WorldWideScience

Sample records for stagnant wage growth

  1. Entrepreneurship, job creation and wage growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

      This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets ...

  2. Worker and Firm Heterogeneity in Wage Growth: An AKM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates a wage growth equation containing human capital variables known from the traditional Mincerian wage equation with year, worker and firm fixed effects included as well. The paper thus contributes further to the large empirical literature on unobserved heterogeneity following...... the work of Abowd, Kramarz, and Margolis (1999). Our main contribution is to extend the analysis from wage levels to wage growth. The specification enables us to estimate the individual specific and firm specific fixed effects and their degree of explanation on wage growth. The analysis is conducted using...... Danish longitudinal matched employer-employee data from 1980 to 2006. We find that the worker fixed effect dominates both the firm fixed effect and the effect of the observed covariates. Worker effects are estimated to explain seven to twelve per cent of the variance in wage growth while firm effects...

  3. Job-to-job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    We measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. We reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixed-effects wage regression in the Danish matched employer-employee data. We exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from...... unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected, to estimate firm fixed effects. We then decompose the variance of wage growth of all job movers. We find that 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match...

  4. Job-to-Job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we...... exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected. Then we decompose the mean and the variance of wage growth of jobto-job movers. We find that most of the wage growth experienced by job movers is attributable to an improvement...... in the quality of the worker-firm match rather than transitions to better firms. Also, 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations and high-educated workers....

  5. Entrepreneurship, Job Creation, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets...... which allow us to more precisely capture the "truly new" or "entrepreneurial" establishments than in previous studies. Using these data, we find that while new establishments in general account for one third of the gross job creation in the economy, entrepreneurial establishments are responsible...... for around 25% of this, and thus only account for about 8% of total gross job creation in the economy. However, entrepreneurial establishments seem to generate more additional jobs than other new establishments in the years following entry. Finally, the jobs generated by entrepreneurial establishments...

  6. Wage Changes, Establishment Growth, and the Effect of Composition Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Galizzi

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between real wages and aggregate employment growth has beenthe object of several empirical studies conducted with both aggregate and micro data.Despite the new availability of linked employer-employee data, however, we still havelimited empirical evidence [Belzil, 2000] to describe how real wage cyclicality can beexplained by what happens between workers and employers at the firm level. Thispaper makes a contribution by making use of Italian data to explore whether a posi-tive...

  7. Factors Affecting Post-Service Wage Growth for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY I, veterans, local unemployment 19. ABSTRACT (continue on reverse if...ings in these two years was the local unemployment rate. It was also discovered that the determinants of earnings in 1982 differed significantly...analyzes factors affecting the post-service -arnings and wage growth of veterans. The 1979-1987 National Longitudi-’nal Survey of Youth was tlbe

  8. Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?-A Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth-on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for growth. Standing up for more gender equality-also in terms of wages-is good for equity considerations and at least not negative for growth.

  9. Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is there Really a Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Schober; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2009-01-01

    Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth – on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for...

  10. Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?—A Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Summary Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth—on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negati...

  11. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  12. Mortgage Debt and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, James

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth.......Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth....

  13. Fixed-term Contracts, Transitions and Wage Growth: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio CAPARRÓS RUIZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment instability is considered one of the main problems ofthe Spanish labour market. Thus, the proportion of temporary workers in Spainis around 30 per cent that is the highest rate of the European Union countries.The persistence of this situation could increase the risk of labour marketsegmentation. This paper presents new evidence of the factors affectingworkers' transition from temporary work to permanent one and analyseswhether this transition has a positive effect on wage growth. The formerobjective is obtained by estimating discrete choice models and the latter byestimating a wage growth equation correcting for selectivity bias through thetwo-step method developed by Trost and Lee (1984. The data are obtainedfrom the second and third waves of the Spanish Household Panel Survey (INE1996 conducted over the period 1995–1996. The main results are, on the onehand, that personal and job characteristics have a significant influence on theprobability of becoming a permanent worker and, on the other hand, that thistransition has an important positive effect on wage growth.

  14. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  15. Building Bridges to Opportunity and Economic Growth in Ohio: The Important Role of the State's Community and Technical Colleges in Educating Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH.

    The role of Ohio's community and technical colleges in educating low-wage workers was examined. Ohio's community and technical colleges were shown to be uniquely positioned to serve as bridges to growth and opportunity by helping the state and its workers make the transition to a knowledge-based economy and help low-wage workers gain the footing…

  16. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  17. Do cratons preserve evidence of stagnant lid tectonics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for episodic crustal growth extending back to the Hadean has recently prompted a number of numerically based geodynamic models that incorporate cyclic changes from stagnant lid to mobile lid tectonics. A large part of the geologic record is missing for the times at which several of these cycles are inferred to have taken place. The cratons, however, are likely to retain important clues relating to similar cycles developed in the Mesoarchean and Neoarchean. Widespread acceptance of a form of plate tectonics by ∼3.2 Ga is not at odds with the sporadic occurrence of stagnant lid tectonics after this time. The concept of scale as applied to cratons, mantle plumes and Neoarchean volcanic arcs are likely to provide important constraints on future models of Earth's geodynamic evolution. The Superior Province will provide some of the most concrete evidence in this regard given that its constituent blocks may have been locked into a stagnant lid relatively soon after their formation and then assembled in the next global plate tectonic interval. Perceived complexities associated with inferred mantle plume – volcanic arc associations in the Superior Province and other cratons may be related to an over estimation of plume size. A possible stagnant lid episode between ∼2.9 Ga and ∼2.8 Ga is identified by previously unexplained lapses in volcanism on cratons, including the Kaapvaal, Yilgarn and Superior Province cratons. If real, then mantle dynamics associated with this episode likely eliminated any contemporaneous mantle plume incubation sites, which has important implications for widespread plumes developed at ∼2.7 Ga and favours a shallow mantle source in the transition zone. The Superior Province provides a uniquely preserved local proxy for this global event and could serve as the basis for detailed numerical models in the future.

  18. EFFECT AND COMPARISON OF RECYCLING AND STAGNANT FRESHWATER ON PERFORMANCES (GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATES; FISH QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY OF THE ORNAMENTAL FISH Barbus schwanefeldi (KAPIAT REARED AT 4 DIFFERENT DENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarto Sudarto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing two different rearing systems in fish production through stagnant and recirculation water systems showed that recirculation system has several benefits such as reducing manpower, and minimize or eliminate in using antibiotics and also eliminate the grow out of diseases, increasing the profits due to increase in density of fish cultured in the system, and water quality remain stable in optimal condition.

  19. An Evaluation of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Stagnant Seawater Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion, of 1020 carbon steel coupons in, natural seawater over a six-month period was more aggressive under stagnant anaerobic conditions than stagnant aerobic conditions as measured by weight loss...

  20. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early-childhood growth faltering is substantial. Further investment in scaling up effective interventions in this area is urgently needed and likely to yield long run

  1. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown......Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...

  2. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  3. Wage Leadership in Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    LEADERSHIP IN CONSTRUCTION Wage leadership is the theory that wage increases in one sector lead to imitative increases elsewhere. In this paper we...test this theory in a large industry where wage leadership is supposed to be dominant- construction. Alternate theories of wage determination (excess...demand, real wage bargaining) are also tested, along with %he efficacy of the 1971-73 wagecotls BACKGROUND The theory of wage leadership is an important

  4. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...

  5. Investigation of the L-Glutamic acid polymorphism: Comparison between stirred and stagnant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Yousra; Gagnière, Emilie; Chabanon, Elodie; Bounahmidi, Tijani; Mangin, Denis

    2016-02-01

    This work highlights the effect of the stirring, the temperature and the supersaturation on the cooling crystallization of L-Glutamic acid (LGlu) polymorphs. First, solubility measurements of the metastable polymorph α and the stable polymorph β were performed. Then, crystallization experiments were carried out in stirred vessel and in stagnant cell. All these experiments were monitored by in situ devices. The effect of the temperature on the LGlu polymorphs was found to be more relevant than the supersaturation in the stirred crystallizer. In the stagnant cell, only the stable form β crystallized regardless of the operating conditions. Moreover, an unexpected and new habit of the β form was discovered and confirmed. These results suggest that the temperature and the stirring can strongly affect the nucleation and the growth kinetics of polymorphic forms.

  6. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker...

  7. Settling of a cylindrical particle in a stagnant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    The objective of this work is to collect data and develop models for cylindrical particles which could be used in numerical multiphase flow modeling. Trajectories of cylindrical particles settling in stagnant water are filmed from two directions in order to derive detailed information on their mo...

  8. Medicare hospital payment adjustments and nursing wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Peter; Mellor, Jennifer

    2017-11-23

    Despite the importance of the nursing profession for healthcare delivery, costs, and quality, there is relatively little research on how provider payments to hospitals affect the labor market for nurses. This study deals with the hospital wage index (HWI) adjustment to Medicare hospital payments, an area-level adjustment intended to compensate hospitals in high-cost labor markets. Since the HWI adjustment is based on hospital-reported labor costs, some argue that it incentivizes hospitals in concentrated markets to pay higher wages to nurses and other workers (the "circularity" critique). We investigate this critique using market-level data on the relative wages reported by nurses and hospital-level data on the average hourly wage for healthcare workers. For identification, we exploit a 2005 change in the geographic area used to define labor markets, which resulted in exogenous changes in the ability of some hospitals to influence their area's wage index. We find that worker-reported relative nurse wages and hospital-reported healthcare worker wages are higher in some locations where hospitals experienced increased opportunities to game the circularity of the wage index, but these effects appear to be driven by pre-existing wage growth. Medicare's HWI adjustment method does not appear to suffer from inefficiency due to circularity.

  9. Salários e tecnologia num modelo de crescimento com restrição externa Wages and technology in a growth model with external constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Dutra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo proposto formaliza uma preocupação que se encontra cada vez com mais freqüência na literatura, a saber, a de que trabalhadores que não têm acesso a condições adequadas de capacitação, saúde e motivação tendem a aprender menos, reduzindo a velocidade de inovação em produtos e processos na firma. Na medida em que a competitividade internacional repousa crescentemente na inovação e/ou na imitação rápida de tecnologia, um nível baixo de desenvolvimento humano implicará oportunidades de crescimento perdidas. Assim, o modelo assume que, até certo valor crítico do salário real, aumentos de salário real produzem aumentos de competitividade e da taxa de crescimento com equilíbrio externo, tornando compatíveis o crescimento econômico e a distribuição da renda, inclusive num contexto de abertura e de intensa concorrência internacional.The model formalizes a topic that the economic literature addresses with increasing frequency, namely that workers who have no access to adequate levels of education, health and motivation tend to learn more slowly and this in turn reduces the rate of innovation in products and processes in the firm. To the extent that international competitiveness increasingly relies on innovation and imitation of technology, a low level of human development will render lost opportunities for growth. Thus, the model assumes that - up to a certain critical level of the real wage - increases in real wages lead to a higher rate of growth consistent with balance-of-payments equilibrium, which makes compatible growth and income distribution even in contexts of external openness and intense international competition.

  10. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%....

  11. Forecast Model of Urban Stagnant Water Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, the construction of water resource system has been gradually carried out. In the background of big data, the work of water information needs to carry out the process of quantitative to qualitative change. Analyzing the correlation of data and exploring the deep value of data which are the key of water information’s research. On the basis of the research on the water big data and the traditional data warehouse architecture, we try to find out the connection of different data source. According to the temporal and spatial correlation of stagnant water and rainfall, we use spatial interpolation to integrate data of stagnant water and rainfall which are from different data source and different sensors, then use logistic regression to find out the relationship between them.

  12. WAGE FLEXIBILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  13. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  14. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  15. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increases and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    does not induce any monetary incentives. Evidence from unique Danish linked employer employee data shows that large dispersion of wage growth within firms is generally connected with low firm performance. The results are mainly driven by white collar rather than blue collar workers.......In this contribution, we examine the interrelation between intra-firm wage increases and firm performance. Previous studies have focused on the dispersion of wages in order to examine for the empirical dominance of positive monetary incentives effects compared to adverse effects due to fairness...... considerations. We argue that the dispersion of wage increases rather than wage levels is a crucial measure for monetary incentives in firms. The larger the dispersion of wage increases the higher the amount of monetary incentives in firms. In contrast, huge wage inequality without any promotion possibilities...

  16. Specialization, outsourcing and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division...... of labor, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsourcing affect wages as predicted....

  17. Time to bypass the UK's stagnant waste programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.; Haslam, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is envisaged that a big expansion of nuclear power will be required in the United Kingdom to meet the demand for electric power after gas supplies run out. However, an acceptable scheme for the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste must be demonstrated before such an expansion is contemplated. Alternatives to the plans being developed by UK Nirex for the burial of low and intermediate level wastes (LLW and ILW) are advanced. The movement of groundwater which could carry radioactivity from an underground repository back to the land surface or into the sea is the main safety issue associated with burying nuclear waste. The water movement would be induced by the head of water from surrounding hillsides or by convection in water warmed by heat-emitting high level waste (HLW). By taking advantage of the coastal situation of both Sellafield and Dounreay, the two UK sites where waste is likely to be buried, these effects can be countered. Drained trench burial with a saline groundwater underpass created by drawing in seawater, is suggested for LLW and some short-lived ILW. A stagnant saline zone, again created from drawn in sea water, is proposed for deep disposal of ILW with a ''flyover'' to drain down surrounding hills. The disposal of HLW in liquid form in nitric acid solution at even deeper levels also making use of a stagnant saline zone is also discussed. (UK)

  18. Wages and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette

    2011-01-01

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances where...... income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...

  19. Contractual Wages and the Wage Cushion under Different Bargaining Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rute Cardoso; Pedro Portugal

    2005-01-01

    How does a typically European bargaining system, with collective bargaining and national minimum wage, coexist with low unemployment and high wage flexibility? A unique data set on workers, firms, and collective bargaining contracts in Portugal is used to analyze the determinants of both the contractual wage and the wage cushion (difference between contractual and actual wages). The results indicate that the wage cushion stretches the returns to worker and firm attributes, whereas it shrinks ...

  20. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-54] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of...

  1. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-06] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of...

  2. Gradual collective wage bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Luttens, R.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative implementation of firm-level collective wage bargaining, where bargaining proceeds as a finite sequence of sessions between a firm and a union of variable size. We investigate the impact of such a 'gradual' union on the wage-employment contract in an economy with

  3. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288

  4. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.

  5. Recent Twists of the Wage Structure and Technology Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    James D Adams

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study of the impact on U.S. wage structure of domestic technology, foreign technology, and import penetration. A model is presented which combines factor proportions theory with a version of growth theory. The model, which assumes two levels of skill, suggests that domestic technology raises both wages, while foreign technology, on a simple interpretation, lowers both. Trade at a constant technology, as usual, lowers the wage of that class of labor used intensively ...

  6. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M L; Bloom, D E; Neumark, D

    1993-02-01

    This theoretical model posits that women who delay child bearing will be more likely to invest in human capital (training that enhances productivity but is costly). This investment is conditioned by a greater discount rate than an economy-wide growth rate of wages for non-human capital investor women. The aim of the model is to present a more unified view of relationships between wages and fertility timing identified in earlier research. The empirical analyses, using ordinary least squares techniques, was based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-82 annually, for a sample of 1817 White working women aged 28-38 in 1982. Data were available for wages, education, work experience, age, number of children, and the percentage in occupations (manager, professional, administrative, service, and blue collar). First wages of women not in school and without a first birth were obtained for 991 women in the sample. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average early wage of late child bearers was 37% higher than the average early wage of early child bearers and 43% higher for 1982 wages. Childless women, compared to early child bearers, experienced a growth in wages from 31-38%. The assumptions in the theoretical model were 1) that all women were equally productive in the labor market in the beginning; 2) that women bore only one child; 3) that women worked continuously for a period of time, except for time out for child bearing; 4) that all women had the option of investing in one type of human capital, which cost the same for all women; 5) that the only source of income was the woman's own earnings; and 6) that a woman's lifetime utility was a function of the present value of her lifetime income and the intervening time period for child birth. Differences in education, experience, tenure, and wages were strongly associated with differences in fertility timing. The results revealed that wages were higher for delayed child bearers, primarily

  7. Minimum wages, collective bargaining and wage dispersion : the spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Dolado, Juan José; Felgueroso, Florentino; Jimeno, Juan F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent empirical work on the employment effects of minimum wages in Spain has shown negative, albeit not large, effects on youth and low skilled-workers'employment prospects. In this paper we tackle this issue in greater depth. Specifically, we analyse how collective wage bargaining, by fixing minimum wages above statutory ones, affects the overall wage structure and employment. We develop a simple model with monopsonistic features, resulting in externalities in wage-setting by firms, which m...

  8. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted......This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...

  9. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-off between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. We use the vignettes method to estimate individuals' willingness......-to-pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find negative wage-fringe trade-offs, considerable heterogeneity in willingness-to-pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting....

  10. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...... by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...

  11. Setting the Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Boeri, Tito

    2009-01-01

    The process leading to the setting of the minimum wage so far has been fairly overlooked by economists. This paper suggests that this is a serious limitation as the setting regime contributes to explain cross-country variation in the fine-tuning of the minimum wage, hence in the way in which the trade-off between reducing poverty among working people and shutting down low productivity jobs is addressed. There are two common ways of setting national minimum wages: they are either government le...

  12. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...... increased wages and lower unemployment, foreign workers are adversely affected....

  13. Why Wait? The Effect of Marriage and Childbearing on the Wages of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…

  14. Bargained Wages, Wage Drift and the Design of the Wage-Setting System

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Ana Rute; Portugal, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at answering the question: How does a typically 'European' bargaining system - with collective bargaining, extension mechanisms and national minimum wage - coexist with low unemployment rate and high wage flexibility? A unique data set on workers, firms and collective bargaining contracts in the Portuguese economy is used to analyze the determinants of both the bargained wage and the wage drift. Results indicate that wage drift stretches the returns to every worker and firm at...

  15. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii...... of skill composition and rent sharing available in typical firm level datasets - like ratio of educated to uneducated workers and sales per employee.......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  16. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  17. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  18. Interpreting Minimum Wage Effects on Wage Distributions: A Cautionary Tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Flinn

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is tempting to infer the welfare effects of minimum wage changes from empirical observations on pre- and post-change wage distributions, in this exercise we have attempted to point out the hazards of doing so. We have focused on wage distributions in this paper, but this

  19. Wages in Benin. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Sena Alinsato, A.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Benin, conducted between the 15th and 19th of October 2012. The survey aimed to measure in detail the wages earned by Beninese workers, including the self-employed. In total 2,002 persons were interviewed

  20. Wages in Rwanda. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Mbassana, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Rwanda, conducted between the 27th of October and the 3rd of December 2012. The survey aimed to measure in detail the wages earned by Rwandan workers. In total 2,074 persons were interviewed in towns in

  1. The Impact of Foreign Labour on Host Country Wages: The Experience of a Southern Host, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Prema-chandra Athukorala; Evelyn S Devadason

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of foreign labour on domestic manufacturing wages through a case study of Malaysia, a country where foreign labour immigration has played a key role in manufacturing growth over the past two decades. The main focus of the paper is on an econometric analysis of the determinants of inter-industry variation in wage growth using a new panel dataset. The results suggest that wage growth is fundamentally embedded in the structure and performance of domestic manufa...

  2. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying framew...

  3. Violent volcanism, stagnant oceans and some inferences regarding petroleum, strata-bound ores and mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, M. L.

    1982-12-01

    Past changes from a well-mixed aerated ocean to a stratified stagnant ocean are indicated by decreasing δ13C of limestone (opposite to prior conclusions) as well as by increasing δ34S of marine sulfates. The proposed stagnant ocean model includes a warm CO 2-enriched atmosphere and a bathyal to abyssal marine system dominated by bacterial components in the food web and by consequent 'light' carbon in organic material and biogenic carbonates. Culminations of prolonged stagnant episodes correspond with marine faunal extinctions of Late Permian and Late Cretaceous time, and the protracted changes and correlations provide evidence against any hypothesis of mass extinction by sudden worldwide catastrophe, including the asteroid impact hypothesis. The Cretaceous stagnant ocean, taken as the prime example, is attributed to climatic warming triggered by volcanic CO 2 (greenhouse effect) and several feedbacks, including decreased Earth albedo and increased sinking of warm evaporite brines instead of aerated polar waters. Marine extinctions are attributed to upward expansion of the oxygen minimum zone and to catastrophic mixing of surface waters with poisonous sulfidic waters of the deeps. The stagnant ocean provided a counterbalance between deep reduction and shallow oxidation, conditions that favored maximal formation of black sulfidic shales, protopetroleum and sedimentary sulfide ores and shallow to mid-depth barite, phosphorite, iron ore, cherty iron formation, and sulfate-bearing red-beds. Trace elements concentrated in stagnant ocean sediments include chalcophile and Pt-group metals, negating claims that Ir provides a unique 'fingerprint' of meteorite impact and cosmic accretion.

  4. Dimensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage Flexibility without Wage Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Asplund, R.

    2000-01-01

    in the Nordic labor markets once regional fixed effects are accounted for. Wage formation at the regional level is characterized by considerable persistence, but unemployment exerts no immediate influence on wages at the regional level. There is no evidence of a wage curve, nor of a Phillips curve...

  5. Wage Dispersion, Public Sector Wages and the Stagnating Danish Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina

    1998-01-01

    The gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 70s. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half the female labour force is employed in the public sector....... These techniques are applied to a sample of Danish wage earners in the period 1983-94. The decomposition results suggest different explanations behind the stagnation of the gender wage gap in the public and private sectors. The development in average public sector wages is calculated assuming observed...

  6. Manufacturing Employment and Wage Differentials After Structural Adjustment Reforms in Colombia: An Efficiency Wages Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Taborda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the structural reforms in Colombia one of the most important policy proposals was reducing rigidities in the labor market. A perspective to assess the results of such reforms is the analysis of the relationship between firm employment and wage differentials in manufacturing before and after the reforms. If the labor reforms reached the intended objective of making more flexible the labor market, the employment levels must change faster, along with the behavior of wages and other labor costs, given some characteristics of firms and the economy. This paper addresses this topic proposing a model of wage differential and employment growth and testing its propositions before and after the structural reforms and controlling for industry and firm characteristics. A first finding is the confirmation of the positive relationship proposed between intra-industry wage differential and employment. In the inter-industry wage differential estimation, we find heterogeneous responses depending on the industry and a reduction in the autonomous labor turnover.

  7. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  8. The effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on the wages of direct care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Reagan A; Smith, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    Despite growing demand for nursing and home health care as the US population ages, compensation levels in the low-skill nursing labor market that provides the bulk of long-term care remain quite low. The challenge facing providers of long-term care is that Medicaid reimbursement rates for nursing home and home health care severely restrict the wage growth that is necessary to attract workers, resulting in high turnover and labor shortages. Almost half of US states have responded by enacting "pass-through" provisions in their Medicaid programs, channeling additional long-term care funding directly to compensation of lower-skill nursing workers. We test the effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on hourly wages for direct care workers. We estimate several specifications of wage models using employment data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for nursing, home health, and personal care aides. The effect of pass-through programs is identified by an indicator variable for states with programs; 20 states adopted pass-throughs during the sample period. Workers in states with pass-through programs earn as much as 12% more per hour than workers in other states after those programs are implemented. Medicaid wage pass-through programs appear to be a viable policy option for raising compensation levels of direct care workers, with an eye toward improving recruitment and retention in long-term care settings.

  9. Reservation Wages, Search Duration, and Accepted Wages in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Centeno, Mário; Portugal, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses data from the European Community Household Panel, 1994-99, to investigate the arrival rate of job offers, the determinants of reservation wages, transitions out of unemployment, and accepted wages. In this exploratory treatment, we report that the arrival rate of job offers declines precipitously with jobless duration and age; that reservation wages do decline with the jobless spell (and aggregate unemployment); that transitions out of unemployment exhibit strong negative dura...

  10. Wages, Productivity and Work Intensity in the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Darby; Robert A Hart

    2002-01-01

    We show that U.S. manufacturing wages during the Great Depression were importantly determined by forces on firms' intensive margins. Short-run changes in work intensity and the longer-term goal of restoring full potential productivity combined to influence real wage growth. By contrast, the external effects of unemployment and replacement rates had much less impact. Empirical work is undertaken against the background of an efficient bargaining model that embraces employment, hours of work and...

  11. The Determinants of Relative Wage Change in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Webster; Yi-Ping Tseng

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses micro data from over 4000 Australian individuals to investigate which factors have had a significant influence on microeconomic wage growth over the past 3 years. The relative importance of four type of factors: outside incomes, demand for labour, workers' relative bargaining strength and category of wage contract are compared. Basic individual demographic characteristics (partial substitute variables for outside incomes), and some indicators of workers' bargaining power provi...

  12. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  13. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  14. Ubiquitous transient stagnant domain formation during thermal convection in a well-mixed two component fluid with large viscosity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U; Kurita, Rei

    2017-10-11

    The formation of a transient stagnant domain in the presence of thermal convection was previously reported near the sol-gel transition temperature of a gelatin solution. The transient stagnant domain is observed near a critical Rayleigh number where a "roll" pattern is usually stable. It is important to understand the origin of the transient stagnant domain formation since it induces a large deformation of convection patterns; the nature of the formation of the transient stagnant domain remains unclear. Here, we observe thermal convection using several different fluids and find that stagnant domain formation is ubiquitous in two component mixtures. In addition, we find that difference in viscosity between the two components is crucial for transient stagnant domain formation, more so than the concentration gradient induced by the temperature gradient.

  15. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  16. Wages in Guinea. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Diallo, H.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face survey on wages and working conditions in Guinea, conducted between the 13th of September and 2nd of October 2012. In total 1,962 persons were interviewed, the majority in urban areas. More male than female workers were

  17. Exchange between the stagnant and flowing zone in gas-flowing solids-fixed bed contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR P. DUDUKOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In countercurrent gas – flowing solids – fixed bed contactors, a fraction of the flowing solids is in motion (dynamic holdup, while the other fraction is resting on the fixed bed elements. In this study it was experimentally proved that the stagnant zone should not be considered as a dead part of the column, but that there is a dynamic exchange between these two portions of flowing solids particles. Combining a mathematical model with tracer experiments, the rate of exchange was determined and it was shown that only a small part (ca. 20 % of the stagnant region should be considered as a dead one.

  18. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    detailed data on all monetary as well as nonmonetary rewards, not only for the job chosen but also for alternative offers. In this paper this data predicament is solved by the use of the vignettes method to estimate individuals. willingness to pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find clear...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  19. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. Using administrative data, the paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large...... and varies between occupation and region. But temps already suffer from a marked wage decline before entering the temporary help sector. Nevertheless, temporary agency employment does not leave a long lasting scar. Two years after leaving the sector, temps no longer suffer from a wage penalty. A recent...... change in the law set a high incentive for temporary help agencies to pay their workers according to a sectoral collective agreement. Surprisingly, the unionization of the sector could not bring the widening wage gap to a halt....

  20. Capital-Skill Complementarity and Rigid Relative Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...... be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative...

  1. Wage Mobility Patterns in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Wage mobility is in the heart of economic research and political debate on the future of the European labour markets. This study deals with substantial and methodological issues concerning wage mobility. It fits in the tradition of labour economists that are particularly interested in measuring the

  2. On Globalisation, Trade and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Low skilled workers have been facing declining real wages during the 80s in the US, while high skilled workers gained in the same period.This decrease in the relative wage of the low skilled provoked a lively debate on the causes of the observed decline.A lot of academic authors have opposed to the

  3. A dynamic econometric model of agricultural wage determination in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J K; Ravallion, M

    1991-11-01

    Economists applied data from 1949-1950 and 1980-1981 to a new dynamic model to examine the dynamics of determinants of agricultural wages in Bangladesh, particularly the effect of changes in relative prices of rice (the staple food) and productivity. Just a 20% rise in the price or rice was passed on in the agricultural wage rate within the current year. About 50% was passed on in the long run, however. Therefore an increase in the price of rice reduced the rice purchasing power of agricultural wages in the short and long term. In fact, the importance given to rice in the long run real wage rate was almost the same as the mean proportion of expenditure that an agricultural laborer in Bangladesh committed to rice and closely related food staples. Thus arise in the price of rice in comparison to other goods had limited effects on the long run real wage in terms of the bundle of goods typically consumed, but very adverse effects in the short run placing a high burden on the rural poor. On the other hand, the long run real wage rate fell considerably between the mid 1960s-early 1980s when overall agricultural productivity increased. The economists pointed out that this increased productivity may not have lowered long run real wage rates, but instead mitigating factors may have contributed to this fall. For example, population growth, rising landlessness, and insufficient economic growth in nonagricultural sectors resulted in a consistent growth in the labor supply. In conclusion, this new dynamic model showed that Bangladesh cannot depend only on agricultural growth to reduce the poverty of farmers.

  4. Partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere in the mantle transition zone and its geophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Wang, Chao; Jin, Zhenmin; Zhu, Lüyun

    2017-11-01

    Widespread low velocity anomalies have been observed in the upper mantle around many oceanic subduction zones. Fluid or melt released from a stagnant slab may have contributed to the formation of these anomalies. Furthermore, slab partial melting or dehydration is also thought to be closely related to the origin of intraplate volcanoes (i.e., Changbaishan). However, experimental evidence on the process of slab partial melting is very limited. Here, our experimental results show that partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere may occurs for temperatures above 1300-1400 °C, with residual phases composed of wadsleyite/ringwoodite + garnet + clinopyroxene/stishovite/akimotite. The density of melt was approximately 1.0-1.5 g/cm3 less dense than the surrounding mantle, which provided a buoyancy force for ascent to the upper mantle across the 410-km seismic discontinuity. The ascending melt may react with mantle peridotite, leading to the formation of a variably metasomatized mantle, which may contribute to the formation of the observed low velocity anomalies above stagnant slab. Re-melting of the metasomatized mantle may have contributed to the origin of the intraplate volcanoes, e.g., Changbaishan volcanoes. We suggest that partial melting of stagnant oceanic lithosphere in the MTZ may have close relations with the origin of the big mantle wedge beneath eastern China.

  5. Minimum wage and the average wage in France: a circular relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette; Valérie Chouard; Gregory Verdugo

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates whether increases in the minimum wage in France have the same impact on the average wage when intended to preserve the purchasing power of the minimum wage as when intended to raise it. We find that the impact of the minimum wage on the average wage is strong, but differs depending on the indexation factor. We also find some empirical evidence of circularity between the average wage and the minimum wage.

  6. The impact of the minimum wage on the wage distribution: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Pelek, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the minimum wage on the entire wage distribution. More specifically, we address the issue of wage inequality by taking into account the potential distributional outcomes of the minimum wage legislation. We decompose the wage differences and the changes in the wage inequality before and after the sizeable minimum wage increase in 2004 following the methodology introduced by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996). We use a non-parametric reweighting appro...

  7. Wage Change in the Lithuanian Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Žiogelytė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a market, the labour force of the population can be sold and bought. The wage is the price or the monetary value of the labour force. The wage rate depends on the key internal and external factors. In a market economy, remuneration for work becomes the object of negotiation between the employer and the employee. In order to legally implement this negotiation, we need to describe the term of the wage, wage systems, wage structure, functions and other issues. The article deals with the theoretical issues relating to wages: the concept of the wage, the main function of wages, the factors influencing the wage rate are analysed and systematised. The article analyses net wages and gross wages and other factors influencing the Lithuanian labour market. Article in Lithuanian

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Foreign-owned firms are often hypothesized to generate productivity "spillovers" to the host country, but both theoretical micro-foundations and empirical evidence for this are limited. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model in which ex-ante identical workers learn from their employers in proporti...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment......Foreign-owned firms are often hypothesized to generate productivity "spillovers" to the host country, but both theoretical micro-foundations and empirical evidence for this are limited. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model in which ex-ante identical workers learn from their employers in proportion...

  9. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Procedures § 4.3 Wage determinations. (a) The minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for... types of wage determinations are issued under the Act: Prevailing in the locality or Collective Bargaining Agreement (Successorship) wage determinations. The facts related to a specific solicitation and...

  10. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  11. Minimum wage: Redistributive or discriminatory policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Micheli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of optimal minimum wage policy in a perfectly competitive labor market suggests that a positive tax rate on minimum wage income is Pareto inefficient. However, most countries with a minimum wage exhibit a positive tax rate for minimum wage income. This paper introduces discrimination of individuals that do not contribute to social welfare, typically individuals that do not participate in the political process, into the standard model. If a minimum wage is introduced for dis...

  12. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  13. Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

  14. Biomixing in stagnant wate above population of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Andrup, P.; Tang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dense beds of filter-feeding mussels can exert a considerable grazing impact on phytoplankton in many marine areas depending on downmixing promoted by current, wave- and wind action. But downmixing may also be promoted by biomixing caused by the action of the strong exhalent jets of water from...... the mussels. Here we study the strength of biomixing exerted by large actively filtering blue mussels Mytilus edulis in stagnant water. Vertical concentration profiles of added algal cells (Rhodomonas salina) were measured (as chl a) over a 70 cm high and stagnant water column in an aquarium above...... a population of 48 ind.m-2 of mussels of shell length 69.5 ± 2.3 mm. Due to the intense agitation (biomixing) generated by exhalant jets of the actively feeding mussels the profiles remained nearly uniform over the full water column while decreasing exponentially with time, reaching a level of about 40...

  15. Can the introduction of a minimum wage in FYR Macedonia decrease the gender wage gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels amo...

  16. Mantle transition zone, stagnant slab and intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanxu; Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You; Wu, Shiguo; Hasegawa, Akira; Lei, Jianshe; Park, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ik-Bum

    2017-04-01

    3-D P- and S-wave velocity structures of the mantle down to a depth of 800 km beneath NE Asia are investigated using ∼981 000 high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded at 2388 stations of permanent and portable seismic networks deployed in NE China, Japan and South Korea. Our results do not support the existence of a gap (or a hole) in the stagnant slab under the Changbai volcano, which was proposed by a previous study of teleseismic tomography. In this work we conducted joint inversions of both local-earthquake arrival times and teleseismic relative traveltime residuals, leading to a robust tomography of the upper mantle and the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath NE Asia. Our joint inversion results reveal clearly the subducting Pacific slab beneath the Japan Islands and the Japan Sea, as well as the stagnant slab in the MTZ beneath the Korean Peninsula and NE China. A big mantle wedge (BMW) has formed in the upper mantle and the upper part of the MTZ above the stagnant slab. Localized low-velocity anomalies are revealed clearly in the crust and the BMW directly beneath the active Changbai and Ulleung volcanoes, indicating that the intraplate volcanism is caused by hot and wet upwelling in the BMW associated with corner flows in the BMW and deep slab dehydration as well.

  17. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  18. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by 0.1 percent in the short run. While native workers benefit from increased wages and lower unemployment, foreign workers are adversely affected....

  19. How Wage Compression Affects Job Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    I use Swedish establishment-level panel data to test Bertola and Rogerson’s (1997) hypothesis of a positive relation between the degree of wage compression and job reallocation. Results indicate that the effect of wage compression on job turnover is positive and significant in the manufacturing sector. The wage compression effect is stronger on job destruction than on job creation, consistent with downward wage rigidity. Further results include a strong positive relationship between the fract...

  20. Explaining the gender wage gap in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  1. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  2. Marx on absolute and relative wages

    OpenAIRE

    Levrero, Enrico Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify some aspects of Marx's analysis of the determinants of wages and of the peculiarities of labour as a commodity, concentrating upon three related issues. The first is that of Marx's notion of the subsistence (or natural) wage rate: subsistence wage will be shown to stem, according to Marx, from socially determined conditions of reproduction of an efficient labouring class. The second issue refers to the distinction between the natural and the market wage rat...

  3. Measuring wage effects of plant size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Arai, Mahmood; Asplund, Rita

    1998-01-01

    There are large plant size–wage effects in the Nordic countries after taking into account individual and job characteristics as well as systematical sorting of the workers into various plant-sizes. The plant size–wage elasticities we obtain are, in contrast to other dimensions of the wage distrib......–wage elasticity. Our results indicate that using size–class midpoints yields essentially the same results as using exact measures of plant size...

  4. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  5. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...... is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from the average. These findings are in accordance with empirical results....

  6. Wage Determination and Gender Discrimination in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssebagala, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examines male-female wage determination and gender discrimination in Uganda. The study used the nationally representative household survey 2002/03 collected by Uganda bureau of statistics. It was found out that male-female wage gap is about 39%. Wages for both males and females are estimated by implementing a Heckman selection model. Heckman selection model was employed to correct for selectivity at the stage of entrance into the labour market. Estimations from the wage equations b...

  7. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, except where a special procedure is... prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120...

  8. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  9. Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand Earth's present tectonic style–plate tectonics–and how it may have evolved from single plate (stagnant lid tectonics, it is instructive to consider how common it is among similar bodies in the Solar System. Plate tectonics is a style of convection for an active planetoid where lid fragment (plate motions reflect sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones, causing upwelling of asthenosphere at divergent plate boundaries and accompanied by focused upwellings, or mantle plumes; any other tectonic style is usefully called “stagnant lid” or “fragmented lid”. In 2015 humanity completed a 50+ year effort to survey the 30 largest planets, asteroids, satellites, and inner Kuiper Belt objects, which we informally call “planetoids” and use especially images of these bodies to infer their tectonic activity. The four largest planetoids are enveloped in gas and ice (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are not considered. The other 26 planetoids range in mass over 5 orders of magnitude and in diameter over 2 orders of magnitude, from massive Earth down to tiny Proteus; these bodies also range widely in density, from 1000 to 5500 kg/m3. A gap separates 8 silicate planetoids with ρ = 3000 kg/m3 or greater from 20 icy planetoids (including the gaseous and icy giant planets with ρ = 2200 kg/m3 or less. We define the “Tectonic Activity Index” (TAI, scoring each body from 0 to 3 based on evidence for recent volcanism, deformation, and resurfacing (inferred from impact crater density. Nine planetoids with TAI = 2 or greater are interpreted to be tectonically and convectively active whereas 17 with TAI <2 are inferred to be tectonically dead. We further infer that active planetoids have lithospheres or icy shells overlying asthenosphere or water/weak ice. TAI of silicate (rocky planetoids positively correlates with their inferred Rayleigh number. We conclude that some type of stagnant lid tectonics is

  10. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  11. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...

  12. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationshi...

  13. Age, wage and productivity in Dutch manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  14. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  15. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  16. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  17. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  18. Wage Rigidity, Collective Bargaining and the Minimum Wage: Evidence from French Agreement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Avouyi-Dovi, Sanvi; Fougère, Denis; Gautier, Erwan

    2010-01-01

    Using several unique data sets on wage agreements at both the firm- and the industry-levels in France, we examine the impact of typical European wage-setting institutions on the form and the degree of wage rigidity. We highlight different stylized facts concerning wage stickiness. First, in France, the typical duration of a wage agreement is one year. Consequently, a Taylor (1980) -type model appears to reproduce appropriately the distribution of agreement durations. Some 30 percent of settle...

  19. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  20. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  1. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  2. Diffusion and decay chain of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Juan; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Pérez, Rafael; Vargas, Raúl Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of the diffusion of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media is important to validate the performance of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. In this work a methodology is developed to determine the radioisotope concentration in a two-reservoir configuration: a saturated porous medium with stagnant water is surrounded by two reservoirs. The concentrations are obtained for all the radioisotopes of the decay chain using the concept of overvalued concentration. A methodology, based on the variable separation method, is proposed for the solution of the transport equation. The novelty of the proposed methodology involves the factorization of the overvalued concentration in two factors: one that describes the diffusion without decay and another one that describes the decay without diffusion. It is possible with the proposed methodology to determine the required time to obtain equal injective and diffusive concentrations in reservoirs. In fact, this time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In addition, the proposed methodology allows finding the required time to get a linear and constant space distribution of the concentration in porous mediums. This time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In order to validate the proposed methodology, the distributions in the radioisotope concentrations are compared with other experimental and numerical works. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PEMODELAN DALAM SISTEM MANAJEMEN OBAT DI PUSKESMAS (Untuk Meminimalkan Kejadian Stagnant Oralit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Kristiningtyas Mamelas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug stagnation is an effect of poor logistics systems in the health services industry, particularly at the Public Health Centre. This was evident as drug stagnation at the "Puskesmas Mentikan Kola Mojokerto" for the 2005 year is stated at 15.44%. Objective: Of this research is to applicated the logistic regression in making formulation of drug management that able to use to know the risk factor of drug stagnant prediction. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study with quantitative approach. The independent variables that observed in this research were planning, receiving, storaging, distributing, using and also recording. Drug stagnation as the dependent variable. Interviews and questioners were conducted to the chief of drug storage in 32 public health centres in Mojokerto. Observation was conducted to drug storage and monthly recording form. All of independent variables affected the drug stagnation, except recording. Results: The factor which had least signification value was using (p=0.488. The most affected variable was using.Key words: drugs management, drug stagnant, risk factor

  4. Cyclical changes in the wage structure of the United Kingdom: a historical review of the GHS 1972-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Fei; Kang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the cyclical changes in the wage structure of the United Kingdom over the period 1972-2002 using the General Household Survey (GHS). Wage structure of the UK shows a cyclical pattern, which may be from the different wage cyclicality of the top, middle and bottom percentile groups. Higher educated male workers have experienced a faster growth of the education premiums so that the wages of males have become more dispersed after the 1970s. However, female workers w...

  5. The association of minimum wage change on child nutritional status in LMICs: A quasi-experimental multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez; Shimkhada, Riti; Raub, Amy; Daoud, Adel; Nandi, Arijit; Richter, Linda; Heymann, Jody

    2017-08-02

    There is recognition that social protection policies such as raising the minimum wage can favourably impact health, but little evidence links minimum wage increases to child health outcomes. We used multi-year data (2003-2012) on national minimum wages linked to individual-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 23 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that had least two DHS surveys to establish pre- and post-observation periods. Over a pre- and post-interval ranging from 4 to 8 years, we examined minimum wage growth and four nutritional status outcomes among children under 5 years: stunting, wasting, underweight, and anthropometric failure. Using a differences-in-differences framework with country and time-fixed effects, a 10% increase in minimum wage growth over time was associated with a 0.5 percentage point decline in stunting (-0.054, 95% CI (-0.084,-0.025)), and a 0.3 percentage point decline in failure (-0.031, 95% CI (-0.057,-0.005)). We did not observe statistically significant associations between minimum wage growth and underweight or wasting. We found similar results for the poorest households working in non-agricultural and non-professional jobs, where minimum wage growth may have the most leverage. Modest increases in minimum wage over a 4- to 8-year period might be effective in reducing child undernutrition in LMICs.

  6. Modelling of the local chemistry in stagnant areas in the PWR primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Rick; Fruzzetti, Keith; Ahluwalia, Al; Summe, Alex; Dame, Cecile; Schmitt, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    MRP-236 demonstrated a correlation between stagnant or low flow conditions and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel components in the PWR primary system. Of the approximately 140 SCC events documented (affecting 15 different components), 83% involved stagnant or low flow conditions that were likely to be associated with chemical environments different from the well mixed bulk coolant. The chemistry in such locations is typically not monitored, and sampling is difficult or impossible. Actions to improve chemistry in regions of low or no coolant flow, such as flushing, cycling of components and imposition of more stringent make up water chemistry controls affect both operational costs and outage schedules. Similarly, design changes to improve flow in affected areas are costly or impracticable. Improving the understanding of the factors controlling chemistry in such areas and development of the capability to predict typical and worst case conditions will allow an informed assessment of procedural actions and/or design changes to improve local chemistry and thereby reduce SCC susceptibility. A project was undertaken to develop a model to predict local chemistry conditions in stagnant locations. The model comprises the iterative application of the EPRI MULTEQ solution chemistry equilibrium code and standard thermodynamic relationships to predict local chemistry conditions considered likely to have been present at the surfaces of components when SCC was initiated. The starting chemistry conditions are based on PWR primary system chemistry from different plant maneuvers (e.g., startup and shutdown conditions). The model was applied to three example components where SCC has occurred in the field. The selected components were: control rod drive mechanism canopy seals; valve drain lines; and reactor vessel o-ring leak-off lines. This paper provides a summary of the model and predicted local chemistry conditions that develop for the three example component as a

  7. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  8. Oxygen measurements in stagnant lead-bismuth eutectic using electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konys, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research III, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Muscher, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research III, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: heinrich.muscher@imf.fzk.de; Voss, Z. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research III, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wedemeyer, O. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research III, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Sensors are the major part of an active oxygen control system (OCS) to be used in ADS reactors employing lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). We tested Pt/air and Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} probes based on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolytes. The sensors were calibrated by evaluating the electromotive force (EMF) - temperature dependencies in oxygen un-/saturated stagnant LBE compared to the van't-Hoff's isotherm. Also, probe kinetics while changing the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio was studied. Typical, reproducible curves are presented confirming attainment of oxygen equilibrium between the fluids. The sensor outputs are deterministic, predictable. Exceptional small drifts were due to interfacial kinetics, not to the sensors behavior. Simultaneous testing of several probes in one melt was performed. The sensors seemed to be qualified for large scale use.

  9. Effect of stagnant-layer conductivity on the electric permittivity of concentrated colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique, F; Arroyo, F J; Shilov, V N; Cuquejo, J; Jiménez, M L; Delgado, A V

    2007-03-14

    A long-lasting experience in the electrokinetics of suspensions has shown that the so-called standard model may be partly in error in explaining experimental data. In this model, the stagnant layer is considered nonconducting (Ksigmai=0), and only the diffuse layer contributes to the total surface conductivity (Ksigma=Ksigmad). In the present work, the authors analyze the consequences of assuming a nonzero stagnant layer conductivity on the permittivity of concentrated suspensions. Using a cell model to account for the particle-particle interactions, and a well established ion adsorption isotherm on the inner region of the double layer, the authors find the frequency-dependent electric permittivity of suspensions of spherical particles with volume fractions of solids up to above 40%. It is demonstrated that the addition of Ksigmai significantly increases the contributions of the double layer to the polarization of the suspension: the alpha or concentration polarization at low (kilohertz) frequencies, and the Maxwell-Wagner-O'Konski (associated with conductivity mismatch between particle and medium) one at intermediate (megahertz) frequencies. While checking for the possibility that the results obtained in conditions of Ksigmai not equal 0 could be reproduced assuming Ksigmai=0 and raising Ksigmad to reach identical total Ksigma, it is found that this is approximately possible in the calculation of the permittivity. Interestingly, this does not occur in the case of electrophoretic mobility, where the situations Ksigma=Ksigmad and Ksigma=Ksigmad+Ksigmai (for equal Ksigma) can be distinguished for all frequencies. This points to the importance of using more than one electrokinetic technique to properly evaluate not only the zeta potential but other transport properties of concentrated suspensions, particularly Ksigmai.

  10. International differences in wage and nonwage labor costs

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros, Luis A.

    1989-01-01

    The ratio of nonwage labor costs (for social security, pensions, vacation days, severence compensation, and the like) to direct wage costs is proportionately higher in Europe and Latin America than in Asia and Africa - largely because workers there are protected more by regulations. The distortionary growth of labor costs because of increasing nonwage costs is not common in the LDCs however. The author of this paper found that international differences in labor costs are attributable largely ...

  11. Efficiency-wage competition and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrazzi, Marco; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we develop a nonlinear version of the efficiency-wage competition model pioneered by Hahn (1987) [27]. Under the assumption that the strategic relationship among optimal wage bids put forward by competing firms is non-monotonic, we show that market wage offers can actually display persistent fluctuations described by a piece-wise non-invertible map. Thereafter, assuming that employers are never constrained in the labour market, we give evidence that in the parameter region of chaotic dynamics, the model is able to reproduce the business cycle regularity according to which in the short-run average wages fluctuate less than aggregate employment. In addition, we show that the efficiency-wage competition among firms leads to some inefficiencies in the wage setting process.

  12. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  13. The gender wage gap in four countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Anne; Kawaguchi, Akira; Meng, Xin; Mumford, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In a series of studies written during the 1980s Bob Gregory and his co-authors compared the gender wage gap in Australia with that found in other countries. They found it was not the difference in human capital endowments that explained different gender wage gaps but rather the rewards for these endowments. They concluded that country-specific factors, especially the institutional environment, were important in explaining the gender wage gap. This study updates Gregory's work by comparing the...

  14. Gender Wage Gap in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Ni

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the gender wage gap and returns to education in urban China using data collected from Fangshan, Beijing. The traditional Oaxaca decomposition shows that the unexplained part seems to dominate the gender wage gap in urban China. The Appleton decomposition, which takes into account sectoral location, shows that the gender gap is mostly within sector and most of the intra-sector wage gap is unexplained. The gender pay differential due to sectoral location is small; in fact, t...

  15. Poverty and Gender Wage Discrimination in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Coral del Río; Carlos Gradín; Olga Cantó

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP), the authors analyze the effects of gender wage gap on household income distribution in Spain. The empirical approach consists of three steps. First, the individual wage gap is estimated for each female worker. Second, a counterfactual household income distribution is generated by adding to household income the hypothetical non-discriminatory wage of working females. Finally, poverty and inequality levels of observed and cou...

  16. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  17. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  18. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  19. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages......, and this result holds when taking into account traditional wage determinants as suggested by the literature. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts are associated with wages differs depending on the type of contact used....

  20. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, Eliav; Danziger, Leif

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  1. Results-based Rewards - Leveraging Wage Increases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    A good seven years ago, as a part of a large-scale pay reform, the Danish public sector introduced results-based rewards (RBR), i.e. a pay component awarded for achieving or exceeding targets set in advance. RBR represent a possibility for combining wage-earners interests in higher wages with a g......A good seven years ago, as a part of a large-scale pay reform, the Danish public sector introduced results-based rewards (RBR), i.e. a pay component awarded for achieving or exceeding targets set in advance. RBR represent a possibility for combining wage-earners interests in higher wages...

  2. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...

  3. Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Hein

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.

  4. Efficiency Wages : Signals or Incentives? An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Wage and Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlau, P.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Efficiency wage theories argue that firms induce their employees to work in a more disciplined way by paying high wages. Two basic mechanisms have been pointed out in economics about how these wage premia motivate employees. The incentives-driven ‘shirking model’ implies that employees who have a

  5. The Effects of Minimum Wage Throughout the Wage Distribution in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Gusvina Dewi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis in 2007 followed by Indonesia’s largest labor demonstration in 2013 encouraged turmoils on Indonesia labor market. This paper examines the effect of the minimum wage on wage distribution in 2007 and 2014 and how the minimum wage increases in 2014 affected the distribution of wage differences between 2007 and 2014. This study employs recentered influence function (RIF regression method to estimate the wage function by using unconditional quantile regression. Furthermore, to measure the effect of the minimum wage increase in 2014 on the distribution of wage differences, it uses the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method. Using balanced panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS, it found that the minimum wage mitigates wage disparity in 2007 and 2014. The minimum wage policy in 2014 leads to an increase in the wage difference between 2007 and 2014, with the largest wage difference being in the middle distribution.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6125

  6. 29 CFR 779.17 - Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is excluded therefrom under the terms of a bona fide collective-bargaining agreement applicable to... per centum of the applicable minimum wage rate, except that in the case of an employee who (either... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage and wage payments to tipped employees. 779.17 Section...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employer must offer and advertise in its recruitment a wage at least equal to the wage rate required by... the form with its endorsement to the employer. (g) Skill level. (1) Level I wage rates are assigned to...

  8. Higher education, wages, and polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Valletta, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The earnings gap between people with a college degree and those with no education beyond high school has been growing since the late 1970s. Since 2000, however, the gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree as well. The divergence between workers with college degrees and those with graduate degrees may be one manifestation of rising labor market polarization, which benefits those earning the highest and the lowest wages relatively more than those in the middle of the...

  9. Minimum wage in the Czech Republic and European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Šmíd, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The Master's thesis deals with analysis of the minimum wage in the Czech Republic and European Union. The first three chapters describe the function and development of the minimum wage, as well as the theoretical approaches of the minimum wage. Furthermore the arguments for and against the minimum wage are summarized. In the practical part the development of the minimum wage in the Czech Republic from 1991 is analyzed and the minimum wage across the EU countries is compared. The last analysis...

  10. Green tax reform, marginal revenue of wage income taxes, and the wage curve. A brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesemer, T.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown elsewhere (Schneider, 1997) that the success of a green tax reform depends crucially on a small slope of the wage curve of an efficiency wage model in which production occurs using a second factor E, energy or emissions. Also elsewhere (Scholz, 1998) it was revealed that there is a second necessary condition that the marginal revenue of the wage income tax is negative. In this note we show that (1) these two conditions are not independent, but rather depend both on the slope of the wage curve; and (2) if Schneider's condition of a sufficiently flat wage curve is fulfilled, marginal revenue of wage income taxes must be negative. By implication, both the green tax reform and the sign of the marginal revenue of wage income taxes depend on the slope of the wage curve which allows to distinguish three cases of a tax reform: (a) a double dividend for a very small slope of the wage curve (Schneider's case); (b) failure of unemployment reduction (Scholz' case) for a very steep wage curve; (c) failure of emission reduction for an intermediate case of a wage curve slope

  11. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  12. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  13. Efficiency Wages and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a simple efficiency wage model to explain the transmission from exogenous productivity shocks to levels of economic activity. Higher real wages and rising unemployment induce workers to increase their effort. The disciplining effect of unemployment on the effort level has an

  14. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  15. The Czech Wage Distribution and the Minimum Wage Impacts: the Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Duspivová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-fi tting wage distribution is a crucial precondition for economic modeling of the labour market processes.In the fi rst part, this paper provides the evidence that – as for wages in the Czech Republic – the most oft enused log-normal distribution failed and the best-fi tting one is the Dagum distribution. Th en we investigatethe role of wage distribution in the process of the economic modeling. By way of an example of the minimumwage impacts on the Czech labour market, we examine the response of Meyer and Wise’s (1983 model to theDagum and log-normal distributions. Th e results suggest that the wage distribution has important implicationsfor the eff ects of the minimum wage on the shape of the lower tail of the measured wage distribution andis thus an important feature for interpreting the eff ects of minimum wages.

  16. Smith’s theory of wages and its impact on the theory of wages in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith has not accepted subsistence theory of wages as an explanation of wages. He can be marked not only as a founder of wages-fund theory, but also of the bargaining theory of wages. Wage-fund doctrine dominated the next hundred years of English economics. Besides, Smith’s explanation of the differentials in wage rates among occupations were accepted by his successors for a century. That was the first step into direction of human capital theory.

  17. Measuring wage effects of plant size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Arai, Mahmood; Asplund, Rita

    1998-01-01

    distribution, comparable to the plant-size effects in other countries such as the U.S. with completely different institutions of wage setting. We also investigate the consequence of measurement error associated with the common practice of using midpoints of plant-size classes to estimate the plant size......There are large plant size–wage effects in the Nordic countries after taking into account individual and job characteristics as well as systematical sorting of the workers into various plant-sizes. The plant size–wage elasticities we obtain are, in contrast to other dimensions of the wage......–wage elasticity. Our results indicate that using size–class midpoints yields essentially the same results as using exact measures of plant size...

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Cast Iron in Freely Aerated Stagnant Arabian Gulf Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.; Abdo, Hany S.; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the corrosion of cast iron in freely aerated stagnant Arabian Gulf seawater (AGS) at room temperature were reported. The study was carried out using weight-loss (WL), cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP), open-circuit potential (OCP), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and complemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) investigations. WL experiments between two and 10 days’ immersion in the test electrolyte indicated that the weight-loss the cast iron increases with increasing the time of immersion. CPP measurements after 1 h and 24 h exposure period showed that the increase of time decreases the corrosion via decreasing the anodic and cathodic currents, as well as decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance of the cast iron. EIS data confirmed the ones obtained by WL and CPP that the increase of immersion time decreases the corrosion of cast iron by increasing its polarization resistance.

  19. Shapes of an Air Taylor Bubble in Stagnant Liquids Influenced by Different Surface Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertnuwat, B.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an empirical model for predicting shapes of a Taylor bubble, which is a part of slug flows, under different values of the surface tension in stagnant liquids by employing numerical simulations. The k - Ɛ turbulence model was used in the framework of finite volume method for simulating flow fields in a unit of slug flow and also the pressure distribution on a Taylor bubble surface. Assuming that an air pressure distribution inside the Taylor bubble must be uniform, a grid search method was exploited to find an appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble for six values of surface tension. It was found that the shape of a Taylor bubble would be blunter if the surface tension was increased. This was because the surface tension affected the Froude number, controlling the flow around a Taylor bubble. The simulation results were also compared with the Taylor bubble shape, created by the Dumitrescu-and-Taylor model and former studies in order to ensure that they were consistent. Finally, the empirical model was presented from the simulation results.

  20. Potential effects of rainwater-borne hydrogen peroxide on pollutants in stagnant water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia; Cheruiyot, Patrick; Mkpanam, Sandra; Good-Mary Duma, Nelisiwe

    2017-05-01

    Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the effects of rainwater-borne H 2 O 2 on inactivation of water-borne coliforms, oxidation of ammonia and nitrite, and degradation of organic pollutants in canal and urban lake water. The results show that the soluble iron in the investigated water samples was sufficiently effective for reaction with H 2 O 2 in the simulated rainwater-affected stagnant water to produce OH (Fenton reaction), which inactivated coliform bacteria even at a H 2 O 2 dose as low as 5 μM within just 1 min of contact time. Coliform inhibition could last for at least 1 h and repeated input of H 2 O 2 at a 30 min interval allowed maintenance of microbial inhibition for at least 3 h. Nitrification was also impeded by the Fenton process. The resulting inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing microbes reduced the removal rate of NH 4 + and the emission of gaseous N species. In the presence of H 2 O 2 at a dose of 20 μM, Fenton-driven chemical oxidation appeared to outplay the impediment of biodegradation caused by inhibited microbial activities in terms of removing total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the water column. The findings point to a potential research direction that may help to explain the dynamics of water-borne pollutants in ambient water environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marker traits association of agronomical traits correlated with stagnant flooding tolerance in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaresmi, T.; Utami, D. W.; Suwarno, W. B.; Ardie, S. W.; Susanto, U.; Aswidinnoor, H.

    2017-05-01

    In deep-water areas, the water depth increases gradually throughout the year and maintains up to more than 50 cm of deep of water for long period. In these situations, elongation ability is necessary to allow the plants to keep up with rising floodwater. The elongation of internode during submergence is regulated by environmental and hormonal factors. The objective of this study was aimed to identify the SNP markers on 384 SNPs linked with agronomical and morphological traits related to stagnant flooding tolerance. The research were conducted at Indonesian Center for Rice Research and Indonesian Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development. The phenotypical data was collected from F2 from bi-parental crossing of IR 42 and IRRI 119. IR 42 was sensitive parent, and IRRI 119 was tolerant. DNA extraction for rice was using a modified version of Murray and Thompson method using cetyl tri-methyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB). The genotyping was carried out using 384 SNPs Golden Gate Illumina assay. Association analysis between SNP markers and phenotypical data was performed using General Linear Model in Tassel versus 5.0 software program. Based on GLM analysis, the significant marker for plant height with P value < 0.05 are TBGI275345, TBGI275367, and TBGI424383. The significant marker for number of tiller are TBGI000722, TBGI258600, TBGI270843, TBGI271066, TBGI271076, TBGI272122, TBGI272241, and TBGI327790. Two of them, TBGI424383 and TBGI271066 were expected associated with family of protein kinase which play role in plant stress signalling.

  2. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  3. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  4. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  5. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  6. Earning a Living Wage: Metro Differences in Opportunity and Inequality for Adult Males with Low Education Levels. Working Papers on Regional Economic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Bey, John; Rubin, Mark; Temkin, Kenneth

    This paper measures the relationship between employment growth and employment opportunities for noncollege-educated males, examining variations across metropolitan areas in the living-wage employment ratio for prime-aged males with at most a high school education (less educated). Living-wage employment is full-time, year-round employment yielding…

  7. The impact of a wage increase on mental health: Evidence from the UK minimum wage

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, C.; Jacobs, R.; Zucchelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between income and mental health focus on lottery winners and find that positive income shocks may improve mental health. We focus on low-wage earners, who have a higher propensity of experiencing mental health problems, and exploit the policy experiment provided by the introduction of the 1999 UK minimum wage to identify the impact of a wage increase on mental health. Combining matching techniques with a series of difference-in-differences models we find ...

  8. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses: analytic simplicity versus analytic precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss estimates when using average wages compared with age-specific wages. Published estimates for average and age-specific wages for combined male/female wages were obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics. A polynomial interpolation was used to convert 5-year age-banded wage data into annual age-specific wages estimates. To compare indirect cost estimates, average wages and age-specific wages were used to project productivity losses at various stages of life based on the human capital approach. Discount rates of 0, 3, and 6 % were applied to projected age-specific and average wage losses. Using average wages was found to overestimate lifetime wages in conditions afflicting those aged 1-27 and 57-67, while underestimating lifetime wages in those aged 27-57. The difference was most significant for children where average wage overestimated wages by 15 % and for 40-year-olds where it underestimated wages by 14 %. Large differences in projecting productivity losses exist when using the average wage applied over a lifetime. Specifically, use of average wages overestimates productivity losses between 8 and 15 % for childhood illnesses. Furthermore, during prime working years, use of average wages will underestimate productivity losses by 14 %. We suggest that to achieve more precise estimates of productivity losses, age-specific wages should become the standard analytic approach.

  9. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.261 Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory...

  10. Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...

  11. Efficiency wages and union-firm bargaining with private information

    OpenAIRE

    Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    We consider efficiency wage effects in a union-firm bargaining model with private information. We show that an increase in the efficiency wage effects does not necessarily increase the wage level at equilibrium, even when the wage bargaining with private information is close to one with complete information. However, if it is commonly known that the firm is stronger than the union and the demand is sufficiently elastic, then an increase in the efficiency wage effects increases for sure the wa...

  12. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Jong-Wha; WIE, Dainn

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes how changes in overall wage inequality and gender-specific factors affected the gender wage gap in Chinese and Indian urban labor markets in the 1990s and 2000s. Analysis of micro data present that contrasting evolutionary patterns in gender wage gap emerged over the period, showing a widened wage gap in China but a dramatically reduced gap in India. In both countries, female workers’ increased skill levels contributed to reducing the gender wage gap. However, increases in...

  13. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  14. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  15. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  16. The Interaction of Monetary Policy and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Gylfason, Thorvaldur; Lindbeck, Assar

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interaction of monetary policy and wage formation in economies with strong labour unions. Government and unions are viewed as endogenous utility maximizers, and the macroeconomic consequences of their interaction are explored with the aid of some elements of game theory. It is shown: (a) how labour unions optimally adjust wages to prices following changes in monetary policy; (b) how the effectiveness of monetary policy is circumscribed without necessarily being compl...

  17. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  18. Training, Job Security and Incentive Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Katsimi

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal level of firm-specific training by taking into account the positive effect of training on the expected duration of workers’ current employment. In the framework of an efficiency wage model, a short expected job tenure represents a disamenity that reduces the penalty from shirking. As this disamenity increases, workers have an incentive to continue providing a positive level of effort only if they are compensated by a higher wage. We endogenize the employment...

  19. The effects of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro, small, and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, Phan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about the extent to which wage and employment offsetting behaviours change by firm size to mitigate the detrimental effects of minimum wage regulation. Do micro establishments react more aggressively to minimum wage shocks compared to small and medium establishments? To answer this question, this paper examines the impact of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro enterprises, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), respectively. In particular, I e...

  20. Schooling is Associated not only with Longrun Wages, but also with Wage Risks and Disability Risks: The Pakistani Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Hyder; Jere R. Behrman

    2011-01-01

    Many studies document significantly positive associations between schooling attainment and wages in developing countries. But when individuals enter occupations subsequent to completing their schooling, they not only face an expected work-life path of wages, but a number of other occupational characteristics, including wage risks and disability risks, for which there may be compensating wage differentials. This study examines the relations between schooling on one hand and mean wages and thes...

  1. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirowsky, John

    2011-07-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one's own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading.

  2. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  3. Wages in the food chain in Burundi: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Ndereyahaga, R.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force conducted between the 7th of April and the 29th of April 2013 in all provinces of Burundi. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 52% were men, 48% women and 43% were under 30 years of

  4. Wages in the food chain in Mozambique: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force, conducted between the 27th of May and the 1st of June 2013 in all provinces of Mozambique. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 43% were under 30 years

  5. The state in industrial relations: The politics of minimum wage in Turkey and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koçer, R.G.; Visser, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the direct role of the state in industrial relations is scrutinized by focusing on the political basis of decisions regarding the minimum wage. We argue that in order to ensure stability and growth, any state must balance the interests of capital and labour when taking this kind of

  6. Trade, jobs, and wages: Does exporting matter for the poor in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hélène Mayrand and Edgard Rodriguez. GGP One-pager series. Toward inclusive growth. In today's globalized world, exporting is one of the key policy strategies to promote employment and higher wages in developing countries. Liberalization of the economy and the promotion of trade have been and still are among the ...

  7. The role of the state in balancing the minimum wage in Turkey and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koçer, R.G.; Visser, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the direct role of the state in industrial relations is scrutinized by focusing on the political basis of decisions regarding the minimum wage. We argue that in order to ensure stability and growth, any state must balance the interests of capital and labour when taking this kind of

  8. Unions, Work-Related Training, and Wages: Evidence for British Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison L.; Francesconi, Marco; Zoega, Gylfi

    2003-01-01

    British panel data from 1991-1996 on 950 men indicated that the 60% who were union covered were more likely to receive training and more days of training than those not covered by unions. Among trained workers, union-covered ones received higher returns and greater wage growth. (Contains 48 references.) (SK)

  9. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  10. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions.

  11. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    In cross-sectional American census data, we document that isolated cities tend to have less wage inequality. To explain this correlation and other correlations between population and wages, we build an equilibrium empirical model that incorporates high and low-skill labor, costly trade, and both...... agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...... American cities. In counterfactual experiments, we find that reductions in domestic trade costs benefit all American workers and decrease welfare inequality. We also examine the effects on inequality and welfare of both regional and national skill-biased technology shocks. We find that in larger cities...

  12. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wage inequality and team production: an experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartling, B.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous survey studies report that human resource managers curb wage inequality with the intent to avoid detrimental effects on workers' morale. However, there exists little controlled empirical evidence demonstrating that horizontal social comparisons and wage inequality have adverse effects on

  14. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  15. Pervasive seismic low-velocity zones within stagnant plates in the mantle transition zone: Thermal or compositional origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, B.; Kim, S.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-11-01

    We exploit conversions between P and S waves for large-scale, high-resolution imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath Northwest Pacific and the margin of Eastern Asia. We find pervasive reflectivity concentrated in two bands with apparent wave-speed reduction of -2% to -4% about 50 km thick at the top of the transition zone and 100 km thick at the bottom. This negative reflectivity associated with the scattered-waves at depth is interpreted jointly with larger-scale mantle tomographic images, and is shown to delineate the stagnant portions of the subducted Pacific plate in the transition zone, with largely positive shear-wave velocity contrasts. The upper reflectivity zone connects to broad low-velocity regions below major intra-plate volcanoes, whereas the lower zone coincides locally with the occurrence of deep-focus earthquakes along the East Asia margin. Similar reflectivity is found in Pacific Northwest of the USA. We demonstrate that the thermal signature of plates alone is not sufficient to explain such features. Alternative explanations for these reflective zones include kinetic effects on olivine phase transitions (meta-stability), compositional heterogeneities within and above stagnant plates, complex wave-propagation effects in the heterogeneous slab structure, or a combination of such factors. We speculate that part of the negative reflectivity is the signature of compositional heterogeneities, as revealed by numerous other studies of seismic scattering throughout the mantle, and that such features could be widespread across the globe.

  16. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  17. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  18. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to different strategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable...

  19. On the Ranking Uncertainty of Labor Market Wage Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Horrace

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses multiple comparison methods to perform inference on labor market wage gap estimates from a regression model of wage determination. The regression decomposes a sample of workers' wages into a human capital component and a gender specific component; the gender component is called the gender differential or wage gap and is sometimes interpreted as a measure of sexual discrimination. Using data on fourteen industry classifications (e.g. retail sales, agriculture), a new relative e...

  20. The parameters of a national minimum hourly wage

    OpenAIRE

    Askenazy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Both academic and political debates over the minimum wage generally focus on the minimum wage rate. However, the minimum wage is a complex institution composed of a wide variety of parameters. In this note, I show that nominal rates provide a very crude picture of minimal compensation and of actual employer cost by the comparison of the French, British and US Federal national minimum hourly wages. The extent of their coverage, enforcement procedures, and how the “wage” is defined differ widel...

  1. The informal sector wage gap among Vietnamese micro-firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth; Rand, John

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique firm survey data from 2009, this paper examines the wage differential between formal and informal manufacturing household enterprises in Vietnam. Using the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method, we investigate whether the wage gap is attributed mostly to differences in observable...... differences in firm size, workforce characteristics and location. Thus, traditional wage determinants seem to play an important role in explaining the higher wage returns in formal firms....

  2. Is Productivity Linked To Wages? An Empirical Investigation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Soo Khoon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between real wages, labor productivity and unemployment in Malaysia at the macroeconomic level, using time-series econometric techniques. The study found a long-term equilibrium relationship between labor productivity and real wages, but that unemployment was apparently unconnected to the system. The results suggested that labor productivity is positively related to real wage in the long run. However, the increase in real wage exceeds the increase in ...

  3. Monopsonistic discrimination, worker turnover, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Dale-Olsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by models of worker flows, we argue in this paper that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap. On matched employer-employee data from Norway, we estimate establishment-specific wage premiums separately for men and women, conditioning on fixed individual effects. Regressions of worker turnover on the wage premium identify less wage elastic labour supply facing each establishment of women than that of men. Workforce gender compositi...

  4. The Effects of Job Evaluation Systems on Wage Effects of Education and Over-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Allen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Unions are held responsible for various wage effects, such as higher wages and wage compression. In this paper we investigate another possible union effect on wages: are the actions of unions responsible for the observed relation between required education and wages? It is well known that wages are

  5. Postgraduate Wage Premiums and the Gender Wage Gap in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, enrolment in postgraduate programs has increased significantly in Canada. In more recent years, this has led to concerns regarding overproduction and the labour market outcomes of those with postgraduate education. Women have played an important role in this growth, but questions remain as to whether women's progress into the…

  6. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Job Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between job flows and wages in the U.S. manufacturing sector, where wage differentials for seemingly identical workers and job reallocation rates are shown to be negatively correlated across 3-digit industries.High wage industries have the lowest turnover of jobs,

  7. The Gender Wage Gap by Education in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the gender wage gap by educational attainment in Italy using the 1994–2001 ECHP data. We estimate wage distributions in the presence of covariates and sample selection separately for highly and low educated men and women. Then, we decompose the gender wage gap across all

  8. Does Effeciency Wage Hypothesis Hold in Tanzanian Labour Market?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efficiency wage in Tanzania's labour market, as wage level can account for about twenty percent of observed .... direct impact on previous wage policy include the abolition of guaranteed employment for graduates .... programs), or indirect costs (such as lower worker productivity during an adjustment process), which are at ...

  9. Trend of Average Wages as Indicator of Hypothetical Money Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Daszkowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of wage in Poland not before 1998 includes any value of social security contribution. Changed definition creates higher level of reported wages, but was expected not to influence the take home pay. Nevertheless, the trend of average wages, after a short period, has returned to its previous line. Such effect is explained in the term of money illusion.

  10. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  11. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  12. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate

  13. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  14. 41 CFR 60-20.5 - Discriminatory wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 20-SEX DISCRIMINATION GUIDELINES § 60-20.5 Discriminatory wages. (a) The employer's wages schedules must not be related to or based on the sex of the employees. Note: The more obvious cases of discrimination exist where employees of different sexes are paid different wages on jobs which require...

  15. 48 CFR 22.404-1 - Types of wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Involving Construction 22.404-1 Types of wage determinations. (a) General wage determinations. (1) A general... in the “Archived DB WD” database on WDOL for information purposes only. Contracting officers may not... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of wage...

  16. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research led by the China Institute of Income Distribution aims to investigate policy issues around minimum wage regulation in China. It will focus on the political economy aspects of how minimum wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. An expected outcome is the development of guidelines ...

  17. Wage Differentials between Women and Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LIsbeth; Deding, Mette

    In this working paper we present the first male/female analysis carried out on new wage statistical data from Statistics Denmark. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover factors of importance to the differences of men’s and women’s hourly wages and furthermore to make up any wage differential, ...

  18. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion

  19. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  20. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  1. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  2. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  3. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  4. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  5. The Effect of Skill Mismatch on Wages in a small open Economy with Centralized Wage Setting: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Bjørnstad

    2000-01-01

    Pervasive skill-biased technological changes, probably from trade in computer technology, have visualized the pros and cons of wage setting centralization in small open economies. Skill mismatch has increased in countries with wage rigidity. As a small open economy with centralized wage setting, Norway is a particularly interesting case. Indeed, this analysis shows that skill\\mismatch has increased and is long-lived because of low focus on skill-specific imbalances in wage settlements. The co...

  6. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced

  7. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  8. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  9. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  11. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  12. Globalization and the gender wage gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  13. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  14. Czech female managers and their wages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Paligorova, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2009), s. 342-351 ISSN 0927-5371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender wage gap * managers * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.992, year: 2009

  15. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  16. Random social networks, unemployment and wage inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannides, Y.M.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies of labor markets show that social contacts are an important source of job-related information. At the same time, wage differences among workers may be explained only in part by differences in individual background characteristics. Such findings motivate our model in which

  17. Wage Differences between Incumbents and External Candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Russo, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the hourly wage of employees who change jobs within their firm with that of workers who are hired from other employers in the external labor market. We use a Dutch data set of about 45 thousand workers who are employed at 1,838 firms over in the years 1997 and 1998. We have the

  18. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using a...

  19. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....

  20. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  1. Regional wage adjustments and unemployment: estimating the time-varying wage curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galuščák, K.; Münich, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, 1-2 (2005), s. 68-82 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : wage curve * wage flexibility * unemployment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.173, year: 2005 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1007_s_068_082.pdf

  2. The Consequences of Indexing the Minimum Wage to Average Wages in the U.S. Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, David A.; Even, William E.

    The consequences of indexing the minimum wage to average wages in the U.S. economy were analyzed. The study data were drawn from the 1974-1978 May Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 180 monthly CPS Outgoing Rotation Group files for 1979-1993 (approximate annual sample sizes of 40,000 and 180,000, respectively). The effects of indexing on the…

  3. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  4. Efficiency Wages in Heterogenous Labour Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Ryska; Jan Prùša

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we tackle two shortcomings of present efficiency wage models. Firstly, they do not fully account for labour heterogeneity, thus implying that high-effort and low-effort units of labour are interchangeable. Secondly, building on this assumed homogeneity of labour, the models derive involuntary unemployment from effort decisions of workers, which are patently voluntary. We offer a consistent reformulation of the theory: Each of the effort or quality levels is regarded as a separat...

  5. Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo; Carlos Borondo Arribas

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify the effect of the years of residence in Spain on the earnings of immigrants. We take sex, origin, education and age into account. The results are clearly positive, the longer the length of residence the more earnings, confirming the hypothesis of wage assimilation of immigrants as their human capital is adapted to the Spanish labor market. The information used comes from the Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives 2007. Additionally, we merge the earning...

  6. Job Training: Costs, Returns, and Wage Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Mincer

    1989-01-01

    Using information on time costs of training and gains in wages attributable to training I computed rates of return on training investments. The range of estimates based on several data sets generally exceeds the magnitudes of rates of return usually observed for schooling investments. It is not clear, however, that the difference represents underinvestment in job training. Two methods were used to estimate total annual costs of job training in the U.S. economy, for 1958, 1976, and 1987. The "...

  7. Job Mobility and the Great Recession: Wage Consequences by Gender and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Cha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how inter-organizational mobility affects earnings inequality based on gender and parenthood under different macroeconomic conditions. Fixed effects regression analysis of Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 2004 to 2012 shows that earnings growth after quitting jobs for work-related reasons (e.g., to improve one’s job situation is greater for women than for men pre-recession, but the trend is driven by childless women, and mothers of children under six benefit the least among all groups of workers. However, this motherhood wage penalty disappears in the 2008 recession, as a result of the decline of wage returns to mobility for childless women. The analysis also shows that across economic conditions, the rate of layoffs or displacement is higher among men than women, but once laid off, women experience greater earnings losses than men. No motherhood penalty is found for this mobility type. These findings help us understand the longitudinal process by which the motherhood wage penalty is generated, and conditions under which a motherhood-based or gender-based wage gap becomes more pronounced.

  8. [Will inpatient care still be financeable? Effects of the minimum wage to operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    Due to demographic and social developments nursing service will continueto be a growth industry in the long run. The requirement for this is the political volition of a sufficient funding. A minimum wage in nursing service tends to increase prices of the offered services. Stated justifications for a minimum wage are wage dumping protection (inter alia against the background of the upcoming opening of the single market in 2011) as well as raising rivals' costs. Protection is focused on the 266,000 non-skilled workers in basic care owing to the strong tightening of the labour market for caregivers. Operative minimum wages will lead to adjustments by optimising operations, intensification of work, and rationalisation of workflow by increased employment of capital as well as technical substitution of relatively expensive non-skilled workers. In addition there will be increased pressure on prices for nursing services and private co-payments. There will be an increased supply and demand for illegal services. Suppliers who had been tied to collective contracts so far will achieve a relative advantage in competition.

  9. Multiple Equilibria and Minimum Wages in Labor Markets with Informational Frictions and Heterogeneous Production Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van den Berg (Gerard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIt is often argued that a mandatory minimum wage is binding only if the wage density displays a spike at it. In this paper we analyze a model with wage setting, search frictions, and heterogeneous production technologies, in which imposition of a minimum wage affects wages even though,

  10. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  11. The public sector wage premium and fiscal consolidation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladisavljević Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to a high fiscal deficit, the Serbian government introduced a set of fiscal consolidation measures at the beginning of 2015, including a 10% public sector wage cut. This paper analyses the difference in wages between the public and the private sector in Serbia and changes in the public sector wage premium after the measures were introduced. The results show that, similarly to many other countries, wages in the Serbian public sector are on average higher than in the private sector, partially due to the better labour market characteristics of public sector workers. The public sector wage premium was 17.4% in 2014 and was mainly driven by higher returns to education, work experience, and occupation in this sector. In 2015 the premium dropped by 6 percentage points due to a lessening of the difference in returns between the sectors. Therefore, in addition to reducing budget expenditures, fiscal consolidation in Serbia has reduced wage inequality between these sectors.

  12. Transformation of Wage Bargaining Systems in European Union. Some Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, the industrial relations have become the strategical tool for economic development of the states. Our paper aim to emphasise the increasing role of wage bargaining systems in the industrial relations in European Union, going from the presumption that the labour market is changing every day and the European authorities must take the decisions with a high economic and social impact. Going from an extended literature review and using the data provided by Eurostat and Eurofound, reflecting the new European regulations concerning the employment relations, the findings of our paper reflect a dynamic transformation of wage bargaining systems at institutional level, labour market and collective bargaining. The results reflect the direct implications of wage bargaining systems on the labour productivity, on the political decisions considering the minimum wage and the real and nominal wage. Our findings are valuable for the academicians and practitioners interested in industrial relations and wage bargaining systems.

  13. The Motivation Effect of Active Labor Market Policy on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Tranæs, Torben

    wage or a lower wage. Overall, we find an increased hazard of exit to employment and of exit to higher-paying jobs as the probability of activation increases, and no change in the exit rate to lower-paying jobs. These results do not hold for individuals with higher education, for whom we find...... program. Wages are measured by their position in the overall wage distribution, and we estimate how this position reacts to an increased probability of an individual being enrolled in activation. The wage effect is estimated using a competing risk duration model with exit states to employment at a higher...... no employment or wage effects of a higher probability of activation....

  14. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards... $2,500 shall in no case be lower than this Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage. Section 2(b)(1) is...

  15. Wage Flexibility and Employment Fluctuations: Evidence from the Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pischke, Jörn-Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Many economists suspect that downward nominal wage rigidities in ongoing labor contracts are an important source of employment fluctuations over the business cycle but there is little direct empirical evidence on this conjecture. This paper compares three occupations in the housing sector with very different wage setting institutions, real estate agents, architects, and construction workers. I study the wage and employment responses of these occupations to the housing cycle, a proxy for labor...

  16. DYNAMIC TRENDS OF WAGE IN UKRAINE: PROSPECTS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna KATARANCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the main trends of the national economy and the dynamics of wages in Ukraine and other postsocialist countries in terms of the prospects of Ukraine's integration into the European economic and social space. The estimation of the impact of the wage indices for the welfare of citizens. The basic factors of Ukraine’s backlog in terms of wages from other countries and the possibilities and prospects of solving this problem are determined

  17. Estimating wage equations for Hungarian higher-education graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Galasi, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the wage determination of Hungarian highereducation graduates with using two samples of Hungarian careerbeginners, applying IV techniques and the multiple indicator solution so as to diminish potential estimation biases due to endogeneity of independent variables (especially the education variable) and the simultaneity of wages and working time. The results show that university education yields considerable wage premium as compared to college education, and that the ret...

  18. Analysis of gender wage differential in China's urban labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Biwei; Heshmati, Almas

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the gender wage gap and its composition in China's urban labor market using the 2009 survey data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies. Several estimation and decomposition methods have been used and compared. First, we examine the gender wage gap using ordinary least square regression method with a gender dummy variable. Then, we apply Oaxaca (1973) decomposition method with different weighting systems to analyze the logarithmic wage differential. To be more specific, we...

  19. Gender wage-productivity differentials and global integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dammert, Ana C.; Ural Marchand, Beyza; Wan, Chi

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of discrimination, there should be no wage-productivity differentials as relative wages should be equal to the relative marginal productivity levels of workers. This paper investigates the role of globalization on the structure and evolution of gender differentials in China by simultaneously estimating demand-side wage and productivity outcomes using nonlinear least squares. The analyses are based on a comprehensive population-wide panel survey of manufacturing firms between th...

  20. Unemployment insurance and reservation wages : evidence from administrative data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Barbanchon, Thomas; Rathelot, Roland; Roulet, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Although the reservation wage plays a central role in job search models, empirical evidence on the determinants of reservation wages, including key policy variables such as unemployment insurance (UI), is scarce. In France, unemployed people must declare their reservation wage to the Public Employment Service when they register to claim UI benefits. We take advantage of these rich French administrative data and of a reform of UI rules to estimate the effect of the Potential Benefit Duration (...

  1. Employment and wage effects of extending collective bargaining agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, the minimum wages and working conditions set in collective bargaining contracts negotiated by a limited set of employers and unions are subsequently extended to all the employees in an industry. Those extensions ensure common working conditions within the industry, limit wage inequality, and reduce gender wage gaps. However, several studies suggest that those benefits come at the cost of reduced employment levels, especially during recessions. The income losses of workers w...

  2. Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene Kalenkoski; Donald Lacombe

    2011-01-01

    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...

  3. Informality and minimum wages by cohort in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon James Mora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the effect of minimum wage levels on the decision to join the informal job sector. We estimated a pseudo panel model of engagement in the informal sector using an IV-probit. Our results show that an increased wage gap-the relative difference between observed and minimum wage-has not only a disincentive effect on the probability of joining informality, but also leads to a substitution effect between younger and older cohorts.

  4. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effe...

  5. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Hedija; Petr Musil

    2012-01-01

    The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the p...

  6. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

      In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital...... decentralized wage bargaining and a changing educational composition of the workforce to explain these patterns. We find some support that these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, although the latter is the most strongly associated with the observed changes in wage inequality....

  7. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital...... decentralized wage bargaining and a changing educational composition of the workforce to explain these patterns. We find some support that these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, although the latter is the most strongly associated with the observed changes in wage inequality...

  8. Do MincerianWage Equations Inform How Schooling Influences Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Growiec, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    We study the links between the Mincerian wage equation (the cross-sectional relationship between wages and years of schooling) and the human capital production function (the causal effect of schooling on labor productivity). Based on a stylized Mincerian general equilibrium model with imperfect...... substitutability across skill types and ex ante identical workers, we demonstrate that the mechanism of compensating wage differentials renders the Mincerian wage equation uninformative for the human capital production function. Proper identification of the human capital production function should take...... into account the equilibrium allocation of individuals across skill types....

  9. Long-Run Impact of Increased Wage Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thustrup

    1999-01-01

    An unanticipated permanent increase in wage pressure is analyzed in a dynamic general-equilibrium model combining standard theory of capital accumulation and monopolistic wage setting. The long-run (steady-state) implications are identical percentage reduction in employment, consumption, and capi......An unanticipated permanent increase in wage pressure is analyzed in a dynamic general-equilibrium model combining standard theory of capital accumulation and monopolistic wage setting. The long-run (steady-state) implications are identical percentage reduction in employment, consumption...

  10. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...

  11. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  12. Airborne observations of large scale accumulations of air traffic emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor within a stagnant anticyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ovarlez, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie; Velthoven, P. van [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical and horizontal trace gas distributions were measured west of Ireland during a 7-day period in June 1995 within an extended stagnant anticyclone located in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Four subsequent flights (21, 24, 26, 28 June) with the DLR Falcon research aircraft were performed including observations of NO, O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, and meteorological parameters. NO volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere from vertical profile measurements averaged over the corridor height range increased by 74 pptv (60%) during the observation period. Averaged NO concentrations measured along constant level flight legs at 10.7 km from 50 to 54 deg N increased by 87 pptv. Corresponding simulations with a 3-d chemistry transport model of KNMI reveal similar increases of NO{sub x} for the measuring area over the 7-day period for a model run with air traffic emissions which is not obtained for a run with no air traffic NO{sub x}. (author) 15 refs.

  13. Time-Varying Degree of Wage Indexation and the New Keynesian Wage Phillips Curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Attey (Jonathan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCost-of-Living-Adjustment (COLA) coverage figures suggest a time variation in the degree of wage indexation. In spite of this observation, most current literature conveniently assume a constant degree of indexation as this variable is not directly observable. This study intends to

  14. Ideological Wage Inequalities? The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems "within" professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional…

  15. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the wage payment made to the employee below the minimum amounts required under the provisions of the... pursuant to his voluntary assignment or order or a collective bargaining agreement with bona fide... collective bargaining agreement covering the employees working on the contract. (2) However, there generally...

  16. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  17. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding ...... of the regional study "The Role of Minimum Wages in Latin America: Poverty Alleviation, Income Inequality, Employment, and Wages".......Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding...... of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...

  18. 77 FR 58856 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Maintenance Wage Rate Recommendation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...) are required to ensure that maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation of HUD... Information Collection: Comment Request; Maintenance Wage Rate Recommendation, and Maintenance Wage Rate... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Maintenance Wage Rate Recommendation...

  19. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Butler...

  20. LABOR FLEXICURITY IN THE WAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, economists and specialists in human resources have shown a growing interest for more efficient wage policy, one that proves to be judiciously developed and in accordance with the specific activity of each entity. Therefore, an effective wage policy should be part of the general policy of the firm and should answer, on the one hand to the general requirements of increasing the efficiency of the activity and on the other hand to provide stimulation and motivation for the staff so to achieve not only individual performance but bring along added value to the overall business performance. This article is part of a broader research conducted by authors in the field of wages and labor market flexicurity. In elaborating this article we have appealed to an exhaustive analysis of EU law regarding remuneration of labor, in general, and labor flexicurity, in particular, the opinions of experts in the field were considered and their opinions, or some legal texts, the most significant ones, were presented in this work in a summary form. A critical documentary work on Community regulations and Romanian legislation, foreign specialized literature and the one published in our country was performed while conducting the research. The theoretical approach of flexicurity is different from state to state within the European Union in relation to the development and diversification of the labor market of each state. In some countries the efforts can focus on the firms for retraining, requalification, while in others the focus should be put on training during periods of inactivity or unemployment.

  1. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  2. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  3. Multinationals versus domestic firms: wages, working hours and industrial relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2011-01-01

    This Working Paper aims to present and discuss recent evidence on the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on wages, working conditions and industrial relations. It presents a. an overview of the available literature on the effects of FDI on wages, particularly in developed countries; b. the

  4. Wages and employment in a repeated game with revenue fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Empirical investigations suggests that the real wage is surprisingly flat over the business cycle. This paper analyses a repeated game between a union and a firm which can contribute to explaining the flat wage. The parties cannot enter binding contracts, and revenue is fluctuating. The paper...

  5. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increase and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    than the dispersion of wage levels. It is reasonable to expect greater dispersion of wage increases to be associated with higher monetary incentives, but also with increased perceptions of unfairness. The authors' analysis of linked employer-employee data from Denmark for the years 1992-97 shows...

  6. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... years; or (iii) 1974, we count the years beginning with 1951 and ending with the year before you reached...

  7. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  8. Wealth, wages and wedlock : Explaining the college gender gap reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    We study the role of changes in the wage structure and expectations about marriage in explaining the college gender gap reversal. With strongly diminishing marginal utility of wealth and in the presence of a gender wage gap, single women have a greater incentive than single men to invest in

  9. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  10. Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in Argentina, Costa Rica and South Africa. Labour market regulations, particularly minimum wage policies, remain highly contentious and poorly understood issues, both within academic and policy circles. Some argue that such regulations are effective ...

  11. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job...

  12. The Impact of the National Minimum Wage on Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafner, M.; Taylor, J; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Stepanek, M.; Nataraj, S.; van Stolk, C.

    2016-01-01

    This report includes the findings from a meta-analysis of the empirical UK national minimum wage literature. Similar to a previous UK minimum wage study by de Linde Leonard et al. (2014), this study finds no statistically significant aggregate adverse employment effect of the NMW and also no

  13. Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary

  14. Seniority wages and the role of firms in retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmel, W.; Horvath, T.; Schnalzenberger, M.; Winter-Ebmer, R.

    2015-01-01

    In general, retirement is seen as a pure labor supply phenomenon, but firms can have strong incentives to send expensive older workers into retirement. Based on the seniority wage model developed by Lazear (1979), we discuss steep seniority wage profiles as incentives for firms to dismiss older

  15. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Scherer (Clóvis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This

  16. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  17. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  18. Does Effeciency Wage Hypothesis Hold in Tanzanian Labour Market?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this paper is to test the hypothesis of efficiency wage in the context of Tanzania labour market. The test is facilitated via estimating the correlation between firm level productivity and firm level weighted average wage in Tanzania manufacturing enterprises. The study uses panel dimension of the data ...

  19. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  20. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  1. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage... gender than the other for the performance of equal work, the higher rate serves as a wage standard. When a violation of the Act is established, the higher rate paid for equal work is the standard to which...

  2. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...

  3. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain wage... contract is not subject to annual appropriations and its proposed term exceeds 2 years—unless otherwise...

  4. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Sbardella

    Full Text Available Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  5. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...

  6. Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Six months ago, the Government of Myanmar established a national minimum wage, expecting that it would stimulate investment in the garment industry. The new wage, 3600 Kyat (3 US$) a day, is as much as 4.5 times more than unskilled entry-level workers were earning.

  7. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  8. Timing and Flexibility of Housework and Men and Women's wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper analyses the effect of housework on men and women’s wages in Denmark by estimating quantile regressions on Danish time use survey data from 1987, merged to register information on hourly wages and other labour market variables for each of the years 1987-1991. We find, as in U.S. studie...

  9. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  10. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  11. Drones and the Threshold for Waging War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    If drones make waging war easier, the reason why they do so may not be the one commonly assumed within the philosophical debate – namely, the promised reduction in casualties on either side – but a more complicated one. One that has little to do with the concern for one’s own soldiers or, for tha......If drones make waging war easier, the reason why they do so may not be the one commonly assumed within the philosophical debate – namely, the promised reduction in casualties on either side – but a more complicated one. One that has little to do with the concern for one’s own soldiers or......, for that matter, the enemy, but rather one that is embedded in the political intricacies of international relations and domestic politics. This article will utilize the example of the Obama Administration’s drone policies to illustrate this argument. This analysis is also meant to have a wider methodological...... significance; that philosophy can make an important contribution in analyzing drone warfare. However, philosophy will not help to simplify realities and provide easy solutions....

  12. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage rate...

  13. Identification of Acanthamoeba Genotypes in Pools and Stagnant Water in Ponds in Sistan Region in Southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Ali; Dabirzadeh, Mansour; Maroufi, Yahya; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is one of the most abundant free-living amoebas that is widely distributed in natural and artificial environment resources. Acanthamoeba pathogenic genotypes cause chronic human diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine and identify Acanthamoeba genotypes residing in pools and stagnant water in ponds in Sistan region in southeast Iran. This descriptive study was conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences. In this descriptive study, 93 water samples were collected from pools and ponds in Zabol, Zahak, Hirmand, Hamoon, and Nimrooz in Sistan region. Samples after filtering through 0.45-μm nitrocellulose paper filters were cultured in a 1.5% non-nutrient agar medium enriched with heat-killed Escherichia coli. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using specialized primers for detecting the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequencing of positive samples was used for determining Acanthamoeba genotypes. From 82 free-living amoeba positive culture samples, 38 isolates were confirmed to belong to the genus Acanthamoeba by PCR. On sequencing, 34 samples (89.47%) belonged to the T4 genotype, three (7.9%) to the T5 genotype, and one (2.63%) to the T3 genotype. All genotypes found in this study are potentially pathogenic. The T4 genotype is the main genotype of Acanthamoeba responsible for amoebic keratitis. Resource water is a potential risk factor for the distribution of free-living amoeba. Therefore, more attention of health authorities to determine, training and prevention from infection are recommended.

  14. Wages in a growing Russia: when is a 10 per cent rise in the gender wage gap good news?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazakova, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2007), s. 365-392 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Russia * wages * gender wage gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2007

  15. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  16. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  17. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...... analysis shows that ordinary and subsidized employment is positively correlated, i.e. employment of subsidized labour does not reduce ordinary employment. But an underlying similar movement in production levels might cause the correlation. Simple inclusion of a production level proxy in OLS estimations...... does not sufficiently control for the underlying correlation, but additional control for the size of the change of production indicates that subsidized labour to some extent substitutes non-subsidized labour. But the substitution depends on the applied econometric specification, i.e. a cumulative logit...

  18. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hedija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.

  19. Causality between Prices and Wages: VECM Analysis for EU-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Hoxha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on causality as well as the empirical evidence clearly shows that there are two opposing groups of economists, who support different hypotheses with respect to the flow of causality in the price-wage causal relationship. The first group argues that causality runs from wages to prices, whereas the second argues that effect flows from prices to wages. Nonetheless, the literature review suggeststhat there is at least some consensus in that researcher’s conclusions may be contingent on the type of data employed, applied econometric model, or even that relationship may alter with economic cycles. This paper empirically examines theprice-wage causal relationship in EU-27, by using the OLS and VECM analysis, and it also provides robust evidence in support of a bilateral causal relationship between prices and wages, both in long-run as well as in the shortrun.Prior to designing and estimating the econometric model we have performed stationarity tests for the employed price, wage and productivity variables. Additionally, we have also specified the model taking into account the lag order as well as the rank of co-integration for the co-integrated variables. Furthermore, we have also applied respective restrictions on the parameters of estimatedVECM. The evidence resulting from model robustness checks indicates that results are statistically robust. Although far from closing the issue of causality between prices and wages, this paper at least provides some fresh evidence in the case of EU-27.

  20. Tracking the evolution of mantle sources with incompatible element ratios in stagnant-lid and plate-tectonic planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Kent C.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of high field strength incompatible element ratios Zr/Nb, Nb/Th, Th/Yb and Nb/Yb in terrestrial oceanic basalts prior to 2.7 Ga suggests the absence or near-absence of an enriched mantle reservoir. Instead, most oceanic basalts reflect a variably depleted mantle source similar in composition to primitive mantle. In contrast, basalts from hydrated mantle sources (like those associated with subduction) exist from 4 Ga onwards. The gradual appearance of enriched mantle between 2 and 3 Ga may reflect the onset and propagation of plate tectonics around the globe. Prior to 3 Ga, Earth may have been in a stagnant-lid regime with most basaltic magmas coming from a rather uniform, variably depleted mantle source or from a non-subduction hydrated mantle source. It was not until the extraction of continental crust and accompanying propagation of plate tectonics that ;modern type; enriched and depleted mantle reservoirs developed. Consistent with the absence of plate tectonics on the Moon is the near absence of basalts derived from depleted (DM) and enriched (EM) mantle reservoirs as defined by the four incompatible element ratios of this study. An exception are Apollo 17 basalts, which may come from a mixed source with a composition similar to primitive mantle as one end member and a high-Nb component as the other end member. With exception of Th, which requires selective enrichment in at least parts of the martian mantle, most martian meteorites can be derived from sources similar to terrestrial primitive mantle or by mixing of enriched and depleted mantle end members produced during magma ocean crystallization. Earth, Mars and the Moon exhibit three very different planetary evolution paths. The mantle source regions for Mars and the Moon are ancient and have HFS element signatures of magma ocean crystallization well-preserved, and differences in these signatures reflect magma ocean crystallization under two distinct pressure regimes. In contrast, plate

  1. New Workplace Practices and the Gender Wage Gap:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to males so that the gender gap in pay increases at the level...... of the firm, in particular among hourly-paid workers. Considering practices individually, however, a few exceptions are seen: the gender wage gap among salaried workers is significantly reduced in firms which offer project organisation, while the gap in pay among workers paid by the hour is significantly...

  2. Do higher corporate taxes reduce wages? Micro evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Peichl, Andreas; Siegloch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Because of endogeneity problems very few studies have been able to identify the incidence of corporate taxes on wages. We circumvent these problems by using an 11-year panel of data on 11,441 German municipalities’ tax rates, 8 percent of which change each year, linked to administrative matched employer-employee data. Consistent with our theoretical model, we find a negative effect of corporate taxation on wages: a 1 euro increase in tax liabilities yields a 77 cent decrease in the wage bil...

  3. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Francine D; Kahn, Lawrence M

    1996-01-01

    Using microdata to analyze the gender pay gap in ten industrialized nations, the authors focus on the role of wage structure--the prices of labor market skills in influencing the gender gap. They find wage structure enormously important in explaining why the U.S. gender gap is higher than that in most other countries. The authors conclude that the U.S. gap would be similar to that in Sweden and Australia (the countries with the smallest gaps) if the United States had their levels of wage ineq...

  4. Multiple equilibria and minimum wages in labor markets with informationale frictions and heterogeneous production technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    It is often argued that a mandatory minimum wage is binding only if the wage density displays a spike at it. In this article, we analyze a model with search frictions and heterogeneous production technologies, in which imposition of a minimum wage affects wages even though, after imposition, the

  5. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4... Wage Determination Procedures § 4.54 Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. (a... determine the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits prevailing for various classes of service employees...

  6. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  7. 29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...

  8. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  9. The Gender Wage Gap in Paid and Self-Employment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristy Eastough; Paul W. Miller

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the gender wage gap in the highly regulated Australian labour market. It compares wage outcomes in the wage and salary sector with those for the self-employed. Comparisons with the United States are provided. The large gender pay gap in self-employment suggests that the aggregate gender wage differential will not be eliminated solely through wage determination for wage and salary earners. The greater gender wage gap in the self-employed sector may reflect li...

  10. Dynamics of wages in the region and the problem of measurement of wages in the context of economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gordeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of current state and basic tendencies in the dynamics of wages. The authors consider the basic contradictions in the context of establishment of the market institution of wages in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of wages is appraised on the basis of the tax accounting of the regions. This approach, according to the authors, allows reflecting the current processes in the sphere of remuneration of labor in the context of economic instability more objectively.

  11. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  12. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  13. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law and... restaurant or hotel employees, or to seamen or other employees aboard vessels, since generally these items...

  15. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within......-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within......-firm inequality whereas we find no evidence that increased international trade at the industry level is associated with higher betweenor within-firm wage inequality. The key factors driving the observed increase in wage inequality are increased educational sorting and the inflow of foreign firms to the Czech...

  16. Minimum Wages, Technological Progress and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of a productivity shock when the unemployed worker risks a loss of skill. This divides the workers into short-term and long-term unemployment. In this economy, the short-term unemployed and long-term unemployed in the economy search for employment in the most produ......, and the equilibrium rate of unemployment.......This paper considers the effect of a productivity shock when the unemployed worker risks a loss of skill. This divides the workers into short-term and long-term unemployment. In this economy, the short-term unemployed and long-term unemployed in the economy search for employment in the most...... productive sector and in the antiquated sector, respectively. In this framework, the implications of a shock with a minimum wage law is compared to the implications when wages are perfectly flexible. The economic variables considered are short-term and long-term unemployment, wages and wage disparity...

  17. Nominal Wage Contracts as a Commitment against Hyperbolic Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Rhys ap Gwilym

    2010-01-01

    Economic agents with hyperbolic discount functions display time inconsistent preferences. In this paper, I show that for such agents fixed nominal wage contracts may represent a welfare enhancing commitment mechanism.

  18. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... in the United States is more sensitive to the time period. At the micro level, effects of the explanatory variables are similar across the three countries, especially for the one-year period....... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  19. The Moral and Economic Justification for a Living Wage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kielkopf, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the dual moral and economic arguments for a living wage are compelling. Profitability and an ever increasing stock market continue to be the economic and social validation for using market forces to exploit labor...

  20. The debate on the economic effects of minimum wage legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Miguel Ruesga-Benito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimum wage establishment has its origin in the first third of the last century. Since its creation has been a focus of continuing controversy and an unfinished debate on economics field. This work reviews the effects of the minimum wage on employment and other macroeconomic variables, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. The method is based on the revision of the literature and the main economic indicators. The central contribution of this paper is providing a general reflection on theoretical and empirical analysis about the debate on minimum wage and its effects. The results showed that some labor policies are taking account the effects of austerity strategies, shifting the attention towards the implementation of minimum wages or their updating, in order to reduce the growing inequalities in the distribution of income, and even poverty levels.

  1. Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-04

    compliance with labour regulations is common. Whether minimum wages affect the job market depends a lot on the extent to which legislation is enforced. This, in turn, is a function of the local political economy. Chronic shortages of ...

  2. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  3. International trade and wage discrimination : evidence from East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Gunseli; Van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the impact of competition from international trade on wage discrimination by sex in two highly open economies. If discrimination is costly, as posited in neoclassical theory based on Becker (1959), then increased industry competitiveness from international trade reduces the incentive for employers to discriminate against women. Alternatively, increased international trade may contribute to employment segregation and reduced bargaining power for women to achieve wage gains....

  4. The Gender Wage Gap in Portugal: Recent Evolution and Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar González; Maria Clementina Santos; Luís Delfim Santos

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Personnel Records (Quadros de Pessoal) for the period 1985-2000, we analyse the gender wage gap in Portugal. We estimate wage discrimination and endowment differentials using four decomposition methods. Our main concern is to analyse the key factors that lie behind the persistent gender pay gap despite the deep changes that characterise the recent evolution of the Portuguese labour market and the high female participation rate that exists in the country. Moreover, using th...

  5. Decent Wages: Theoretical and Methodological Foundations and Evaluation Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Tsymbaliuk Svitlana O.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the work is to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations of fair wages and develop indicators for evaluating the labor income policy in terms of implementing the principles of decent work at different levels. It is substantiated that the concept of “decent wages” is an organizational and economic mechanism for determining the basic parameters of wages, which provides a decent level of remuneration, fair distribution of the marginal product between the owner and th...

  6. Technology, labor characteristics and wage-productivity gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Maliranta, Mika

    2003-01-01

    We use plant-level linked employer-employee data from Finland to estimate production functions where also employee characteristics (average age and education, and sex composition) are included. We also estimate similar models for wages to examine whether wages are based on productivity. Our aim is to explain productivity besides manufacturing, also in services. For the service sector plants, no data on capital input, working hours, or value added is available, and productivity has to be measu...

  7. Wages and Subjective Assessments of Regional Labour Market Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...

  8. Unions and Wage Determination: Can Monopsonist Unions Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper extends the standard closed shop union model of wage determination by introducing endogeneity of union membership. The labor market outcome with endogenous membership may differ when unions behave monopsonisticaly relative to the case where they are "membership-takers", resulting in higher or lower wages (more or less favorable contract curve in efficient bargaining) according to the form union´s utility function and/or implicit decision process value union size. Some not...

  9. Essays in economic development: education, child labour and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salma

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents four self-contained essays that explore issues that are crucial in improving human well-being in a developing country: improving health, minimising child labour and reducing gender inequality. The analysis is focused on Bangladesh where the prevalence of child labour and gender differences in several domains is still widespread. The first essay aims to examine the gender wage gap along the entire wage distribution into an endowment effect and a discrimination effect, t...

  10. The nonlinear link between height and wages: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hübler, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between individual wages and height using the German Socio-Economic Panel where five hypotheses are tested. Some explanations of a positive link exist and empirical studies confirm this hypothesis. In contrast to previous investigations which are only based on a linear effect this paper finds that the individual height effects on wages are curvilinear. During the considered period from 1985 to 2004 we observe a slightly nonlinear falling trend. After...

  11. Could gender wage discrimination explain regional differences in productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Pena-Boquete; Melchor Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Human capital and productive structure could account for an important part of the differences in productivity between Spanish regions; nevertheless we consider that gender wage discrimination could also have effects on it. The existence of a degree of discrimination means that there is a wage differential in which employer prefer to hire less productive workers instead of discriminated workers. Thus, the cost of producing a unit of product would be higher than the cost of producing without di...

  12. Gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweimuller, J; Winter-ebmer, R

    1994-07-01

    "In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogenous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector, though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement." excerpt

  13. Monopsonistic Discrimination and the Gender-Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Barth; Harald Dale-Olsen

    1999-01-01

    Models of worker flows have revitalized the idea of monopsony in the labor market. We apply such a model to gender differences. We argue that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap, in particular with respect to differences arising between occupations and establishments. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway, we investigate the wage structure within and between establishments, and present novel evidence that the establishments' e...

  14. Training and minimum wages: first evidence from the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bellmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.

  15. Measurement of bubble shape and size in bubbly flow structure for stagnant and pulsating liquid flow using an undivided electrochlorination cell and Telecentric Direct Image Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Hedensted, Lau

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the measurement of shape and diameter of bubbles in different regions of the bubbly flow structure at the cathode for stagnant and pulsating liquid flow in a single undivided electrochlorination cell. The cell is filled with a dilute sodium chloride electrolyte solution...... is supported by an increase in fraction of total gas volume constituted by large bubbles. For pulsating liquid flow the mean bubble diameter is observed to remain constant around 35 μm when moving across the bubbly flow structure, which likewise is supported by the fraction of total gas volume investigations...

  16. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  17. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? 520.200 Section 520.200... lower than the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? Section 14(a) of..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners (including...

  18. FURTHER INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUIT RATES AND THE WAGE-TENURE PROFILE IN JAPANESE MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 聰一; OHKUSA, Yasushi

    1996-01-01

    We examine the relationship between actual quit rates and the slope of wage-tenure profile. The results obtained clarify that there is a negative relationship between these series when we use the definition with monetary units. Conversely, the slope defined in terms of growth is found to be positively correlated with the quit rate. As the theory predicts a negative relationship between these variables, it seems reasonable to conclude from the results that the definition of the slope in moneta...

  19. Plume-stagnant slab-lithosphere interactions: Origin of the late Cenozoic intra-plate basalts on the East Eurasia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Fukao, Yoshio; Stern, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Intra-plate basalts of 35-0 Ma in East Eurasia formed in a broad backarc region above the stagnant Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone. These basalts show regional-scale variations in Nd-Hf isotopes. The basalts with the most radiogenic Nd-Hf center on the Shandong Peninsula with intermediate Nd-Hf at Hainan and Datong. The least radiogenic basalts occur in the perimeters underlain by the thick continental lithosphere. Shandong basalts possess isotopic signatures of the young igneous oceanic crust of the subducted Pacific Plate. Hainan and Datong basalts have isotopic signatures of recycled subduction materials with billions of years of storage in the mantle. The perimeter basalts have isotopic signatures similar to pyroxenite xenoliths from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath East Eurasia. Hainan basalts exhibit the highest mantle potential temperature (Tp), while the Shandong basalts have the lowest Tp. We infer that a deep high-Tp plume interacted with the subducted Pacific Plate slab in the mantle transition zone to form a local low-Tp plume by entraining colder igneous oceanic lithosphere. We infer that the subducted Izanagi Plate slab, once a part of the Pacific Plate mosaic, broke off from the Pacific Plate slab at 35 Ma to sink into the lower mantle. The sinking Izanagi slab triggered the plume that interacted with the stagnant Pacific slab and caused subcontinental lithospheric melting. This coincided with formation of the western Pacific backarc marginal basins due to Pacific Plate slab rollback and stagnation.

  20. Effect of Seed Storage on Germination and Seedling Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of seed storage on germination and seedling growth of Dacryodes edulis (Don G.I and A.J.) was investigated. There were five treatments in all as follows: Sharp sand, shade, fresh water, stagnant water, and ambient temperature; they were replicated three times. The results showed that seeds stored in sharp ...

  1. Assessment of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings from two culture media was conducted at the Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu Ebonyi State Nigeria fish farm between October 2013 and January, 2014. Five concrete tanks, each 11.31m2 and a stagnant earthen pond 36m2 were each stocked with ...

  2. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2017-05-01

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Decent Wages: Theoretical and Methodological Foundations and Evaluation Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbaliuk Svitlana O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations of fair wages and develop indicators for evaluating the labor income policy in terms of implementing the principles of decent work at different levels. It is substantiated that the concept of “decent wages” is an organizational and economic mechanism for determining the basic parameters of wages, which provides a decent level of remuneration, fair distribution of the marginal product between the owner and the employee, timely payment and objective differentiation of wages, as well as transparency of the wage policy. The organizational and economic mechanism for determining the basic parameters of wages should be based on the use of market and contractual elements to regulate the size and structure of remuneration, as well as innovative approaches and tools for the formation of various components of remuneration for work. There proposed indicators with the identification of evaluation standards of the labor income policy in terms of implementing decent work principles at macro and micro levels. The developed indicators should serve as a tool for assessing the current state and trends in the development of the labor income policy through the prism of the implementation of the principles of decent work. Further research should focus on developing indicators for evaluating the labor income policies in terms of implementing decent work principles at sectoral and regional levels, monitoring the labor income policies, and elaborating innovative mechanisms for developing the labor income policies based on decent work at different levels.

  4. Between Institutions and Global Forces: Norwegian Wage Formation Since Industrialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Nymoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of labour market institutions in Norway, shows how labour market regulation has been related to the macroeconomic development, and presents dynamic econometric models of nominal and real wages. Single equation and multi-equation models are reported. The econometric modelling uses a new data set with historical time series of wages and prices, unemployment and labour productivity. Impulse indicator saturation is used to achieve robust estimation of focus parameters, and the breaks are interpreted in the light of the historical overview. A relatively high degree of constancy of the key parameters of the wage setting equation is documented, over a considerably longer historical time period than earlier studies have done. The evidence is consistent with the view that the evolving system of collective labour market regulation over long periods has delivered a certain necessary level of coordination of wage and price setting. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that global forces have been at work for a long time, in a way that links real wages to productivity trends in the same way as in countries with very different institutions and macroeconomic development.

  5. Rigidity of Nominal Wages of Non-Production Workers in Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sulistiyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess supply of labor leads to low the levels of nominal wages received by workers. The amount of minimum wage rate exceeds the market wage rate. The determination of minimum wage is a factor manifested in the institutional and regulatory Provincial Minimum Wage or a District Minimum Wage. Unfortunately, it has made nominal wages  difficult to drop below the minimum wage level. High or low level of nominal wages are associated with worker productivity. Further, nominal wages are rigid to go down. If they have increased, they can not be dropped in the future even though the company's performance is declined. Knowing that condition, in designing the remuneration system, an employer should pay attention to the rigidity of nominal wages, so that when  company's performance declines, the company will not be interfered because of the wages burden.  Furthermore, unions and government should consider the rigidity impact of nominal wages that go down. Thus, when macroeconomic conditions deteriorate and company's performance drops, the company will not go bankrupt due to high labor costs. If the company goes bankrupt, the workers will loose their jobs as a result of employment termination, while the government will face the unemployment problem. 

  6. Wages in the oil industry 2005; Loennen i oljeindustrien 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The basis for gross wages in 2005 for employees in selected positions in the petroleum industry is examined according to tariff agreements and other administrative agreements. The operator companies, here under two contractor companies, had an average wage in 2005 equal to NOK 690.000 in the selected positions. In this sum, 141.000 is overtime pay, and 67.000 is technical subsidies. In the oil service sector the average salary was NOK 736.000 in two central profession groups, here under 177.000 in overtime pay and 41.000 in technical subsidies. This is a follow-up investigation of a corresponding investigation for 2003. Compared to 2003, the collected wages per employee has increased by 3,9 percent in the operator companies and 31 percent in the oil service sector. The increase in oil service is in particular due to an increase in overtime pay by 84 percent from 2003 levels.

  7. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of the minimum wage on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin

    2018-03-07

    This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.

  9. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  11. 77 FR 38041 - TRICARE Management Activity Adoption of Department of the Treasury's Administrative Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary TRICARE Management Activity Adoption of Department of the Treasury's Administrative Wage Garnishment Procedures AGENCY: TRICARE Management Activity (TMA... regulation, TMA will authorize Treasury's Financial Management Service (FMS), to use administrative wage...

  12. 75 FR 61577 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... manipulating OES data in accordance with the statute, the actual OES survey instrument does not solicit data... adverse effect on wages while ensuring that wages reflect economic realities in the marketplace for such...

  13. Prices, Wages and Fertility in Pre-Industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc

    A two-sector Malthusian model is formulated in terms of a cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model on error correction form. The model allows for both agricultural product wages and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period...... in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a small and, surprisingly, positive effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is constant returns to scale with respect to labour in the manufacturing sector...

  14. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition and an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining to explain these patterns. We find some support for that the three mechanisms - increased international competition, further......In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market, and its wage structure in particular, using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. Estimating conventional earnings equations we find evidence of diminishing...

  15. Phillips and Wage Curves: Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Omerčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical examination of the existence and characteristics of the Phillips curve and the wage curve in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The findings indicate that there is no evidence of the existence of the short-term Phillips curve. Instead, the data suggests that in the short-term an increase in inflation leads to an increase in unemployment. The estimated wage curves indicate that only increases in real payment increase employment. The conclusion of this study is that increases in inflation might have a negative short-term impact on the level of employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We apply a recently suggested econometric approach to measure the effects of active labor market programs on employment, unemployment, and wage histories among participants. We find that participation in most of these training programs produces an initial locking-in effect and for some even a lower...... transition rate from unemployment to employment upon completion. Most programs, therefore, increase the expected duration of unemployment spells. However, we find that the training undertaken while unemployed successfully increases the expected duration of subsequent spells of employment for many...... subpopulations. These longer spells of employment come at a cost of lower accepted hourly wage rates...

  17. Do Higher Minimum Wages Benefit Health? Evidence From the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    This study examines the link between minimum wages and health outcomes by using the introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom in 1999 as an exogenous variation of earned income. A test for health effects by using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey for a period of ten years was conducted. It was found that the NMW significantly improved several measures of health, including self-reported health status and the presence of health conditions. When examining potential mechanisms, it was shown that changes in health behaviors, leisure expenditures, and financial stress can explain the observed improvements in health.

  18. How do social networks contribute to wage inequality? Insights from an agent-based analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawid, Herbert; Gemkow, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Based on a closed agent-based macroeconomic simulation model (Eurace@Unibi) this paper analyzes whether the density of social networks influences via referrals the residual wage inequality in different skill groups. It is shown that an increase in network density leads to a polarization of firms and a concentration of workers with high specific skills at firms with high productivities (and wages) thereby enlarging within group wage inequality, but not between group wage inequal...

  19. The internationalization of the U.S. labor market and the wage structure

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1995-01-01

    The increasing internationalization of the U.S. labor market has had important effects on the wage structure. Immigration has probably increased wage inequality because recent immigrant waves tend to be less skilled than earlier waves. Growing trade deficits in durable goods have also increased wage inequality by reducing the relatively high wages of less-skilled workers in these industries and by displacing workers from them.

  20. Do Higher Government Wages Reduce Corruption? Evidence Based on a Novel Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Van-Ha Le; Jakob de Haan; Erik Dietzenbacher

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a novel dataset on government wages to investigate the relationship between government remuneration policy and corruption. Our dataset, as derived from national household or labor surveys, is more reliable than the data on government wages as used in previous research. When the relationship between government wages and corruption is modeled to vary with the level of income, we find that the impact of government wages on corruption is strong at relatively low-income levels.

  1. A note on the nonlinear wages-productivity nexus for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chor Foon

    2010-01-01

    This study is to empirically investigate the effect of real wages on productivity in Malaysia using monthly data from January 1983 to November 2009. The Johansen’s test suggests that wages and productivity are cointegrated. Moreover, productivity and real wages have a quadratic relationship in the long run (i.e., inverse-U shape curve) instead of linear relationship. Hence, the effect of real wages on productivity is not monotonic. Furthermore, the Granger causality test indicates that real w...

  2. A note on the non-linear wages-productivity nexus for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chor Foon

    2010-01-01

    This study is to empirically investigate the effect of real wages on labour productivity in Malaysia’s manufacturing sector using annual data from 1980 to 2009. The Johansen’s test suggests that real wages and labour productivity are cointegrated. Moreover, productivity and real wages have a quadratic relationship (i.e. inverted-U shaped curve) instead of linear relationship. Hence, the effect of real wages on labour productivity is not monotonic. Furthermore, the Granger causality test indic...

  3. Wage Distributions by Bargaining Regime: Linked Employer-Employee Data Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Kohn; Alexander C. Lembcke

    2007-01-01

    Using linked employer-employee data from the German Structure of Earnings Survey 2001, this paper provides a comprehensive picture of the wage structure in three wage-setting regimes prevalent in the German system of industrial relations. We analyze wage distributions for various labor market subgroups by means of kernel density estimation, variance decompositions, and individual and firm-level wage regressions. Unions' impact through collective and firm-level bargaining mainly works towards ...

  4. 29 CFR 4.161 - Minimum monetary wages under contracts exceeding $2,500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum monetary wages under contracts exceeding $2,500. 4... than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as... or all of the determined wages in a contract fall below the level of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  5. The US Finance Wage Premium Before and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capuano, Stella; Lai, Tat-kei; Schmerer, Hans-Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Does the recent financial crisis change the wage structures of the US finance and nonfinance sectors? In this article, we study the wage gap between workers in these two sectors between 1990 and 2011. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the finance wage premium increased...

  6. Implications of Minimum Wage Increases on Labor Market Dynamics : Lessons for Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio, Ximena V.; Pabon, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers evidence on the relationship between the minimum wage and unemployment and informal employment, and identifies some of the lessons learned on the potential effects of increasing the minimum wage. Most of the evidence suggests that sizable increases in the minimum wage are likely to exacerbate unemployment and the prevalence of informal employment, which could have negativ...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...

  8. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  9. Unemployment Rates and Starting Salaries: Are Australian Graduates at the Whim of the Wage Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, David

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an inverse relationship between wage levels and regional unemployment rates, commonly referred to as the wage curve, is well established in the economic literature and was described by Card (1995) as being "close to an empirical law of economics". This microeconomic wage-unemployment relationship, first identified by…

  10. Implementation Of The Local Minimum Wage In Malang City (A Case Study in Malang City 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhea Candra Dewi Candra Dewi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wage system in a framework of how wages set and defined in order to improve the welfare of worker. The Indonesian government attempt to set a minimum wage in accordance with the eligibility standard of living. The study intend to analize the policy of Local Minimum Wage in Malang City in 2014, its implementation and constraining factors of those Local Minimum Wages. The research uses interactive model analysis as introduced by Miles and Hubermann [6] that consist of data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Constraining factors seen at the respond given by relevant actors to the policy such as employer organizations, worker unions, wage councils, and local government. Firstly, company as employer organization does not use wage scale system as suggested by the policy. Secondly, lack of communication forum between company and worker union sounds very high. Thirdly, inability of small and big companies to pay minimum standard wages. Lastly, disagreement and different opinion about wage scale applied between local wage council, employer organization and workers union that often occurs in tripartite communication forum.     Keywords: Employers Organization, Local Minimum Wage, Local Wage Council, Policy Implementation, Tripartite Communication forum, Workers Union.

  11. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  12. Dimensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Asplund, Rita; Blomskog, Stig

    in the Nordic labor markets once regional fixed effects are accounted for. Wage formation at the regional level is characterized by considerable persistence, but unemployment exerts no immediate influence on wages at the regional level. There is no evidence of a wage curve, nor of a Phillips curve...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(2)-1 - Withholding on basis of annualized wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payment of wages to an employee by taking the following steps: Step 1. Multiply the amount of the employee... Co., his employer. X Co. multiplies the weekly wage of $100 by 52 weeks to determine an annual wage... weekly payroll period, equals $13.28. X Co. may, if it chooses, withhold $13.28 rather than the amount...

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  15. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD wage rate requirements. (a) Wage rates applicable to laborers and mechanics. Wage rate..., except that HUD rates apply to nonroutine maintenance as defined in § 968.105 of this title; (ii) Non... by a PRE: HUD rates apply to nonroutine maintenance, as defined in § 968.105 of this title, and...

  16. 48 CFR 22.406-2 - Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wages, fringe benefits... Contracts Involving Construction 22.406-2 Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime. (a) In computing wages paid... fide fringe benefit. (3) Other contributions or anticipated costs for bona fide fringe benefits to the...

  17. 29 CFR 4.50 - Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4.50... Determination Procedures § 4.50 Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. The Administrator specifies the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid as required under the Act in two types of...

  18. Manual and codebook of the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Ceccon, D.; Osse, P.; Pralitasari, N.; Ndoricimpa, A.; Ngeh Tingum, E.

    2015-01-01

    In a globalised world comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the global economy in relation to national labour markets and industrial relations systems. Collective bargaining is considered an important instrument in wage-setting processes.

  19. Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively

  20. Qualifications, Discrimination, or Assimilation? An Extended Framework for Analysing Immigrant Wage Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...... immigrants could find employment and thus accumulate work experience....

  1. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the schedule...

  2. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...

  3. STATE MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, A WEAPON IN THE WAR ON POVERTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    CENSUS DATA SHOW THAT POVERTY IS OFTEN THE RESULT OF SERIOUS WAGE INADEQUACIES. IN 1964, NEARLY ONE-FIFTH OF THE MORE THAN 47.5 MILLION FAMILIES IN THE NATION HAD INCOMES UNDER $3,000. MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION HELPS TO ELIMINATE POVERTY BY SETTING A FLOOR FOR WAGES. FEWER THAN 30 MILLION OF THE MORE THAN 47 MILLION NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES IN…

  4. 29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined to...

  5. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the tier...

  7. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...

  8. 29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in...

  9. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  10. International Trade and Wage Discrimination : Evidence from East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Gunseli; Zveglich, Joseph E., Jr.; Van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the impact of competition from international trade on wage discrimination by sex in two highly open economies. If discrimination is costly, as posited in neoclassical theory based on Becker (1959), then increased industry competitiveness from international trade reduces the incentive for employers to discriminate against women. Alternatively, increased international tra...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(c)-1 - Wage bracket withholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employed by the X Real Estate Company to sell real estate on a commission basis, commissions to be paid... are determined at the rate of $2 per hour. During a certain payroll period he works only 24 hours and earns $48. Although A worked only 24 hours during the semimonthly payroll period, the applicable wage...

  12. Lower Wages: The Simple Solution to Youth Unemployment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Moira

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the debate over whether lowering youth wages would materially help the young unemployed to find jobs. The author sets out some of the theoretical and factual background to the debate, and gives references to the few serious inquiries made in the last three or four years. (CT)

  13. Cohort Effects on the Gender Wage Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Michèle; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    In this study the gender wage gap within three birth cohorts is analysed on the basis of a panel sample of Danish workers covering the period 1979-1990. During the latest decades there has been a considerable change in the female participat ion rate, the part time frequency and the educational...

  14. Is the gender wage gap declining in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I try to answer the question whether the gender wage gap in the Netherlands is declining. I posed this question because on several other indicators labour market differences between men and women in the Netherlands declined or disappeared altogether. First of all the labour market

  15. Gender wage gap and segregation in late transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    č. 182 (2001), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition * gender wage gap Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp182.pdf

  16. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 598-607 ISSN 1542-4766 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.jstor.org/stable/40005002

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1 - Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)-1 Wages. (a)(1... specifically limited by the Railroad Retirement Tax Act (chapter 22 of the Internal Revenue Code) or regulation... example, to restaurant or hotel employees, or to seamen or other employees aboard vessels, since generally...

  19. Prices, wages and fertility in pre-industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2012-01-01

    and relative prices to affect fertility. The model is estimated using new data for the pre-industrial period in England, and the analysis reveals a strong, positive effect of agricultural wages as well as a nonnegative effect of real agricultural prices on fertility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  20. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular (submodu...

  1. Active Labor Market Programs and Reservation Wages: Its a Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...

  2. 38 CFR 1.923 - Administrative wage garnishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative wage garnishment. 1.923 Section 1.923 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... catastrophic illness which result in financial hardship that limit the debtor's ability to provide food...

  3. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    and find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality. We then document sharp increases in both within-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate various hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition...... changes in wage inequality....

  4. AAUP-White House Exchange on Wage Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Martha

    1979-01-01

    The impact of long term inflation on faculty salaries in higher education are detailed in a letter to the Carter Administration from the AAUP. In the response from the White House, the guidelines formulated by the Council on Wage and Price Stability and the implications for faculty salaries are explained. (SF)

  5. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  6. Gender Differences in French Undergraduates' Academic Plans and Wage Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…

  7. Emigration, wage differentials and brain drain: The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine two hypotheses concerning emigration. The first hypothesis is that emigration is positively correlated with wage differentials. The second hypothesis concerns a positive correlation between emigration and higher education in the sending country (the so-called

  8. Adjusting Wages to Living Costs: A Historical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Henry

    1974-01-01

    The significant historical developments of the cost of living wage adjustments are summarized. Since the concept of cost of living took effect in 1919, developments that are noted are: World War II, the GM contract 1948, the GM Contract 1950, and the impact of the agreements. (DS)

  9. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  10. Job creation and destruction, worker reallocation and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Using Danish firm level data on employment dynamics merged with individual records on all workers in a given firm, various measures of employment and worker reallocation used in the macroeconomics literature are incorporated in a wage equation framework. The effects of job creation....../destruction and worker rellocation are estimated using standard panel data techniques. Brief results will go here!!!...

  11. An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time...

  12. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  13. Intra-European labour migration and low-wage competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Thörnquist, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The article compares how low-wage competition and labour migration from EU11 Member States affect industrial relations and working conditions for natives and migrants in three sectors (transport, cleaning and agriculture) in Denmark and Sweden. The analysis shows how already vulnerable sectors...

  14. Wage Determinants among Medical Doctors and Nurses in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the determination of wage rates for health professionals using three well known, and commonly used, econometric techniques: ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, and Heckman's method. The data come from a graduate survey and the analysis focuses on a regional labor market, due to nationwide information on salaries is…

  15. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that an employee who can show to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Labor that the actual amount of... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations Payment of Wages to Tipped Employees..., under the provisions of section 3(m) the amount paid to a tipped employee by an employer is deemed to be...

  16. Labor, wages and living standards in Java, 1680-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de P.; Zanden, van J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of living standards in Java has long been a subject of scholarly interest. A number of scholars have suggested that between 1600 and 1900 Southeast Asian living standards declined significantly. The present article contributes to these issues by calculating long-term real wages for

  17. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as unpaid family workers and is therefore not covered by the legal minimum. Self-employed and unpaid family workers account for 20% of workers in Costa Rica, 41.4% in El ...

  18. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as ... firms in the private formal sector from hiring new workers and trigger layoffs from jobs that usually offer other benefits such as social security coverage.

  19. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2008-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  20. Wage employment and gender differences in work–family role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at .05 alpha levels using Pearson product Moment Correlation, Chi-Square, Multivariate Analysis and t test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that men and women involvement in wage employment has significantly influenced work-family role conflict.

  1. The Reform of the Wage Determination Mechanism in the Mauritian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is based on a study carried out in the small island of Mauritius and looks at the reform in the wage determination mechanism. The data are obtained from a combination of interviews, as well as, desk research on the relevant work done in the island. The data reveal that all parties and partners, that is the State, the ...

  2. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  3. The Minimum Wage: Labor Market Consequences in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, K.; Mysíková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2009), s. 255-274 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/1369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : minimum wage * employment probability * unemployment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2009

  4. Researching the Minimum Wage: A Moral Economy for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverow-Turk, Vara

    1991-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment that requires students to research and report on what it would be like to live on minimum wage. Explains that this assignment is not really any different than the traditional assignment, it is simply more obvious about its political content because it involves an inquiry into economics rather than literature or…

  5. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  6. Kin investment in wage-labor economies : Effects on child and marriage market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K

    2005-03-01

    Various human groups, from food foragers to inner-city urban Americans, have used widespread sharing of resources through kin networks as a means of buffering themselves against fluctuations in resource availability in their environments. This paper addresses the effects of progressive incorporation into a wage-labor economy on the benefits of traditional kin networks for two social classes in urban South India. Predictions regarding the effects of kin network wealth, education, and size on child and spouse characteristics and methods of financing marriages are tested using various regression techniques. Despite the rapid growth of participation in a wage-labor economy, it is found that kin network characteristics still have an important impact on investment behavior among families in Bangalore in both social classes. Network wealth is found to have a positive effect on child and spouse characteristics, and large networks are found to act as significant drains on family resources. However, the results for education are broadly consistent with an interpretation of increasing family autonomy as parents' education has a far stronger influence on child and spouse characteristics across categories than network education does. Finally, professional-class parents are found to prefer financing marriages using formal mechanisms such as savings and bank loans while working-class parents preferentially finance marriages using credit from relatives and friends.

  7. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  8. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirica...

  9. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  10. The peak of construction. After years of stagnant hospital growth, Colorado sees boom in healthcare construction as enterprising companies pan for gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michael

    2003-12-15

    As Denver experienced a population boom during the '90s, hospital construction was at a standstill. Now providers are racing to catch up with demand, reflecting a national trend. Four Denver-area facilities, including Sky Ridge Medical Center, left, are open or under construction. "Right now, there's nothing like this going on anywhere," says Dennis Brimhall, of the University of Colorado Hospital.

  11. Subjective well-being and minimum wages: Evidence from U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates whether increases in minimum wages are associated with higher life satisfaction by using monthly-level state minimum wages and individual-level data from the 2005-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The magnitude I find suggests that a 10% increase in the minimum wage is associated with a 0.03-point increase in life satisfaction for workers without a high school diploma, on a 4-point scale. Contrary to popular belief that higher minimum wages hurt business owners, I find little evidence that higher minimum wages lead to the loss of well-being among self-employed people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Gender, Wages and Social Security in China’s Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rickne, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This study compares average earnings and productivities for men and women employed in roughly 200,000 Chinese industrial enterprises. Women’s average wages lag behind men’s wages by 11%, and this result is robust to the inclusion of non-wage income in the form of social insurance payments. The gender-wage gap is wider among workers with more than 12 years of education (28%), mainly because of the higher relative wages received by skilled men in foreign-invested firms. Women’s average producti...

  13. Wages and commuting: quasi-natural experiments' evidence from firms that relocate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; van Ommeren, Jos N.

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. A one kilometre increase in commuting...... distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly commuting time compensation of 49% of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and due to the experimental setup we are able to exclude many competing explanations of the wage-distance relationship....

  14. Wages, collective bargaining and recovery from the crisis in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van Klaveren, Maarten; Tijdens, Kea

    2015-01-01

    After the Second World War in the Netherlands, one of the most open economies in the world, wage moderation has be a leading theme in macroeconomic policy and industrial rela-tions. When wage restraint met with an overheated labour market and strike movements, social partners accepted the re-placement of a voluntary "social minimum wage" by a statutory minimum wage, introduced in 1969. Due to governmental freezes in the 1990s and 2000s the statutory minimum wage fell relative to the average w...

  15. Urban-rural migration: uncertainty and the effect of a change in the minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingene, C A; Yu, E S

    1989-01-01

    "This paper extends the neoclassical, Harris-Todaro model of urban-rural migration to the case of production uncertainty in the agricultural sector. A unique feature of the Harris-Todaro model is an exogenously determined minimum wage in the urban sector that exceeds the rural wage. Migration occurs until the rural wage equals the expected urban wage ('expected' due to employment uncertainty). The effects of a change in the minimum wage upon regional outputs, resource allocation, factor rewards, expected profits, and expected national income are explored, and the influence of production uncertainty upon the obtained results are delineated." The geographical focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  16. Decomposing wage distributions on a large data set - a quantile regression analysis of the gender wage gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Brink Thomsen, Lars

    This paper presents and implements a procedure that makes it possible to decompose wage distributions on large data sets. We replace bootstrap sampling in the standard Machado-Mata procedure with ‘non-replacement subsampling’, which is more suitable for the linked employer-employee data applied...

  17. A large piece of a small pie: Minimum wages and unemployment benefits in an assignment model with search frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMost empirical studies on the minimum wage find a spike at the minimum wage, compression of wage differentials at a large interval above the minimum wage and small employment losses. This paper offers a search model which is consistent with these facts. We consider a continuum of worker

  18. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... is performed, the prevailing hourly wage rate, the agreed upon collective bargaining wage or the legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for...

  19. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to...

  20. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  1. Two-sector disequilibrium growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the effects of (i) profit distribution to either laborers or capital-owners, (ii) sector-specific or efficient rationing schemes, and (iii) government consumption in a two-sector disequilibrium growth model with sluggish real wage rate adjustment (which affects capital

  2. Wage, Price and Unemployment Dynamics in the Spanish Transition to EMU Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Ordóñez, Javier

    2008-01-01

    to a European level of prosperity. We find some important lessons to be learnt from the Spanish experience that should be relevant for the new member states. Second, before fixing the real exchange rate it seems crucial that it is on its sustainable (competitive) purchasing power parity level. First, high...... increases seem to lead to increasing unemployment, slowdown in productivity growth, higher interest rates, and loss of competitiveness. On the other hand, the access to the European market and the possibility of increased export demand is likely to speed up the convergence process as long as competitiveness...... competitiveness in the tradable sector seems crucial for the real and nominal convergence to be successful. The increase in consumption wages and consumer prices as a result of the Balassa-Samuelson effect should not be allowed to exceed the improvement in productivity. Second, before fixing the real exchange...

  3. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  4. The future of textile production in high wage countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    It is undisputed that smart production in the context of industry 4.0 offers significant potential for industrial production in Germany. Exploiting this potential provides an opportunity to meet the growing competitive pressure for textile production in high-wage Germany. The complete cross-linking of textile mills towards Textile Production 4.0 means substantial savings. However, currently there are still some challenges that have to be overcome on the long way to Textile Production 4.0. This paper initially reflects the particular challenges of textile production in high-wage Germany. Later, the vision of the future of smart textile production will be outlined. In addition, first pilot solutions and current research approaches which pave the way for Textile Production 4.0 are described.

  5. Gender Wage Gap Accounting: The Role of Selection Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Michael; Kim, Seik; Leukhina, Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Mulligan and Rubinstein (2008) (MR) argued that changing selection of working females on unobservable characteristics, from negative in the 1970s to positive in the 1990s, accounted for nearly the entire closing of the gender wage gap. We argue that their female wage equation estimates are inconsistent. Correcting this error substantially weakens the role of the rising selection bias (39 % versus 78 %) and strengthens the contribution of declining discrimination (42 % versus 7 %). Our findings resonate better with related literature. We also explain why our finding of positive selection in the 1970s provides additional support for MR's main hypothesis that an exogenous rise in the market value of unobservable characteristics contributed to the closing of the gender gap.

  6. The Potential Effects of Minimum Wage Changes on Naval Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    of the debate have tried to elicit support for their arguments and galvanize the supporting populations to their sides. Many feel that the minimum...reasons income inequality continues to grow. These factors reduce the buying power of the common consumer and reduce companies’ ability to find...mattresses to one customer since most people only require one mattress. Raising the minimum wage would increase the number of people who could buy a

  7. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RBC Models and the Hours-Wages Puzzle: Puzzle Solved!

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that a modified real business cycle (RBC) model, one that includes home production and fiscal spending shocks, can solve one of the RBC puzzles and generates zero correlation between wages and hours. In addition, the micro-founded model presented here provides a sound theoretical model to analyze fiscal policy in a neoclassical framework and is able to capture many aspects of the data that the benchmark RBC model was missing.

  9. CAN HIGHER WAGES PROTECT YOUR HEART? REGIONAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian INCALTARAU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a bilateral influence between health and economic development. On the one hand, population health influences economic performance, both at micro and macro levels. On the other, being reflected in higher wellbeing, economic performance also influences health of population. Therefore, according to the materialist view, health status is dependent on the standard of living, whereas low living standards can increase the probability of morbidity and mortality by feeding poverty, poor hygiene and restricting access to health care and education, which is truly important in preventing diseases. Being generally considered to be a representative indicator for the standards of living, we have assessed the impact of wage variations on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality, as CVD were proved to be more sensitive to socio-economic conditions, but also generally the main mortality cause in post-communist countries including Romania. Carrying out a panel data analysis over the 1995-2012 period on Romanian NUTSIII regions, the results showed a direct link between wage level and CVD mortality proving that the higher wages reach, the lower mortality is, thus confirming assumed materialist hypothesis.

  10. The Impact of Living Wage Laws on Urban Economic Development Patterns and the Local Business Climate: Evidence from California Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional local economic development policies entice private businesses to create highpaying jobs in a given jurisdiction through direct subsidies or by projecting a positive “business climate†within regional and global arenas. Since 1994 however, “living wage†ordinances have emerged as an alternative response to labor market polarization in urban areas. However, these laws raise labor costs for employers and thus have the potential to reduce economic growth. I assess the impact of ...

  11. Labour Market Implications of a Compressed Wage Structure when Education and Training are Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    We consider the economic implications of a compressed wage structurewhich is exogenously determined by institutions. An importantfeature of our analysis is that human capital is endogenous and canbe achieved either as formal education or as informal training withinfirms after entering the labour...... market. While institutional wage compressiondecreases the incentives of individuals to become educated, itincreases the incentives of firms to invest in training. As a result, thenet effects of wage compression on the aggregate human capital leveland GDP are ambiguous. Moreover, with wage compression......, a skillbiasedtechnological change may cause wage inequality to decrease.Keywords: Wage compression, training, education, inequality, institutions,skill-biased technological change.JEL: I21, J31, J5, O33....

  12. Endogenous Growth, Monetary Shocks and Nominal Rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Pelloni, Alessandra; Lorenza, Rossi

    2010-01-01

    We introduce endogenous growth in an otherwise standard NK model with staggered prices and wages. Some results follow: (i) monetary volatility negatively affects long-run growth; (ii) the relation between nominal volatility and growth depends on the persistence of the nominal shocks and on the Taylor rule considered; (iii) a Taylor rule with smoothing increases the negative effect of nominal volatility on mean growth.

  13. What Drives the Gender Wage Gap? Examining the Roles of Sorting, Productivity Differences, and Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Isabelle; Stillman, Steven; Fabling, Richard

    2017-01-01

    As in other OECD countries, women in New Zealand earn substantially less than men with similar observable characteristics. In this paper, we use a decade of annual wage and productivity data from New Zealand's Linked Employer-Employee Database to examine different explanations for this gender wage gap. Sorting by gender at either the industry or firm level explains less than one-fifth of the overall wage gap. Gender differences in productivity within firms also explain little of the differenc...

  14. Importing equality? The effects of increased competition on the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Black; Elizabeth Brainerd

    1999-01-01

    It is now well documented that the gender wage gap declined substantially in the 1980s, despite rising overall wage inequality. While Blau and Kahn (JoLE 1997) attribute much of this improvement to gains in women's relative labor market experience and other observable characteristics, a substantial part of the decline in the gender wage gap remains unexplained, and may be due to reduced discrimination against women in the labor market. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) th...

  15. Gender and caste-based wage discrimination in India : some recent evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    "This paper examines gender and social groups wage discrimination in India using a nationally representative survey. We examine the wage gaps between different sub-groups of population separately in the rural and urban sectors using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. To account for possibility of the sample selection bias, the Heckman correction model is employed. We find a large wage differential between gender groups and between different social groups. The decomposition analysis reve...

  16. A Contribution to the Public-Private Wage Inequality Debate: The Iconic Case of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Voinea

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the public-private wage inequality in Romania. Although public sector employment is perceived as safer and offers more benefits, we find that in Romania it also offers higher wages, after controlling for experience, education, and gender. Decomposing the public-private wage premium into the effect of personal characteristics, coefficients, and residuals, we show that only about half of this premium can be attributed to personal characteristics. The premium is increasing acr...

  17. Money Matters: A Critique of the Postan Thesis on Medieval Population, Prices, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    John H. MUNRO

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a critique of Michael Postan's famous Malthusian-Ricardo model demonstrating that late-medieval prices and wages were essentially determined by demographic factors, especially after the Black Death, while contending that monetary factors played no role in determining prices or wages. His central argument is simple: that rapid and drastic depopulation (falling perhaps from ca. 1320) - by about 50% in England ca. 1450 - drastically altered the land:labour ratio so that real wages ...

  18. The Wage Premium and Market Structure: The Case of South Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Meng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We seek to understand why the difference between wages earned by skilled and unskilled labor, the so-called “wage premium”, varies across developing countries, using South Korea and Taiwan as empirical case studies. South Korea and Taiwan are both small developing countries with export-led economies that enjoy relatively high incomes compared to their Asian counterparts (excluding Japan). Between 1990 and 2000, Taiwan experienced a decrease in the wage premium, while South Korea remained the ...

  19. Occupational Segregation and Its Impact on Gender Wage Discrimination in China's Rural Industrial Sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xin; Miller, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines gender wage discrimination in China's newly developed rural industrial sector. The different occupational distributions of men and women are shown to be partly due to discrimination in occupational assignment by the community authorities, but the impact on the gender wage differential of this form of discrimination is not as important as wage discrimination within each occupation. Moreover, it is found that relative to intraoccupational discrimination, interoccupational wa...

  20. The wage penalty induced by part-time work: the case of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jepsen; Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai; Robert Plasman; François Rycx

    2005-01-01

    Substantial research has been devoted to the estimation and explanation of the gender wage gap. The effects of work status on wages have been studied somewhat less. This article draws on existing work to generate new estimates of the wage penalty associated with part-time employment in Belgium. Given the fact that women remain the primary caregivers, almost solely in charge of housework, part-time employment has often been presented as an ideal solution for those wanting to combine family and...

  1. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  2. [Agreement and asymmetry. Population and wages vis vis a vis the globalization of the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusidman, C

    1991-01-01

    The free flow of labor and services across national borders will be 1 of the most difficult problems of future negotiations for integration of the markets of the US, Mexico, and Canada. The free flow of products and increasingly of capital have been accepted in general terms, and land and natural resources are entering the globalization process through external investment. In the trilateral free trade treaty between Mexico, the US, and Canada, the US is particularly interested in access to the service markets of Canada and Mexico. Mexico would like freer access to the other markets, and to protect its migrant workers. Canada needs foreign labor for its agricultural production. All 3 countries would potentially benefit from more flexible population movement. Mexico, Canada, and the US have very different structures, population dynamics, and labor markets. Mexico's population growth rate is the highest and its active population is increasing the most rapidly. Mexico must generate 1 million new jobs annually, the US requires 2.1 million, and Canada around 230,000. The 3 countries, with about 360 million inhabitants in 1991, must create 3.4 million new jobs annually. Because of differences in occupational and activity structures, levels of skill, salaries, productivity, and cultures of work in the 3 countries, it is clear that the new jobs correspond to different labor markets, making predictions about average salaries difficult. The 1990 average minimum wage in the US was about 10 times that of Mexico, while the average minimum in the manufacturing sector as about 7 times greater. The degree to which the trilateral treaty can contribute to reducing the differential is an important question. 3 possible scenarios suggest themselves. If current restrictions on mobility of workers are maintained, wage disparities will probably continue unless there is a very great foreign investment in activities throughout Mexico that require significant labor inputs. This would probably

  3. 75 FR 9437 - Acxiom Corporation, Including Workers Whose Wages Are Reported Through May and Spey Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account through... communication and training, resource coordination and security compliance services from India. The amended...

  4. The role of computer use and English proficiency in gender wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female w...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap.......This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...

  5. The Importance of Worker, Firm and Match Fixed Effects in the Formation of Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    provides wage information on the whole working population for a 24-year period. We find that the major part of wage dispersion in the Danish labor market can be explained by differences in worker characteristics. However, the relative contribution of the three components varies across subgroups of workers....... The match effect contributes a non-neglible part to the overall wage dispersion and, fur- thermore, corrects the estimated returns to experience. An analysis of inter-industry wage differentials shows that firm characteristics are more important at the industry level than at the worker level. Like- wise, we...

  6. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  7. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Christoph; Jacobs, Rowena; Zucchelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-01

    Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW) to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  8. CAN QUALITY STANDARDS INDIRECTLY IMPROVE EMPLOYEE'S WAGE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FROM MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanovcic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the indirect effect of ISO 9000 adoption on employees' wage. Actually, the adoption of quality standards induces firm's re-organization, underlying improvement of work environment and employees' involvement. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how work environment and employees' involvement are associated with employees' wage. Our empirical results based on Montenegrin employee database from two quality certified firms indicate that better work environment has no influence on employees' wage while employee involvement is positively associated with higher wages.

  9. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kronenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the degree of female wage discrimination in the Spanish region of Galicia relative to the rest of Spain. The analysis starts from an established fact: women's average earnings are lower than men's. First, we try to show the causes behind this wage differential. Next, we discuss the evolution of the wage gap between 1995 and 2002, in order to bring some light on the factors potentially accounting for wage discrimination persistence in Galicia and Spain. We w...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Pena-Boquete

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the degree of female wage discrimination in the Spanish region of Galicia relative to the rest of Spain. The analysis starts from an established fact: women’s average earnings are lower than men’s. First, we try to show the causes behind this wage differential. Next, we discuss the evolution of the wage gap between 1995 and 2002, in order to bring some light on the factors potentially accounting for wage discrimination persistence in Galicia and Spain. We w...

  12. Wage Differences Between Men and Women in Austria: Evidence from 1983 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Hofer, Helmut; Zulehner, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In most OECD countries the wage gap between men and women has declined during the past two decades. Developments of the last 20 years, e.g. increased labour market attachment of women, changes in the bargaining structure, and the introduction of equal pay laws, may have reduced the gender wage gap. We investigate the extent, persistence, and socio-economic determinants of the gender wage gap in Austria, for the years 1983 and 1997. Using wage decomposition techniques, we find that the average...

  13. Association of Wage With Employee Participation in Health Assessments and Biometric Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Addy, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To understand differences in health risk assessment (HRA) and biometric screening participation rates among benefits-enrolled employees in association with wage category. Cross-sectional analysis of employee eligibility file and health benefits (wellness and claims) data. Data from self-insured employers participating in the RightOpt private exchange (Conduent HR Services) during 2014. Active employees from 4 companies continuously enrolled in health insurance for which wage data were available. Measures included HRA and biometric screening participation rates and wage status, with employee age, sex, employer, job tenure, household income, geographic location, and health benefits deductible as a percentage of total wages serving as covariates. Employees were separated into 5 groups based on wage status. Logistic regression analysis incorporated other measures as covariates to adjust for differences between groups, with HRA and biometric screening participation rates determined as binary outcomes. Participation rates for HRA and biometric screening were 90% and 87%, respectively, in the highest wage category, decreasing to 67% and 60%, respectively, among the lowest wage category. Employee wage status is associated with significant differences in HRA and biometric participation rates. Generalizing the results generated by modest participation in these offerings to entire populations may risk misinterpretation of results based on variable participation rates across wage categories.

  14. Statistical Analysis and History of Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...

  15. Small Scale Farmers’ Indigenous Agricultural Adaptation Options in the Face of Declining or Stagnant Crop Yields in the Fako and Meme Divisions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has proven that, at a national scale in Cameroon, arable crop production is either declining or stagnant. In the face of these trends, governments, local and international organizations, communities and peasant farmers have developed adaptation options to sustain arable production and reduce poverty. Given this general context, and based on population perceptions and four study sites in the Southwest region of Cameroon, this study aims at verifying current trends in arable production and farmers’ adaptation options based on their indigenous knowledge. These analyses are based on the administration of 200 questionnaires and two focus group discussions (FGDs. The data were analysed using SPSS version 20 in which frequencies, percentages and means were calculated. In addition, the chi-squared statistical test of goodness of fit was calculated and the stated hypothesis was validated accordingly. The FGDs were analysed through verbatim transcriptions and with the aid of the context analysis software, Wordstat 7. The results show that current yields (2010–2014 in all the study sites are declining due to deforestation, poor governance, inadequate access to farm inputs such as fertilizers, increased economic opportunities elsewhere and a breakdown of cultural practices, while 10 years (2000–2010 previously, they had been increasing. It has also been found that the main adaptation options/coping mechanisms reported by the respondents in order of highest frquencies are: expansion of farm size, help from relatives and dependents that live on the farm, supplemental occupations or livelihood diversification and usage of organic fertilizers. From the chi-squared test, the alternate hypothesis that, “there is some difference between population proportions for different adaptation options or coping mechanisms” is validated.

  16. P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiujiao; Yuen, David A.

    2013-04-01

    Using high-dense regional body waves for three deep earthquakes that occurred around Russia-China border, we investigate both S and P wave velocity structures in the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and northern part of North China Craton, where the northwestern Pacific plate is imaged to subhorizontally lie above the 660-km discontinuity. We observe an increasing trend of S-P travel time residuals along the epicentral distance within a distance range of 11-16.5°, indicating a velocity anomaly in MTZ. We seek the simplest model that explains the observed broadband waveforms and relative travel times of triplication for a confined azimuth sector. Both SH and P data suggest a ˜140±20 km high velocity layer lying above a slightly depressed and broad 660-km discontinuity. Shear velocity reduction of ˜2.5% in the deeper part of the transition zone is required to compensate for the significantly large relative time between AB and CD triplicate branches and the increased trending of S-P travel time residuals as well. The MTZ, as a whole, is featured by low shear velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio. A water-rich mantle transition zone with 0.2-0.4 wt% of H2O may account for the discrepancy between the observed Vp and Vs velocity structures. Our result supports the scenario of a viscosity-dominated stagnant slab with an increased thickness of ˜140 km, which was caused by the large viscosity contrast between the lower and upper mantles. The addition of water and eastward trench retreat might facilitate stagnation of the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China.

  17. Gender-based wage differentials among registered dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Prudence; Taylor, Maxine; Daher, Noha

    2007-01-01

    The debate on compensation equity is broad-based, addressing many organizational, personal, and outcome factors. Central to compensation philosophy is the issue of gender equity. Health care, like many other industries, remains fraught with gender inequity in compensation. This inequity is partially explained by choice of practice area. However, much remains unexplained. Health care is a female-dominated industry with most of the women working in the allied health professions (eg, nurses, dietitians, etc). Registered dietitians (RD) may experience wage discrimination, similar to registered nurses, but prior to the present study, the assumption was not tested. Using data from the first comprehensive study of RD compensation, we examined gender equity in total cash compensation to RDs. Data were collected on total cash compensation, and questions focused on career progression and work outcomes. For purposes of our study, we analyzed data on 5,477 full-time RDs. Ninety-six percent were women, the median age was 43, and median total cash compensation for RDs employed in the position for at least 1 year was $45,500.00. Women earned $45,285.00 and men earned $50,250.00. A median wage gap of $4,965.00 between women and men was observed. Variability in total cash compensation to women was best explained by size of budget, years of experience, work setting, and educational level. Variability for men was explained by size of budget, years of experience, educational level, and employer status. Conclusions suggest that given the wage discrimination that female RDs experience, work organizations should evaluate their pay plans to monitor pay equity. Factors that women can manage to receive compensation that is equal to that of the men include size of budgets they manage, years of experience in the field, employer status, work setting, and educational level attained. Findings are useful for career advisers, human resource specialists, compensation specialists, supervisors, RDs

  18. Predicting gross wages of non-employed persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Bezeredi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the findings of a study aimed at building a model for predicting wages of non-employed persons in Croatia. The predictions will be used in the calculation of marginal effective tax rate at the extensive margin and in labour supply modelling. The database used is 2012 “EU statistics on income and living conditions”. The paper comprehensively explains the data source, variables, subgroups of employed and non-employed, and the results of the linear regression model, the Heckman selection model and the quantile regression model. The quality of predictions obtained by different models is compared and discussed.

  19. THE LEVEL OF WAGE AND LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN HOTEL INDUSTRY: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanda Karina Astari Fatma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973 and Katz (1980 explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.

  20. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...