circuit television program for 500 students and teachers which is entirely planned and produced by an eighth grade broadcast journalism class at a McHenry (Illinois) junior high school. (JM)

  20. USGS investigations of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water. Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conduct research and publish data related to produced water, thus providing information and insight to scientists, decisionmakers, the energy industry, and the public. The information advances scientific knowledge, informs resource management decisions, and facilitates environmental protection. This fact sheet discusses integrated research being conducted by USGS scientists supported by programs in the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Areas. The research products help inform decisions pertaining to understanding the nature and management of produced water in the United States.

  1. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2015-02-18

    academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in authoctonus Lemna gibba plants from. Xochimilco Lake. Orlando Ortega-Acosta.

  2. Systems and methods for producing electrical discharges in compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2015-09-03

    Systems and methods configured to produce electrical discharges in compositions, such as those, for example, configured to produce electrical discharges in compositions that comprise mixtures of materials, such as a mixture of a material having a high dielectric constant and a material having a low dielectric constant (e.g., a composition of a liquid having a high dielectric constant and a liquid having a low dielectric constant, a composition of a solid having a high dielectric constant and a liquid having a low dielectric constant, and similar compositions), and further systems and methods configured to produce materials, such as through material modification and/or material synthesis, in part, resulting from producing electrical discharges in compositions.

  3. Repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits with ectopically produced cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Hulsbosch, M; Wetzels, GMR; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage has poor regenerative capacity. Donor site morbidity and interference with joint homeostasis should be considered when applying the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique. The use of ectopically produced cartilage, derived from periosteum, might be a novel method to heal

  4. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  5. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESBL)-producing Gram- negative bacteria (GNB), particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have increased all over the world. ESBLs are characterized by their ability to hydrolyze β-lactams, ...

  6. An update on organohalogen metabolites produced by basidiomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Basidiomycetes are an ecologically important group of higher fungi known for their widespread capacity to produce organohalogen metabolites. To date, 100 different organohalogen metabolites (mostly chlorinated) have been identified from strains in 70 genera of Basidiomycetes. This manuscript

  7. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Pseudomonas flourescence, P. aeruginosa, Serratia species and Pediococcus acidilactici. Of the 42 antimicrobial producing isolates characterized, 16, 12, 6 and 8 were identified ...

  8. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  9. Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. “A vision that is future directed”

  10. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  11. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  12. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Maffei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  14. Thousands of cold anti-atoms produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The antimatter factory delivers its first major results. ATHENA has just produced thousands of anti-atoms. This is the result of techniques developed by ATRAP and ATHENA, the two collaborations aiming to study antihydrogen.

  15. UV-guided screening of benzodiazepine producing species in Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld Larsen T; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Christian Frisvad J

    2000-01-01

    spectroscopy. UV-guided screening for benzodiazepine production by other penicillia revealed that sclerotigenin was also produced by isolates of P. clavigerum, P. lanosum, P. melanoconidium, P. sclerotigenum and P. verrucosum. Sclerotigenin was detected both intra- and extracellularly. Apparently, P...

  16. UV-guided screening of benzodiazepine producing species in Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    spectroscopy, UV-guided screening for benzodiazepine production by other penicillia revealed that sclerotigenin was also produced by isolates of P. clavigerum, P. lanosum, P. melanoconidium, P. sclerotigenum and P. verrucosum. Sclerotigenin was detected both intra- and extracellularly, Apparently, P...

  17. Loyalty to two brands of beer of the same producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    in the Czech Republic with many well-known brands by a multitude of producers, the Danish case gives a unique opportunity to investigate if customers truly prefer one of two brands or are approximately equally low in loyalty to any brand as it is produced by the same company and tastes very similarly (if......The focus of the paper is loyalty to two brands of beer produced by the Carlsberg Group - Tuborg and Carlsberg. Both beers are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims to promote it to women. Unlike in the Netherlands with one brand - Heineken and unlike...... not the same), i.e. if brand loyalty can be built to similar products produced by the same company. Data for the research were collected using an on-line questionnaire. The survey was conducted in Denmark. Respondents were Danish university students; such selection was done in order to ensure familiarity...

  18. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the wines produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the wines produced from the fruit juices of vitis vinifera (Grapevine), Citrus sinensis sweet orange) and Ananos comosus (pineapple)using pure cultured brewer's yeast.

  19. Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ready producers in least developed countries with potential buyers in Canada, and provide active mentoring. At the same time, the Thailand-based Mekong Institute will work with women entrepreneurs and business development providers, ...

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  2. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    the emissions exceed the regulated limit significantly. The high CO emissions are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can ¿ in origin ¿ be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) from natural gas engines, thus CO emissions from producer gas engines are a measure of fuel......High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...... passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are of similar order. When the environmental effect of the emissions is discussed, unburned hydrocarbons in the form of methane is a strong greenhouse gas (21 times higher...

  3. Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-24

    lysate MBL hydrolytic activity can be chosen by laboratories with limited resources as an inexpensive, simple, and accurate test to detect . P. aeruginosa producing blaVIM enzyme. Key words: Metallo-beta-lactamase, VIM, ...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Calorific Value of Briquettes Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Calorific Value of Briquettes Produced From Sawdust Particles of Daniella oliveriand Afzelia africana Combination at Binary and Tertiary Levels with Rice Husk. IY Ogwu, ET Tembe, SA Shomkegh ...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  6. Study of hydrogen producing bacteria in anaerobic digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kexin, L.; Jieguan, X.; Duoqun, L.; Guochao, S.; Tingjie, S.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced vigorously by adding tuber mill of Dioscorea zingiberensis to enrich a culture of biogas sludge. Hydrogen-producig bacteria were able to be enriched in this way and twenty-four strains of hydrogen-producing bacteria were isolated. The amount of hydrogen produced varied with the species of bacteria and the media used. These bacteria were identified as Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freudii, Hafina alvei and Clostridium acetobutylicum. E. cloacae may be the major component. Its relative number was about 58.3% of the total number of bacteria isolated, and S. marcescens, about 16.7% and C. acetobutylicum, about 12.5%. The methane content in the biogas was greatly increased by adding a mixed culture of hydrogen-producing bacteria to an enriched culture of biogas sludge. The carbon dioxide content in it was obviously reduced. 8 references.

  7. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  8. 7 CFR 1001.10 - Producer-handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and...) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals...

  9. Laser plasma focus produced in a ring target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Hilaire, G.; Szili, Z.

    1976-01-01

    A new geometry for generating a laser-produced plasma is presented. A toroidal mirror is used to focus a CO 2 laser beam on the inside wall of a copper ring target. The plasma produced converges at the center of the ring where an axial plasma focus is formed. High-speed photography shows details of a plasma generated at a distance from the target surface. This new geometry could have important applications in the field of x-ray lasers

  10. Capacity planning in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present approach to capacity planning in operations producing heavy metal shapes causes problems in fulfilling the required financial and volume indexes in production, as well as in meeting the work order completion dates. The article represents the methodology for optimal production scheduling in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes, which significantly eliminates the above-mentioned problems. The methodology is based on the application Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP.

  11. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  12. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  13. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  14. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda

    2010-01-01

    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  15. ENHANCING PRODUCED WATER QUALITY USING MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON

    OpenAIRE

    AlKaabi, Maryam Ali

    2016-01-01

    The formation produced water from natural gas production process in the North field offshore considered largest volume of waste water in Qatar, which could be considered a potential benefits source for the industry as well as for other domestic uses if it was treated properly, taking in to consideration economical cost and conditions aspects. This project aims to study the physical and chemical characterizations of the produced water associated with natural gas from the North field, in the sa...

  16. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.; Cappellozza, S.; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, includingproblems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause diseasein insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protistsand nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insectspecies for food and feed. Honeybee ...

  17. Spectrophotometry-based detection of carbapenemase producers among Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Carbapenem-hydrolyzing ß-lactamases are the most powerful ß-lactamases being able to hydrolyse almost all ß-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 type. A spectrophotometry technique based on analysis of the imipenem hydrolysis has been developed that differentiated carbapenemase- from noncarbapenemase producers. This inexpensive technique adapted to screening of carbapenemase producers may be implemented in any reference laboratory worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of electromagnetic radiation produced by household equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental study of electromagnetic radiation produced by different household equipment. Measurements were performed at various distances from the tested devices and in different operating modes of these, using the FA306 electromagnetic field analyzer. Also, it has been analyzed the cumulative effect of multiple sources. The experiments allowed the identification of measures to minimize the effects of exposure to artificial electromagnetic radiation produced by electrical household equipment.

  19. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

  20. Biological defense system against xenobiotics in meat-producing animals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahem Abdallah Darwish, Wageh Sobhy

    2010-01-01

    Meat-producing animals are frequently exposed during their lifetime to a lot of xenobiotics which affect on their biological systems, growth, disease response and lead to changes on the carcass quality. These changes may have some public health impact if people consumed such contaminated meat or meat products. Meat-producing animals have developed enzyme systems which help them to metabolize such xenobiotics. Studying of the profile of the different enzymes used in xenobiotics metabolism may ...