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Sample records for stages potential benefits

  1. Potential benefits of palliative care for polysymptomatic patients with late-stage nonmalignant disease in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shin Hung

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Hospice care with good symptom control is warranted for patients with late-stage nonmalignant disease who need appropriate end-of-life care. Medical personnel need education in the importance of palliative care and the identification of patients who could benefit from it. In addition, patients should be informed of its availability.

  2. Potential and Benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM During Pre-Construction, Construction and Post Construction Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aw Nien Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is the main economic support for all countries around the world in which continually adapting to meet competitive challenges around the global market. Nevertheless, the construction project is becoming much more complex and difficult to manage. This is because the construction project involves a large number of stakeholder, for example, the consultant companies, architects, engineers, building surveyors and quantity surveyors. The technology currently used in the construction industry is the AutoCAD (Automatic computeraided design. AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD and drafting develop by Autodesk. Generally, all the drawing design from Autocad will be exchanged among the stakeholder in the form of paper. Information exchanged among them mostly involves a lot of documents and drawings. This practice creates errors because of documents and drawings are mostly in a paper-based format that is not properly managed which results in miscommunication among them. Having wrong information in the construction process could hinder the productivity of projects because in a construction project information is one of the important construction materials. Building Information Modeling (BIM is one of the newly software in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industries to ensure all parties receive the right information. BIM technology is also an intelligent model of a building constructed digitally in the way of 3D. The software will generate model containing the information needed to support the construction, fabrication, and procurement activities that needed to realize the building. This paper will discuss on potential and benefits of BIM during pre-construction stage, construction stage and during post construction stage

  3. Potential benefits from the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussing the potential benefits from the CTBT monitoring in Africa, analysis and data communication systems it was concluded that although yet undeveloped, the possibilities arising from participation in CTBT regime are being identified. The integrated data obtained from the verification technologies of the CTBT should open further horizons for civil society. The main topics of interest are: treaty related science and technology developments, monitoring techniques, ideas and initiatives for expanding existing activities and developing cooperation, including the issues of regional centres and centres of excellence

  4. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  5. Analysis of CDM projects’ potential benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Affonso dos Reis Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The main goal of this study is to identify and assess, within sustainability reports, information concerning potential carbon credits obtained through projects carried out under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM assumptions, as well as to assess CDM project experts’ perceptions of obstacles to entering carbon credit markets. Design/methodology/approach – exploratory, descriptive, bibliographical and documental research, and interviews. Theoretical basis - Research was based on the concepts of sustainability, especially as to environmental responsibility (CSR; cost-benefit analysis was also considered, since selling carbon credits can be a way of mitigating the trade off between immediate shareholder satisfaction and investment in CSR. Findings – The perceptions of representatives from carbon credit projects’ certifying companies was examined by means of a series of interviews – concluding that savings in costs, business marketing and certifications are even greater motivators than carbon credits themselves. We estimated that, through energy efficiency, the projects discussed in 2011 sustainability reports would be capable of saving approximately 538 million reais in costs. In addition, 40 million reais, considering the rate of the euro and of securities on December 31, 2014, would be gained through the sale of carbon credits. Practical implications – Thus, this research helps to demonstrate the significant potential for further financial gains that companies may obtain through energy efficiency and habitat restructuring, whether by taking advantage of CO2 reduction brought about by such projects, or by developing new projects that continue to benefit economy, society and the environment.

  6. Potential benefits and risks of clinical xenotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper DKC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available David KC Cooper,1 David Ayares21Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Revivicor, Blacksburg, VA, USAAbstract: The transplantation of organs and cells from pigs into humans could overcome the critical and continuing problem of the lack of availability of deceased human organs and cells for clinical transplantation. Developments in the genetic engineering of pigs have enabled considerable progress to be made in the experimental laboratory in overcoming the immune barriers to successful xenotransplantation. With regard to pig organ xenotransplantation, antibody- and cell-mediated rejection have largely been overcome, and the current major barrier is the development of coagulation dysregulation. This is believed to be due to a combination of immune activation of the vascular endothelial cells of the graft and molecular incompatibilities between the pig and primate coagulation–anticoagulation systems. Pigs with new genetic modifications specifically directed to this problem are now becoming available. With regard to less complex tissues, such as islets (for the treatment of diabetes, neuronal cells (for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and corneas, the remaining barriers are less problematic, and graft survival in nonhuman primate models extends for >1 year in all three cases. In planning the initial clinical trials, consideration will be concentrated on the risk–benefit ratio, based to a large extent on the results of preclinical studies in nonhuman primates. If the benefit to the patient is anticipated to be high, eg, insulin-independent control of glycemia, and the potential risks low, eg, minimal risk of transfer of a porcine infectious agent, then a clinical trial would be justified.Keywords: infection, pigs, genetically-engineered, xenotransplantation, islets, xenotransplantation, organs

  7. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  8. Stages of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests or procedures are used for staging. Staging laparotomy (a surgical incision made in the wall of ... treatment. Two types of standard treatment are used: Surgery The type of surgery (removing the tumor in ...

  9. Potential health benefits and problems associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Phytochemicals are a naturally occurring group of chemicals in plants and plant-derived foods. Presence of phytochemical components such as phytohemagglutinins, tannins, phytic acid, saponins, protease inhibitors, oligosaccharides and phytoestrogens in food legumes has both health benefits and adverse ...

  10. [The potential health benefits of philanthropy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    The act of donating or doing voluntary or charitable work has a positive effect on the giver's health. Numerous French and international studies have shown the benefits of a voluntary activity. It enables people to live better and longer, by favouring their physical, psychological, social and cognitive balance.

  11. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  12. Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetherington, M.M.; Cunningham, K.; Dye, L.; Gibson, E.L.; Gregersen, N.T.; Halford, J.C.G.; Lawton, C.L.; Lluch, A.; Mela, D.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake

  13. Setting the stage for benefit realization of healthcare IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgård

    The relationship between information technology and organizational performance has been a recurring theme in IS research (Kohli and Grover 2008; Melville et al. 2004). Given the enormous investment in IT the discussion on how to obtain value and payoff from IT has become very important for public...... an action research project at the Faroe Islands. The Faroese health service (FHS) has finished the implementation of an integrated healthcare information system (HIS) and it is time for them to consider reaping the benefits, the subject of this action research project. The empirical study reported......; Friedman and Wyatt 1997), and are closely related to a more general discussion about measuring the performance of healthcare systems (Murray and Frenk 2011; Reeves et al. 2011). The general discussion about IT value and the broader discussion in healthcare about measuring performance motivated us to start...

  14. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process.

  15. Neuroglycopenia in normoglycaemic patients, and the potential benefit of ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MAAP; Soorani-Lunsing, RJ; Pouwels, E; Klepper, J

    We report a patient with recurrent symptoms of neuroglycopenia due to a defective glucose transport into brain. The potential benefit of ketosis in neuroglycopenia is discussed from the therapeutic concept of a ketogenic diet in GLUT1-deficiency syndrome.

  16. Zinc: An Essential Trace Element with Potential Benefits to Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G

    2005-01-01

    .... This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutrition to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc to protect soldiers against a number of diseases currently affecting them, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.

  17. The potential benefit of pre-operative assessment of amputation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefit of pre-operative assessment of amputation wound healing potential in peripheral vascular disease. M. Mars, R. P. Mills, J. V. Robbs. Abstract. Choosing the most distal amputation level that will heal is difficult in patients with peripheral vascular disease. From 1984 to 1988,965 patients underwent 1 563 ...

  18. The potential benefit ofpre-operative assesstnent of atnputation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. The potential benefit ofpre-operative assesstnent of atnputation wound healing potential in peripheral vascular disease. M.MARS, R. P. MILLS, J. V. ROBBS. Abstract Choosing the most distal amputation level that will heal is difficult in patients with peripheral vascu- lar disease. From 1984 to 1988,965 patients under-.

  19. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campidoglio, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies [it

  20. Exploring the Potential Benefits of Mobile Phone Service for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring the Potential Benefits of Mobile Phone Service for Epidemiological Monitoring in Mali. Mali has one of the heaviest disease burdens in the world. Using cellphones to monitor outbreaks of disease in the country could help to ease that burden. Monitoring public health to prevent and control disease depends on ...

  1. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  2. Potential health benefits of sphingolipids in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Potočki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are found in all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells. Milk and dairy products are one of the most important sources of sphingolipids. This compounds participate in a variety of indispensable metabolic, neurological, and intracellular signaling processes. Sphingolipids and their derivatives are highly bioactive compounds with anti-cancer, bacteriostatic and cholesterol-lowering properties. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential health benefits of the milk and dairy sphingolipids.

  3. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  4. Exploring the Potential Benefits of Using Social Media in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdouan Faizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the potential benefits of using social media in education. A thorough examination of a large set of these online tools has revealed that social media have many educational advantages. In fact, it has been found out that these web-based applications can improve communication among students and between teachers and students. Thanks to these technologies, both teachers and students can interact with each other in a matter of seconds. Social media can also be used to promote students’ engagement. Students who often complain of being intimidated or bored in the classroom may feel comfortable to express their creativity and voice their opinion on a social network website. Another finding of this study is that social media applications foster collaboration as they allow students to work together to achieve a common goal. Given these educational benefits, we recommend that these online social tools should be used in learning environments.

  5. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  6. Volunteering in the Community: Potential Benefits for Cognitive Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2018-03-02

    This review aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering in the community for older adults' cognitive functioning by taking an in-depth look at the relevant evidence to date. This review describes the main pathways through which volunteering could plausibly benefit cognitive functioning and critically examines research that has specifically investigated links between volunteering and cognition. Fifteen articles that assessed in adults aged ≥ 55 years the relationship between volunteering (predictor) and cognitive functioning (outcome) were identified via literature database searches. On balance, evidence from the small number of relevant studies to date supports the idea that volunteering can protect against cognitive aging with respect to global functioning and at least some specific cognitive domains. Studies that used robust designs and assessed domain-specific cognitive functioning produced the largest effect sizes. To help advance the field, this review puts forward recommendations for future research, with an emphasis on the need for robust study designs and specific investigations into the nature and extent of the cognitive benefits of volunteering. Through that work, researchers can determine how a simple and accessible activity like volunteering can best be used to help reduce the burden of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  8. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  9. Potential benefits of second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Campos, Nicole Gastineau; Kim, Jane J

    2012-01-01

    Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two oncogenic types (16 and 18) that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58). A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda) was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer) and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types), compared against currently-available vaccines. Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines. Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future analyses.

  10. Intradermal delivery of vaccines: potential benefits and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, JK; Jones, KR; Friede, M; Chen, D; Kristensen, D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis of human skin (i.e. intradermal delivery) might be more efficient than injection into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, thereby reducing the volumes of antigen. This is known as dose-sparing and has been demonstrated in clinical trials with some, but not all, vaccines. Dose-sparing could be beneficial to immunization programmes by potentially reducing the costs of purchase, distribution and storage of vaccines; increasing vaccine availability and effectiveness. The data obtained with intradermal delivery of some vaccines are encouraging and warrant further study and development; however significant gaps in knowledge and operational challenges such as reformulation, optimizing vaccine presentation and development of novel devices to aid intradermal vaccine delivery need to be addressed. Modelling of the costs and potential savings resulting from intradermal delivery should be done to provide realistic expectations of the potential benefits and to support cases for investment. Implementation and uptake of intradermal vaccine delivery requires further research and development, which depends upon collaboration between multiple stakeholders in the field of vaccination. PMID:21379418

  11. Mandating nutrient menu labeling in restaurants: potential public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Turner, Lori W; Knol, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Many Americans have replaced home-cooked meals with fast food and restaurants meals. This contributes to increased incidences of overweight and obesity. Implementing policies that require restaurants to disclose nutrition information has the potential to improve nutrition knowledge and food behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to examine the potential health benefits of nutrient menu labeling in restaurants, the progress of this legislation and to provide results regarding the implementation of these policies. Data sources were obtained from a search of multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar. Study inclusion criteria were publication in the past ten years, obesity prevention, and utilization of nutrition labeling on menus in restaurants. The initial policies to provide consumers with nutrition information in restaurant settings began at the state levels in 2006. These laws demonstrated success, other states followed, and a national law was passed and is being implemented. Mandating nutrient menu disclosure has the potential to influence a large number of people; this legislation has the opportunity to impact Americans who dine at a fast food or chain restaurant. Given the growing obesity epidemic, continued research is necessary to gauge the effectiveness of this new law and its effects on the health status of the American people.

  12. Intradermal delivery of vaccines: potential benefits and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, J K; Jones, K R; Friede, M; Zehrung, D; Chen, D; Kristensen, D

    2011-03-01

    Delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis of human skin (i.e. intradermal delivery) might be more efficient than injection into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, thereby reducing the volumes of antigen. This is known as dose-sparing and has been demonstrated in clinical trials with some, but not all, vaccines. Dose-sparing could be beneficial to immunization programmes by potentially reducing the costs of purchase, distribution and storage of vaccines; increasing vaccine availability and effectiveness. The data obtained with intradermal delivery of some vaccines are encouraging and warrant further study and development; however significant gaps in knowledge and operational challenges such as reformulation, optimizing vaccine presentation and development of novel devices to aid intradermal vaccine delivery need to be addressed. Modelling of the costs and potential savings resulting from intradermal delivery should be done to provide realistic expectations of the potential benefits and to support cases for investment. Implementation and uptake of intradermal vaccine delivery requires further research and development, which depends upon collaboration between multiple stakeholders in the field of vaccination.

  13. Potential Benefits of Annona muricata in Combating Cancer: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rahman, Husna Syakirah; Wong, Michael Pak Kai; Wan Zain, Wan Zainira

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing each year, which generates concerns regarding the efficacy of the current treatment options. This has caused patients to seek alternatives to complement or to replace surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Annona muricata and other plants have been shown to have promising compounds that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer. Native to the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, A. muricata plant extracts contain compounds that are particularly effective against cancer cells. In light of increasing concerns regarding the limitations of cancer treatment in hospitals, this review attempts to highlight the benefits of A. muricata and its potential to be integrated as one of the treatment options against cancer. PMID:29599630

  14. Potential Benefits of Annona muricata in Combating Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajid, Aidy Irman; Ab Rahman, Husna Syakirah; Wong, Michael Pak Kai; Wan Zain, Wan Zainira

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing each year, which generates concerns regarding the efficacy of the current treatment options. This has caused patients to seek alternatives to complement or to replace surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Annona muricata and other plants have been shown to have promising compounds that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer. Native to the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, A. muricata plant extracts contain compounds that are particularly effective against cancer cells. In light of increasing concerns regarding the limitations of cancer treatment in hospitals, this review attempts to highlight the benefits of A. muricata and its potential to be integrated as one of the treatment options against cancer.

  15. Potential benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid on atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J R; Wani, O; May, H T; Budoff, M

    2017-04-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in some patients despite optimized statin therapy and may necessitate add-on therapy to reduce this risk. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, lowers plasma triglyceride levels without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and has potential beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. Animal studies have shown that EPA reduces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In clinical trials utilizing a wide spectrum of plaque imaging modalities, EPA has shown beneficial effects on plaque characteristics. Studies of patients with coronary artery disease receiving statin therapy suggest that EPA may decrease plaque vulnerability and prevent plaque progression. EPA also decreased pentraxin-3 and macrophage accumulation. A large, randomized, Japanese study reported that EPA plus a statin resulted in a 19% relative reduction in major coronary events at 5years versus a statin alone in patients with hypercholesterolemia (P=0.011). Icosapent ethyl, a high-purity prescription form of EPA ethyl ester, has been shown to reduce triglyceride levels and markers of atherosclerotic inflammation. Results of an ongoing CV outcomes study will further define the potential clinical benefits of icosapent ethyl in reducing CV risk in high-risk patients receiving statin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change adaptation benefits of potential conservation partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Theobald, David M

    2018-01-01

    We evaluate the world terrestrial network of protected areas (PAs) for its partnership potential in responding to climate change. That is, if a PA engaged in collaborative, trans-boundary management of species, by investing in conservation partnerships with neighboring areas, what climate change adaptation benefits might accrue? We consider core tenets of conservation biology related to protecting large areas with high environmental heterogeneity and low climate change velocity and ask how a series of biodiversity adaptation indicators change across spatial scales encompassing potential PA and non-PA partners. Less than 1% of current world terrestrial PAs equal or exceed the size of established and successful conservation partnerships. Partnering at this scale would increase the biodiversity adaptation indicators by factors up to two orders of magnitude, compared to a null model in which each PA is isolated. Most partnership area surrounding PAs is comprised of non-PAs (70%), indicating the importance of looking beyond the current network of PAs when promoting climate change adaptation. Given monumental challenges with PA-based species conservation in the face of climate change, partnerships provide a logical and achievable strategy for helping areas adapt. Our findings identify where strategic partnering efforts in highly vulnerable areas of the world may prove critical in safeguarding biodiversity.

  17. Retrospective Analysis of the Survival Benefit of Induction Chemotherapy in Stage IVa-b Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Lan

    Full Text Available The value of adding induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC remains controversial, yet high-risk patients with LA-NPC have poor outcomes after chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to assess the survival benefits of induction chemotherapy in stage IVa-b NPC.A total of 602 patients with stage IVa-b NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival (OS, locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS and progression-free survival (PFS were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis.In univariate analysis, 5-year OS was 83.2% for induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy and 74.8% for concurrent chemotherapy alone, corresponding to an absolute risk reduction of 8.4% (P = 0.022. Compared to concurrent chemotherapy alone, addition of induction chemotherapy improved 5-year DMFS (83.2% vs. 74.4%, P = 0.018 but not 5-year LRFS (83.7% vs. 83.0%, P = 0.848 or PFS (71.9% vs. 66.0%, P = 0.12. Age, T category, N category, chemotherapy strategy and clinical stage were associated with 5-year OS (P = 0.017, P = 0.031, P = 0.007, P = 0.022, P = 0.001, respectively. In multivariate analysis, induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90, P = 0.012 and DMFS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83, P = 0.004. In subgroup analysis, induction chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year DMFS in stage IVa (86.8% vs. 77.3%, P = 0.008, but provided no significant benefit in stage IVb.In patients with stage IVa-b NPC treated with IMRT, addition of induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year OS and 5-year DMFS. This study provides a basis for selection of high risk patients in future clinical therapeutic

  18. Potential for opportunity recognition along the stages of entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Wasdani, Kishinchand; Mathew, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The study primarily verifies whether ORP differs in stages of entrepreneurship and aims at identifying factors that influence ORP in different stages of entrepreneurship. The stages of entrepreneurship include pre-stage (individuals planning to start ventures), early-stage (entrepreneurs with ventures less than 3 years old) and late-stage (entrepreneurs with ventures more than 3 years in existence). The factors that were studied include personal factors (cognitive style, self-efficacy and mot...

  19. The Service Learning Projects: Stakeholder Benefits and Potential Class Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutti, Raina M.; LaBonte, Joanne; Helms, Marilyn Michelle; Hervani, Aref Agahei; Sarkarat, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the benefits of including a service learning project in college classes and focusses on benefits to all stakeholders, including students, community, and faculty. Design/methodology/approach: Using a snowball approach in academic databases as well as a nominal group technique to poll faculty, key…

  20. Do heavy metals counter the potential health benefits of wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility that wine, consumed in modest amounts, can have health benefits has been highlighted frequently in the public and scientific press and was recently briefly reviewed in the South African medical literature.1 Much of the benefit is attributed to the antioxidant activity of wine. In contrast, concern was recently ...

  1. Potential Benefits to the Philippines of a Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuncion-Astronomo, A.; Romallosa, K.M.D.; Olivares, R.U.

    2015-01-01

    During the late 1950’s, the Philippines was one of the many countries which began the pursuit of the beneficial applications of atomic energy. With the commissioning of the first Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) which attained its first criticality in 1963, our country had the capability for radioisotope production, activation analysis of materials, irradiation studies and various opportunities for basic and applied nuclear science research. The Nuclear Power Plant (PNNP-1) in training plant operators and regulators for the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan, which was eventually mothballed in 1986. It is thus unfortunate that the only operating nuclear facility in the country, the PRR-1 encountered technical problems during an upgrade and was shut down in 1988. The problem was not resolved and eventually led to the decommissioning of the PRR-1 in 2005. Without an operating nuclear facility available in the country, the number of personnel knowledgeable and skilled in reactor and nuclear science and engineering has greatly declined and lagged behind our counterparts. This has been the situation for more than two decaded and can only be addressed if the country decides to put up a new nuclear facility. It is acknowledged that putting up a nuclear facility is a major undertaking which requires careful planning, preparation and investment. Thus, a decision by any country to embark on this poster, we will provide an overview of the many potential benefits as well as challenges of establishing a new research reactor and/or accelerator facility in the country. The global distribution, comparisons, capabilities and the different application of these facilities will presented as well.(author)

  2. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  3. An overview of current practice in external beam radiation oncology with consideration to potential benefits and challenges for nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Raymond B; McMahon, Stephen J; Hyland, Wendy B; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T; Prise, Kevin M; Hounsell, Alan R; McGarry, Conor K

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient's radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up. At each pathway stage, consideration is given towards how nanotechnology may be combined with clinical developments to further enhance their benefit, with some potential opportunities for future research also highlighted. Prospective challenges that may influence the introduction of nanotechnology into clinical radiotherapy are also discussed, indicating the need for close collaboration between academic and clinical staff to realise the full clinical benefit of this exciting technology.

  4. Benefits and potential probiotic food vehicles in Nigeria- A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common probiotic organisms include bacteria of and species and some yeast ( i) delivered mostly through fermented dairy products such as yoghurt, cheeses and ice cream. Soy products, beverages and fruit juices have also been employed as probiotic vehicles. Some of the health benefits of probiotics include the ...

  5. [New techniques and potential benefits for radiotherapy of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L; Doré, M; Giraud, P

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is used for inoperable lung cancers, sometimes in association with chemotherapy. Outcomes of conventional radiotherapy are disappointing. New techniques improve adaptation to tumour volume, decrease normal tissue irradiation and lead to increasing tumour dose with the opportunity for improved survival. With intensity-modulated radiation therapy, isodoses can conform to complex volumes. It is widely used and seems to be indicated in locally advanced stages. Its dosimetric improvements have been demonstrated but outcomes are still heterogeneous. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows treatment of small volumes with many narrow beams. Dedicated devices or appropriate equipment on classical devices are needed. In early stages, its efficacy is comparable to surgery with an acceptable toxicity. Endobronchial brachytherapy could be used for early stages with specific criteria. Hadrontherapy is still experimental regarding lung cancer. Hadrons have physical properties leading to very accurate dose distribution. In the rare published studies, toxicities are roughly lower than others techniques but for early stages its effectiveness is not better than stereotactic radiotherapy. These techniques are optimized by metabolic imaging which precisely defines the target volume and assesses the therapeutic response; image-guided radiation therapy which allows a more accurate patient set up and by respiratory tracking or gating which takes account of tumour respiratory motions. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Internationalization of Higher Education: Potential Benefits and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibeen, Tahira; Khan, Masha Asad

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education is the top stage of international relations among universities and it is no longer regarded as a goal in itself, but as a means to improve the quality of education. The knowledge translation and acquisition, mobilization of talent in support of global research and enchantment of the curriculum with…

  7. The potential health benefits of seaweed and seaweed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Edible seaweeds have historically been consumed by coastal populations across the globe. Today, seaweed is still part of the habitual diet in many Asian countries. Seaweed consumption also appears to be growing in popularity in Western cultures, due both to the influx of Asian cuisine as well as notional health benefits associated with consumption. Isolates of seaweeds (particularly viscous polysaccharides) are used in an increasing number of food applications in order to improve product acce...

  8. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  9. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Are there Potential Economic Benefits from China-Nigeria Trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the potential economic gains and losses from trade agreements between China and Nigeria. A gravity model was implemented using panel data analysis to discern the drivers of trade and simulate the effects of trade agreements between the two countries. Empirical results showed that economic size ...

  11. Evaluation of cochlear implant benefit with auditory cortical evoked potentials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2002-01-01

    Endogenous P300 and exogenous slow vertex potentials were obtained with tone and speech stimuli in a group of five children using a cochlear implant (CI) with poor speech recognition (group A) and compared with those from another group of five children using a CI with good speech recognition (group

  12. Potential benefits of genetic modification (GM) technology for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and 23 in-depth interviews at ...

  13. Infection prevention workforce: Potential benefits to educational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather M

    2017-06-01

    Nurses have historically occupied the infection preventionist (IP) role. As the knowledge and skills needed to advance the field expand, professionals from public health and the laboratory sciences have become IPs. Our study describes the characteristics of current IPs and assesses for relationships between background, certification, experience, and type of work performed. The data were drawn from an existing dataset collected in the conduct of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed. Associations were calculated using χ 2 or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Characteristics of IPs were stratified by work-related activities to allow for comparisons between groups. Of the 13,050 active APIC members, 4,079 participated in the survey (31% response rate). The primary job activity for nurses (97.9%; n = 2,434) was preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious agents or health care-associated infections, for laboratory scientists (97.5%; n = 307) it was the interpretation of surveillance data, and for public health professionals (96.1%; n = 136) it was management and communication: feedback. Infection control departments would benefit from hiring IPs with diverse education and training to address the expanding roles and responsibilities of IPs. This may facilitate the implementation of novel and innovative processes that will impact patient care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Environmental Benefits of Ultralight Particleboards with Biobased Foam Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Ganne-Chédeville

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of ultralight particleboards (ULPB with an expanded foam core layer produced in an in-line foaming step is under development. The environmental impacts of three types of ULPB containing foam based on 100% polylactic acid (PLA, 100% expanded polystyrene, and 50% PLA/50% polymethyl methacrylate, as well as a conventional particleboard (PB, have been compared in an LCA. Two approaches were chosen for the assessment: first, the “EPD-approach” in accordance with EN 15804 for EPD of building materials and second, a holistic-approach which allows an expansion of the system boundaries in order to forecast the consequences of a broader replacement of PB with ULPB. The results show that most of the environmental impacts are related to raw materials and end-of-life stages. Both approaches show that the exchange of PB with ULPB with a foam core based on PLA leads to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the PLA is responsible for higher ecotoxicity results in comparison to non-bio-based polymers mainly due to agricultural processes. Both approaches allowed the drafting of complementary advisories for environmental impact reduction addressed to the developers.

  16. Stages of change, barriers, benefits, and preferences for exercise in RA patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Y; Zufferey, P; So, A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of exercise stages of change in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort, and to examine patients' perceptions of exercise benefits, barriers, and their preferences for exercise. One hundred and twenty RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Unit of a University Hospital were asked to participate in the study. Those who agreed were administered a questionnaire to determine their exercise stage of change, their perceived benefits and barriers to exercise, and their preferences for various features of exercise. Eighty-nine (74%) patients were finally included in the analyses. Their mean age was 58.4 years, mean RA duration 10.1 years, and mean disease activity score 2.8. The distribution of exercise stages of change was as follows: precontemplation (n = 30, 34%), contemplation (n = 11, 13%), preparation (n = 5, 6%), action (n = 2, 2%), and maintenance (n = 39, 45%). Compared to patients in the maintenance stage of change, precontemplators exhibited different demographic and functional characteristics and reported less exercise benefits and more barriers to exercise. Most participants preferred exercising alone (40%), at home (29%), at a moderate intensity (64%), with advice provided by a rheumatologist (34%) or a specialist in exercise and RA (34%). Walking was by far the preferred type of exercise, in both the summer (86%) and the winter (51%). Our cohort of patients with RA was essentially distributed across the precontemplation and maintenance exercise stages of change. These subgroups of patients exhibit psychological and functional differences that make their needs different in terms of exercise counselling.

  17. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  18. Respiratory gated radiotherapy: current techniques and potential benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Campana, F.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Reboul, F.; Garcia, R.; Clippe, S.; Carrie, C.; Dubray, B.

    2003-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart...) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily breath-hold. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. These techniques presently investigated in several medical centers worldwide. Although promising, the first results obtained in lung and liver cancer patients require confirmation. Physical, technical and physiological questions still remain to be answered. This paper describes the most frequently used gated techniques and the main published clinical reports on the use of respiration-gated radiotherapy in order to evaluate the impact of these techniques. (author)

  19. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gorzynik-Debicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate, as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  20. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynik-Debicka, Monika; Przychodzen, Paulina; Cappello, Francesco; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Knap, Narcyz; Wozniak, Michal; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  1. Ultrasound and ski resort clinics: mapping out the potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C Scott; Harris, N Stuart

    2012-09-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are popular activities that involve high kinetic energies, often at altitude, and injuries are common. As a portable imaging modality, ultrasound may be a useful adjunct for mountainside clinics. This review briefly discusses skier and snowboarder injury profiles and focuses on the role of ultrasound for each injury type. Twenty-two sources including 17 reviews and observational studies were obtained describing skier and snowboarder injuries. Forty-nine studies were identified defining ultrasound applications for these injuries, including 38 reviews and observational studies, 6 case reports or case series, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 2 randomized, blinded studies. Approximately 200 000 rider injuries are evaluated in the Unites States seasonally. Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common, and head, face, neck, and abdominal injuries are also prevalent, as are exacerbations of preexisting disease. Ultrasound has been shown to be useful and accurate for evaluating the aforementioned injury types, including joint, ligament, tendon, and fracture evaluation. Ultrasound has not been extensively studied in the prehospital setting, and only limited data address the utility of how it might influence management in a mountainside clinic setting. Ultrasound has the potential to be a useful diagnostic modality in ski resort clinics. The most promising areas for future, applied studies include evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries (especially injuries to joints and tendons and ruling out fractures), assessing for elevated intracranial pressure in minor head injuries and symptoms of altitude illness, and focused assessment with sonography for trauma and extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma examinations for cases of chest and abdominal trauma of unknown significance. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Marketing potential evaluation at the analytical stage of marketing audit of an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Fayzulaueva, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the article the sequence of analytical stage of marketing audit by means of marketing potential evaluation is considered, the qualitative characteristics and indicators of marketing potential evaluation are determined.

  3. Potential Benefit of Singing for People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, Jean; Atkinson, Rachel A; Barran, Susannah M; Barnish, Maxwell S

    2016-06-03

    There is evidence that participation in performing arts brings psychosocial benefits in the general population and in recent years there has been substantial interest in the potential therapeutic benefit of performing arts, including singing, for people with chronic medical conditions including those of neurological aetiology. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the potential benefit of singing on clinical outcomes of people with PD. Seven online bibliographic databases were systematically searched in January 2016 and supplementary searches were conducted. Full-text original peer-reviewed scientific papers that investigated the potential benefit of singing on at least one of speech, functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life in human participants with PD were eligible for inclusion. 449 unique records were identified, 25 full-text articles were screened and seven studies included in the review. All seven studies assessed the impact of singing on speech, five found partial evidence of benefit and two found no evidence of benefit. One study assessed each of functional communication and quality of life and no significant benefit was found. No included study assessed the impact of singing on motor function or cognitive status. Singing may benefit the speech of people with PD, although evidence is not unequivocal. Further research is required to assess wider benefits including on functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life. Substantial methodological limitations were identified in the existing literature. Recommendations are made for advancing the state of the literature.

  4. Climate change impacts and potential benefits of heat-tolerant maize in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Kindie; Zaidi, P. H.; Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Boeber, Christian; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Getaneh, Fite; Seetharam, K.; Erenstein, Olaf; Stirling, Clare

    2017-11-01

    Maize is grown by millions of smallholder farmers in South Asia (SA) under diverse environments. The crop is grown in different seasons in a year with varying exposure to weather extremes, including high temperatures at critical growth stages which are expected to increase with climate change. This study assesses the impact of current and future heat stress on maize and the benefit of heat-tolerant varieties in SA. Annual mean maximum temperatures may increase by 1.4-1.8 °C in 2030 and 2.1-2.6 °C in 2050, with large monthly, seasonal, and spatial variations across SA. The extent of heat stressed areas in SA could increase by up to 12 % in 2030 and 21 % in 2050 relative to the baseline. The impact of heat stress and the benefit from heat-tolerant varieties vary with the level of temperature increase and planting season. At a regional scale, climate change would reduce rainfed maize yield by an average of 3.3-6.4 % in 2030 and 5.2-12.2 % in 2050 and irrigated yield by 3-8 % in 2030 and 5-14 % in 2050 if current varieties were grown under the future climate. Under projected climate, heat-tolerant varieties could minimize yield loss (relative to current maize varieties) by up to 36 and 93 % in 2030 and 33 and 86 % in 2050 under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Heat-tolerant maize varieties, therefore, have the potential to shield maize farmers from severe yield loss due to heat stress and help them adapt to climate change impacts.

  5. Navy Ship Maintenance: Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategys Potential Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    NAVY SHIP MAINTENANCE Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategy’s Potential Benefits Report to...Compared to MSMO 12 Additional Action Needed to Address Potential Challenges to Implementation of the MAC-MO Contract Strategy 19 MAC-MO Strategy Will...evaluate whether implementation of the new strategy is progressing as planned. Additional Action Needed to Address Potential Challenges to

  6. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  7. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036. Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis. No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  8. Plasma neuronal specific enolase: a potential stage diagnostic marker in human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Jeremy M; Mitchell, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the potential of neuronal specific enolase (NSE) as a stage diagnostic marker in human African trypanosomiasis. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained from a cohort of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense-infected patients and non-infected controls. Neuronal specific enolase concentrations were measured by ELISA and analysed in relation to diagnosis and disease-stage data. Plasma NSE concentration was significantly increased in late-stage patients (median 21 ng/ml), compared to the control (median 11 ng/ml), but not in early-stage patients (median 5.3 ng/ml). Cerebrospinal fluid NSE concentration did not vary between stages. Plasma NSE is a potential stage diagnostic in this cohort and merits further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  10. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  11. Dogs in the Workplace: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Anne M; Glenn, Margaret K; Meade, B Jean; Wirth, Oliver

    2017-05-08

    Pet dogs, therapy dogs, and service dogs can be seen in workplaces with increasing frequency. Although dogs may provide many benefits to employees and employers, their presence may introduce additional hazards and concerns to the work environment. Therefore, decisions to accept dogs in the workplace may include many considerations including the health, safety, and well-being of employees, legal and cultural sensitivities, and animal welfare. The present paper serves to introduce the issue of dogs in the workplace and outline the potential benefits and challenges to their presence. The legal accommodations afforded to certain types of dogs in workplace settings are discussed, and the research findings pertaining to the potential benefits of dogs on human health and well-being are summarized. The paper concludes with considerations for human resource management personnel in the areas of diversity, employee relations, ethics and corporate responsibility, organizational and employee development, safety and security, and legal considerations, as well as suggested topics for future research.

  12. A perspective on electric vehicles: cost-benefit analysis and potential demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes some quantitative elements to assess the large scale diffusion of electric vehicles and analyse the potential demand for such vehicles. The first part proposes a cost-benefit analysis of the development of electric vehicles based on estimated costs and expected benefits by 2020. It addresses the following issues: framework and hypothesis, total cost of ownership, costs related to the deployment of a network of recharging infrastructures, assessment of external costs, and comparative cost-benefit analysis of electric vehicles. In the second part, the authors aim at identifying a potential demand for electric vehicles from the 2008 French national transport displacement survey (ENTD 2008) which provides recent data on the mobility of the French population

  13. Potential stakeholders and perceived benefits of a Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem for the Namibian context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Iyawa, GE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of a study which aimed at identifying the potential stakeholders and perceived benefits of a digital health innovation ecosystem for the Namibian context as part of a larger study. Combining semi-structured interviews...

  14. Doggone Good? Potential Benefits of Assistance Animals for Students on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polking, Amanda K.; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H. D.; Stout, Tracy L.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of and request for assistance, service, and support animals has skyrocketed on college campuses in recent years. The purpose of this literature review is to explore potential benefits in the utilization of assistance animals within higher education, especially as it concerns disability service offices. It begins with an overview of…

  15. Hamster oocyte membrane potential and ion permeability vary with preantral cumulus cell attachment and developmental stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Raymond L

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro maturation of mammalian oocytes is an area of great interest due to its potential application in the treatment of infertility. The morphological and physiological changes that occur during oocyte development are poorly understood, and further studies are needed investigating the physiological changes associated with oocyte maturation. In this study we evaluated the membrane potential and the sodium/potassium permeability ratio of oocytes acutely isolated, and cumulus-oocyte complexes in metaphase II and preantral follicle stages. Results Intracellular electrical recordings revealed that cumulus-enclosed oocytes have a membrane potential significantly more negative at the preantral follicle stage than at metaphase II stage (-38.4 versus -19.7 mV, p Conclusions These data show a change in the membrane potential and Na+/K+ permeability ratio during ooycte development from the preantral stage oocyte to the metaphase II stage. We have also demonstrated a change in the preantral oocyte membrane potential when surrounding cumulus cells are removed; either due to membrane changes or loss of cumulus cells.

  16. Clinical outcomes and benefits for staging of surgical lymph node mapping after esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, S M; Phillips, A W; Navidi, M; Disep, B; Griffin, S M

    2017-12-01

    Dissection of lymph nodes (LN) immediately after esophagectomy is utilized by some surgeons to aid determination of LN stations involved in esophageal cancer. Some suggest that this increases LN yield and gives information regarding the pattern of lymphatic spread, others feel that this may compromise a circumferential resection margin (CRM) assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ex vivo dissection on the assessment of the CRM and the pattern of lymph node dissemination in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) undergoing radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their prognostic impact. Data from consecutive patients with potentially curable adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and GEJ who received neoadjuvant treatment followed by surgery were analyzed. Clinical and pathological findings were reviewed and LN burden and location correlated with clinical outcome. Pathology specimens were dissected into individual LN groups 'ex-vivo' by the surgeon. A total of 301 patients were included: 295 had a radical proximal and distal resection margin however in 62(20.6%) CRM could not be assessed. A median of 33(10-77) nodes were recovered. A 117(38.9%) patients were ypN0 while 184(61.1%) were LN positive (ypN1-N3). LN stations close to the tumor were most frequently involved. Twenty-seven (14.7%) patients had only thoracic stations involved, 48(26.1%) only abdominal stations and 109 (59.2%) had both. Median survival for yN0 patients was 171 months compared to 24 months for those LN positive (PCRM assessment in up to 20% of cases. It also provides valuable information regarding the pattern of nodal spread. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Quantitative Profiling Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Development from Dauer Stage to L4 Stage in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunhee; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Don-Ha; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-02-05

    When Caenorhabditis elegans encounters unfavorable growth conditions, it enters the dauer stage, an alternative L3 developmental period. A dauer larva resumes larval development to the normal L4 stage by uncharacterized postdauer reprogramming (PDR) when growth conditions become more favorable. During this transition period, certain heterochronic genes involved in controlling the proper sequence of developmental events are known to act, with their mutations suppressing the Muv (multivulva) phenotype in C. elegans. To identify the specific proteins in which the Muv phenotype is highly suppressed, quantitative proteomic analysis with iTRAQ labeling of samples obtained from worms at L1 + 30 h (for continuous development [CD]) and dauer recovery +3 h (for postdauer development [PD]) was carried out to detect changes in protein abundance in the CD and PD states of both N2 and lin-28(n719). Of the 1661 unique proteins identified with a proteomic approach identifies and quantitates the regulatory proteins potentially involved in PDR in C. elegans, which safeguards the overall lifecycle in response to environmental changes.

  18. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J; Griffiths, Paul D; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D

    2014-09-01

    Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760655

  20. Potential of lichen secondary metabolites against Plasmodium liver stage parasites with FAS-II as the potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Ina L; Vivas, Livia; Perozzo, Remo; Stairiker, Christopher; Tarun, Alice; Zloh, Mire; Zhang, Xujie; Xu, Hua; Tonge, Peter J; Franzblau, Scott G; Pham, Duc-Hung; Esguerra, Camila V; Crawford, Alexander D; Maes, Louis; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-28

    Chemicals targeting the liver stage (LS) of the malaria parasite are useful for causal prophylaxis of malaria. In this study, four lichen metabolites, evernic acid (1), vulpic acid (2), psoromic acid (3), and (+)-usnic acid (4), were evaluated against LS parasites of Plasmodium berghei. Inhibition of P. falciparum blood stage (BS) parasites was also assessed to determine stage specificity. Compound 4 displayed the highest LS activity and stage specificity (LS IC50 value 2.3 μM, BS IC50 value 47.3 μM). The compounds 1-3 inhibited one or more enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG, and PfFabZ) from the plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a potential drug target for LS activity. To determine species specificity and to clarify the mechanism of reported antibacterial effects, 1-4 were also evaluated against FabI homologues and whole cells of various pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli, M. tuberculosis). Molecular modeling studies suggest that lichen acids act indirectly via binding to allosteric sites on the protein surface of the FAS-II enzymes. Potential toxicity of compounds was assessed in human hepatocyte and cancer cells (in vitro) as well as in a zebrafish model (in vivo). This study indicates the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of lichen metabolites as antibacterial and antiplasmodial agents.

  1. Potential Health Benefits of Combining Yogurt and Fruits Based on Their Probiotic and Prebiotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Marette, André

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt's unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Potential Health Benefits of Combining Yogurt and Fruits Based on Their Probiotic and Prebiotic Properties123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt’s unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. PMID:28096139

  3. Benefit cost scenarios of potential oral rabies vaccination for skunks in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwiff, Stephanie A; Sterner, Ray T; Hale, Robert; Jay, Michele T; Sun, Ben; Slate, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Scenario-based analyses were computed for benefits and costs linked with hypothetical oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns to contain or eliminate skunk-variant rabies in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in California, USA. Scenario 1 assumed baiting eight zones (43,388 km(2) total) that comprised 73% of known skunk rabies locations in the state. Scenario 2 also assumed baiting these eight zones, but further assumed that added benefits would result from preventing the spread of skunk-variant rabies into Los Angeles County, USA. Scenarios assumed a fixed bait cost ($1.24 each) but varied campaigns (one, two and three annual ORV applications), densities of baits (37.5/km(2), 75/km(2) and 150/km(2)), levels of prevention (50%, 75%, and 100%), and contingency expenditures if rabies recurred (20%, 40%, and 60% of campaign costs). Prorating potential annual benefits during a 12-yr time horizon yielded benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) between 0.16 and 2.91 and between 0.34 and 6.35 for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Economic issues relevant to potentially managing skunk-variant rabies with ORV are discussed.

  4. Potential benefits of using ecological momentary assessment to study high-risk polydrug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Felsher, Marisa; Reed, Megan; Goldshear, Jesse L; Truong, Quan; Garfein, Richard S; Simmons, Janie

    2017-01-01

    While studies have documented both the feasibility and acceptability of using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study drug use, there is little empirical research assessing participants' perceptions of utilizing this technology-driven approach. Participants were English-speaking persons ≥18 years old who reported injection drug use and sequential (e.g., alcohol followed by opioid use) or simultaneous (i.e., injecting heroin and cocaine in one shot) polydrug use within 30 days recruited in San Diego, CA and Philadelphia, PA. Participants (N=36) completed two cell phone-based EMA simulations assessing mood, drug use, HIV risk behaviors, and daily activities, followed by semi-structured interviews that probed for potential benefits of participation over time. Qualitative analysis involved an iterative process of reviewing texts from the interviews to create a coding framework, which was then applied to all transcripts to identify themes. Findings suggest participants may derive indirect benefits from participation in EMA studies including: improved self-worth from helping others; experiencing increased social support through utilization of the study-provided mobile device for non-research purposes; and most importantly, increased self-reflection, which could lead to therapeutic and intervention-like effects such as decreased substance use or reduced HIV risk. Participants identified a variety of potential benefits from participating in a study that utilizes EMA. This research suggests that benefits are highly salient for individuals involved in studies of polydrug use.

  5. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  6. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L.) Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane

    2016-01-01

    Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals...

  7. Potential Benefits and Hazards of Humoral Immune Reactions against HTLV-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-10

    Security Clasification )I * -. : -’- Potential Benefits and Hazards of Humoral Immune Reactions Against HTLV-III 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hans Wigzell, Magnus...and recombinant techniques have been applied to obtain viral envelope protein and cellular receptor protein in adequate quantities. Sera from HIV...defined subpopulations as targets for HIV in the presence or absence of anti-HIV antibodies. Fragmentation of viral envelope proteins have been

  8. Mandatory Reporting of Human Trafficking: Potential Benefits and Risks of Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care. States' experience in implementing child abuse laws can be useful in assessing the potential risks and benefits of mandatory reporting of human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  10. Identification and Construction of Combinatory Cancer Hallmark-Based Gene Signature Sets to Predict Recurrence and Chemotherapy Benefit in Stage II Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanwu; Tibiche, Chabane; Zou, Jinfeng; Zaman, Naif; Trifiro, Mark; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen; Wang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have been among the most challenging and controversial in oncology over the past 20 years. To develop robust combinatory cancer hallmark-based gene signature sets (CSS sets) that more accurately predict prognosis and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thirteen retrospective studies of patients with stage II CRC who had clinical follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Respective totals of 162 and 843 patients from 2 and 11 independent cohorts were used as the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. A total of 1005 patients with stage II CRC were included in the 13 cohorts. Among them, 84 of 416 patients in 3 independent cohorts received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Identification of CSS sets to predict relapse-free survival and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain substantial survival benefits from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Eight cancer hallmark-based gene signatures (30 genes each) were identified and used to construct CSS sets for determining prognosis. The CSS sets were validated in 11 independent cohorts of 767 patients with stage II CRC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The CSS sets accurately stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 94%, 78%, and 45%, respectively, representing 60%, 28%, and 12% of patients with stage II disease. The 416 patients with CSS set-defined high-risk stage II CRC who received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy showed a substantial gain in survival benefits from the treatment (ie, recurrence reduced by 30%-40% in 5 years). The CSS sets substantially outperformed other prognostic predictors of stage 2 CRC. They are more accurate and robust for prognostic predictions and facilitate the identification of patients with stage

  11. Dogs in the Workplace: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Anne M.; Glenn, Margaret K.; Meade, B. Jean; Wirth, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Pet dogs, therapy dogs, and service dogs can be seen in workplaces with increasing frequency. Although dogs may provide many benefits to employees and employers, their presence may introduce additional hazards and concerns to the work environment. Therefore, decisions to accept dogs in the workplace may include many considerations including the health, safety, and well-being of employees, legal and cultural sensitivities, and animal welfare. The present paper serves to introduce the issue of dogs in the workplace and outline the potential benefits and challenges to their presence. The legal accommodations afforded to certain types of dogs in workplace settings are discussed, and the research findings pertaining to the potential benefits of dogs on human health and well-being are summarized. The paper concludes with considerations for human resource management personnel in the areas of diversity, employee relations, ethics and corporate responsibility, organizational and employee development, safety and security, and legal considerations, as well as suggested topics for future research. PMID:28481317

  12. Special Issue: The Potential Role for Community Monitoring in MRV and in Benefit Sharing in REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early design of activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the need to engage local communities and indigenous groups in monitoring and reporting has been recognized. REDD+ has advanced under the UNFCCC negotiations, but most countries still need to define formally what the role of communities in their national monitoring systems will be. Previous research and experiences have shown that local communities can effectively contribute in the monitoring of natural resources. This editorial introduces a Special Issue of Forests which discusses the implications of and potential for including community based monitoring (CBM in monitoring and benefit-sharing systems in REDD+. It outlines the main points of the nine contributions to the Special Issue which cover a wide geographical area and report on projects and research which engages more than 150 communities from eight different countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The editorial summarizes how the articles and reports build further understanding of the potential of CBM to contribute to the implementation, monitoring and distribution of benefits in REDD+. It also discusses the results of an on-going opinion survey on issues related to CBM and its relation to benefit sharing, which indicates that there is still disagreement on a number of key elements.

  13. Dogs in the Workplace: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Foreman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pet dogs, therapy dogs, and service dogs can be seen in workplaces with increasing frequency. Although dogs may provide many benefits to employees and employers, their presence may introduce additional hazards and concerns to the work environment. Therefore, decisions to accept dogs in the workplace may include many considerations including the health, safety, and well-being of employees, legal and cultural sensitivities, and animal welfare. The present paper serves to introduce the issue of dogs in the workplace and outline the potential benefits and challenges to their presence. The legal accommodations afforded to certain types of dogs in workplace settings are discussed, and the research findings pertaining to the potential benefits of dogs on human health and well-being are summarized. The paper concludes with considerations for human resource management personnel in the areas of diversity, employee relations, ethics and corporate responsibility, organizational and employee development, safety and security, and legal considerations, as well as suggested topics for future research.

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Androgenic Alopecia: Indications, Technique, and Potential Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneini, Elie M; Beauvais, Daniel; Castiglione, Concetta; Ferneini, Moniek V

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injected into the scalp for the management of androgenic alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the benefits of PRP in androgenic alopecia. Hair restoration has been increasing. PRP's main components of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor have the potential to stimulate hard and soft tissue wound healing. In general, PRP showed a benefit on patients with androgenic alopecia, including increased hair density and quality. Currently, different PRP preparations are being used with no standard technique. This review found beneficial effects of PRP on androgenic alopecia. However, more rigorous study designs, including larger samples, quantitative measurements of effect, and longer follow-up periods, are needed to solidify the utility of PRP for treating patients with androgenic alopecia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Looking on the bright side in social anxiety: the potential benefit of promoting positive mental imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud ePictet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder.

  16. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L.) Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane

    2016-01-01

    Zizyphus lotus , belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts.

  17. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L. Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts.

  18. EXPLOSION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK AT THE PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSIN PASHA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (STHE is being extensively observed in the chemical process industries. This failure can cause enormous production loss and have a potential of dangerous consequences such as an explosion, fire and toxic release scenarios. There is an urgent need for assessing the explosion potential of shell and tube heat exchanger at the preliminary design stage. In current work, inherent safety index based approach is used to resolve the highlighted issue. Inherent Safety Index for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (ISISTHE is a newly developed index for assessing the inherent safety level of a STHE at the preliminary design stage. This index is composed of preliminary design variables and integrated with the process design simulator (Aspen HYSYS. Process information can easily be transferred from process design simulator to MS Excel spreadsheet owing to this integration. This index could potentially facilitate the design engineer to analyse the worst heat exchanger in the heat exchanger network. Typical heat exchanger network of the steam reforming process is presented as a case study and the worst heat exchanger of this network has been identified. It is inferred from this analysis that shell and tube heat exchangers possess high operating pressure, corrected mean temperature difference (CMTD and flammability and reactive potential needs to be critically analysed at the preliminary design stage.

  19. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053). In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH could make full use of synergy effects inherent

  20. Public health and the potential benefits of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozens, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Studies have consistently found that safety and security are major public concerns; however, crime is rarely considered as an outcome in public health. The recent shift by planning policy towards promoting compact, 'walkable' communities close to public transport aims to redress many of the problems associated with urban sprawl. However, communities that do not feel safe are less likely to be active citizens. This paper argues that Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has potential benefits for public health in the provision of local crime risk assessments and in delivering safer environments, which can support active living, walkable communities and public health.

  1. The Analysis of the Potential Environmental Benefits by Investigating the Hedonistic Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Gradinaru

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers get some usefulness from the attributes of heterogeneous products and they adjust their acquisitions as a response to the existing differences. Producers or vendors confront with varying prices depending on the scale of attributes provided. A plan for balancing the prices is developed as a consequence of the market interaction between the consumers and suppliers (by analogy it happens in the case of the interaction between employees and employers on the labour market. Taking into consideration the late concepts regarding hedonistic price, the article presents a way of analysis of potential benefits that environment may offer to human communities by hedonistic price investigation, using regression as instrument.

  2. Cannabinoids from Cannabis sp.: mechanism of their activity and potential health benefits in human body

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Grzegorz; Skrajda, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Dąbrowski Grzegorz, Skrajda Marta, Cannabinoids from Cannabis sp.: mechanism of their activity and potential health benefits in human body. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):936-945. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.995625 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4876 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Jo...

  3. Families' perceived benefits of home visits for managing paediatric obesity outweigh the potential costs and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Nicole D; Ball, Geoff D C; Perez, Arnaldo; Holt, Nicholas L; Neuman, Daniel; Spence, Nicholas; Mercier, Laura; Jetha, Mary

    2018-02-01

    Home visits have successfully been used to deliver various health services, but what role could they play in paediatric weight management? Low treatment initiation and high attrition prompted our multidisciplinary paediatric weight management clinic to investigate how families perceived the benefits and barriers of home visits. We focused on children with obesity aged 2-17 who were enrolled in our tertiary-level clinic in Alberta, Canada. None had received a home visit. The families were interviewed face-to-face from October 2015 to October 2016, and we used a qualitative description methodological framework and manifest content analysis. The parents were the main interviewees. Of the 56 families, 89% were interested in a home visit, 82% wanted support from a dietician and 54% from an exercise specialist. The perceived benefits of home visits included comprehensive assessment (95%), convenience (86%), tailored care (29%) and family involvement (13%), while the costs and barriers included clinicians' potential judgmental attitudes (30%), loss of privacy (19%) and distractions (10%). Some thought clinicians would find home visits inconvenient (25%), with bureaucratic challenges (14%) and sustainability issues (5%). Families felt home visits were a convenient option for managing paediatric obesity and identified important benefits and barriers that could guide such interventions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  5. Potential Cardiovascular and Total Mortality Benefits of Air Pollution Control in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Moran, Andrew E; Coxson, Pamela G; Yang, Xueli; Liu, Fangchao; Cao, Jie; Chen, Kai; Wang, Miao; He, Jiang; Goldman, Lee; Zhao, Dong; Kinney, Patrick L; Gu, Dongfeng

    2017-10-24

    Outdoor air pollution ranks fourth among preventable causes of China's burden of disease. We hypothesized that the magnitude of health gains from air quality improvement in urban China could compare with achieving recommended blood pressure or smoking control goals. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China projected coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause deaths in urban Chinese adults 35 to 84 years of age from 2017 to 2030 if recent air quality (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm, PM 2.5 ) and traditional cardiovascular risk factor trends continue. We projected life-years gained if urban China were to reach 1 of 3 air quality goals: Beijing Olympic Games level (mean PM 2.5 , 55 μg/m 3 ), China Class II standard (35 μg/m 3 ), or World Health Organization standard (10 μg/m 3 ). We compared projected air pollution reduction control benefits with potential benefits of reaching World Health Organization hypertension and tobacco control goals. Mean PM 2.5 reduction to Beijing Olympic levels by 2030 would gain ≈241,000 (95% uncertainty interval, 189 000-293 000) life-years annually. Achieving either the China Class II or World Health Organization PM 2.5 standard would yield greater health benefits (992 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 790 000-1 180 000] or 1 827 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 1 481 00-2 129 000] annual life-years gained, respectively) than World Health Organization-recommended goals of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% reduction in smoking combined (928 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 830 000-1 033 000] life-years). Air quality improvement in different scenarios could lead to graded health benefits ranging from 241 000 life-years gained to much greater benefits equal to or greater than the combined benefits of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% smoking reduction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Unintended benefits: the potential economic impact of addressing risk factors to prevent Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Yang, Zhou; Fillit, Howard M; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Certain chronic conditions appear to be modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. To understand the potential health and economic impacts of addressing those risk factors, we used data on a Medicare cohort to simulate four scenarios: a 10 percent reduction in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respectively, and a 10 percent reduction in body mass index among beneficiaries who were overweight or obese. Our simulation demonstrated that reducing the prevalence of these conditions may yield "unintended benefits" by lowering the risk, delaying the onset, reducing the duration, and lowering the costs of dementia. More research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between various other chronic diseases and dementia. However, our findings highlight potential health gains and savings opportunities stemming from the better management of other conditions associated with dementia.

  7. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life.

  9. The role of social media in schizophrenia: evaluating risks, benefits, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2016-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from numerous social problems often because of negative symptoms of the illness and impairments in social cognition. Social media and social networks now offer a novel tool to engage and help patients navigate and potentially improve social functioning. In this review, we aim to explore how impaired neural networks in schizophrenia impair social functioning, examine the evidence base for social networks and social media to help in the role, consider the evidence for current risks and benefits of use, and discuss the future of social media and social networks for schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia are increasingly connected to and engaged with social media. There is strong evidence that they own, use, and accept digital tools like smartphones and already use social media services like Facebook at high rates, especially among those who are younger. Less is known about the clinical risks and benefits of social media use in schizophrenia, although there are increasingly more social networking platforms being designed specifically for those with mental illness. Social media tools have the potential to offer a plethora of new services to patients with schizophrenia, although the clinical evidence base for such is still nascent. It is important to ensure that both clinicians and patients are aware of and educated about the risks of using social media. Going forward, it is likely that social media will have an expanding role in care, with social media offering new pathways to address negative symptoms and impairments in social cognition in schizophrenia.

  10. [Moderate potentially drug-induced hyponatremia in older adults: benefit in drug reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyro Saint Paul, Laure; Martin, Jocelyne; Gaillard, Cathy; Mosquet, Brigitte; Coquerel, Antoine; de la Gastine, Blandine

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the benefit of changing drug therapy in elderly patients with moderate, potentially drug-induced hyponatremia. Hospitalized older adults, with moderate hyponatremia, potentially induced by drugs, were randomized into two arms: an interventional group, whose drug therapy was changed, and a reference group, which received standard care. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated by the normalization of serum sodium after four weeks and by the incidence of falls three months later. Nineteen patients were randomized, fourteen evaluated at 4 weeks. Serum sodium was normalized more frequently in the interventional group than in the reference group: 75% (6/8) IC95% [35-97] versus 0% (0/6) IC95% [0-46]; p=0.01. A greater reduction in falls occurred in the therapeutic intervention group 75% (3/4) IC95% [19-99] versus 0% (0/5) IC95% [0-52]; p=0.048. This study showed the biological and clinical benefit of a pharmalogical intervention. Registration number of the study: ID RCB 2010-A00778-31. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH

  12. Climate change mitigation: potential benefits and pitfalls of enhanced rock weathering in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Lim, Felix; James, Rachael H; Pearce, Christopher R; Scholes, Julie; Freckleton, Robert P; Beerling, David J

    2017-04-01

    Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO 2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication. Potential pitfalls include the impacts of mining operations on deforestation, producing the energy to crush and transport silicates and the erosion of silicates into rivers and coral reefs that increases inorganic turbidity, sedimentation and pH, with unknown impacts for biodiversity. We identify nine priority research areas for untapping the potential of EW in the tropics, including effectiveness of tropical agriculture at EW for major crops in relation to particle sizes and soil types, impacts on human health, and effects on farmland, adjacent forest and stream-water biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  14. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  15. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: potential mechanisms for the benefit of capsaicin and hot water hydrotherapy in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Lapoint, Jeff M; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation. Putative mechanisms responsible for the benefit of hot water hydrotherapy are also investigated. An extensive search of PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar from inception to April 2017 was performed to identify known and theoretical thermoregulatory mechanisms associated with the endocannabinoid system. The searches resulted in 2417 articles. These articles were screened for relevant mechanisms behind capsaicin and heat activation having potential antiemetic effects. References from the selected articles were also hand-searched. A total of 137 articles were considered relevant and included. Capsaicin: Topical capsaicin is primarily used for treatment of neuropathic pain, but it has also been used successfully in some 20 cases of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin as a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonist may explain this effect. Topical capsaicin has a longer half-life than oral administration, thus its potential duration of benefit is longer. Capsaicin and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1: Topical capsaicin binds and activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor, triggering influx of calcium and sodium, as well as release of inflammatory neuropeptides leading to transient burning, stinging, and itching. This elicits

  16. Potential intussusception risk versus health benefits from rotavirus vaccination in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi; Parashar, Umesh D; Lopman, Benjamin; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Clark, Andrew D; Sanderson, Colin F B; Tate, Jacqueline E; Matus, Cuahtemoc Ruiz; Andrus, Jon K; Patel, Manish M

    2012-05-01

    With the recent postlicensure identification of an increased risk of intussusception with rotavirus vaccine, the 14 Latin American countries currently using rotavirus vaccine must now weigh the health benefits versus risks to assess whether to continue vaccination. To inform policy considerations, we estimated excess intussusception cases and mortality potentially caused by rotavirus vaccine for each of the 14 countries and compared these estimates to hospitalizations and deaths expected to be averted through vaccination. We used regional rotavirus disease burden and rotavirus vaccine efficacy data, global natural intussusception and regional rotavirus vaccine-related risk estimates, and country-specific diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussus vaccination coverage rates to estimate rotavirus vaccine coverage rates. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty in these parameters. For an aggregate hypothetical birth cohort of 9.5 million infants in these 14 countries, rotavirus vaccine would annually prevent 144 746 (90% confidence interval [CI], 128 821-156 707) hospitalizations and 4124 deaths (90% CI, 3740-4239) due to rotavirus in their first 5 years of life but could cause an additional 172 hospitalizations (90% CI, 126-293) and 10 deaths (90% CI, 6-17) due to intussusception, yielding benefit-risk ratios for hospitalization and death of 841:1 (90% CI, 479:1 to 1142:1) and 395:1 (90% CI, 207:1 to 526:1), respectively. In an uncertainty analysis using 10 000 simulations of our probabilistic parameters, in comparing rotavirus disease averted to intussusception events caused, the hospitalization ratio was never below 100:1, and our death ratio fell below 100:1 only once. The health benefits of vaccination far outweigh the short-term risks and support continued rotavirus vaccination in Latin America.

  17. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  18. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D S; Molineu, H A; Lafratta, R; Ibbott, G S

    2017-01-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H and N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program. (paper)

  19. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.

  20. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of 226 Ra and 90 Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious

  1. Primates’ behavioural responses to tourists: evidence for a trade-off between potential risks and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Maclarnon, Ann; Majolo, Bonaventura; Semple, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study. We found evidence that these animals use a range of different behavioural coping mechanisms-physical avoidance, social support, affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours-to cope with the stress associated with tourists. The pattern of use of such behaviours appears to depend on a trade-off between perceived risks and potential benefits. We propose a framework to describe how animals respond to conflicting motivational situations, such as the presence of tourists, that present simultaneously risks and benefits.

  2. Potential Therapeutic Benefit of Combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen for Treating Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations are known as oncogene driver mutations and with EGFR mutations exhibit good response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib. Some studies have shown that activation of estrogen and estrogen receptor α or β (ERα/β promote adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between the two receptors and the potential therapeutic benefit with Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Methods. We assessed the association between EGFR mutations as well as ERα/β expression/location and overall survival in a cohort of 55 patients with LAC from a single hospital. PC9 (EGFR exon 19 deletion mutant; Gefitinib-vulnerable cells and A549 (EGFR wild type; Gefitinib-resistant cells cancer cells were used to evaluate the in vitro therapeutic benefits of combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Results. We found that the cytosolic but not the nuclear expression of ERβ was associated with better OS in LAC tumors but not associated with EGFR mutation. The in vitro study showed that combined Gefitinib and Tamoxifen resulted in increased apoptosis and cytosolic expression of ERβ. In addition, combining both medications resulted in reduced cell growth and increased the cytotoxic effect of Gefitinib. Conclusion. Tamoxifen enhanced advanced LAC cytotoxic effect induced by Gefitinib by arresting ERβ in cytosol.

  3. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Prasanth N.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men. PMID:22505891

  4. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hui Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine's Role in Sepsis and Potential Benefit in Patients With Microcirculatory Derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason

    2018-02-01

    To review the data surrounding the utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in sepsis and identify areas needed for additional research. A review of articles describing the mechanisms of action and clinical use of NAC in sepsis. Despite many advances in critical care medicine, still as many as 50% of patients with septic shock die. Treatments thus far have focused on resuscitation and restoration of macrocirculatory targets in the early phases of sepsis, with less focus on microcirculatory dysfunction. N-acetylcysteine, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, has been readily investigated in sepsis and has yielded largely incongruous and disappointing results. In addition to its known anti-inflammatory and antioxidative roles, one underappreciated property of NAC is its ability to vasodilate the microcirculation and improve locoregional blood flow. Some investigators have sought to capitalize on this mechanism with promising results, as evidenced by microcirculatory vasodilation, improvements in regional blood flow and oxygen delivery, and reductions in lactic acidosis, organ failure, and mortality. In addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, N-acetylcysteine possesses vasodilatory properties that could benefit the microcirculation in sepsis. It is imperative that we investigate these properties to uncover NAC's full potential for benefit in sepsis.

  6. Assessing the potential benefits of the motorcycle autonomous emergency braking using detailed crash reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Giovannini, Federico; Baldanzini, Niccolò; Pierini, Marco; Rizzi, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and quantitative potential benefits of a motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) system in fatal rear-end crashes. A further aim was to identify possible criticalities of this safety system in the field of powered 2-wheelers (PTWs; e.g., any additional risk introduced by the system itself). Seven relevant cases from the Swedish national in-depth fatal crash database were selected. All crashes involved car-following in which a non-anti-lock braking system (ABS)-equipped motorcycle was the bullet vehicle. Those crashes were reconstructed in a virtual environment with Prescan, simulating the road scenario, the vehicles involved, their precrash trajectories, ABS, and, alternatively, MAEB. The MAEB chosen as reference for the investigation was developed within the European Commission-funded Powered Two-Wheeler Integrated Safety (PISa) project and further detailed in later studies, with the addition of the ABS functionality. The boundary conditions of each simulation varied within a range compatible with the uncertainty of the in-depth data and also included a range of possible rider behaviors including the actual one. The benefits of the MAEB were evaluated by comparing the simulated impact speed in each configuration (no ABS/MAEB, ABS only, MAEB). The MAEB proved to be beneficial in a large number of cases. When applicable, the benefits of the system were in line with the expected values. When not applicable, there was no clear evidence of an increased risk for the rider due to the system. MAEB represents an innovative safety device in the field of PTWs, and the feasibility of such a system was investigated with promising results. Nevertheless, this technology is not mature yet for PTW application. Research in the field of passenger cars does not directly apply to PTWs because the activation logic of a braking system is more challenging on PTWs. The deployment of an autonomous deceleration would affect the

  7. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste respository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also indentified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site

  8. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste respository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also indentified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  9. An investigation into the feasibility and potential benefits of shared taxi services to commuter stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a serious problem at many rail stations where large numbers of commuters ‘park and ride’ mainly on a single occupancy basis. In many cases, these stations are not designed for mass parking, resulting in on-street parking conflicts with residents and local commercial businesses. Furthermore, congestion around stations is a growing problem, compounded by rail passengers being picked up by friends or relatives resulting in queues of waiting cars at station entrances. These ‘kiss and ride’ trips require double the fuel (home to station to home again and impinge on the time of the driver providing the lift. In this paper, it is anticipated that the introduction of shared taxis to rail stations has the potential to relieve these parking and congestion problems while also providing an affordable extra service to the rail station for those without access to a car or other suitable public transport service. A model for shared taxi operation is presented and the potential viability and benefits of such a service is illustrated using data from two varied case study sites: (1 a station in South East England providing rail access to London and (2 a smaller station in Central Scotland providing rail access to Edinburgh.

  10. Net monetary benefit of cost-effective rollover protective structures (CROPS): an estimate of the potential benefits of the CROPS research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, K

    2008-07-01

    This study builds on an earlier study to examine the net monetary benefit of installing cost-effective rollover protective structures (CROPS) instead of utilizing existing ROPS retrofits for all estimated non-ROPS tractors in the year 2004. With the conservative estimates used in the analyses, results indicate that compared to the baseline option (no protective structure), the Install-ROPS option results in a loss of $310 million to society, while the Install-CROPS option results in a net monetary benefit of $276 million over a 20-year period. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis indicated that, for the extreme values (estimates) used, the estimated net monetary benefit is most sensitive to the probability of tractor overturn. Break-even analysis indicated that the unit cost of intervention for the Install-CROPS option can increase by about 58% and still be able to pay for itself. Even when the minimal unit cost of intervention for ROPS is used, the payback period is reduced substantially for the Install-CROPS option, by almost half the payback period. Finally, compared to existing ROPS retrofits, the net monetary benefit is $586 million, representing an estimate of the potential benefits of the CROPS research.

  11. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-07-24

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.

  12. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Barfield, J P; Brasher, Joel D

    2012-10-01

    Information regarding factors that affect the initial step to exercise behavior change among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions is available in the literature but much less is known regarding perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among those who are regularly active. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise. Participants (n = 152) completed the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). For data analyses, disabilities and health conditions were grouped as neuromuscular, orthopedic, cardiovascular/pulmonary, or multiple conditions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine if mean differences on EBBS benefits and barriers scores existed among disability types, between sexes, among age groups, and between physical activity levels. Sum scores were computed to determine the strongest benefit and barrier responses. No significant mean differences in EBBS scores were found between disability types, sexes, age groups, or physical activity levels (p > 0.05). Strongest benefit responses varied by group. Strongest barrier responses were the same for all demographic groups: "Exercise tires me," "Exercise is hard work for me," and "I am fatigued by exercise." EBBS scores were similar across disability/health condition, sex, age, and physical activity level. Primary benefits reported were in the areas of improved physical performance and psychological outlook whereas the primary barriers were in the area of physical exertion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Additional benefit of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging of oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, R.S. [Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Department of Oesophagogastric Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom); Middleton, M.R. [Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Maynard, N.D. [Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Department of Oesophagogastric Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, K.M.; Gleeson, F.V. [Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been shown to improve the accuracy of staging in oesophageal cancer. We assessed the benefit of PET/CT over conventional staging and determined if tumour histology had any significant impact on PET/CT findings. A retrospective cohort study, reviewing the results from 200 consecutive patients considered suitable for radical treatment, undergoing routine PET/CT staging comparing the results from CT and endoscopic ultrasound, as well as multi-disciplinary team records. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were compared for maximum Standardised Uptake Value (SUV{sub max}), involvement of local lymph nodes and distant metastases. PET/CT provided additional information in 37 patients (18.5%) and directly altered management in 34 (17%): 22 (11%) were upstaged; 15 (7.5%) were downstaged, 12 of whom (6%) received radical treatment. There were 11 false negatives (5.5%) and 1 false positive (0.5%). SUV{sub max} was significantly lower for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma (median 9.1 versus 13.5, p = 0.003). Staging with PET/CT offers additional benefit over conventional imaging and should form part of routine staging for oesophageal cancer. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma display significantly different FDG-avidity. (orig.)

  14. The potential benefits and drawbacks of deferring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, R.; Pomfret, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    . Additionally the concerns of site and inventory security over a potentially long dormant period would also need to be addressed. The key consideration is whether the regulatory and political climate would allow deferral even if the technical and safety justifications were made. The costs of rushing into decommissioning without long term national and international planning may outweigh the perceived benefits. There is a need to establish a regulatory framework that allows the right approach for each type of facility to be developed, and the industry needs to become more effective in addressing the concerns and requirements of all our stakeholders. This paper will seek to discuss further the issues associated with decommissioning and deferral. (author)

  15. Overview of the benefits and potential issues of the nonavalent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Preti, Mario; Cristoforoni, Paolo; Stigliano, Carlo M; Perino, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    HPV-related diseases affect anogenital and oropharyngeal regions, heavily affecting the psychosexual dimension of both male and female individuals. HPV vaccination programs based on a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine have opened broad perspectives for primary prevention. A nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), covering nine genotypes (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58), might provide further improvement in terms of direct protection. In the present report, efficacy and safety data from 9vHPV vaccine development programs are examined. Efficacy data come from a pivotal trial, which was conducted among women aged 16-26 years randomly assigned to receive either the 9vHPV or the quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine. The 9vHPV vaccine was shown to have potential benefits as compared with 4vHPV, increasing the overall estimated rate of prevention to 90% for cervical cancer and up to 80% for precancerous cervical lesions. For all other HPV-related pre-invasive and invasive lesions, 9vHPV showed potentially greater disease reduction, depending on the anatomic region examined. Thus, the 9vHPV vaccine shows clinical potential for the prevention of HPV-related diseases in both sexes. Future adoption of 9vHPV will depend on factors including market price, cost-effectiveness data, use of a two-dose schedule, and safety and efficacy monitoring in real-life programs. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Graduated driver licensing policy in the Great Lakes states: current benefits and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Timothy E; Tonellato, Daniel J; Frisch, Keri B; Laud, Purushottam W

    2009-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of teenage deaths in the United States. Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies effectively decrease teenage crash deaths. Emerging research is identifying the most effective components of GDL. This study examines GDL policies across 6 Great Lakes states, describing the beneficial impact, and investigating how evidence-based policy modifications could further reduce teenage driving deaths and injuries. GDL policies were reviewed in 6 Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). Incidence rate ratios for fatal and injury crashes for 16-year-old drivers were obtained from the Nationwide Review of GDL Study. Ratios were applied to the fatal and injury crashes reported from each state between 2002 and 2006 for 16-year-old drivers. The potential impact (crashes avoided) for each state was determined based on the state using a 3-phase GDL policy (a learner and intermediate stage prior to full licensure). In addition, the impact on crash reductions for each state if they had employed 5 of the recommended GDL components was determined. All 6 states had a 3-phase GDL policy, resulting in potential avoidance of 124 fatal and more than 21,000 injury crashes. The 6 states had 1 to 3 of the qualifying GDL components. If these states had adopted 5 of the qualifying components, an additional 309 fatal and more than 27,000 injury crashes could have been avoided. Three-phase GDL policy is effective at saving the lives of teenage drivers and vehicle occupants; evidence-based modification of GDL has the potential to further reduce teenage motor vehicle crash deaths and injuries.

  17. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  18. A three-stage-integrative approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxic compounds from botanical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yecheng; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Xiang; Nie, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-05-01

    With the increasing use of herbal medicines and dietary supplements, intensive concerns about their potential toxicities have been raised. Screening and identifying the toxic compounds from these botanical products composed by hundreds of components have become a critical but challenging problem. In this study, 3 methods, including fraction separation, an in-house-developed fluorescein diacetate-based automatic microscopy screening (FAMS) platform, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based compounds identification were integrated within the Three-Stage-Integrative (TSI) approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxicants from botanical products. The sensitivity and linear range of FAMS assay was validated and compared with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay by previously reported hepatotoxic compounds. The success of TSI approach was further demonstrated by its application to Fructus aristolochiae. Aristolochic acid IVa and aristolodione were tentatively identified to be potential hepatotoxicants in this plant. These applications suggested that our TSI approach provides an effective tool for identifying potential toxic compounds from botanical products.

  19. CCR study: evidence for benefit of TARP vaccine for men with early stage prostate cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a pilot clinical trial found that TARP, or T-cell receptor gamma chain alternate reading frame protein, vaccination slowed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise in the majority of patients with early stage prostate cancer.

  20. Potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in stage III ovarian serous carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Björn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Establishing predictive markers of chemoresponse would help to individualize therapy and improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. Chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer has been studied thoroughly and several non-overlapping single genes, gene profiles and copy number alterations have been suggested as potential markers. The objective of this study was to explore genetic alterations behind chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer with the ultimate aim to find potential predictive markers. Methods To create the best opportunities for identifying genetic alterations of importance for resistance, we selected a homogenous tumor material concerning histology, stage and chemotherapy. Using high-resolution whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, we analyzed the tumor genomes of 40 fresh-frozen stage III ovarian serous carcinomas, all uniformly treated with combination therapy paclitaxel/carboplatin. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences. Subsequently, we examined four genes in the significant regions (EVI1, MDS1, SH3GL2, SH3KBP1 plus the ABCB1 gene with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR to evaluate the impact of DNA alterations on the transcriptional level. Results We identified gain in 3q26.2, and losses in 6q11.2-12, 9p22.3, 9p22.2-22.1, 9p22.1-21.3, Xp22.2-22.12, Xp22.11-11.3, and Xp11.23-11.1 to be significantly associated with chemotherapy resistance. In the gene expression analysis, EVI1 expression differed between samples with gain versus without gain, exhibiting higher expression in the gain group. Conclusion In conclusion, we detected specific genetic alterations associated with resistance, of which some might be potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in advanced ovarian serous carcinomas. Thus, further studies are required to validate

  1. The potential adoption benefits and challenges of LOINC codes in a laboratory department: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Chukwuemeka; Jing, Xia

    2017-12-01

    Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) are a standard for identifying and reporting laboratory investigations that were developed and are maintained by the Regenstrief Institute. LOINC codes have been adopted globally by hospitals, government agencies, laboratories, and research institutions. There are still many healthcare organizations, however, that have not adopted LOINC codes, including rural hospitals in low- and middle- income countries. Hence, organizations in these areas do not receive the benefits that accrue with the adoption of LOINC codes. We conducted a literature search by utilizing PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar, ACM Digital Library, and the Biomed Central database to look for existing publications on the benefits and challenges of adopting LOINC. We selected and reviewed 16 publications and then conducted a case study via the following steps: (1) we brainstormed , discussed , analyzed , created and revised iteratively the patient's clinical encounter (outpatient or ambulatory settings) process within a laboratory department via utilizing a hypothetical patient; (2) we incorporated the work experience of one of the authors (CU) in a rural hospital laboratory department in Nigeria to break down the clinical encounter process into simpler and discrete steps and created a series of use cases for the process; (3) we then analyzed and summarized the potential usage of LOINC codes (clinically, administratively, and operationally) and the benefits and challenges of adopting LOINC codes in such settings by examining the use cases one by one. Based on the literature review, we noted that LOINC codes' ability to improve laboratory results' interoperability has been recognized broadly. LOINC-coded laboratory results can improve patients' safety due to their consistent meaning as well as the related reduction of duplicate lab tests, easier assessment of workloads in the laboratory departments, and accurate auditing of laboratory accounts

  2. Proven and potential clinical benefits of washing red blood cells before transfusion: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt AE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Schmidt, Majed A Refaai, Scott A Kirkley, Neil Blumberg Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Red blood cells (RBCs are washed for a variety of reasons such as to remove excess potassium, cytokines, and other allergen proteins from the supernatant and/or to mitigate the effects of the storage lesion. The storage lesion is a product of RBC aging and include leakage of potassium and chloride from the RBCs, depletion of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate, loss of phospholipids and cholesterol, exposure of phosphatidylserine, elaboration of lipid mediators, loss of glutathione, autoxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin contributing to decreased blood flow viscosity and adherence to endothelial cells, increased microparticle formation, and disruption of NO-mediated vasodilation. A storage lesion is thought to be caused in part by oxidative stress, which is characterized by functional and structural changes to the RBCs. The effects of the RBC storage lesion on patient morbidity and mortality have been studied intensively with mixed results. Here, we will summarize the potential benefits of RBC washing. Notably, all patient-based studies on washed RBCs are single-center, small randomized studies or observational data, which await replication and tests of generalizability. Some of the most promising preliminary data suggest that washed transfusions of red cells and platelets reduce mortality in low risk, younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia, mitigate lung injury, and substantially reduce mortality in cardiac surgery. Larger randomized trials to replicate or refute these findings are urgently needed and, most importantly, have the potential to strikingly improve clinical outcomes following transfusion. Keywords: washed blood, transfusion, immunomodulation, red blood cell

  3. Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Antognoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains.

  4. Key components and potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Anne E; Ashok, Annie P; Casey, Ellen K; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 40 years there has been a significant increase in the number of female athletes, as well as a rise in musculoskeletal injuries observed in women. There is sufficient evidence from past medical research identifying various musculoskeletal injuries and conditions that more commonly affect women, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, stress fractures, and anterior cruciate ligament tears. Several women's sports medicine and musculoskeletal health programs have been developed throughout the United States in an attempt to provide more tailored care to the female athlete. The goal of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health is to create an interdisciplinary team to facilitate treatment for a variety of injuries and related conditions. This manuscript outlines the musculoskeletal conditions that commonly affect women and highlights the various etiologies of these sex disparities. We discuss the role of interdisciplinary women's musculoskeletal health and sports medicine programs, and define the potential benefits of such an approach. Future studies should focus on assessing the outcomes of multidisciplinary women's sports medicine programs as current literature in this area is lacking.

  5. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  6. Solar thermal technologies - Potential benefits to U.S. utilities and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10547

  7. An overview of potential benefits and limitations of Compressed Air Energy Storage in abandoned coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyński, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the methods that can solve the problems with intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy sources. The storage is charged by increasing air pressure with the use of electrically driven compressors, which convert the electric energy into potential energy. The pressurized air is stored in compressed air storage volumes (caverns, voids, porous structures etc.) of any kind and can then be released upon demand to generate electricity again by expansion of the air through an air turbine or gas turbine. Limited availability of salt caverns in Europe creates difficulties in the implementation of this concept on larger scale. This paper deals with underground storage part in CAES concept and lists benefits related to the storage of air in abandoned coal mines. Examples of natural gas storage in abandoned coal mines are given and compared with the compressed air storage. The study shows an example of coal mine volume calculation. The non-exhaustive list of problems and solutions associated with this idea is given in order to develop this concept at larger scale.

  8. Solar thermal technologies - Potential benefits to U.S. utilities and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

    1983-08-01

    Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10547

  9. Beyond the adoption/ non-adoption dichotomy: the impact of innovation characteristics on potential adopters' transition through adoption process stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, M.K.; Frambach, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Research on innovation adoption has suffered from a bias towards understanding the factors that affect the dichotomous adoption/non-adoption decision.Much less attention is devoted to the question why potential adopters fail to progress to the adoption stage from earlier stages in the decision

  10. Spatial optimization of carbon-stocking projects across Africa integrating stocking potential with co-benefits and feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Reyers, Belinda; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) offset projects through forestation are employed within the emissions trading framework to store C. Yet, information about the potential of landscapes to stock C, essential to the design of offset projects, is often lacking. Based on data on vegetation C, climate and soil we quantified...... the potential for C storage in woody vegetation across tropical Africa. The ability for offset projects to produce co-benefits for ecosystems and local communities was also investigated. When co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation were considered, the top-ranked sites were often different to sites...... selected purely for their C stocking potential, but they still possessed 68% of the latter’s C stocking potential. This work provides the first continental-scale assessment of which areas may provide the greatest direct and indirect benefits from C storage reforestation projects at the smallest costs...

  11. Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Areas: Potential Co-Benefits of Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Forkel, R.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Even though much progress has been achieved through dedicated approaches to improving air quality in many European cities, there are various threats which still remain unchanged. According to the World Health Organization, outdoor air pollution was linked to 3.7 million deaths in year 2012. As climate changes, the frequency of days with harmful levels of air pollutants may significantly increase causing exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of alternative emission strategies on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem; Grell et al., 2005) to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The investigation area included the city of Munich (1.5 million inhabitants). The model performance has been evaluated against available air quality observations from the monitoring database "AirBase". The chemical species including O3, NO, NO2 and PM10 simulated by WRF/Chem compare favorably with the observations. The model performs especially well in resolving the observed O3 concentrations. In the ongoing study, different emission reduction scenarios are compared to a baseline 2009 scenario based on Germany's National Emissions Inventory. To investigate health effects associated with air pollution concentrations a local-scale health impact assessment (HIA) will be conducted. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) link the change in mortality rates to the change in concentrations of air pollutants. CRFs are applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence estimate numbers of attributable deaths and associated

  12. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of 13.1 billion (95% CI: 0.6 billion, 43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  13. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of $13.1 billion (95% CI: $0.6 billion, $43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  14. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H.; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis. Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods. Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results. Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion. Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  15. Thermo-mechanical stress analysis of cryopreservation in cryobags and the potential benefit of nanowarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Prem K; Bischof, John C; Rabin, Yoed

    2017-06-01

    Cryopreservation by vitrification is the only promising solution for long-term organ preservation which can save tens of thousands of lives across the world every year. One of the challenges in cryopreservation of large-size tissues and organs is to prevent fracture formation due to the tendency of the material to contract with temperature. The current study focuses on a pillow-like shape of a cryobag, while exploring various strategies to reduce thermo-mechanical stress during the rewarming phase of the cryopreservation protocol, where maximum stresses are typically found. It is demonstrated in this study that while the level of stress may generally increase with the increasing amount of CPA filled in the cryobag, the ratio between width and length of the cryobag play a significant role. Counterintuitively, the overall maximum stress is not found when the bag is filled to its maximum capacity (when the filled cryobag resembles a sphere). Parametric investigation suggests that reducing the initial rewarming rate between the storage temperature and the glass transition temperature may dramatically decrease the thermo-mechanical stress. Adding a temperature hold during rewarming at the glass transition temperature may reduce the thermo-mechanical stress in some cases, but may have an adverse effect in other cases. Finally, it is demonstrated that careful incorporation of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field, or nanowarming, can dramatically reduce the resulting thermo-mechanical stress. These observations display the potential benefit of a thermo-mechanical design of the cryopreservation protocols in order to prevent structural damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of diuron in a rat mammary two-stage carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the herbicide Diuron in a two-stage rat medium-term mammary carcinogenesis model initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Female seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to six groups: groups G1 to G4 received intragastrically (i.g.) a single 50 mg/kg dose of DMBA; groups G5 and G6 received single administration of canola oil (vehicle of DMBA). Groups G1 and G5 received a basal diet, and groups G2, G3, G4, and G6 were fed the basal diet with the addition of Diuron at 250, 1250, 2500, and 2500 ppm, respectively. After twenty-five weeks, the animals were euthanized and mammary tumors were histologically confirmed and quantified. Tumor samples were also processed for immunohistochemical evaluation of the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), p63, bcl-2, and bak. Diuron treatment did not increase the incidence or multiplicity of mammary tumors (groups G2 to G4 versus Group G1). Also, exposure to Diuron did not alter tumor growth (cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes) or immunoreactivity to ER-α, p63 (myoephitelial marker), or bcl-2 and bak (apoptosis regulatory proteins). These findings indicate that Diuron does not have a promoting potential on mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats initiated with DMBA.

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere, mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel. We find that implementing HFC refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies in parallel for room air conditioning, roughly doubles the benefit of either policy implemented separately. We estimate that shifting the 2030 world stock of room air conditioners from the low efficiency technology using high-GWP refrigerants to higher efficiency technology and low-GWP refrigerants in parallel would save between 340-790 gigawatts (GW) of peak load globally, which is roughly equivalent to avoiding 680-1550 peak power plants of 500MW each. This would save 0.85 GT/year annually in China equivalent to over 8 Three Gorges dams and over 0.32 GT/year annually in India equivalent to roughly twice India’s 100GW solar mission target. While there is some uncertainty associated with

  20. Tumor Microvessel Density as a Potential Predictive Marker for Bevacizumab Benefit: GOG-0218 Biomarker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Carlos; Mueller, Barbara; Brady, Mark F; Mannel, Robert S; Burger, Robert A; Wei, Wei; Marien, Koen M; Kockx, Mark M; Husain, Amreen; Birrer, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Combining bevacizumab with frontline chemotherapy statistically significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) but not overall survival (OS) in the phase III GOG-0218 trial. Evaluation of candidate biomarkers was an exploratory objective. Patients with stage III (incompletely resected) or IV ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive six chemotherapy cycles with placebo or bevacizumab followed by single-agent placebo or bevacizumab. Five candidate tumor biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The biomarker-evaluable population was categorized into high or low biomarker-expressing subgroups using median and quartile cutoffs. Associations between biomarker expression and efficacy were analyzed. All statistical tests were two-sided. The biomarker-evaluable population (n = 980) comprising 78.5% of the intent-to-treat population had representative baseline characteristics and efficacy outcomes. Neither prognostic nor predictive associations were seen for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2, neuropilin-1, or MET. Higher microvessel density (MVD; measured by CD31) showed predictive value for PFS (hazard ratio [HR] for bevacizumab vs placebo = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29 to 0.54, vs 0.80, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.07, for high vs low MVD, respectively, P interaction = .003) and OS (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.88, vs 1.10, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.44, P interaction = .02). Tumor VEGF-A was not predictive for PFS but showed potential predictive value for OS using a third-quartile cutoff for high VEGF-A expression. These retrospective tumor biomarker analyses suggest a positive association between density of vascular endothelial cells (the predominant cell type expressing VEGF receptors) and tumor VEGF-A levels and magnitude of bevacizumab effect in ovarian cancer. The potential predictive value of MVD (CD31) and tumor VEGF-A is consistent with a mechanism of action driven by VEGF-A signaling blockade. © The

  1. Biscuit making potentials of flours from wheat and plantain at different stages of ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oyeyinka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biscuit making potentials of wheat and plantain (stages 1 and 3 ripeness flour blends were evaluated. Composite flours were formulated using wheat (white and plantain flour in ratio 90/101, 80/201, 50/501, 100/0, 90/103, 80/203 and 50/503 at stages 1 and 3 respectively with the superscripts representing the stage of ripeness. The functional properties of the flours, proximate composition, mineral composition and sensory attributes of the biscuit were evaluated. The loose bulk density (LBD of flours ranged from 0.46-0.53 g/mL, the packed bulk density (PBD ranged from 0.64-0.76 g/mL. The water absorption capacity (WAC ranged from 1.19-2.02 g water/g flour and oil adsorption capacity (OAC ranged from 0.50-1.00 g oil/g flour. The LBD and PBD values of the composite blends were higher than the control (100 % white wheat flour-sample D. The proximate composition ranged from 11.00 %-9.96 % for moisture, 1.21 %-1.27 % for ash, 2.98 %-4.30 % for fat, 11.82 %-12.64 % for protein, 0.97 %-1.52 % for fibre and 69.56 %-71.21 % for carbohydrate. The protein and carbohydrate value of biscuit produced from composite flour 80/203 (sample F was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower than other biscuits. Composite flour 50/503 had the highest protein content (12.64 %. The observed mineral composition varied among the samples. The content of calcium, iron and phosphorus ranged from 5.89-6.14, 0.48-0.78 and 21.97-23.46 mg/100g respectively. The calcium and iron contents of biscuit produced from flour blends F was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher than other biscuits, while the phosphorus content of biscuit produced from composite flour 90/101 (sample C was higher than other biscuit samples. Sensory evaluation of the formulated biscuit samples showed similar sensory attributes with the control.

  2. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  3. Co-benefits of climate policies: a potential keystone of climate negotiations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassen, Christophe; Guivarch, Celine; Lecocq, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the challenges related to the assessment of co-benefits of climate policies underpinned by the implementation of multi-objective policies which seek synergies between climate policies and other development objectives (poverty alleviation, employment, health etc.). The analysis highlights the increasing interest in co-benefits in the latest 5. IPCC report, in particular by integrated models. Nevertheless, the quantified evaluation of co-benefits is still confronted to several methodological limitations which reduce the scope of co-benefits, particularly at the global level. In a growing context of climate-development approaches in climate negotiations, this article insists on the need to also assess co-benefits of other policies which induce a significant part of GHG emissions. Considering climate policies focused only on Greenhouse Gases emissions reduction limits the range of policy instruments to carbon taxation, tradable carbon emissions permits or dedicated mitigation and adaptation funds. This also hinders the integration of climate objectives in non-climate policies. Analyzing impacts of development policies on Green Gases emissions in the form of co-benefits requires to broaden the range of policy instruments and to take into account other drivers of emissions such as land dynamics. Including these mechanisms in integrated models therefore represents new scientific frontiers for integrated models in the coming years

  4. Valuing the Potential Benefits of Water Quality Improvements in Watersheds Affected by Non-Point Source Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution has been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as “the nation’s largest water quality problem”. Urban development, septic systems, and agricultural operations have been identified as the major sources of diffuse pollution in surface and ground water bodies. In recent decades, urban and agricultural Best Management Practices (BMP have been developed in several states to address agricultural water quality and water use impacts, including the reduction of nutrient loads to help meet water quality standards. Compliance with BMPs is associated with some costs to local governments, homeowners, and agricultural operations, but the improvements in water quality associated with BMP adoption are expected to yield significant benefits to society in the form of improved recreational opportunities, navigation, flood control, and ecosystem health. The development of sound policies and decision making processes require balancing the costs of BMP adoption to the agricultural operations with the social benefits to be derived from the improved water quality. In this paper we develop a benefits transfer model to provide estimates of the economic benefits of properly implemented and effective Best Management Practices (BMP throughout the state of Florida. These benefit estimates can be used in a cost-benefit framework to determine the optimal level of BMP adoption throughout the state of Florida and provide a framework for other regions to estimate the potential benefits of BMP-mediated water quality improvements.

  5. Gating of long-term potentiation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the cerebellum input stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Prestori

    Full Text Available The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation.

  6. Nutritional and antioxidant potential of canjiqueira fruits affected by maturity stage and thermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Oliveira Prates

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of jelly processing on the chemical properties, nutrients, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of unripe and ripe canjiqueira fruits was evaluated. The fruits were collected from Pantanal regions at two different ripening stages and were used to produce jellies. The processing affected the chemical characteristics and the content of all nutrients, except for the lipids. Moisture and protein content reduced, whereas the energy value increased. The phytic acid found in fresh fruits was eliminated after processing, and the trypsin inhibitors were reduced, especially in ripe fruits. Lectin activity was not verified in unripe and ripe fruits and jellies. The levels of bioactive compounds were reduced after jelly processing, but their retention was higher in unripe fruits. The final levels of bioactive compounds in the jelly made from unripe fruits were higher than that in the jelly made from ripe fruits, whereas the IC50 value was lower, indicating higher potential to prevent free radicals damages to human body. Jelly processing proved to be a good alternative to the use of canjiqueira fruits due to the reduction in antinutritional factors and the retention of bioactive compounds

  7. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oakleaf, Brett [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wall, Anna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.


  8. The potential benefits of a new poliovirus vaccine for long-term poliovirus risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the incremental net benefits (INBs) of a hypothetical ideal vaccine with all of the advantages and no disadvantages of existing oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared with current vaccines available for future outbreak response. INB estimates based on expected costs and polio cases from an existing global model of long-term poliovirus risk management. Excluding the development costs, an ideal poliovirus vaccine could offer expected INBs of US$1.6 billion. The ideal vaccine yields small benefits in most realizations of long-term risks, but great benefits in low-probability-high-consequence realizations. New poliovirus vaccines may offer valuable insurance against long-term poliovirus risks and new vaccine development efforts should continue as the world gathers more evidence about polio endgame risks.

  9. Education Websites and Their Benefits to Potential International Students: A Case Study of Higher Education Service Providers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Teik Chooi; Ho, Henry Wai Leong; Amri, Siti

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at criteria on how education service providers' websites could benefit their potential students from overseas. Effective design of education website is important as web users are typically fastidious and want information fast--this serves as the background of this study. The study focuses on three selected education institutions'…

  10. Benefits of measuring half-cell potentials and rebar corrosion rates in condition surveys of concrete bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The practice of conducting a half-cell potential survey during the assessment of the condition of a concrete deck was reexamined with the objective of eliminating some of the doubts concerning its benefits. It was found that the survey grid size of 4...

  11. Potential Crash Reduction Benefits of Safety Improvement Projects - Part A : Shoulder Rumble Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research provides a comprehensive evaluation of the safety benefits of shoulder rumble strips in rural highways in Idaho. The effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips in reducing the number and severity of run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes was exami...

  12. Potential benefits of therapeutic splenectomy for patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, D.P.; Jacobs, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Cox, R.S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent therapeutic splenectomies to improve hematologic tolerance for chemotherapy. The mean age was 40 years; there were 16 males and 18 females. Fourteen had Hodgkin's disease, 19 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 had malignant histocytosis. Nineteen had palpable splenomegaly, 19 had marrow involvement and 20 had splenic involvement by lymphoma. The following data were analyzed before and after splenectomy: mean white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count on planned first day of cycle, delay ratio of chemotherapy delivery and percent maximal dose rate. Thirteen patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, splenomegaly and positive bone marrow and showed significant benefit in all of the aforementioned parameters. Of the patients with prior irradiation, only those who completed their radiation greater than six months prior to splenectomy showed benefit. Ten patients had Hodgkin's disease, negative bone marrow and no splenomegaly. This group showed significant improvement in mean platelet count but more limited benefit in delay ratio and percent maximal dose rate. Thus, selected patients with lymphoma who are experiencing delays in chemotherapy because of poor count tolerance may benefit from splenectomy

  13. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  14. Balancing costs and benefits at different stages of medical innovation: a systematic review of Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlster, Philip; Goetghebeur, Mireille; Kriza, Christine; Niederländer, Charlotte; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2015-07-09

    The diffusion of health technologies from translational research to reimbursement depends on several factors included the results of health economic analysis. Recent research identified several flaws in health economic concepts. Additionally, the heterogeneous viewpoints of participating stakeholders are rarely systematically addressed in current decision-making. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) provides an opportunity to tackle these issues. The objective of this study was to review applications of MCDA methods in decisions addressing the trade-off between costs and benefits. Using basic steps of the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of the healthcare literature was performed to identify original research articles from January 1990 to April 2014. Medline, PubMed, Springer Link and specific journals were searched. Using predefined categories, bibliographic records were systematically extracted regarding the type of policy applications, MCDA methodology, criteria used and their definitions. 22 studies were included in the analysis. 15 studies (68 %) used direct MCDA approaches and seven studies (32 %) used preference elicitation approaches. Four studies (19 %) focused on technologies in the early innovation process. The majority (18 studies - 81 %) examined reimbursement decisions. Decision criteria used in studies were obtained from the literature research and context-specific studies, expert opinions, and group discussions. The number of criteria ranged between three up to 15. The most frequently used criteria were health outcomes (73 %), disease impact (59 %), and implementation of the intervention (40 %). Economic criteria included cost-effectiveness criteria (14 studies, 64 %), and total costs/budget impact of an intervention (eight studies, 36 %). The process of including economic aspects is very different among studies. Some studies directly compare costs with other criteria while some include economic consideration in a second step. In early

  15. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  16. Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate economic benefit and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential of a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester. Research was conducted at two villages in Lampung Province, namely Marga Lestari, District of South Lampung and Pesawaran Indah, District of Pesawaran. Economic benefit and GHG emission reduction potential were evaluated from LPG saving due to biogas utilisation for cooking and fertilizer substitution by slurry digestate. Results showed that a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester demonstrated a good potential to reduce GHG emission, but not in economic. A digester with 4 heads of cow produced biogas at a rate of 1582 L/day. With average methane content of 53.6%, energy value of the biogas was equivalent to 167 kg LPG and able to substitute 52 bottles LPG annually. A family-scale biogas contributed 108.1 USD/year and potentially reduced GHG emission by 5292.5 kg CO2e/year resulted from biomethane potential, LPG, and fertilizer savings. Keywords: biogas; cowdung; greenhouse gas; economy; benefit Article History: Received November 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Cahyani, D., Triyono, S., Murdapa, F., and Haryono, D. (2 Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 6(1, 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.29-36

  17. Relative benefit of a stage of change approach for the prevention of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doda, Diana; Rothmore, Paul; Pisaniello, Dino; Briggs, Nancy; Stewart, Sasha; Mahmood, Mohammed; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-11-01

    To examine the benefit of a psychological Stage of Change (SOC) approach, relative to standard ergonomics advice, for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal pain and discomfort (MSPD). A cluster randomised trial was conducted in South Australia across a broad range of workplaces. Repeated face-to-face interviews were conducted onsite to assess MSPD, safety climate, job satisfaction and other factors. Changes in MSPD across intervention groups and time were investigated using Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) methods. 25 workgroups (involving 242 workers) were randomly allocated to either a standard intervention or an intervention tailored according to SOC. The prevalence of MSPD increased for both groups, but was only significant for the standard group, in respect of lower back MSPD. Workers receiving tailored interventions were 60% less likely to experience lower back MSPD. After adjusting for age, gender and job satisfaction, it was found that company safety climate and length of employment were significantly correlated to the time-intervention effect. There was no correlation with workload. Compared with standard ergonomics advice to management, there was evidence of a benefit of stage-matched intervention for MSPD prevention, particularly for low back pain. Organisational safety climate should be taken into account when planning prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Respiratory infections and pneumonia: potential benefits of switching from smoking to vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Davide; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Sands, Mark F; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstaining from tobacco smoking is likely to lower the risk of respiratory infections and pneumonia. Unfortunately, quitting smoking is not easy. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are emerging as an attractive long-term alternative nicotine source to conventional cigarettes and are being adopted by smokers who wish to reduce or quit cigarette consumption. Also, given that the propylene glycol in EC aerosols is a potent bactericidal agent, switching from smoking to regular vaping is likely to produce additional lung health benefits. Here, we critically address some of the concerns arising from regular EC use in relation to lung health, including respiratory infections and pneumonia. In conclusion, smokers who quit by switching to regular ECs use can reduce risk and reverse harm from tobacco smoking. Innovation in the e-vapour category is likely not only to further minimise residual health risks, but also to maximise health benefits.

  19. The Silver Surfer: Trends of Internet Usage in the Over 65 and the Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K; Duffy, R M; Kelly, B D

    2015-06-01

    The Internet provides medical information and interventions with promising benefits. This cross-sectional study explores trends in Internet use among the elderly in Ireland from 2002 to 2010 and considers possible implications for health benefit. Data were analysed on 1606 Irish individuals. Internet use in Ireland is increasing at similar rates to the rest of Europe; the percentage of over-65s using the Internet in Ireland nearly trebled from 2002 to 2010, from 26(8.3%) to 92 (24. 1%) (p Internet usage; namely those with a better education, living with a partner, males and urban dwellers. Of those with good subjective general health, 230 (21%) had internet access, versus 36 (7.1%) with poor health. Web-based interventions targeting the elderly should become more available. These could be particularly useful in populations with limited access to transport and mobility.

  20. Dogs in the Workplace: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, Anne M.; Glenn, Margaret K.; Meade, B. Jean; Wirth, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Pet dogs, therapy dogs, and service dogs can be seen in workplaces with increasing frequency. Although dogs may provide many benefits to employees and employers, their presence may introduce additional hazards and concerns to the work environment. Therefore, decisions to accept dogs in the workplace may include many considerations including the health, safety, and well-being of employees, legal and cultural sensitivities, and animal welfare. The present paper serves to introduce the issue of ...

  1. [Resected non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma stage pIIIA-N2. Which patients will benefit most from adjuvant therapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Ana M; Jarabo, José Ramón; Fernandez, Cristina; Calatayud, Joaquín; Fernández, Elena; Torres, Antonio J; Balibrea, José L; Hernando, Florentino

    2014-04-01

    Controversy persists as regards the indications and results of surgery in the treatment of patients with stage pIIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to analyze the overall survival of a multicentre series of these patients and the role of adjuvant treatment, looking for factors that may define subgroups of patients with an increased benefit from this treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on 287 patients, with stage pIIIA-N2 NSCLC subjected to complete resection, taken from a multi-institutional database of 2.994 prospectively collected consecutive patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer. Adjuvant treatment was administered in 238 cases (82.9%). Analyses were made of the age, gender, histological type, administration of induction and adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy treatments. The 5-year survival was 24%, with a median survival of 22 months. Survival was 26.5% among patients receiving with adjuvant treatment, versus 10.7% for those without it (P=.069). Age modified the effect of adjuvant treatment on survival (interaction P=.049). In patients under 70 years of age with squamous cell carcinoma, adjuvant treatment reduced the mortality rate by 37% (hazard ratio: 0,63; 95% CI; 0,42-0,95; P=.036). Completely resected patients with stage pIIIA-N2 NSCLC receiving adjuvant treatment reached higher survival rates than those who did not. Maximum benefit was achieved by the subgroup of patients under 70 years of age with squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding and assessing potential serious adverse events: a practical approach to understanding the benefits and harm of psoriasis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim; Guenther, Lyn; Shear, Neil; Binder, Carin; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Gulliver, Wayne; Stang, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Any therapeutic intervention carries with it the potential for benefit and harm. Generally, benefit is far more common than risk; however, risk aversion drives many of the treatment decisions made by patients and their physicians. To provide guidelines to help clinicians improve their understanding of causality and the interpretation of harm. A group of dermatologists involved in data safety monitoring boards, clinical trial investigators, and a clinical epidemiologist identified the need for practical advice on how to understand and explain causality and harm and combined to share their knowledge. An explanation of how data are collected and the environment that shapes the data seen by clinicians is presented. The article spans an overview of the regulatory environment that informs trial design for regulatory approval to a description of types of designs that inform safety and techniques, such as the rule of three, to provide guidance to clinicians in interpreting the data. Communicating the potential for harm to patients is critical. Placing the potential for rare and serious risks into perspective for the patient is as important as discussing the potential benefits of medication.

  3. Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Lanfeng; Shi, Songsong; Xia, Wenkai

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p exercise with different frequency per week. Differences in the frequency of exercise were associated with different degrees of reported Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p exercise. Our results indicated that benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

  4. Relationship Between Allelopathic Effects and Functional Traits of Different Allelopathic Potential Rice Accessions at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gaofeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of temperature, light and their interactions on allelopathic effects and the functional traits specific leaf area (SLA and stem mass fraction (SMF of different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages were analyzed. The main results were as follows: Allelopathic responses to temperature and light varied with different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages. With the rise of temperature and the extension of photoperiod, allelopathic effect increased firstly and then decreased at 2–3 leaf stage, but increased constantly at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages in strong allelopathic rice accessions [O. longistaminata, F1 (O. longistaminata × RD23, F2 (RL159 and RL169]. Temperature had significant impact on allelopathic effect without considering light factors, but light showed little effect on rice allelopathy at the same temperature conditions. The greatest allelopathic effect was attained with moderate temperature and long photoperiod at 2–3 leaf stage in strong allelopathic rice accessions, but all the rice accessions showed weak allelopathic effects at the low temperature condition (15 °C/10 °C, and the influence of different factors on allelopathy followed a general trend as temperature > leaf stage > light, indicating that among the multiple factors impacting rice allelopathy, temperature was the main factor. Allelopathic characteristics of F1 and F2 to various temperature and light were similar to O. longistaminata, showing that allelopathic genes from wild rice can be expressed in its descendants. Temperature and light also had significant effects on SLA and SMF, and rice allelopathy was closely correlative to SLA in strong allelopathic rice accessions at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages, but there was no correlation between rice allelopathy and SMF at different growth stages. These results suggested that rice adjust the relationship between allelopathy and SLA

  5. A Delphi Study on the Potential Benefits and Obstacles of Interstate Short Sea Shipping in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Arof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the potential benefits and obstacles of the interstate Short Sea Shipping (SSS operation in the archipelagic Southeast Asia sub-region. Although literature has addressed a myriad of benefits and obstacles that were caused by the SSS operation as an alternative mode to unimodal land transport, it has been recognised that each SSS corridor may have its own peculiarities. Therefore, the identification of the potential benefits and obstacles through a Delphi survey among sub-regional expert respondents is expected to inform the countries of Southeast Asia on how to direct their limited resources to address the obstacles identified in order to enable a viable interstate SSS operation. The initial review of the benefits and obstacles of SSS operations will focus on case studies performed in Europe as the breadth of literature on SSS outside Europe is still limited. Hence, this study addresses the gap in the literature by focusing on SSS in archipelagic Southeast Asia particularly those involving interstate Ro-Ro operations and extending the usage of Delphi technique to the realm of interstate SSS.

  6. Delayed umbilical cord clamping after childbirth: potential benefits to baby's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwins C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Uwins,1 David JR Hutchon2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, 2Department of Obstetrics, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Darlington, UKAbstract: Early cord clamping was initially introduced as part of the package of care known as “active management of the third stage”, which was implemented to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. It has now been shown to provide no benefit to the mother and to result in harm to the neonate. The clinical trial evidence relating to delayed cord clamping compared to immediate cord clamping is presented and the physiological rationale for delayed cord clamping is discussed in this paper. Most organizations (eg World Health Organization (WHO, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG, Resuscitation Council (UK,The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO, International Confederation of Midwives, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR and the European Resuscitation Council now advise a delay of 1–3 minutes before clamping the cord in term and preterm infants, and clinicians need to be aware of this change. Healthy neonates benefit from a more physiological and gentle transition from placental to pulmonary respiration, and we explain why this benefit should be provided to all neonates until there is any evidence to the contrary. The harm of early cord clamping is not limited to anemia and iron deficiency, and evidence for a wide range of possible harms of early cord clamping is presented. The need for resuscitation is one of the most common concerns, and ways of overcoming these concerns are described.Keywords: transition, cord clamping, hypovolemia, intraventricular hemorrhage

  7. Consumer willingness to purchase and to pay more for potential benefits of irradiated fresh food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A national household survey was conducted to evaluate consumer willingness to accept irradiated fresh food products. For those consumers willing to purchase irradiated food, analyses were conducted relative to their willingness to pay a price premium for proposed benefits of food irradiation. A low level of awareness of food irradiation exists. Fifty-four percent of households were not willing to purchase irradiated food. Education, income, and sex were significant in some analyses but were not successful in predicting or classifying consumer willingness to purchase or pay more for irradiated food. Measurement of consumer beliefs and values affecting food safety concerns may improve levels of prediction and classification. (author)

  8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND COMPLEXITIES OF BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: The case of the University of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina K. MASALELA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended/hybrid learning is dominating news in higher education as a training and educational delivery method of choice. It is seen as a link between instructors, learners and classrooms located in different places to enhance learning. Based on the interviews with 15 faculty members and one administrator that had direct experience with this form of delivery at the University of Botswana (UB the findings suggested two major themes that dominated faculty members ’accounts: potential benefits and challenges of blended learning. The study was guided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory. The potential benefits of blended learning included improved pedagogy; engagement in learning; and added flexibility in the teaching and learning to mention a few. Faculty members perceived complexities such as lack of students’ readiness to use the course management system, slow network and breakdowns; lack of computers for students and lack of time. The article concludes by suggesting future directions for blended learning (BL at the UB.

  9. Calorie restriction in overweight older adults: Do benefits exceed potential risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Goss, Amy M; Kilgore, Meredith L; Gower, Barbara; Ard, Jamy D

    2016-12-15

    The evidence regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults has remained equivocal for more than a decade. The older adult population is the fastest growing segment of the US population and a greater proportion of them are entering old age obese. These older adults require treatments based on solid evidence. Therefore the purpose of this review is three-fold: 1) to provide a more current status of the knowledge regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults, 2) to determine what benefits and/or risks calorie restriction adds to exercise interventions in obese older adults, and 3) to consider not only outcomes related to changes in body composition, bone health, cardiometabolic disease risk, markers of inflammation, and physical function, but, also patient-centered outcomes that evaluate changes in cognitive status, quality of life, out-of-pocket costs, and mortality. Seven randomized controlled trials were identified that examined calorie restriction while controlling for exercise intervention effects. Overall, the studies found that calorie restriction combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Evidence was mixed regarding other outcomes. The risk-benefit ratio regarding calorie restriction in older adults remains uncertain. Greater long-term follow-up is necessary, and complementary effectiveness studies are needed to identify strategies currently used by obese older adults in community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Rise, Fall and Potential Resilience Benefits of Jatropha in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham von Maltitz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha is the latest in a list of “miracle crops” that have been promoted in southern Africa for their perceived development benefits. This was based on promises of high yields, low water requirement, ability to grow on marginal land and lack of competition with food. In less than 10 years, tens of thousands of hectares were acquired for jatropha plantations and thousands of hectares were planted, most of which are now unused or abandoned. Overestimations of jatropha yields coupled with underestimations of the management costs have probably been the prime contributors to the collapse of most jatropha projects in southern African. However, a few projects still survive and show signs of possible long-term sustainability. We consider two such projects, a smallholder-based project in Malawi and a large-scale plantation in Mozambique. Though their long-term sustainability is not proven, both projects may increase resilience by diversifying household income streams and contributing to national fuel security. By identifying what seems to be working in these projects we provide insights as to why other projects may have failed in southern Africa and whether there is still place for jatropha in the region. In essence can jatropha still enhance local/national resilience or are jatropha’s benefits just a myth?

  11. Initial stages of anodic oxidation of silver in sodium hydroxide solution studied by potential sweep voltammetry and ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, J.M.M.; Alderliesten, P.T.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The first stages of the oxidation of polycrystalline silver electrodes in NaOH solutions were studied by potential sweep voltammetry and ellipsometry. Formation of bulk Ag2O was found to be preceded by dissolution of silver species and deposition of a surface oxide. The equilibrium oxide coverage

  12. The acceptability and potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in improving psychological well-being for adults with advanced cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fernanda F; Burrell, Beverley; Jordan, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    In spite of supportive care for people affected by cancer being well recognized as a priority for research, there is little solid evidence of the effectiveness of psychological interventions using mindfulness for those with advanced cancer. This systematic review aims to describe, evaluate and synthesize the acceptability and potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for the psychological well-being of people with advanced cancers. Eight databases were searched and terms related to advanced stages of cancer and mindfulness were combined systematically to identify relevant published literature. Inclusion criteria were studies with adults only and all types of cancer at stages III and IV. There was considerable variety in the MBI treatment packages including in the extent and centrality of mindfulness in the interventions. Of 312 identified studies, only 8 included MBIs for people with advanced cancer rather than their families or carers. Results from these studies suggests that MBIs are acceptable and beneficial to the advanced cancer population, improving quality of life, use of mindfulness skills, acceptance of their cancer situation and reduction in depression and anxiety. Some adaptations were recommended however regarding delivery, simplified briefer MBIs, abbreviated session time, flexibility concerning locality of treatment and a minimized questionnaire burden for this group. MBI packages reviewed in this study had evidence of acceptability and of effectiveness, indicating potential benefit for this population. Individualized, including home-based interventions may be optimal to allow critically ill patients to participate in treatment. In future, MBIs adapted to the needs of various advanced cancer patients are recommended to address the gap in the field and improve health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  14. Two stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture of Scenedesmus incrassatulus: potential for lutein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Miranda, Liliana; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia; Melchy-Antonio, Orlando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Flores-Ortíz, Cesar Mateo

    2017-11-20

    A biomass production process including two stages, heterotrophy/photoinduction (TSHP), was developed to improve biomass and lutein production by the green microalgae Scenedesmus incrassatulus. To determine the effects of different nitrogen sources (yeast extract and urea) and temperature in the heterotrophic stage, experiments using shake flask cultures with glucose as the carbon source were carried out. The highest biomass productivity and specific pigment concentrations were reached using urea+vitamins (U+V) at 30°C. The first stage of the TSHP process was done in a 6L bioreactor, and the inductions in a 3L airlift photobioreactor. At the end of the heterotrophic stage, S. incrassatulus achieved the maximal biomass concentration, increasing from 7.22gL -1 to 17.98gL -1 with an increase in initial glucose concentration from 10.6gL -1 to 30.3gL -1 . However, the higher initial glucose concentration resulted in a lower specific growth rate (μ) and lower cell yield (Y x/s ), possibly due to substrate inhibition. After 24h of photoinduction, lutein content in S. incrassatulus biomass was 7 times higher than that obtained at the end of heterotrophic cultivation, and the lutein productivity was 1.6 times higher compared with autotrophic culture of this microalga. Hence, the two-stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture is an effective strategy for high cell density and lutein production in S. incrassatulus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effect of ripening stages on the antioxidant potential of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Puji; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Supriyadi

    2017-06-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel, a new cultivar of melon, is one of non-netted orange-fleshed melon. Non-netted orange-fleshed melon is known as source of several phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. During the ripening stages there are chemical changes of the fruit including antioxidant properties. The aims of this research were to study the changes of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compound during ripening stages of melon cv. Hikapel. Melon with three ripening stages (27 DAA, 29 DAA, and 32 DAA) were harvested and analyzed their antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, -flavonoid, and -carotenoid content. The results showed that ascorbic acid and carotenoid content increased during ripening stages, whereas total phenolic and antioxidant activity decreased. The ripening stages affected antioxidant activity of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hikapel. Antioxidant activity positively correlated with ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, and -flavonoid content. On the other hand, total carotenoid negatively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  16. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  17. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Clifford; Glyn Howatson; Daniel J. West; Emma J. Stevenson

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beet...

  18. Potential benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China for air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    China is expanding west-to-east long-distance electricity transmission capacity with the aim of reducing eastern coal power production and resulting air pollution. In addition to coal power, this new grid capacity can be used to transport renewable-generated electricity with resulting climate co-benefits. Here we use an integrated assessment to evaluate the air quality and climate benefits of twelve proposed transmission lines in China, and compare two energy-by-wire strategies that transmit 1) only coal power (Coal-by-wire, CbW) or 2) combined renewable plus coal power (Renewable and coal-by-wire, (RE+C)bW), with 3) the current practice of transporting coal by rail for conversion to electricity near eastern demand centers (Coal-by-rail, CbR). Based on a regional atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-Chem, electricity transmission through the proposed lines leads to 2-3 μg/m3 (2-7%) reduction in the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the eastern provinces relative to 2010 levels, roughly ~1 μg/m3 greater than the reduction achieved in CbR where dirty coal units are locally replaced with efficient ones. Although the eastern air quality improvement is similar irrespective of the fuel source to power the lines, adding coal generation results in up to 3% increase in annual mean PM2.5 levels in some exporting provinces, whereas such increase is not observed when most added capacity is renewable-based. Counting both the economic value of reduced carbon emissions and the health-related air quality benefits can significantly improve the cost-effectiveness of transmitting both renewable and coal power. Comparing (RE+C)bW with the two coal-based options, we find not only 20% larger reduction in air-pollution-related deaths, but also three times greater reduction in CO2 emissions. Our study hence demonstrates the significance of coordinating renewable energy planning with transmission planning to simultaneously tackle air pollution and climate

  19. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  20. Potential benefits of employee portals in public administrations: implementation and proactive behaviour towards the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Marcos Pérez-Feijoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the determination of the advantages achieved through the implementation of an employee portal, both for the government and for the users of the portal. We proposed an adaptation of the Huang, Jin and Yang (2004 model, based on the organizational support theory (Eisenberger et al., 1986. This theory predicts a proactive behaviour of employees wheter they perceive a support of the organization. In this case, the trigger for that perception is the satisfaction derived by the benefits to personnel provided by an employee portal. Through an empirical study, conducted among public school teachers, we have found evidence of the perception of organizational support among public employees when the portal is deployes. However we haven´t found a link between that support and a proactive behaviour towards the organization.

  1. Significance of the pseudo capsule on MRI of renal neoplasms and its potential application for local staging: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine S.R.; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Lindner, Veronique; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in showing a pseudocapsule for local staging of renal tumors, and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Materials And Methods. Eighty tumors (73 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs] and seven oncocytomas)were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. MRI findings were assessed with a special focus on perinephric fat and pseudocapsule. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. Results. At pathology, a pseudocapsule was recognized in 79 cases. Twenty- three RCC were staged pT3a (21 clear cell; two papillary). MR images exhibited a pseudocapsule in 90% of cases as a hypointense rim surrounding the tumor on T2-weighted images. MRI findings concerning isolated analysis of the pseudocapsule for differentiating stage T1/T2 from T3a were densitivity: 86%, 50%; specificity: 95%, 92%; positive predictive value: 95%, 33%; negative predictive value: 88%, 92%; and accuracy: 93%, 89%, for clear cell and papillary types, respectively. For stage T3a, with both abnormalities of the pseudocapsule and perirenal fat, Results were, for overall RCC sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 95%; positive predictive value: 91%; negative predictive value: 91%; and accuracy: 91%. Conclusion. The identification of the pseudocapsule offers an additional value for local staging by MRI. The presence of an intact pseudocapsule is a sign of lack of perinephric fat invasion. It is more likely to predict that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (author)

  2. Genetically-Improved Tilapia Strains in Africa: Potential Benefits and Negative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw B. Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically improved tilapia strains (GIFT and Akosombo have been created with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia, which is native to Africa. In particular, GIFT has been shown to be significantly superior to local African tilapia strains in terms of growth rate. While development economists see the potential for food security and poverty reduction in Africa from culture of these new strains of tilapia, conservationists are wary of potential ecological and genetic impacts on receiving ecosystems and native stocks of tilapia. This study reviews the history of the GIFT technology, and identifies potential environmental and genetic risks of improved and farmed strains and tilapia in general. We also estimate the potential economic gains from the introduction of genetically improved strains in Africa, using Ghana as a case country. Employing a combination of the Economic-Surplus model and Monte Carlo simulation, we found the mean net present value (NPV of the introduction of the GIFT strain in Ghana to be approximately 1% of the country’s gross domestic product. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference in growth or yield between the GIFT and locally-available strains has the largest effect on mean NPV. We conclude that improvements in management practices and infrastructure could increase the yield and profitability of the local strains even if genetically-improved strains are not introduced. These improvements also will ensure the realization of the full potential of introduced strains.

  3. Population developmental stage determines the recovery potential of Daphnia magna populations after fenvalerate application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.J.; Liess, M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This study investigated the responses of Daphnia magna populations to pulsed exposures of the pyrethroid insecticide Fenvalerate applied during an early and a late stage of population development, and analyzed the dynamics of the subsequent recovery. A novel digital observation technique

  4. [Prevention of HPV cancer related through HPV-9: state of the art, potential benefits and open issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Bonanni, Paolo; Castiglia, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Conforti, Giorgio; Conversano, Michele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Maio, Tommasa; Mennini, Francesco; Prato, Rosa; Scotti, Silvestro; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    HPV vaccines currently marketed in Italy (bivalent and quadrivalent against HPV 16-18 and HPV and 6,11,16,18 respectively) are an extraordinary tool for the primary prevention of HPV related diseases, particularly of the cervical cancer. Although the implementation of the organized vaccination programs has already translated (for some endpoint) in confirmation of clinical efficacy, remains excluded a significant proportion of the diseases linked to non-vaccine HPV types. The new nonavalent vaccine (HPV9), of impending commercialization, represents an evolution of the quadrivalent, the composition of which are added five high-risk HPV types (HPV 31,33,45,52,58). The high clinical-immunological efficacy in experimental trials against the new genotypes (> 96% for CIN2 +), and the equivalence immunogenic to the four already present in the previous vaccine, will render the use of HPV9 a tool able to control in an even more effective HPV disease. The potential of the new vaccine is linked to the reduction of the HPV cancer burden by 2-20% according to anatomical site, with major benefits for cervical cancer, vulvo-vaginal, penile and more limited benefits for anal tumours. Moreover, the potential benefits could be also linked to the reduction of incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions arising in the lower-genital tract, especially in the cervix (CIN2-3), so often cause lengthy and expensive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In the face of this broad provision of benefit from HPV9 vaccine, we have also to consider all the variables related to its introduction in the vaccination calendars: the market price, the schedule of administration (currently in three doses) and data regarding the cost-effectiveness. The authors recognize the new vaccine (currently registered only in the US) a lot of potential in the prevention of HPV-related diseases.

  5. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 {+-} 17) mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  6. Sorghum bioenergy cropping systems: production potential and early indications of soil benefits under limited water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  7. An illustration of the potential health and economic benefits of combating antibiotic resistant gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2017-09-22

    Preventing the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can potentially avert hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs of gonorrhea and gonorrhea-attributable HIV infections. In the illustrative scenario we examined, emerging ceftriaxone resistance could lead to 1.2 million additional N. gonorrhoeae infections over 10 years, costing $378.2 million.

  8. Benefits of externships with pediatric dentistry programs for potential residents: program directors' and current residents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; Storey, Bryan; Hanson, Peter D

    2014-03-01

    This study's goal was to understand the extent, framework, and benefits of externships with prospective residency programs undertaken by predoctoral dental students or dentists interested in applying for a residency program. In 2012, a questionnaire was sent to all pediatric dentistry residents and program directors in the United States (63 percent and 74 percent return rate, respectively). Externships were offered by fifty-seven of the seventy-six programs. Most program directors (95 percent) agreed that externships are beneficial and compensate at least partially for the lack of numerical National Board Dental Examination scores or class rankings. Among the responding residents, 61 percent were female. The top reasons given by residents for choosing to extern with a certain program were its location and perceived reputation. Of the 249 respondents who did an externship, 47 percent externed with their current program. The acceptance rate into the number one choice of program was similar among those who did an externship vs. those who did not (73 percent vs. 75 percent). No relationship was found between gender and externships among the 341 respondents who were accepted into their top choice. Most of the residents (98.8 percent) felt that completing an externship was beneficial, and 88 percent got an increased understanding for the differences between university- and non-university-based residency programs.

  9. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  10. Systematic neighborhood observations at high spatial resolution: methodology and assessment of potential benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy C M Leonard

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of public health research documenting how characteristics of neighborhoods are associated with differences in the health status of residents. However, little is known about how the spatial resolution of neighborhood observational data or community audits affects the identification of neighborhood differences in health. We developed a systematic neighborhood observation instrument for collecting data at very high spatial resolution (we observe each parcel independently and used it to collect data in a low-income minority neighborhood in Dallas, TX. In addition, we collected data on the health status of individuals residing in this neighborhood. We then assessed the inter-rater reliability of the instrument and compared the costs and benefits of using data at this high spatial resolution. Our instrument provides a reliable and cost-effect method for collecting neighborhood observational data at high spatial resolution, which then allows researchers to explore the impact of varying geographic aggregations. Furthermore, these data facilitate a demonstration of the predictive accuracy of self-reported health status. We find that ordered logit models of health status using observational data at different spatial resolution produce different results. This implies a need to analyze the variation in correlative relationships at different geographic resolutions when there is no solid theoretical rational for choosing a particular resolution. We argue that neighborhood data at high spatial resolution greatly facilitates the evaluation of alternative geographic specifications in studies of neighborhood and health.

  11. Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE.

  12. Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.F.

    1979-10-01

    A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

  13. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Clifford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot’s biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function.

  14. Potential Cognitive Benefits From Playing Music Among Cognitively Intact Older Adults: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catherine E; Hunter, Elizabeth G; Bardach, Shoshana H

    2018-01-01

    The aging population is growing rapidly, raising rates of cognitive impairment, which makes strategies for protection against cognitive impairment increasingly important. There is little evidence indicating highly effective interventions preventing or slowing onset of cognitive impairment. Music playing influences brain and cognitive function, activating multiple brain areas and using cognitive and motor functions as well as multiple sensory systems, simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to review the current evidence related to playing a musical instrument being a potentially protective mechanism against cognitive decline among older adults. Using scoping review procedures, four databases were searched. Paired reviewers analyzed articles for content, design, and bias. Eleven studies met study criteria and were included in the review. All studies showed that music playing was correlated with positive outcomes on cognitive ability; more high-quality research is needed in this area to understand mechanisms behind potential cognitive protection of music.

  15. An exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Lactobacillus plantarum BR2 with potential benefits for making functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Keerthi; Kozhummal Vaikkath, Deepti; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2017-10-01

    A high molecular weight EPS of glucomannan nature was recovered and purified to get an yield of 2.8±0.5g/L from Lb. plantarum BR2 and it displayed potent antioxidant activity with 29.8% radical scavenging activity and 19% total antioxidant capacity. At 100µg/ml concentration, it is capable of inhibiting the alpha amylase activity by 10% and at 300µg/ml, it drastically inhibited the alpha-glucosidase activity by 67% which indicates its antidiabetic potential. More interestingly, at a concentration level of 0.1%, it reduced the cholesterol level by a margin of 45% in an in vitro assay. The sample didn't reveal any cytotoxicity against H9C2 normal cells indicating its potential for safe use as a food additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Tom; Howatson, Glyn; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-04-14

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot's biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function.

  17. Routine positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in melanoma staging with positive sentinel node biopsy is of limited benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Anastasia; Hofman, Michael; O'Doherty, Michael; Acland, Katharine M; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark

    2008-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the staging and management of melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PET or PET/ computed tomography (CT) as a routine procedure in patients with positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB). Thirty patients with melanoma of Breslow thickness greater than 1 mm who had PET or PET/CT scans performed within 100 days after a positive SNB were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients (6%) had a positive PET scan, none of which were melanoma related. The first patient had a synchronous neuroendocrine thyroid tumour and the second patient had increased uptake in the chest wall, which proved to be old trauma. Lymph node dissection was positive in five cases (16%). With a median follow-up of 24 months, 21 patients remained disease free. In none of the 30 cases did the early PET scan after a positive SNB alter subsequent melanoma management. The role of PET scanning soon after a positive sentinel node biopsy seems to be of limited benefit. It is questionable whether any imaging is beneficial at this stage. The results of this review suggest that PET scanning might not be indicated for this group of patients.

  18. Coping through blogging: A review of studies on the potential benefits of weblogs for stress reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Petko Dominik; Egger Nives; Schmitz Felix M.; Totter Alexandra; Hermann Thomas; Guttormsen Sissel

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive overview of the empirical evidence for potential effects of reflective weblog writing for coping with stress. Seventeen studies meeting the inclusion criteria are summarized in a systematic synopsis. Sixteen studies focus on self initiated blogging in informal contexts. Only one study examines mandated weblog writing for coping in an institutionalized context. Results indicate that the public nature of weblogs opens up a variety of possibilities for both prob...

  19. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  20. The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Lee, Eui Jin; Yu, Hong Suk; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Cheol Keun; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%), and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100%) showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4%) (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results

  1. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxyethyl starch: a review of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, current products, and potential clinical risks, benefits, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Polly A; Rudloff, Elke; Kirby, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    To review and summarize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hydroxyethyl starch (HES), as well as reported risks and benefits of HES infusion, and to provide administration and monitoring recommendations for HES use in dogs and cats. Veterinary and human peer-reviewed medical literature, including scientific reviews, clinical and laboratory research articles, and authors' clinical experience. HES solutions are the most frequently used synthetic colloid plasma volume expanders in human and veterinary medicine. The majority of research in human medicine has focused on the adverse effects of HES infusion, with emphasis on acute kidney injury and coagulation derangements. The studies often differ in or fail to report factors, such as the type, amount, interval, and concentration of HES administered; the patient population studied; or concurrent fluids administered. Currently, there is no definitive clinical evidence that the reported adverse effects of HES use in human medicine occur in veterinary species. There is little information available on HES administration techniques or simultaneous administration of additional fluids in human and veterinary medicine. The rationale for HES use in small animals has been largely extrapolated from human medical studies and guidelines. A controlled approach to intravenous fluid resuscitation using crystalloid and HES volumes titrated to reach desired resuscitation end point parameters is outlined for small animal practitioners. The extrapolation of data from human studies directly to small animals should be done with the knowledge that there may be species variations and different pharmacokinetics with different HES solutions. Veterinary reports indicate that bolus and continuous rate infusions of 6% hetastarch solutions at moderate doses are well tolerated in feline and canine subjects. Further research in domesticated species is necessary to better define and expand the knowledge regarding use of HES solutions in small

  3. Nanotechnology and in situ remediation: a review of the benefits and potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Barbara; Kuiken, Todd; Otto, Martha

    2009-12-01

    Although industrial sectors involving semiconductors; memory and storage technologies; display, optical, and photonic technologies; energy; biotechnology; and health care produce the most products that contain nanomaterials, nanotechnology is also used as an environmental technology to protect the environment through pollution prevention, treatment, and cleanup. In this review, we focus on environmental cleanup and provide a background and overview of current practice; research findings; societal issues; potential environment, health, and safety implications; and future directions for nanoremediation. We do not present an exhaustive review of chemistry/engineering methods of the technology but rather an introduction and summary of the applications of nanotechnology in remediation. We also discuss nanoscale zerovalent iron in detail. We searched the Web of Science for research studies and accessed recent publicly available reports from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other agencies and organizations that addressed the applications and implications associated with nanoremediation techniques. We also conducted personal interviews with practitioners about specific site remediations. We aggregated information from 45 sites, a representative portion of the total projects under way, to show nanomaterials used, types of pollutants addressed, and organizations responsible for each site. Nanoremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites but also to reduce cleanup time, eliminate the need for treatment and disposal of contaminated soil, and reduce some contaminant concentrations to near zero-all in situ. Proper evaluation of nanoremediation, particularly full-scale ecosystem-wide studies, needs to be conducted to prevent any potential adverse environmental impacts.

  4. Nanotechnology and in Situ Remediation: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Barbara; Kuiken, Todd; Otto, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although industrial sectors involving semiconductors; memory and storage technologies; display, optical, and photonic technologies; energy; biotechnology; and health care produce the most products that contain nanomaterials, nanotechnology is also used as an environmental technology to protect the environment through pollution prevention, treatment, and cleanup. In this review, we focus on environmental cleanup and provide a background and overview of current practice; research findings; societal issues; potential environment, health, and safety implications; and future directions for nanoremediation. We do not present an exhaustive review of chemistry/engineering methods of the technology but rather an introduction and summary of the applications of nanotechnology in remediation. We also discuss nanoscale zerovalent iron in detail. Data sources We searched the Web of Science for research studies and accessed recent publicly available reports from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other agencies and organizations that addressed the applications and implications associated with nanoremediation techniques. We also conducted personal interviews with practitioners about specific site remediations. Data synthesis We aggregated information from 45 sites, a representative portion of the total projects under way, to show nanomaterials used, types of pollutants addressed, and organizations responsible for each site. Conclusions Nanoremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites but also to reduce cleanup time, eliminate the need for treatment and disposal of contaminated soil, and reduce some contaminant concentrations to near zero—all in situ. Proper evaluation of nanoremediation, particularly full-scale ecosystem-wide studies, needs to be conducted to prevent any potential adverse environmental impacts. PMID:20049198

  5. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Green and Fermented Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in Dermal Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Nadine A; Koekemoer, Trevor C; Holzer, Andrea; Young, Carly; Venables, Luanne; van de Venter, Maryna

    2018-02-28

    The process of wound healing constitutes an ordered sequence of events that provides numerous opportunities for therapeutic intervention to improve wound repair. Rooibos, Aspalathus linearis , is a popular ingredient in skin care products, however, little scientific data exists exploring its therapeutic potential. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fermented and aspalathin-enriched green rooibos in various in vitro models representative of dermal wound healing. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with fermented rooibos resulted in increased nitric oxide production as well as increased levels of cellular inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are typical markers for classically activated macrophages. In contrast, the green extract was devoid of such activity. Using glycated gelatin as a model to mimic diabetic wounds, only the green extract showed potential to reduce cyclooxygenase-2 levels. Considering the role of reactive oxygen species in wound healing, the effects of rooibos on oxidative stress and cell death in human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Both fermented and green rooibos decreased cellular reactive oxygen species and attenuated apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Our findings highlight several properties that support the therapeutic potential of rooibos, and demonstrate that green and fermented rooibos present distinctly different properties with regards to their application in wound healing. The proinflammatory nature of fermented rooibos may have therapeutic value for wounds characterised with a delayed initial inflammatory phase, such as early diabetic wounds. The green extract is more suited to wounds burdened with excessive inflammation as it attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 levels and effectively protected fibroblasts against oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Estimate of potential benefit for Europe of fitting Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems for pedestrian protection to passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Wisch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    current generation AEB systems to about €3.5 billion for a reference limit system (i.e., best performance thought technically feasible at present). Dividing these values by the number of new passenger cars registered in Europe per year gives an indication that the cost of a system per car should be less than ∼€80 to ∼€280 for it to be cost effective. The potential benefit of fitting AEB systems to cars in Europe for pedestrian protection has been estimated and the results interpreted to indicate the upper limit of cost for a system to allow it to be cost effective.

  7. Potential health benefits of Indian spices in the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abishek; Panchal, Sunil; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2009-12-01

    Spices used in Indian cooking have a long history of use as medicines to prevent and treat diseases. Many studies have confirmed that spices can be useful medicines, but the major challenge is now to provide scientific evidence and plausible mechanisms for their therapeutic responses. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of Indian spices to treat multiple symptoms of the metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, altered lipid profile and hypertension. The metabolic syndrome is prevalent and has become an important financial burden to the healthcare system in both developed and developing countries. Inflammation and oxidative stress have been proposed as initiators of the metabolic syndrome, especially of insulin resistance. Natural products with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are found in spices. Adequate doses of these compounds may be effective in treating the metabolic syndrome. Testing these potential treatments requires adequate animal models, usually rodents, so the limitations of these models are important. Furthermore, this review highlights the need for adequate legislation and regulation to ensure the safety and success of evidence-based functional foods and nutraceuticals. Spices, Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Metabolic syndrome, Inflammation, Oxidative stress,

  8. From cannabis to the endocannabinoid system: refocussing attention on potential clinical benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, F F; Irving, A J

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal remedies known to man. Over the past four thousand years, it has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases but due to its psychoactive properties, its current medicinal usage is highly restricted. In this review, we seek to highlight advances made over the last forty years in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cannabis on the human body and how these can potentially be utilized in clinical practice. During this time, the primary active ingredients in cannabis have been isolated, specific cannabinoid receptors have been discovered and at least five endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) have been identified. Together, these form the framework of a complex endocannabinoid signalling system that has widespread distribution in the body and plays a role in regulating numerous physiological processes within the body. Cannabinoid ligands are therefore thought to display considerable therapeutic potential and the drive to develop compounds that can be targeted to specific neuronal systems at low enough doses so as to eliminate cognitive side effects remains the 'holy grail' of endocannabinoid research.

  9. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  10. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  11. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Melinda; Baldwin, Timothy C; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin

    2010-03-24

    benefits of KGM with the associated requirements for quality control. Possible directions for future research and development and standardisation of production and classification of this versatile natural product will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency analysis of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Sushko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential. Material and Methods: in order to identify the factors that have supported the performance of Ukraine's male national team in the European Championship, data analysis and generalization of scientific and technical literature and online data, analysis of official protocols of competitive activities, analysis and generalization of best pedagogical practices, pedagogical supervision, methods of mathematical statistics were used. Results: the efficiency of competitive activity of basketball players was analyzed using such indicators as team roles, won and lost matches, scored and missed points, technical, tactical and age indicators. Conclusions: the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential were identified with regard to age indicators

  13. Potential benefits of the recovery of strategic/critical materials from mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, C.F.; Hofman, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The United States is currently dependent on foreign suppliers for many of its strategic and critical materials. Chrome, platinum, and manganese are primarily supplied by South Africa and the Soviet Union. Zaire and Zambia are the major sources of cobalt. Budgetary cutbacks over the last 20 yr have reduced the stockpiles maintained for defense use. Many are currently in deficit. Considering the tenuous relationships the United States maintains with many of the countries relied on for these strategic materials, an alternative source of materials would be welcomed. One potential source of some of these strategic and critical materials is uranium mill tailings. Substantial quantities of uranium, vanadium, molybdenum, and cobalt have been successfully recovered from uranium mill tailings at Durango, Old Rifle, Grand Junction, Colorado, and Mexican Hat, Utah. The national defense stockpile currently has a deficit of cobalt and vanadium. Other strategic materials currently in deficit (nickel, platinum, palladium, etc.) also may be recoverable from mill tailings

  14. The potential benefits of using aloe vera in stoma patient skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Mark; Perrin, Angie; Darwood, Richard; Ousey, Karen

    2017-03-09

    Individuals living with an ostomy may suffer from a variety of peri-stomal skin complications related to the use of their stoma appliance or accessories. These conditions can be serious enough to significantly impact on a patient's quality of life and may result in severe clinical complications (such as infection). This article is a review of the literature with the objective of investigating and presenting evidence for the well-documented use of aloe vera in the prevention of skin conditions similar to those seen in peri-stomal skin complications. An exploration for the potential use of aloe vera directly or indirectly (as an adjunct to medical devices such as wafers) in stoma patients is presented with the view that this use may be beneficial in the prevention of such peri-stomal skin complications.

  15. Potential benefit of (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate for macrovascular complications in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular problems are the most common complications in diabetes. Substantial evidence from epidemiological and pathophysiological studies show that hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major catechin derived from green tea, is known to exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects. The protective effects of EGCG in diabetes are also evident. However, whether EGCG is beneficial against macrovascular complications that occur in diabetes remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that treatment of EGCG inhibits high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suppresses high glucose-mediated vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that EGCG might be an effective potential candidate to reduce the macrovascular complications in diabetes.

  16. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research.

  17. Outdoor Class Project: the Potential Benefits to Foster EFL Students’ Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Fajaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are such myriad ideas upon English teaching-learning process. Everybody can share each fabulous idea through various media. One of fun English learnings that can motivate EFL students’ eagerness to practice English easily is an outdoor class activity. This project could sometimes deals with an outbound activities which provide the numerous contextualized values to shape more students’ character and their language proficiency as well. Moreover, nowadays the development of technology can be also integrated into the EFL classrooms. Therefore, the outdoor class project is potentially implemented through the technology-enhanced teaching. The most crucial materials that is urgently to be prepared are the tutorial models & methods, and the thermalized subject based on the objective itself.

  18. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-12-03

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented.

  19. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research.

  20. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  1. Implications of higher energy - summary of benefits, issues, commissioning cost, SEU, Cryo, QPS margins, Potential availability issues

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is technically almost ready to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012. Nevertheless, a review of the advantages and disadvantages of such an energy step should be carefully made before taking this decision. There fore, this paper will summarize the benefits from the physics point of view; the potential issues like a possible increase of Single Event Errors , Unidentified Flying Objects, or a significant decrease of the quench margin from beam losses that, all in all , could lead to availability issues, compromising the integrated luminosity. And last but not least, the commissioning cost will be addressed.

  2. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  3. Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath Campi Flegrei and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.

  4. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  5. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  6. Potential health and economic benefits of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria: implications for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients‘ contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively. Their sodium-potassium ratios were all less than 1.0 and their oils have mainly unsaturated fatty acids. Their acid values ranged between (2.41–6.34 mgKOH/g while the iodine values were between 36.0 and 93.0 I2 g/100 g. Analysis of the nuts and their oils indicated that they could help in solving malnutrition problem and also boost nations’ economy. Encouraging their large scale production can enhance adequate nutrition and sustain industrial growth in developing countries. Keywords: Nutrition, Food analysis, Food science

  7. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  8. What are the potential benefits of clinical beta-cell imaging in diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, Burkhard

    2010-05-01

    Previously, studies of the endocrine pancreatic beta-cell were mainly performed ex vivo by morphological means. This data supported the analysis of pathophysiological changes in the pancreatic islet during insults such as diabetes mellitus. Metabolic testing of the pancreatic islet by assaying hormone parameters such als plasma insulin or C-peptide combined with more or less sophisticated calculations allowed conclusions about states of insulin resistance or secretory failure. It also allowed certain correlations of endocrine function with beta-cell mass. Today, with firmer pathophysiological concepts about beta-cell failure, modern protocols of islet transplantation, and drugs on the market coming with promises of preservation or even expansion of beta-cell mass in diabetes mellitus it has become very attractive to search for tools measuring beta-cell mass, if possible even repeatingly in the same organism in vivo. From a clinical point of view, the potential of pancreatic beta-cell mass imaging technologies is looked upon with high expectations. Methodologically, the decisive question is whether it is likely that future beta-cell imaging will provide significant advantages over the metabolic methods already in hand. With new in vivo tools, studies of beta-cell mass and function may offer even new approaches stratifying patients to anti-diabetic therapies.

  9. Potential benefits and costs of concurrent task engagement to maintain vigilance: a driving simulator investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Chan, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of concurrent task interference during a vigilance task and to determine whether a concurrent task improves performance with decreased vigilance. Research has repeatedly shown that engaging in a cell phone conversation while driving increases the risk of getting into crashes. At the same time, it has also been found that task monotony could lead to an increase in crash risk. There is evidence that suggests that engaging in a concurrent task reduces the effects of monotony, leading to an improvement in vigilance task performance. A monotonous drive in a driving simulator was used to investigate the effects of a concurrent verbal task. Three task conditions were used: no verbal task, continuous verbal task, and late verbal task. When engaged in a secondary verbal task, drivers showed improved lane-keeping performance and steering control when vigilance was lowest. A strategically placed concurrent task can improve performance when vigilance is at its lowest. There is potential for the design of a countermeasure system that can be strategically activated by an automated system monitoring driver performance.

  10. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD.

  11. The potential of Ganoderma lucidum extracts as bioactive ingredients in topical formulations, beyond its nutritional benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Barros, Lillian; González-Paramás, Ana M; Barreiro, Maria F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-10-01

    Ganoderma lucidum was characterized in terms of nutritional value and chemical composition. Thereafter, ethanolic Soxhlet extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antityrosinase, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects, and further characterized in terms of phenolic acids, polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Finally, the obtained extracts were tested as cosmeceutical ingredients. G. lucidum proved to be a source of macronutrients and important bioactive compounds such as terpenoids, specially triterpenoids, and polysaccharides. In the extracts, ganoderic acids C2, A and H were the most abundant triterpenic acids and protocatechuic, p-hydroxibenzoic and syringic acids the identified phenolics. The developed cosmeceutical formulation preserved the extract bioactivities, presented a light-yellow colour and a pH of 4.6, which is considered appropriate for cosmeceutical's design. Behind the important nutritional/bioactive composition of G. lucidum, a potential towards its valorisation in the field of cosmeceuticals is foreseeable, as deduced from the bioactivities of its ethanolic extract and preservation in the tested formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-09

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  13. Intermittent hypoxia in childhood: the harmful consequences versus potential benefits of therapeutic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Serebrovskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia often occurs in early infancy in both preterm and term infants and especially at 36 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age. These episodes of intermittent hypoxia could result from sleep-disordered breathing or may be temporally unrelated to apnea or bradycardia events. There are numerous reports indicating adverse effects of intermittent hypoxia on development, behavior, academic achievement and cognition in children with sleep apnea syndrome. It remains uncertain the exact causative relationship between the neurocognitive and behavioral morbidities and intermittent hypoxia and/or its associated sleep fragmentation. On the other hand, well-controlled and moderate intermittent hypoxia conditioning/training has been used in sick children for treating their various forms of bronchial asthma, allergic dermatoses, autoimmune thyroiditis, cerebral palsy, and obesity. This review article provides an updated and impartial analysis on the currently available evidence in supporting either side of the seemingly contradictory scenarios. We wish to stimulate a comprehensive understanding of such a complex physiological phenomenon as intermittent hypoxia, which may be accompanied by other confounding factors (e.g. hypercapnia, polycythemia, in order to prevent or reduce its harmful consequences, while maximize its potential utility as an effective therapeutic tool in pediatric patients.

  14. Potential benefits from improved energy efficiency of key electrical products: The case of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the world's second most populous country continues to grow rapidly, bringing prosperity to a growing middle class while further straining an energy infrastructure already stretched beyond capacity. At the same time, efficiency policy initiatives have gained a foothold in India, and promise to grow in number over the coming years. This paper considers the maximum cost-effective potential of efficiency improvement for key energy-consuming products in the Indian context. The products considered are: household refrigerators, window air conditioners, motors and distribution transformers. Together, these products account for about 27% of delivered electricity consumption in India. The analysis estimates the minimum Life-Cycle Cost option for each product class, according to use patterns and prevailing customer marginal rates in each sector. This option represents an efficiency improvement ranging between 12% and 60%, depending on product class. If this level of efficiency was achieved starting in 2010, we estimate that total electricity consumption in India could be reduced by 4.7% by 2020, saving over 74 million tons of oil equivalent and over 246 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Net present financial savings of this efficiency improvement totals 8.1 billion dollars

  15. Exercise prescription for patients with multiple sclerosis; potential benefits and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Alizadeh, Zahra; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Abolhasani, Maryam

    2017-09-16

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse. Appropriate exercise can cause noteworthy and important improvements in different areas of cardio respiratory fitness (Aerobic fitness), muscle strength, flexibility, balance, fatigue, cognition, quality of life and respiratory function in MS patients. Aerobic exercise training with low to moderate intensity can result in the improvement of aerobic fitness and reduction of fatigue in MS patients affected by mild or moderate disability. MS patients can positively adapt to resistance training which may result in improved fatigue and ambulation. Flexibility exercises such as stretching the muscles may diminish spasticity and prevent future painful contractions. Balance exercises have beneficial effects on fall rates and better balance. Some general guidelines exist for exercise recommendation in the MS population. The individualized exercise program should be designed to address a patient's chief complaint, improve strength, endurance, balance, coordination, fatigue and so on. An exercise staircase model has been proposed for exercise prescription and progression for a broad spectrum of MS patients. Exercise should be considered as a safe and effective means of rehabilitation in MS patients. Existing evidence shows that a supervised and individualized exercise program may improve fitness, functional capacity and

  16. Potential Economic Benefits of Adapting Agricultural Production Systems to Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs to

  17. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  18. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  19. Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Specht

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political. They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.

  20. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  1. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2008-05-27

    Recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) under forthcoming climate change mitigation regimes are receiving increasing attention. Here we demonstrate that if RED credits were traded on international carbon markets, even moderate decreases in deforestation rates could generate billions of Euros annually for tropical forest conservation. We also discuss the main challenges for a RED mechanism that delivers real climatic benefits. These include providing sufficient incentives while only rewarding deforestation reductions beyond business-as-usual scenarios, addressing risks arising from forest degradation and international leakage, and ensuring permanence of emission reductions. Governance may become a formidable challenge for RED because some countries with the highest RED potentials score poorly on governance indices. In addition to climate mitigation, RED funds could help achieve substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and human development. However, this will probably require targeted additional support because the highest biodiversity threats and human development needs may exist in countries that have limited income potentials from RED. In conclusion, how successfully a market-based RED mechanism can contribute to climate change mitigation, conservation and development will strongly depend on accompanying measures and carefully designed incentive structures involving governments, business, as well as the conservation and development communities.

  2. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  3. Potential effect of combined xenoestrogens during gestation stages on mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuy Thi Bich; Nguyen, Phong Van; Duong, Ha Thi Thu; Nguyen, Ton Dang; Huynh, Hu Thi Hue; Nong, Hai Van

    2015-03-01

    The synergistic effect of numerous environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has raised research concern among researchers. To extend previous studies, the measured additional potential interactions among bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert octylphenol (OP) and isobutylparaben (IBP) in mouse model were observed. Pregnant Swiss-albino mice were treated with binary combined chemicals (5, 50 or 500 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1)) from gestation day (GD) 1 to 21. Interestingly, maternal exposure to these EDCs caused fluctuation in GD time, live ratio, female/male ratio, body and organ weights of mouse offspring at postnatal day (PND) 1, 21, and 41 days. At most doses early reduced 0.85 to 1.87 GD compared to controls. Besides females/males ratio showed a significant difference in BPA+ OP, BPA+IBP groups. Female body weight at PND 21 and 41, showed a significant reduction at all combined levels, whereas male offspring showed reduction in weight at dose 50 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1). The potential effects of synergic estrogenicity detected histopathological abnormities, such as ovary analysis revealed increase of corpora lutea, cystic follicles and an endometrial hypertrophy and morphometric changes in uteri measurement. Taken together, these results provided an additional insight into synergistic effects of EDCs toxicology on reproductive tracts.

  4. Uranium potential inventory on systematic prospection stage at Jumbang I sector, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, Manto; Rusmadi; Widito, P.; Marzuki, Anang; Sularto, Priyo

    2002-01-01

    At Jumbang I sector, West Kalimantan was discovered a uranium mineralization as outcrops, boulders, and high radioactivity soils. This research aim is to get know how of the extension, characters, and potential. The research approach was topographic, geologic, and radiometric soil mapping, trenching, and mineralogical and chemical analysis. The results are soil radiometric anomalies orientation are WNW-ESE strike or N-S, appropriate to the mineralization orientation. The mineralization have filled WNW-ESE fractures and associated with N-S fractures and it can be distinguished into five mineralization zones. The radioactive mineral consists of uraninite, gummite, autunite, and monazite, which are associated with magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite, quartz, feldspar, pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite. Geochemically, the uranium content is well correlated with Co (R=0.601), Ni (R=0.646), Ag (R=0.752), Au (R=0.654), Pb (R=0.896) and Mo (R=0.847). The mineralization at Jumbang I sector could be classified as vein type granite related subtype, peri granitic class. Their potential until 50 m depth is 230.08 tons U within the speculative category of resources

  5. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg, to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ouyang

    Full Text Available Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program.The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010.Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3- to a C(4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4 resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4-based resource in September.Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  6. Lead tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Brazilian leguminous tree species at the seedling stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Sarah Caroline; Adrián López de Andrade, Sara; Anjos de Souza, Lucas; Schiavinato, Marlene Aparecida

    2012-11-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of three Brazilian leguminous woody species, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Erythrina speciosa and Schizolobium parahyba, for the revegetation of lead- (Pb-) contaminated areas. The response of seedlings to increasing Pb concentrations (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) in the soil was studied. In addition to Pb accumulation and translocation, the following parameters were assessed: chlorophyll, nitrate, ammonia, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and free amino acid content; seedling growth; and nitrogenase activity. No differences were observed in the germination of woody species seeds sown in soils with or without Pb addition. M. caesalpiniaefolia did not show visual symptoms of Pb toxicity, while the other two species demonstrated stress symptoms, including reduced shoot biomass yield, leaf area and height. Biochemical analyses of plant tissues revealed markedly different responses to increasing Pb concentrations, such as changes in foliar soluble amino acid composition in S. parahyba; changes in ammonia and nitrate content in E. speciosa, M. caesalpiniaefolia and S. parahyba; and changes in MDA content in S. parahyba. The levels of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid were affected in the species studied. For the Nitrogen-fixing (N(2)-fixing) species E. speciosa, an increase of Pb in the soil affected nodule formation and growth, which led to reduced nitrogenase activity in seedlings. The concentration of Pb in shoots and roots increased with the Pb concentration in soil. However, most of the Pb absorbed accumulated in the roots, and only a small fraction was translocated to aboveground parts. These findings were confirmed by the low bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) values for the three species. The tolerance index (TI) values suggested that M. caesalpiniaefolia, a N(2)-fixing tree, was the species that was most tolerant to high Pb concentrations in soil, while E. speciosa and S

  7. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    recent decades (allowing freshly settled juveniles to reach high densities). To the best of our knowledge, the idea that overfishing of competing marine mesopredators benefits staging shorebirds, at least in the short term, is novel; it now needs further experimental and comparative scrutiny. The long-term effects of overfishing on benthic communities of the mudflats need further investigation.

  8. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  9. Salinity tolerance potential of two acacia species at early seedling stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Akhtar, J.; Basra, S.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental issue in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Acacia has very important role for salt affected barren lands due to its high salinity tolerance potential. The aim of the present study was to explore the genetic differences among Acacia ampliceps and Acacia nilotica regarding their response to salinity. Three-weeks old seedlings of both species were transplanted in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution having five salt levels (control,100, 200, 300 and 400 mM NaCl) with four replications in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. After eight weeks of transplantation, the plants were harvested and data for shoot and root length and their fresh and dry weights were recorded. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/concentration of both root and shoot was determined. All the growth parameters of both species declined significantly in response to salinity. Acacia ampliceps was more salt tolerant than Acacia nilotica with better growth owing to higher K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio in plant tissues. (author)

  10. Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Pawel; Polkowski, Wojciech; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS); as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons.

  11. Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Jozwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS; as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons.

  12. Outcomes of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients With Potentially Operable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerwaard, Frank J., E-mail: fj.lagerwaard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verstegen, Naomi E.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Paul, Marinus A. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smit, Egbert F. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-01

    Background: Approximately two-thirds of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in The Netherlands currently undergo surgical resection. As an increasing number of fit patients have elected to undergo stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in recent years, we studied outcomes after SABR in patients with potentially operable stage I NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In an institutional prospective database collected since 2003, 25% of lung SABR cases (n = 177 patients) were found to be potentially operable when the following patients were excluded: those with (1) synchronous lung tumors or other malignancy, (2) prior high-dose radiotherapy/pneumonectomy, (3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a severity score of 3-4 according to the Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease classification. (4) a performance score of {>=}3, and (5) other comorbidity precluding surgery. Study patients included 101 males and 76 females, with a median age of 76 years old, 60% of whom were staged as T1 and 40% of whom were T2. Median Charlson comorbidity score was 2 (range, 0-5). A SABR dose of 60 Gy was delivered using a risk-adapted scheme in 3, 5, or 8 fractions, depending on tumor size and location. Follow-up chest computed tomography scans were obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Results: Median follow-up was 31.5 months; and median overall survival (OS) was 61.5 months, with 1- and 3-year survival rates of 94.7% and 84.7%, respectively. OS rates at 3 years in patients with (n = 59) and without (n = 118) histological diagnosis did not differ significantly (96% versus 81%, respectively, p = 0.39). Post-SABR 30-day mortality was 0%, while predicted 30-day mortality for a lobectomy, derived using the Thoracoscore predictive model (Falcoz PE et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133:325-332), would have been 2.6%. Local control rates at 1 and 3 years were 98% and 93%, respectively. Regional and distant failure rates at 3 years were each

  13. Identification of nine genomic regions of amplification in urothelial carcinoma, correlation with stage, and potential prognostic and therapeutic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Chekaluk

    Full Text Available We performed a genome wide analysis of 164 urothelial carcinoma samples and 27 bladder cancer cell lines to identify copy number changes associated with disease characteristics, and examined the association of amplification events with stage and grade of disease. Multiplex inversion probe (MIP analysis, a recently developed genomic technique, was used to study 80 urothelial carcinomas to identify mutations and copy number changes. Selected amplification events were then analyzed in a validation cohort of 84 bladder cancers by multiplex ligation-dependent probe assay (MLPA. In the MIP analysis, 44 regions of significant copy number change were identified using GISTIC. Nine gene-containing regions of amplification were selected for validation in the second cohort by MLPA. Amplification events at these 9 genomic regions were found to correlate strongly with stage, being seen in only 2 of 23 (9% Ta grade 1 or 1-2 cancers, in contrast to 31 of 61 (51% Ta grade 3 and T2 grade 2 cancers, p<0.001. These observations suggest that analysis of genomic amplification of these 9 regions might help distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinoma, although further study is required. Both MIP and MLPA methods perform well on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DNA, enhancing their potential clinical use. Furthermore several of the amplified genes identified here (ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1 are potential therapeutic targets.

  14. The Potential Role of Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-07-01

    Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of chronic and end-stage renal disease and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Hypertension is present in the vast majority of these patients and plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of renal function and the high rate of cardiovascular events in this patient cohort. Augmentation of renin release, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renal vascular resistance are direct consequences of efferent renal sympathetic nerve stimulation and the major components of neural regulation of renal function. Renal afferent nerve activity directly influences sympathetic outflow to the kidneys and other highly innervated organs involved in blood pressure control via hypothalamic integration. Renal denervation of the kidney has been shown to reduce blood pressure in many experimental models of hypertension. Targeting the renal nerves directly may therefore be specifically useful in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with impaired kidney function and also reflect on the potential impact on other cardiovascular conditions commonly associated with chronic kidney disease such as heart failure and arrhythmias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Positron emission tomography with selected mediastinoscopy compared to routine mediastinoscopy offers cost and clinical outcome benefits for pre-operative staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin K.; Yap, Kenneth S.K.; Byrne, Amanda J.; Berlangieri, Salvatore U.; Poon, Aurora; Harris, Anthony; Tauro, Andrew; Mitchell, Paul; Knight, Simon R.; Clarke, Peter C.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is an important staging procedure in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to demonstrate, through a decision tree model and the incorporation of real costs of each component, that routine FDG-PET imaging as a prelude to curative surgery will reduce requirements for routine mediastinoscopy and overall hospital costs. A decision tree model comparing routine whole-body FDG-PET imaging to routine staging mediastinoscopy was used, with baseline variables of sensitivity, specificity and prevalence of non-operable and metastatic disease obtained from institutional data and a literature review. Costings for hospital admissions for mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy of actual patients with NSCLC were determined. The overall and average cost of managing patients was then calculated over a range of FDG-PET costs to derive projected cost savings to the community. The prevalence of histologically proven mediastinal involvement in patients with NSCLC presenting for surgical assessment at our institution is 20%, and the prevalence of distant metastatic disease is 6%. Based on literature review, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for detection of mediastinal spread are 84% and 89% respectively, and for mediastinoscopy, 81% and 100%. The average cost of mediastinoscopy for NSCLC in our institution is AUD$4,160, while that of thoracotomy is AUD$15,642. The cost of an FDG-PET scan is estimated to be AUD$1,500. Using these figures and the decision tree model, the average cost saving is AUD$2,128 per patient. Routine FDG-PET scanning with selective mediastinoscopy will save AUD$2,128 per patient and will potentially reduce inappropriate surgery. These cost savings remain robust over a wide range of disease prevalence and FDG-PET costs. (orig.)

  16. Impact of staging with 18F-FDG-PET on outcome of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer: PET identifies potential survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschmann, S.M.; Reimold, M.; Bares, R.; Friedel, G.; Paulsen, F.; Hehr, T.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Budach, W.; Kotzerke, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of FDG-PET staging on treatment results of neo-adjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared prospectively the outcome of two patient groups with stage III NSCLC undergoing the same neo-adjuvant radio-chemotherapy (NARCT). In one group, FDG-PET was part of the pretherapeutic staging, whereas in the other group, no PET scans were performed. One hundred and eighty-eight patients with advanced stage III NSCLC were selected for a phase II trial of NARCT. The first 115 patients underwent conventional workup (CWU) and FDG-PET before inclusion (group I); the remaining 73 patients underwent CWU only (group II). All patients were followed up according to a standardised protocol for at least 11 months (up to 64 months). Overall survival and disease-free survival were used as parameters of therapeutic success and analysed statistically. After staging, 157/188 patients were included in the clinical trial. Thirty-one were excluded owing to the results of FDG-PET, in most cases because of the detection of previously unknown distant metastases. Overall survival and metastasis-free survival were significantly longer in patients of group I stratified by FDG-PET than in group II (p=0.006 and 0.02 respectively). Another significant factor for survival was complete tumour resection (p=0.02). Gender, histological tumour type, tumour grade and UICC stage had no significant influence. Pretherapeutic staging by FDG-PET significantly influences the results of NARCT and subsequent surgery by identifying patients not eligible for curative treatment. (orig.)

  17. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P. (KTech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  18. Effect of mercury and cadmium on early life stages of Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus): A potential tropical test fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Ahmad; Yusof, Shahrizad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Early life stages of Java medaka show high sensitivity to Cd and Hg. → Exposure of the early life stages caused several developmental impairments. → Java medaka is suitable to be established as test organism for ecotoxicology. → Results of testing using this fish reflect the environment of the tropical region. - Abstract: Several organisms have been used as indicators, bio-monitoring agents or test organisms in ecotoxicological studies. A close relative of the well established Japanese medaka, the Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus), has the potential to be a test organism. The fish is native to the estuaries of the Malaysian Peninsula, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. In this study, newly fertilised eggs were exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Hg. Observations were done on the development of the embryos. Exposure to low levels of Cd and Hg (0.01-0.05 ppm) resulted in several developmental disorders that led to death. Exposure to ≥1.0 ppm Cd resulted in immediate developmental arrest. The embryos of Java medaka showed tolerance to a certain extent when exposed to ≥1.0 ppm Hg compared to Cd. Based on the sensitivity of the embryos, Java medaka is a suitable test organism for ecotoxicology in the tropical region.

  19. Concept and benefits of the Inverted Classroom method for a competency-based biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Susanne J.; Toberer, Matthias; Keis, Oliver; Tolks, Daniel; Fischer, Martin R.; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical students often have a problem recognising the relevance of basic science subjects for their later professional work in the pre-clinical stage of their studies. This can lead to a lower motivation to learn biochemical content and dissatisfaction in the courses amongst the students. Alternative teaching methods such as the Inverted Classroom (IC) method can address this deficiency. The goal of this study was: to analyse the motivation and satisfaction of the students in a biochemistry seminar through the use of the e-learning-based IC method, to investigate the acceptance against the IC teaching method in biochemistry, and to compare the learning success achieved using the IC approach with that of a traditional course. We also investigated how a biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies can be successfully organised according to the IC method. Furthermore, we examined the benefits of the IC method over conventional teaching formats. Method: The IC method was implemented in accordance with the guidelines of the GMA committee “New Media” [30] in a biochemistry seminar for two student IC intervention groups with 42 students. A part of the factual knowledge from the on-site phase in the form of teaching videos together with self-learning control tasks were provided online before the seminar for both IC intervention groups. Exporting content to the self-learning phase creates new free time in the on-site phase, during which the content can be critically considered and processed and additional competency-based learning objectives can be taught. Identical biochemistry teaching content was taught in parallel control groups (14 student groups with n=299 students), but no material was handed out beforehand for a self-learning phase. These students only received the materials after the on-site phase. Motivation and satisfaction as well as the acceptance for the teaching methods were recorded by questionnaires

  20. Concept and benefits of the Inverted Classroom method for a competency-based biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühl, Susanne J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often have a problem recognising the relevance of basic science subjects for their later professional work in the pre-clinical stage of their studies. This can lead to a lower motivation to learn biochemical content and dissatisfaction in the courses amongst the students. Alternative teaching methods such as the Inverted Classroom (IC method can address this deficiency. The goal of this study was: We also investigated how a biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies can be successfully organised according to the IC method. Furthermore, we examined the benefits of the IC method over conventional teaching formats. Method: The IC method was implemented in accordance with the guidelines of the GMA committee “New Media” in a biochemistry seminar for two student IC intervention groups with 42 students. A part of the factual knowledge from the on-site phase in the form of teaching videos together with self-learning control tasks were provided online before the seminar for both IC intervention groups. Exporting content to the self-learning phase creates new free time in the on-site phase, during which the content can be critically considered and processed and additional competency-based learning objectives can be taught. Identical biochemistry teaching content was taught in parallel control groups (14 student groups with n=299 students, but no material was handed out beforehand for a self-learning phase. These students only received the materials after the on-site phase. Motivation and satisfaction as well as the acceptance for the teaching methods were recorded by questionnaires, the acquisition of knowledge by MC exams.Results: On a Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree to 6 (strongly agree, the students in the IC intervention groups could be seen to be much more motivated (5.53 than students in the control group (4.01. Students in the IC intervention groups also recognised the

  1. Concept and benefits of the Inverted Classroom method for a competency-based biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Susanne J; Toberer, Matthias; Keis, Oliver; Tolks, Daniel; Fischer, Martin R; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical students often have a problem recognising the relevance of basic science subjects for their later professional work in the pre-clinical stage of their studies. This can lead to a lower motivation to learn biochemical content and dissatisfaction in the courses amongst the students. Alternative teaching methods such as the Inverted Classroom (IC) method can address this deficiency. The goal of this study was: to analyse the motivation and satisfaction of the students in a biochemistry seminar through the use of the e-learning-based IC method, to investigate the acceptance against the IC teaching method in biochemistry, and to compare the learning success achieved using the IC approach with that of a traditional course. We also investigated how a biochemistry course in the pre-clinical stage of a human medicine course of studies can be successfully organised according to the IC method. Furthermore, we examined the benefits of the IC method over conventional teaching formats. Method: The IC method was implemented in accordance with the guidelines of the GMA committee "New Media" [30] in a biochemistry seminar for two student IC intervention groups with 42 students. A part of the factual knowledge from the on-site phase in the form of teaching videos together with self-learning control tasks were provided online before the seminar for both IC intervention groups. Exporting content to the self-learning phase creates new free time in the on-site phase, during which the content can be critically considered and processed and additional competency-based learning objectives can be taught. Identical biochemistry teaching content was taught in parallel control groups (14 student groups with n=299 students), but no material was handed out beforehand for a self-learning phase. These students only received the materials after the on-site phase. Motivation and satisfaction as well as the acceptance for the teaching methods were recorded by questionnaires, the

  2. Evaluation of the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for lung cancer screening using photofluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Doi, Kunio; Kano, Akiko.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in lung cancer screenings using photofluorographic films, we performed an observer test with 12 radiologists. We used 60 photofluorographic films obtained from a lung cancer screening program in Yamaguchi Prefecture (30 contained cancerous nodules and 30 had no nodules). In these cases, our current automated detection scheme achieved a sensitivity of 80%, but yielded an average of 11 false-positives per image. The observer study consisted of three viewing conditions: 1) only the original image (single reading), 2) the original image and computer output obtained from the current CAD scheme (CAD 1), 3) the original image and computer output obtained from a simulated improved CAD scheme with the same 80% true-positive rate, but with an average of one false-positive per image (CAD 2). Compared with double reading using independent interpretations, which is based on a higher score between two single readings, CAD 2 was more sensitive in subtle cases. The specificity of CAD was superior to that of double reading. Although CAD 1 (Az=0.805) was inferior to double reading (Az=0.837) in terms of the ROC curve, CAD 2 (Az=0.872) significantly improved the ROC curve and also significantly reduced observation time (p<0.05). If the number of false positives can be reduced, computer-aided diagnosis may play an important role in lung cancer screening programs. (author)

  3. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  4. The potential of medical abortion to reduce maternal mortality in Africa: what benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Baggaley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative.By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term.Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia. Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates.This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention.

  5. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: risks and potential benefits in a fiscally conservative health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Pratiwadi, Ramya R; Yu, James B

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in American men and represents a significant factor in US health care costs. Radiation therapy serves as one of the most effective treatments for prostate cancer. However, radiation is also an expensive treatment modality and is a significant contributor to the overall rise in the cost of prostate cancer care. Currently, standard external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer consists of between 75.6 and 81.0 Gy of radiation separated into 1.8- to 2-Gy doses (or "fractions") given daily for between 7 and 9 weeks. Recently, relatively shorter treatment schedules delivering more radiation per treatment-consisting of fractions > 2 Gy-over shorter time periods have been proposed in an effort to curtail rising health care costs and improve patient convenience. However, significant uncertainty still remains regarding outcomes from this type of more condensed treatment, known as"hypofractionated"radiation. In this article, we provide the historical background and rationale for hypofractionated prostate cancer treatment, discuss the potential benefits and risks of prostate hypofractionation, and review the clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness of hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  6. Human Plasma Metabolomics Study across All Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identifies Potential Lipid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíns, Inês; Kelly, Rachel S; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Kim, Ivana K; Murta, Joaquim N; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). Cross-sectional observational study. We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma was analyzed by Metabolon, Inc. (Durham, NC), using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution MS. Metabolon's hardware and software were used to identify peaks and control quality. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were performed to assess differences in the metabolomic profiles of AMD patients versus controls, while controlling for potential confounders. For biological interpretation, pathway enrichment analysis of significant metabolites was performed using MetaboAnalyst. The primary outcome measures were levels of plasma metabolites in participants with AMD compared with controls and among different AMD severity stages. We included 90 participants with AMD (30 with early AMD, 30 with intermediate AMD, and 30 with late AMD) and 30 controls. Using UPLC and MS, 878 biochemicals were identified. Multivariate logistic regression identified 87 metabolites with levels that differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. Most of these metabolites (82.8%; n = 72), including the most significant metabolites, belonged to the lipid pathways. Analysis of variance revealed that of the 87 metabolites, 48 (55.2%) also were significantly different across the different stages of AMD. A significant enrichment of the glycerophospholipids pathway was identified (P = 4.7 × 10 -9 ) among these metabolites. Participants with AMD have altered plasma metabolomic profiles compared with controls. Our data suggest

  7. Comprehensive sector-wide strategies to prevent and control obesity: what are the potential health and broader societal benefits? A case study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Hector, Debra J; St George, Alexis; Pedisic, Zeljko; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Mitchell, Jo; Bellew, Bill

    2015-09-30

    Several countries have recently established multistakeholder strategies to prevent or control overweight and obesity; however, studies have not yet been done on their effectiveness and likely impact. This study's objectives were to (i) explore sector-wide benefits and impacts likely to accrue from implementing an obesity prevention strategy in the Australian state of New South Wales; (ii) discuss the wider implications of the findings for research and practice; and (iii) strengthen the case for sustained implementation of a comprehensive, intersectoral approach. A case study approach, including evidence reviews and illustrative epidemiological models, was used to show potential benefits from meeting selected targets and objectives specified in the strategy. For adults, improved health outcomes potentially include reductions in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, various cancers, osteoarthritis, infant mortality and healthcare costs. Potential benefits beyond the health sector involve disability payments, absenteeism, worker productivity, workplace injuries and insurance claims. For children and adolescents, improved health outcomes potentially include metabolic risk factors, dental health, prehypertension/hypertension, cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression, rates of mortality in hospitalised children, bullying and otitis media. Sector-wide health, social and economic benefits from successful implementation of multisector obesity prevention strategies are likely to be substantial if specified targets are achieved. Epidemiological modelling described in this paper for selected examples provides illustrative rather than comprehensive evidence for potential benefits. Process evaluation of the extent of implementation of these multisectoral strategies, together with the accumulated data on intervention effectiveness, will determine their potential population health benefit. Quantifying the health and social benefits that are likely to

  8. Continuity of Care, Professional Community, and the Policy Context: Potential Benefits for Infant and Toddler Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Practice or Policy: Continuity of care (COC) has many benefits for young children's development but is not the norm in infant/toddler classrooms. As a consequence, policymakers might not realize how such an approach might also benefit the professional development of infant and toddler teachers, particularly if they come to the field with little…

  9. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  10. The potential of net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) concept at design stage for healthcare buildings towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazli Abdellah, Roy; Asrul Nasid Masrom, Md; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Omar, Roshartini

    2017-11-01

    The focus on net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) has been widely analysed and discussed particularly when European Union Parliament are progressively moving towards regulation that promotes the improvement of energy efficiency (EE). Additionally, it also to reduce energy consumption through the recast of the EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) in which all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings by 2020. Broadly, there is a growing trend to explore the feasibility of net zero energy in healthcare sector as the level energy consumption for healthcare sector is found significantly high. Besides that, healthcare buildings energy consumption also exceeds of many other nondomestic building types, and this shortcoming is still undetermined yet especially for developing countries. This paper aims to review the potential of NZEBs in healthcare buildings by considering its concept in design features. Data are gathered through a comprehensive energy management literature review from previous studies. The review is vital to encourage construction players to increase their awareness, practices, and implementation of NZEBs in healthcare buildings. It suggests that NZEBs concept has a potential to be adapted in healthcare buildings through emphasizing of passive approach as well as the utilization of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy systems in buildings. This paper will provide a basis knowledge for construction key players mainly architects to promote NZEBs concept at design stage for healthcare buildings development.

  11. A method to estimate cow potential and subsequent responses to energy and protein supply according to stage of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; Van Laar, H; Ferris, C P; Sauvant, D

    2017-05-01

    Milk responses to dietary change are influenced by the relative production level, that is, the distance between observed production and potential production. The closer the animal is to its potential, the smaller the expected response is to extra nutrients. Therefore, the aim of this work was to provide a method to quantify cow potential, to estimate subsequent responses to changes in nutrient supply. The observed efficiencies in net energy for lactation (NE L ) and metabolizable protein (MP) are proposed as a basis to estimate the relative production level of the animal. The rationale for using NE L and MP efficiency (ratios of milk energy yield/NE L above maintenance supply and milk protein yield/MP above maintenance supply) builds on the uniformity of the observed relationships between size of the milk responses and extra NE L supply and MP supply, when centered on a given efficiency. From there, a pivot nutritional situation where MP and NE L efficiency are 0.67 and 1.00, respectively, was defined, from which milk responses could be derived across animals varying in production potential. An implicit assumption of using response equations centered on reference efficiency pivots is that the size of the response to a fixed change in nutrient supply, relative to the pivot, is identical for animals with different production capacities. The proposed approach was evaluated with 2 independent data sets, where different dietary treatments were applied during the whole lactation. In these data sets, MP and NE L above maintenance supply were calculated weekly using the recently updated INRA Systali feed units system. Differences in NE L and MP supply above maintenance between the extreme dietary treatments were large, on average 667 g of MP/d and 13 MJ of NE L /d (3.11 Mcal/d) in the first data set, and 513 g of MP/d and 29 MJ of NE L /d (6.93 Mcal/d) for the second data set. Milk energy yield and milk component yields were predicted with root mean square prediction

  12. Overview of MPC applications in supply chains: Potential use and benefits in the management of forest-based supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This work aims to provide an overview of Model Predictive Controllers (MPC applications in supply chains, to describe the forest-based supply chain and to analyse the potential use and benefits of MPC in a case study concerning a biomass supply chain.Area of study: The proposed methods are being applied to a company located in Finland.Material and methods: Supply chains are complex systems where actions and partners’ coordination influence the whole system performance. The increase of competitiveness and need of quick responses to the costumers implies the use of efficient management techniques. The control theory, particularly MPC, has been successfully used as a supply chain management tool. MPC is able to deal with dynamic interactions between the partners and to globally optimize the supply chain performance in the presence of disturbances. However, as far as is authors’ knowledge, there are no applications of this methodology in the forest-based supply chains. This work proposes a control architecture to improve the performance of the forest supply chain. The controller is based on prediction models which are able to simulate the system and deal with disturbances.Main results: The preliminary results enable to evaluate the impacts of disturbances in the supply chain. Thus, it is possible to react beforehand, controlling the schedules and tasks’ allocation, or alert the planning level in order to generate a new plan.Research highlights:   Overview of MPC applications in supply chains; forest-based supply chain description; case study presentation: wood biomass supply chain for energy production; MPC architecture proposal to decrease the operation times.Keywords: biomass; forest; Model Predictive Control; planning; supply chain.

  13. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of

  14. Potential impacts of the Alberta fetal alcohol spectrum disorder service networks on secondary disabilities: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Moffatt, Jessica; Jacobs, Philip; Chuck, Anderson W; Jonsson, Egon

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the break-even effectiveness of the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Service Networks in reducing occurrences of secondary disabilities associated with FASD. The secondary disabilities addressed within this study include crime, homelessness, mental health problems, and school disruption (for children) or unemployment (for adults). We used a cost-benefit analysis approach where benefits of the service networks were the cost difference between the two approaches: having the 12 service networks and having no service network in place, across Alberta. We used a threshold analysis to estimate the break-even effectiveness (i.e. the effectiveness level at which the service networks became cost-saving). If no network was in place throughout the province, the secondary disabilities would cost $22.85 million (including $8.62 million for adults and $14.24 million for children) per year. Given the cost of network was $6.12 million per year, the break-even effectiveness was estimated at 28% (range: 25% to 32%). Although not all benefits associated with the service networks are included, such as the exclusion of the primary benefit to those experiencing FASD, the benefits to FASD caregivers, and the preventative benefits, the economic and social burden associated with secondary disabilities will "pay-off" if the effectiveness of the program in reducing secondary disabilities is 28%.

  15. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD, DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  16. A prospective multicenter cohort study of cutaneous melanoma: clinical staging and potential associations with HIF-1α and VEGF expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Riveiro-Falkenbach, Erica; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L; Nagore, Eduardo; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Farré, Ramón; Hernández Blasco, Luis; Bañuls Roca, Jose; Chiner Vives, Eusebi; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Abad Capa, Jorge; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Almendros, Isaac; Pérez-Gil, Amalia; Cabriada Nuño, Valentin; Cano-Pumarega, Irene; Corral Peñafiel, Jaime; Diaz Cambriles, Trinidad; Mediano, Olga; Dalmau Arias, Joan; Gozal, David

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is a highly prevalent cancer that is associated with substantial mortality. Although clinical staging procedures can serve as relatively robust prognostic indicators, we aimed to determine whether assessments of the abundance of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postexcisional melanoma tumor tissues may enable more accurate determination of tumor aggressiveness. We carried out a multicenter prospective study, in which we systematically evaluated 376 consecutive patients diagnosed with melanoma, and performed histochemical assessments for both HIF-1α and VEGF immunoreactivity in the tumor biopsies. Multivariate analyses showed that higher HIF-1α expression, but not high VEGF, were associated significantly and independently with increased tumor aggressiveness as derived from several well-established aggressiveness criteria. A limitation of this study was that this was a descriptive prospective study lacking a post-hoc verification arm. Thus, the presence of increased numbers of positively labeled HIF-1α cells in melanoma tumors may potentially serve as an indicator of tumor phenotype and prognosis, and accordingly guide therapy.

  17. Validation of N-myristoyltransferase as Potential Chemotherapeutic Target in Mammal-Dwelling Stages of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, an endemic and debilitating illness in Latin America. Lately, owing to extensive population movements, this neglected tropical disease has become a global health concern. The two clinically available drugs for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease have rather high toxicity and limited efficacy in the chronic phase of the disease, and may induce parasite resistance. The development of new anti-T. cruzi agents is therefore imperative. The enzyme N-myristoyltransferase (NMT has recently been biochemically characterized, shown to be essential in Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and T. cruzi¸ and proposed as promising chemotherapeutic target in these trypanosomatids.Here, using high-content imaging we assayed eight known trypanosomatid NMT inhibitors, against mammal-dwelling intracellular amastigote and trypomastigote stages and demonstrated that three of them (compounds 1, 5, and 8 have potent anti-proliferative effect at submicromolar concentrations against T. cruzi, with very low toxicity against human epithelial cells. Moreover, metabolic labeling using myristic acid, azide showed a considerable decrease in the myristoylation of proteins in parasites treated with NMT inhibitors, providing evidence of the on-target activity of the inhibitors.Taken together, our data point out to the potential use of NMT inhibitors as anti-T. cruzi chemotherapy.

  18. Validation of N-myristoyltransferase as Potential Chemotherapeutic Target in Mammal-Dwelling Stages of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Linda J; Brand, Stephen; Santos, Andres; Nohara, Lilian L; Harrison, Justin; Norcross, Neil R; Thompson, Stephen; Smith, Victoria; Lema, Carolina; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Gilbert, Ian H; Almeida, Igor C; Maldonado, Rosa A

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, an endemic and debilitating illness in Latin America. Lately, owing to extensive population movements, this neglected tropical disease has become a global health concern. The two clinically available drugs for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease have rather high toxicity and limited efficacy in the chronic phase of the disease, and may induce parasite resistance. The development of new anti-T. cruzi agents is therefore imperative. The enzyme N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) has recently been biochemically characterized, shown to be essential in Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and T. cruzi¸ and proposed as promising chemotherapeutic target in these trypanosomatids. Here, using high-content imaging we assayed eight known trypanosomatid NMT inhibitors, against mammal-dwelling intracellular amastigote and trypomastigote stages and demonstrated that three of them (compounds 1, 5, and 8) have potent anti-proliferative effect at submicromolar concentrations against T. cruzi, with very low toxicity against human epithelial cells. Moreover, metabolic labeling using myristic acid, azide showed a considerable decrease in the myristoylation of proteins in parasites treated with NMT inhibitors, providing evidence of the on-target activity of the inhibitors. Taken together, our data point out to the potential use of NMT inhibitors as anti-T. cruzi chemotherapy.

  19. Bioactivity, proximate, mineral and volatile profiles along the flowering stages of Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.): defining potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Flamini, Guido; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes.

  20. A perspective on electric vehicles: cost-benefit analysis and potential demand; Les vehicules electriques en perspective. Analyse couts-avantages et demande potentielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report proposes some quantitative elements to assess the large scale diffusion of electric vehicles and analyse the potential demand for such vehicles. The first part proposes a cost-benefit analysis of the development of electric vehicles based on estimated costs and expected benefits by 2020. It addresses the following issues: framework and hypothesis, total cost of ownership, costs related to the deployment of a network of recharging infrastructures, assessment of external costs, and comparative cost-benefit analysis of electric vehicles. In the second part, the authors aim at identifying a potential demand for electric vehicles from the 2008 French national transport displacement survey (ENTD 2008) which provides recent data on the mobility of the French population

  1. Utilizing a Two-stage Design to Investigate the Safety and Potential Efficacy of Monthly Naltrexone Plus Once-daily Bupropion as a Treatment for Methamphetamine Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Larissa J; Hillhouse, Maureen P; Thomas, Christie; Ang, Alfonso; Sharma, Gaurav; Terry, Garth; Chang, Linda; Walker, Robrina; Trivedi, Madhukar; Croteau, David; Sparenborg, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This 2-stage open-label pilot study evaluated the safety and potential efficacy of naltrexone + bupropion as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder. The study was conducted in 2 stages of recruitment across 3 sites; 20 participants were enrolled in stage 1 and 29 participants were enrolled in stage 2. Eight weeks of open-label pharmacotherapy with a combination of extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol) plus extended-release oral bupropion (BRP; Wellbutrin XL) were provided with a smartphone-assisted medication adherence platform. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria for severe MA use disorder, self-reported ≥20 days of MA use in the 30 days prior to consent, and submitted 3 MA-positive urine drug screens (UDS) out of 4 collected during screening. Participants attended clinic twice weekly for observed BRP dosing, UDS testing, assessments, and medical management; XR-NTX was administered at weeks 1 and 5. A BRP taper and follow-up visit occurred in week 9. Analyses evaluated effects of XR-NTX + BRP to determine the number of "responders" according to a statistically predefined response criterion (6 of 8 MA-negative UDS during the last 4 weeks of medication). The 2-stage design required that stage 1 yield ≥3 responders to continue to stage 2; 11 of the 49 participants met responder criteria across both stages (5 in stage 1, 6 in stage 2). Under the statistical analysis plan, study "success" required ≥9 responders. With 11 responders, the study demonstrated sufficient potential of naltrexone plus bupropion as a combination pharmacotherapy for MA use disorder to warrant further study.

  2. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  3. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  4. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H-Y; Chen, B.; Piersma, T.; Zhang, Z.; Ding, C.

    2016-01-01

    The YellowSea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate fromAustralasia to the Arctic each spring. A lotof attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effectsof overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the

  5. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study,

  6. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han, E-mail: ihkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Hyuck [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  7. Potentials of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography for preoperative local staging of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollven, Erik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Holm, Torbjorn; Glimelius, Bengt; Loerinc, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preoperative identification of locally advanced colon cancer is of importance in order to properly plan treatment. Purpose: To study high resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus computed tomography (CT) for preoperative staging of colon cancer with surgery and histopathology as reference standard. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with a total of 29 tumors were included. Patients were examined on a 1.5 T MR unit using a phased array body coil. T2 turbo spin-echo high resolution sequences were obtained in a coronal, transverse, and perpendicular plane to the long axis of the colon at the site of the tumor. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed using a protocol for metastasis staging. The examinations were independently evaluated by two gastrointestinal radiologists using criteria adapted to imaging for prediction of T-stage, N-stage, and extramural venous invasion. Based on the T-stage, tumors were divided in to locally advanced (T3cd-T4) and not locally advanced (T1-T3ab). Surgical and histopathological findings served as reference standard. Results: Using MRI, T-stage, N-stage, and extramural venous invasion were correctly predicted for each observer in 90% and 93%, 72% and 69%, and 82% and 78% of cases, respectively. With CT the corresponding results were 79% and 76%, 72% and 72%, 78% and 67%. For MRI inter-observer agreements (Kappa statistics) were 0.79, 0.10, and 0.76. For CT the corresponding results were 0.64, 0.66, and 0.22. Conclusion: Patients with locally advanced colon cancer, defined as tumor stage T3cd-T4, can be identified by both high resolution MRI and CT, even when CT is performed with a metastasis staging protocol. MRI may have an advantage, due to its high soft tissue discrimination, to identify certain prognostic factors such as T-stage and extramural venous invasion

  8. Potentials of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography for preoperative local staging of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollven, Erik; Blomqvist, Lennart [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital Solna, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: erik.rollven@ki.se; Holm, Torbjorn [Dept. of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Surgery, Karolinska Univ. Hospital Solna, Stockholm (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Loerinc, Esther [Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Solna, Sweden (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Background: Preoperative identification of locally advanced colon cancer is of importance in order to properly plan treatment. Purpose: To study high resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus computed tomography (CT) for preoperative staging of colon cancer with surgery and histopathology as reference standard. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with a total of 29 tumors were included. Patients were examined on a 1.5 T MR unit using a phased array body coil. T2 turbo spin-echo high resolution sequences were obtained in a coronal, transverse, and perpendicular plane to the long axis of the colon at the site of the tumor. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed using a protocol for metastasis staging. The examinations were independently evaluated by two gastrointestinal radiologists using criteria adapted to imaging for prediction of T-stage, N-stage, and extramural venous invasion. Based on the T-stage, tumors were divided in to locally advanced (T3cd-T4) and not locally advanced (T1-T3ab). Surgical and histopathological findings served as reference standard. Results: Using MRI, T-stage, N-stage, and extramural venous invasion were correctly predicted for each observer in 90% and 93%, 72% and 69%, and 82% and 78% of cases, respectively. With CT the corresponding results were 79% and 76%, 72% and 72%, 78% and 67%. For MRI inter-observer agreements (Kappa statistics) were 0.79, 0.10, and 0.76. For CT the corresponding results were 0.64, 0.66, and 0.22. Conclusion: Patients with locally advanced colon cancer, defined as tumor stage T3cd-T4, can be identified by both high resolution MRI and CT, even when CT is performed with a metastasis staging protocol. MRI may have an advantage, due to its high soft tissue discrimination, to identify certain prognostic factors such as T-stage and extramural venous invasion.

  9. "I'm More Confident Now, I Was Really Quiet": Exploring the Potential Benefits of Child-Led Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Anne; Simmons, Catharine; Truscott, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores whether child-led research (CLR) benefits the well-being of the children and young people involved. The article draws upon evaluation data from a pilot CLR programme facilitated by a non-government organisation that supports disadvantaged children, young people and families. Nine participants (aged 10-14 years old)…

  10. Enhancing the Benefit of the Chemical Mixture Methodology: A Report on Methodology Testing and Potential Approaches for Improving Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Juan; He, Hua; Glantz, Clifford S.; Booth, Alexander E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive testing shows that the current version of the Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is meeting its intended mission to provide conservative estimates of the health effects from exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. However, the current version of the CMM could benefit from several enhancements that are designed to improve its application of Health Code Numbers (HCNs) and employ weighting factors to reduce over conservatism.

  11. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral

  12. Morphology of immature stages of blow fly, Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a potential species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wannasan, Anchalee; Kraisittipanit, Rungroj; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2017-12-01

    Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly species of potential forensic importance since adults are attracted to, and colonize, decomposing vertebrate remains. Blow fly larvae associated with human corpses can be useful evidence in forensic investigations; however, their use is dependent in most cases on proper species identification and availability of developmental data. For identification, morphological information on each life stage is traditionally used. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the ultrastructure of eggs, all instars, and puparia, of L. sinensis. The important characteristics used to differentiate L. sinensis from other species are provided. Distinctive features of the eggs are the slight widening median area extending almost the entire length. The last abdominal segment of the first instar bears elongated outer ventral tubercles along the rim of the last abdominal segment. These tubercles, as well as the well developed median and outer dorsal tubercles, are more prominent in the second and third instars. The surface integument of the tubercles is equipped with circular rows of microtrichia. Pairs of inner dorsal tubercle are absent. Each anterior spiracle is comprised of 9-12 papillae arrange in a single row in the second and third instars. As for the third instar, the dorsal spines between the first and second thoracic segments are delicate, narrow, small, and close together (as row or set). The peristigmatic tufts adjacent to the posterior spiracle of the third instar are moderately branches of short, fine hairs, but minute in puparia. In conclusion, the prominent outer ventral tubercle in all instars and puparia is a new diagnostic feature of L. sinensis and helpful in differentiating it from other Lucilia species that are forensically important. The description of immature L. sinensis in this study will be useful for forensic entomologists in countries where this species exists. Copyright © 2017

  13. Damage potential of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on early growth stages of small-grains and canola under subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    We characterized the type and extent of grasshopper injury to above- and below-ground plant parts for four crops [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and canola (Brassica campestris L.)] commonly grown, or with potential to grow, in central Alaska. Cages were placed on 48 pots containing plants in second to third leaf stages and stocked with 0, 2, 4, and 6 first-instar Melanoplus sanguinipes F. pot(-1). Plants were harvested 22 d after planting. Stem growth of barley and oats was not affected except at the highest grasshopper treatment. In canola, stem biomass was reduced at the medium and high grasshopper treatments, when most of the leaves had been consumed. The highest grasshopper treatment reduced leaf area in barley and oats by approximately 55%, and caused a significant reduction in dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots (41-72%). Wheat and canola plants were smaller than barley and oats across all treatments and, at the highest grasshopper density, above-ground portions of wheat and canola were completely destroyed. Length and surface area of roots of barley and oats were reduced by 20-28% again at the highest grasshopper density, whereas the reduction for wheat and canola ranged from 50 to 90%. There was little or no difference among all grasshopper densities for C-N ratio in leaf and stem tissues of all crops. The results suggest that wheat and canola are more susceptible than barley and oats and that densities > or = 2 pot(-1) (approximately > or = 50 m(-2)) of even very small grasshoppers could cause significant damage in small-grain and oilseed crop production.

  14. Flowering Locus C (FLC Is a Potential Major Regulator of Glucosinolate Content across Developmental Stages of Aethionema arabicum (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mohammadin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical defense of plants can change during their life-cycle and impact herbivore feeding and plant fitness. The annual species Aethionema arabicum is part of the sister clade to all other Brassicaceae. Hence, it holds a phylogenetically important position for studying crucifer trait evolution. Glucosinolates (GS are essentially Brassicales-specific metabolites involved in plant defense. Using two Ae. arabicum accessions (TUR and CYP we identify substantial differences in glucosinolate profiles and quantities between lines, tissues and developmental stages. We find tissue specific side-chain modifications in aliphatic GS: methylthioalkyl in leaves, methylsulfinylalkyl in fruits, and methylsulfonylalkyl in seeds. We also find large differences in absolute glucosinolate content between the two accessions (up to 10-fold in fruits that suggest a regulatory factor is involved that is not part of the quintessential glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a single major multi-trait quantitative trait locus controlling total GS concentration across tissues in a recombinant inbred line population derived from TUR and CYP. With fine-mapping, we narrowed the interval to a 58 kb region containing 15 genes, but lacking any known GS biosynthetic genes. The interval contains homologs of both the sulfate transporter SULTR2;1 and FLOWERING LOCUS C. Both loci have diverse functions controlling plant physiological and developmental processes and thus are potential candidates regulating glucosinolate variation across the life-cycle of Aethionema. Future work will investigate changes in gene expression of the candidates genes, the effects of GS variation on insect herbivores and the trade-offs between defense and reproduction.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Kiew-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value -5 to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of

  16. Transcriptional analysis of novel hormone receptors PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 as potential biomarkers of breast adenocarcinoma staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Huston, Laurel J; Harold, Dawn M; Charaba, Cameron J; Ippolito, Danielle L; Hoffer, Zachary S; Brown, Tommy A; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    The expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) in breast cancer has generated interest in this recently discovered protein because of its role in tumorigenesis. However, correlations between patient age, PGRMC1 gene expression, breast cancer morphology, and breast cancer stage have not been adequately studied. Furthermore, very little is known about possible roles for other PGRMC isoforms in breast cancer, like PGRMC2. Thus, we examined the expression of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA by relative quantitative PCR (RelqPCR) and determined whether transcript levels correlate with age, breast cancer staging, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status, and other morphometric features routinely used during the pathological examination of breast ductal adenocarcinomas. Twenty-eight frozen or paraffin embedded breast cancer samples (ductal carcinoma in situ and stages I thru IV invasive ductal adenocarcinoma) and 10 control benign breast tissue samples were randomly selected and interrogated by RelqPCR to determine PGRMC1, 2, and ERα mRNA transcript levels. To control for slight variations in sample preparation, receptor transcript was normalized to the housekeeping gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). Descriptive statistics and ANOVA of multiparametric datasets were used to correlate transcript levels with pathological staging parameters. PGRMC1 mRNA levels decreased significantly with patient age (Pearson's correlation -0.369; P=0.035), whereas PGRMC2 levels did not. Although the mean relative expression of PGRMC1 significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer compared with controls (P=0.050), it was no longer significant when age was considered a covariance (P=0.371). On the other hand, PGRMC2 mRNA transcript was significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer when compared to stage III cancer (P=0.028) in a manner independent of age (corrected model Bonferroni pair wise comparison, P=0.036). Furthermore, PGRMC2 levels positively correlated with ER

  17. An assessment by calorimetric calculations of the potential thermal benefit of warming and humidification of insufflated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan V; Sea, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    Heat transfer from a patient to warm and humidify insufflated carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery may contribute to perioperative hypothermia. The magnitude of this effect was calculated using calorimetric calculations. Warming to 37°C and humidifying to 100%, each 100 L of insufflated CO2 would prevent a heat transfer of 3220 calories, which would result in a decrease of temperature by 0.06°C in a 70 kg patient after total body distribution of heat. We conclude that the thermal benefit of warming and humidifying insufflated CO2 is minor, particularly in comparison with other effective and inexpensive perioperative technologies, some of which are not always used out could easily be used. The decision to use heating and humidification of insufflated CO2 should be based on its other risks, benefits, and costs.

  18. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Friberg, U.; Maklakov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses......Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual...... selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection...

  19. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W J; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral biofilm. Chewing of sugar-free gum yields oral health benefits that include clearance of food debris, reduction in oral dryness, increase of biofilm pH and remineralization of enamel. These basic effects of chewing gum are attributed to increased mastication and salivation. Active ingredients incorporated in chewing gums aim to expand these effects to inhibition of extrinsic tooth stain and calculus formation, enhanced enamel remineralization, reduction of the numbers of bacteria in saliva and amount of oral biofilm, neutralization of biofilm pH, and reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. Evidence for oral-health benefits of chewing gum additives is hard to obtain due to their relatively low concentrations and rapid wash-out. Clinical effects of gum additives are overshadowed by effects of increased mastication and salivation due to the chewing of gum and require daily chewing of gum for prolonged periods of time. Future studies on active ingredients should focus on specifically targeting pathogenic bacteria, whilst leaving the healthy microbiome unaffected.

  20. A cost-benefit analysis and the potential trade effects of the bovine viral diarrhoea eradication programme in Styria, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, T; Obritzhauser, W; Wagner, P; Richter, V; Mayerhofer, M; Egger-Danner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Pinior, B

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the voluntary and compulsory implementation of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme in the Austrian Federal State of Styria, Austria, from an economic point of view using ex-post assessment of costs and benefits (disease losses avoided). An economic net benefit (benefit:cost ratio, BCR=1.18) of the programme was demonstrated during the voluntary programme phase (January 1998-July 2004). The break-even point was reached in 2003. If investments in the compulsory programme (August 2004-December 2016) were taken into account, a net economic loss (BCR=0.16) was demonstrated. In contrast to on-going annual testing of all cattle herds, annual testing in accordance with a revised sampling scheme could reduce total surveillance costs by more than 77%. A Bayesian structural time series model was applied to analyse a hypothesised positive impact of the compulsory BVDV programme on the Styrian cattle export market. The average number of exported cows and bulls increased significantly by 42% (P=0.03) and 47% (P=0.01), respectively, and the producer price increased by 14% (P=0.00) and 5% (P=0.16), respectively, during the compulsory programme period compared with the period prior to intervention. This equates to an average revenue increase of €29,754 for cows and €137,563 for bulls per month. These results justify the implementation of eradication programmes, which initially may not appear to be economically viable, particularly if trade effects are not included in the calculations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The National Radiation Protection Authority and its regulatory programme. Potential benefits of the CTBT and thoughts on cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the past years Ethiopia became an active participant in the scientific and political development as well as supporter of the CTBT. This paper describes the designated institution for the CTBT implementation in the area of Radionuclides in Ethiopia and its scientific and regulatory program as well as main activities concerning application techniques. The second part of the paper accounts for the links between the objectives of the national institute with the CTBT. It draws substantive details about benefits that could arise from participating in CTBT implementation and summarizes the discussion by suggesting modalities for building partnership and cooperation

  2. Potential benefits of a spatially targeted regulation based on detailed N-reduction maps to decrease N-load from agriculture in a small groundwater dominated catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A L; Refsgaard, J C; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Denmark must further decrease the N-load to coastal waters from agricultural areas to comply with the Baltic Sea Action Plan and the EU Water Framework Directive. A new spatially targeted regulation is under development that focuses on locating N-mitigation measures in areas with low natural...... reduction of nitrate (N-reduction). A key tool in this respect is N-reduction maps showing how much N is removed by natural reduction processes, i.e. the ratio between the N-load out of the catchment and the N-leaching from the root zone for each spatial unit within the catchment. For the 85 km2 groundwater...... dominated Norsminde catchment in Denmark we have analysed the potential benefits of a spatially targeted regulation and how its efficiency is affected by uncertainty in the N-reduction map. Our results suggest that there are potential benefits of implementing a spatially targeted regulation compared...

  3. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  4. Potential Benefits of Incorporating Peer-to-Peer Interactions Into Digital Interventions for Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Quraishi, Sophia H; Schlosser, Danielle A

    2017-12-15

    Peer-to-peer interactions and support groups mitigate experiences of social isolation and loneliness often reported by individuals with psychotic disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication can promote broader use of this form of social support. Peer-to-peer interactions occur naturally on social media platforms, but they can negatively affect mental health. Recent digital interventions for persons with psychotic disorders have harnessed the principles of social media to incorporate peer-to-peer communication. This review examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of recent digital interventions in order to identify strategies to maximize benefits of online peer-to-peer communication for persons with psychotic disorders. An electronic database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database was conducted in February 2017 and yielded a total of 1,015 results. Eight publications that reported data from six independent trials and five interventions were reviewed. The technology supporting peer-to-peer communication varied greatly across studies, from online forums to embedded social networking. When peer-to-peer interactions were moderated by facilitators, retention, engagement, acceptability, and efficacy were higher than for interventions with no facilitators. Individuals with psychotic disorders were actively engaged with moderated peer-to-peer communication and showed improvements in perceived social support. Studies involving service users in intervention design showed higher rates of acceptability. Individuals with psychotic disorders value and benefit from digital interventions that include moderated peer-to-peer interactions. Incorporating peer-to-peer communication into digital interventions for this population may increase compliance with other evidence-based therapies by producing more acceptable and engaging online environments.

  5. Prevention of pediatric medication errors by hospital pharmacists and the potential benefit of computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jerome K; Herzog, Nicole S; Kaushal, Rainu; Park, Christine; Mochizuki, Carol; Weingarten, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize medication errors and adverse drug events intercepted by a system of pediatric clinical pharmacists and to determine whether the addition of a computerized physician order entry system would improve medication safety. The study included 16,938 medication orders for 678 admissions to the pediatric units of a large academic community hospital. Pediatric clinical pharmacists reviewed medication orders and monitored subsequent medication use. Medication errors and adverse drug events were identified by daily review of documentation, voluntary reporting, and solicitation. Each potentially harmful medication error was judged whether or not it was intercepted and, if not, whether it would have been captured by a computerized physician order entry system. Overall, 865 medication errors occurred, corresponding with a rate of 5.2 per 100 medication orders. A near-miss rate of 0.96% and a preventable adverse drug event rate of 0.09% were observed. Overall, 78% of potentially harmful prescribing errors were intercepted; however, none of the potentially harmful errors occurring at administration was intercepted and accounted for 50% of preventable adverse drug events. A computerized physician order entry system could capture additional potentially harmful prescribing and transcription errors (54%-73%) but not administration errors (0% vs 6%). A system of pediatric clinical pharmacists effectively intercepted inpatient prescribing errors but did not capture potentially harmful medication administration errors. The addition of a computerized physician order entry system to pharmacists is unlikely to prevent administration errors, which pose the highest risk of patient injury.

  6. The relative benefits of tamoxifen in older women with T1 early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atif J; Parikh, Rahul R; Neboori, Hanmanth J; Goyal, Sharad; Haffty, Bruce G; Moran, Meena S

    2013-01-01

    Small, hormone receptor-positive breast carcinomas in older women are associated with low local recurrence rates. The relative benefits of adjuvant hormonal therapy remain unclear in elderly women with small, node-negative breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. From our institutional data base, 224 patients ≥65 years of age with T1N0M0 breast cancer treated with BCS+RT were identified. Of these, 102 patients (45.5%) received tamoxifen (TAM) and 122 patients (54.5%) did not (no-TAM). The median follow-up time was 62.6 months. The 10-year local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was 98% in both the TAM and no-TAM cohorts (p = 0.58); the 10-year DMFS was 83% TAM vs. 89% no-TAM (p = 0.91). There was no difference in 10-year contralateral breast relapse or overall survival (OS) between the two cohorts. In univariate and multivariate analysis, use of TAM was not associated with LRFS, distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), OS, or a reduction in contralateral breast cancers when compared with the no-TAM cohort. In this large cohort of T1N0 elderly breast cancer patients treated with CS+RT, the use of TAM did not appear to decrease ipsilateral breast relapse, contralateral breast relapse, distant metastasis, or OS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  8. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Scenarios of Solar Energy Use on the “Roof of the World”: Potentials and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Zandler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral mountain areas in developing countries are often characterized by energy poverty but also by high solar energy potential. The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan are a prime example of this situation, with their lack of energy infrastructure, remoteness, pressure on local natural resources, and high incident radiation amounts. An integrative assessment of the potential for photovoltaic power generation is lacking for this region, as well as for many other mountain environments. We assessed the natural potential, feasibility, and likely effects of increased photovoltaic electricity generation, using climate data, biomass data, a spatial radiation model, and fieldwork- and literature-based scenarios of energy requirements and financial conditions. Results indicated that using a photovoltaic power plant to generate enough energy for boiling water is feasible in the study area within reasonable cost limits. This could significantly alleviate energy poverty, increase carbon sequestration by up to 1500 t/y, and reduce the loss of dwarf shrub stands by up to 2000 ha/y. Our results illustrate that the integrative approach presented in this article can be applied straightforwardly when some climatic measurements and field observations are available and that photovoltaic energy is an important renewable-energy resource for the sustainable development of peripheral high-mountain communities.

  10. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  11. Establishment of calculated panel reactive antibody and its potential benefits in improving the kidney allocation strategy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Wen Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Renal transplant candidates who are highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs tend to wait longer to find a matched donor and have poor outcomes. Most organ-sharing programs prioritize highly sensitized patients in the allocation scoring system. The HLA sensitization status is traditionally evaluated by the panel-reactive antibody (PRA assay. However, this assay is method dependent and does not consider the ethnic differences in HLA frequencies. A calculated PRA (cPRA, based on a population's HLA frequency and patients' unacceptable antigens (UAs, correctly estimates the percentage of donors suitable for candidates. The Taiwan Organ Registry and Sharing Center does not prioritize sensitized patients. We propose that the incorporation of the cPRA and UAs into the renal allocation program will improve the local kidney allocation policy. Methods: We established a cPRA calculator using 6146 Taiwanese HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ phenotypes. We performed simulated allocation based on the concept of acceptable mismatch for 76 candidates with cPRA values exceeding 80%. Results: We analyzed 138 waitlisted renal transplant candidates at our hospital, and we determined that the concordance rate of the cPRA and PRA for highly sensitized (%PRA > 80% candidates was 92.5%, which decreased to 20% for those with %PRA < 80%. We matched 76 highly sensitized patients based on acceptable mismatch with the HLA phenotypes of 93 cadaver donors. Forty-six patients (61% found at least one suitable donor. Conclusion: The application of the cPRA and acceptable mismatch can benefit highly sensitized patients and reduce positive lymphocyte cytotoxicity crossmatch. Keywords: Kidney transplantation, Human leukocyte antigen, CPRA

  12. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  13. An exploratory study of the potential learning benefits for medical students in collaborative drawing: creativity, reflection and 'critical looking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Philippa; Letschka, Patrick; Ainsworth, Tom; Haq, Inam

    2013-06-17

    Building on a series of higher educational arts/medicine initiatives, an interdisciplinary drawing module themed on the human body was developed for both year 3 Craft students and year 3 Medicine degree students. This became the subject of a research project exploring how the collaborative approach to drawing adopted on this module impacted on the students' learning. In this article, emphasis is given to issues thought to have most potential relevance to medical education. Using an ethnographic research design, the methods adopted were: direct observation of all aspects of the module sessions, audio and video recordings and photographs of the sessions, the incorporation of a semi-structured discussion at the end of each session, and anonymous student questionnaires. A number of key themes emerged. The complex, phased and multi-sensory nature of the 'critical looking' skills developed through the drawing exercises was seen as of potential value in medical education, being proposed as analogous to processes involved in clinical examination and diagnosis. The experience of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing was significant to the students as a creative, participatory and responsive form of learning. The emphasis on the physical experience of drawing and the thematic use of the human body as drawing subject led to reflective discussions about bodily knowledge and understanding. There were indications that students had a meta-cognitive awareness of the learning shifts that had occurred and the sessions provoked constructive self-reflective explorations of pre-professional identity. This preliminary study suggests, through the themes identified, that there may be potential learning outcomes for medical students in this model of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing of the human body. Further research is needed to explore their applicability and value to medical education. There is a need to explore in more depth the beliefs, motivations and learning styles of

  14. Emphasis on High Power Lithium Ion Technology for Pulse-Load Operations: Terrestrial Developments Potential Benefits to Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusalba, Florence; Chami, Marianne; Rey, Marlene; Moreau, Gilles; Reynier, Yvan; Azais, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Currently Li-ion batteries are preferred to supply space missions owing to their large energy density. However, these batteries are designed for standard missions without high-power pulsed payloads, therefore for low C-rates profiles, and do not answer the needs of high- power space applications. More enhanced power sources compatible with extended thermal environment are therefore needed for some space applications like next generation launchers or radar satellites. It is believed that synergy between terrestrial and space sectors could foster the avoidance of multiple financing for the development of similar technologies and systems, as well as dual-use of facilities, providing some real applications for synergy. CEA experienced terrestrial requirements for Hybrid Electric Vehicle applications, start & stop, e-buses and other larger vehicles. In this frame, materials especially designed for high power needs, new cells conception and recently hybrid supercapacitors developments at CEA are discussed as potential solutions for space high power feature.

  15. Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The core of the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic is development of a magnetic density separation (MDS) of polyolefines in order to improve the sorting efficiency of these polymer types in different waste fractions. As part of the project a life cycle assessment is performed in order to firstly...... identify eco-design criteria for the development and secondly to document the potential environmental improvement of polyolefin recycling using the MDS technology. A preliminary study focusing solely on the carbon footprint benefits of recycling plastic waste compared to virgin production of polymers...

  16. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydes, Matthew R; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Mason, Malcolm D; Clarke, Noel W; Amos, Claire; Anderson, John; de Bono, Johann; Dearnaley, David P; Dwyer, John; Green, Charlene; Jovic, Gordana; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Russell, J Martin; Sanders, Karen; Thalmann, George; James, Nicholas D

    2012-09-15

    Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate 'activity' stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final 'efficacy' stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design.(2) Adding New Therapy: An application to

  17. Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0050 trial: the utility of positron emission tomography in staging potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carolyn E; Harpole, David H; Posther, Katherine E; Woolson, Sandra L; Downey, Robert J; Meyers, Bryan F; Heelan, Robert T; MacApinlac, Homer A; Jung, Sin-Ho; Silvestri, Gerard A; Siegel, Barry A; Rusch, Valerie W

    2003-12-01

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group undertook a trial to ascertain whether positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose could detect lesions that would preclude pulmonary resection in a group of patients with documented or suspected non-small cell lung cancer found to be surgical candidates by routine staging procedures. A total of 303 eligible patients registered from 22 institutions underwent positron emission tomography after routine staging (computed tomography of chest and upper abdomen, bone scintigraphy, and brain imaging) had deemed their tumors resectable. Positive findings required confirmatory procedures. Positron emission tomography was significantly better than computed tomography for the detection of N1 and N2/N3 disease (42% vs 13%, P =.0177, and 58% vs 32%, P =.0041, respectively). The negative predictive value of positron emission tomography for mediastinal node disease was 87%. Unsuspected metastatic disease or second primary malignancy was identified in 18 of 287 patients (6.3%). Distant metastatic disease indicated in 19 of 287 patients (6.6%) was subsequently shown to be benign. By correctly identifying advanced disease (stages IIIA, IIIB, and IV) or benign lesions, positron emission tomography potentially avoided unnecessary thoracotomy in 1 of 5 patients. In patients with suspected or proven non-small cell lung cancer considered resectable by standard staging procedures, positron emission tomography can prevent nontherapeutic thoracotomy in a significant number of cases. Use of positron emission tomography for mediastinal staging should not be relied on as a sole staging modality, and positive findings should be confirmed by mediastinoscopy. Metastatic disease, especially a single site, identified by positron emission tomography requires further confirmatory evaluation.

  18. [Effects of different water potentials on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber during post-flowering growth stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Ji-tao; Yan, Wan-li; Xiao, Jian-hong; Ding, Chao; Dong, Chuan; Ji, Zeng-shun

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of different substrate water potentials (SWP) on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of greenhouse cucumber during its post-flowering growth stage were analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that -10 and -30 kPa were the critical values for initiating stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of drought stress, respectively. During the stage of no drought stress (-10 kPa gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not different significantly among treatments. During the stage of stomatal limitation of drought stress (-30 kPaefficiency (ε), transpiration rate (Tr), carboxylation efficiency (CE), maximum Rubisco-limited rate of carboxylation (Vc max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), rate of triosephosphate utilization (VTPU), maximum and actual quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII, and Fv/Fm) and photochemical quenching (qP) decreased, but the light compensation point (LCP), dark respiration rate (Rd), carbon dioxide compensation point (CCP), stomatal limitation value (LS), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) increased. In this stage, gas exchange parameters changed faster than chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and differed significantly among treatments. During the stage of non-stomatal limitation of drought stress (-45 kPa≤SWP ≤ -30 kPa), with the decrease of SWP, light saturation point (LSP), Rd, CE, Vcmax, VTPU, LS, WUEi, ΦpPSII, Fv/Fm and qp decreased, while CCP, Ci and qN increased. In this stage, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed faster than gas exchange parameters and differed significantly among treatments. In production of greenhouse cucumber, -10 and -5 kPa should be the lower and upper limit value of irrigation, respectively. The stomatal limitation of drought stress could be relieved by irrigation before SWP decreased to -30 kPa. While, the non-stomatal injury of drought stress would be unrecoverable once SWP decreased to

  19. Celebration Meets Caution: Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)’s Boons, Potential Busts, and the Benefits of a Reproductive Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an outpouring of research and funding pertaining to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The time is ripe to contextualize LARC’s hype within our broader reproductive health goals and tools—that is, how we can best address the needs of individuals who benefit from the reproductive health services we provide. After reviewing LARC’s major benefits, this commentary presents three potentially problematic aspects of LARC promotion: 1) the notion that increasing LARC use could singlehandedly end unintended pregnancies and their associations with poverty, 2) the clinical emphasis on LARC methods over all others, and 3) inadvertently failing to acknowledge the ways in which poor women of color will experience LARC promotion through legacies of racism and eugenics. The comment concludes by highlighting the benefits of a reproductive justice approach to LARC: an approach devoted to making LARC affordable and accessible while simultaneously respecting women’s decisions not to use LARC, their ability to have LARC removed when they wish, and their ability to determine for themselves where contraception and pregnancies fit into their lives. PMID:24582293

  20. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  1. Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erçöçen, Ali Riza; Soejima, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yenidünya, Sibel; Kikuchi, Yuji; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. In each group, surgical procedures were performed bilaterally, i.e. ten testes in each group, as follows: sham-operated controls (group 1), undescended testes (group 2), high division of the spermatic vessels (group 3), vascular induction with immediate division of spermatic vessels (group 4), and with delayed division of spermatic vessels (group 5). Evaluations were done by measuring the testicular weight and volume, testicular blood flow, and testicular biopsy scores and by microangiography. A moderate to severe decrease in testicular weight and volume in all experimental groups was observed compared with the sham-operated controls (group 1), but this was significantly less in groups 2 and 5. High division of the spermatic vessels in groups 3 and 4 resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the testicular blood flow, but this did not occur in group 5. Microangiographically, an impaired vascular supply from the deferential artery in group 3 and insufficient revascularization from the fasciovascular carrier in group 4 were observed. However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged

  2. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Kong

    Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  3. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Benjamin; Bailey, Dale; Roach, Paul; Bailey, Elizabeth; King, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  4. The challenge of cross-cultural, multi-national research: potential benefits in the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D

    2009-04-01

    The increasing interest in research in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), taken together with the growing sophistication of communication technology, makes cross-cultural, multi-national research a feasible endeavour. The aim of this study is to encourage collaborative cross-cultural studies in FGIDs by discussing relevant methodological issues, and by suggesting potential areas in which cross-cultural research can make a significant contribution to the understanding of FGIDs and to patient care. To this end, methodological issues related to cross-cultural research and competences required for its conduct are presented together with a critique of published studies and recommendations for future research in the area. The term 'cross-cultural' research in FGIDs is usually applied to the results of prevalence studies, for example comparative studies of IBS prevalence in different countries and ethnic groups. The validity of these comparisons is impacted negatively by the lack of uniformity in research methods. In addition to prevalence studies, cross-cultural research can make a significant contribution in areas such as molecular biology, genetics, psychosocial factors, symptom presentation, extra-intestinal comorbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, healthcare utilization, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by culture, ethnicity and race. Well-designed and implemented cross-cultural studies can advance our knowledge in many FGID-related areas ranging from epidemiology through psychosocial factors, pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutics. These studies, conducted by investigators with competence in cross-cultural research methodology, can advance our understanding of the FGIDs and contribute to improved patient care.

  5. Potential benefits of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy and irradiation for prostate cancer. Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) gene therapy and radiation therapy (either external beam radiation or radioimmunotherapy [RIT]), for the treatment of prostate cancer. Tumor xenografts of CD-transduced LNCaP cells grown in the testes of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were used to evaluate antitumor effect. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg of 5-FC, or with 5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), for 9 days. The tumors were treated with fractionated radiation at a dose of 1 or 3 Gy/day for 3 days, or I-131 labelled anti-prostate specific antigen (anti-PSA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration at a subtherapeutic dose of 20 or 80 {mu}Ci. Intratumoral and serum concentrations of 5-FU were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with CD/5-FC gene therapy presented a significant tumor growth inhibition comparable to that obtained with 15 mg/kg, 5-FU systemic administration without marked weight loss. Treatment with CD/5-FC gene therapy resulted in higher tumor but lower serum concentrations of 5-FU than treatment with systemic 5-FU chemotherapy. An additive antitumor effect was obtained when CD/5-FC therapy was combined with 1 Gy irradiation, which by itself did not produce a significant antitumor effect. However, the efficacy of CD/5-FC therapy was not enhanced when combined with RIT, probably due to poor accumulation of the mAb as the tumor/blood ratio never exceeded 1. These findings indicate that CD/5-FC gene therapy for prostate cancer may function with enhanced antitumor effect when combined with external beam radiation. However, combining CD/5-FC gene therapy and RIT using an anti-PSA mAb may not be effective because of insufficient accumulation of the mAb at the target tumors. (author)

  6. Potential benefits of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy and irradiation for prostate cancer. Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) gene therapy and radiation therapy (either external beam radiation or radioimmunotherapy [RIT]), for the treatment of prostate cancer. Tumor xenografts of CD-transduced LNCaP cells grown in the testes of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were used to evaluate antitumor effect. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg of 5-FC, or with 5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), for 9 days. The tumors were treated with fractionated radiation at a dose of 1 or 3 Gy/day for 3 days, or I-131 labelled anti-prostate specific antigen (anti-PSA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration at a subtherapeutic dose of 20 or 80 μCi. Intratumoral and serum concentrations of 5-FU were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with CD/5-FC gene therapy presented a significant tumor growth inhibition comparable to that obtained with 15 mg/kg, 5-FU systemic administration without marked weight loss. Treatment with CD/5-FC gene therapy resulted in higher tumor but lower serum concentrations of 5-FU than treatment with systemic 5-FU chemotherapy. An additive antitumor effect was obtained when CD/5-FC therapy was combined with 1 Gy irradiation, which by itself did not produce a significant antitumor effect. However, the efficacy of CD/5-FC therapy was not enhanced when combined with RIT, probably due to poor accumulation of the mAb as the tumor/blood ratio never exceeded 1. These findings indicate that CD/5-FC gene therapy for prostate cancer may function with enhanced antitumor effect when combined with external beam radiation. However, combining CD/5-FC gene therapy and RIT using an anti-PSA mAb may not be effective because of insufficient accumulation of the mAb at the target tumors. (author)

  7. Computer-assisted history-taking systems (CAHTS) in health care: benefits, risks and potential for further development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Yannis; Anandan, Chantelle; Liu, Joseph; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem

    2011-01-01

    A computer-assisted history-taking system (CAHTS) is a tool that aids clinicians in gathering data from patients to inform a diagnosis or treatment plan. Despite the many possible applications and even though CAHTS have been available for nearly three decades, these remain underused in routine clinical practice. Through an interpretative review of the literature, we provide an overview of the field of CAHTS, which also offers an understanding of the impact of these systems on policy, practice and research. We conducted a search and critique of the literature on CAHTS. Using a comprehensive set of terms, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment Database and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database over a ten-year period (January 1997 to May 2007) to identify systematic reviews, technical reports and health technology assessments, and randomised controlled trials. The systematic review of the literature suggests that CAHTS can save professionals' time, improve delivery of care to those with special needs and also facilitate the collection of information, especially potentially sensitive information (e.g. sexual history, alcohol consumption). The use of CAHTS also has disadvantages that impede the process of history taking and may pose risks to patients. CAHTS are inherently limited when detecting non-verbal communication, may pose irrelevant questions and frustrate the users with technical problems. Our review suggests that barriers such as a preference for pen-and-paper methods and concerns about data loss and security still exist and affect the adoption of CAHTS. In terms of policy and practice, CAHTS make input of data from disparate sites possible, which facilitates work from disparate sites and the collection of data for nationwide screening programmes such as the vascular

  8. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed...... be used as a screening tool to identify individuals who would benefit from further diagnostic assessment....

  9. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mangone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments less bad, rather than focusing on how to develop work environments that are positively performing. Moreover, the potential of building projects to perform positively, in terms of economic, social, and ecological performance, remains relatively unexplored in existing research and building projects. To this end, this PhD research project is focused on exploring the positive economic, social, and ecological performance potential of buildings. Specifically, this research project identifies and evaluates the potential economic, social, and ecological performance benefits of integrating microforests into office buildings. Microforests are defined in this book as dynamic, stimulating, cohesive spatial environments that are composed of vegetation and soil layers that mimic the structural, perceptual, and ecological composition of a forest ecosystem, yet are not large enough to reliably provide the myriad of functions of a robust, mature forest ecosystem. This design research focus is based on findings from existing literature that suggest that natural environments and stimuli can provide a diverse range of economic, social, and ecological performance benefits. The Design Research Methodology [DRM], an established research methodology that facilitates the use of diverse research methods in a rigorous, effective manner, is used in this research project to explore and evaluate the performance potential of microforests, by investigating the following sub research questions: • How can microforests improve the performance of office buildings? • How can microforests improve employee performance + comfort? • How can microforests improve the ecological performance

  10. Qualification opinion of novel methodologies in the predementia stage of Alzheimer's disease: cerebro-spinal-fluid related biomarkers for drugs affecting amyloid burden--regulatory considerations by European Medicines Agency focusing in improving benefit/risk in regulatory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Maria; Vamvakas, Spiros; Abadie, Eric; Jonsson, Bertil; Gispen, Christine; Pani, Luca

    2011-11-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) in London is responsible for the Regulatory review of new medicinal products for Marketing Authorisation, through which pharmaceutical companies may obtain first Marketing Authorisation and subsequent Variations valid throughout the EU and EFTA. The qualification opinion of novel methodologies is a new procedure where applicants can obtain scientific advice on new methodologies for regulatory clinical trials of efficacy of new compounds. It will help benefit/risk assessment of the CHMP. The definition of prodromal AD is acceptable. The "Dubois Criteria" as criteria to define the population must be validated in full at the time of the submission of the dossiers. Including a positive CSF biomarker profile is considered predictive for the evaluation of the AD-dementia type. However, although high CSF tau and low CSF Aβ42 are predictive of Alzheimer's disease, the criterion "positive CSF tau/Aβ42 ratio" is not well defined. The qualification of biomarkers in the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease will allow better inclusion criteria of patients in pre-dementia trials in which the benefit/risk is higher for treatment with these novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    - to estimate phosphorus loads from non-point sources and to define potential prevention measures in most endangered areas. The map is nowadays accessible for any Czech region at the internet as a WMS link. It can be easily downloaded from national metadata portal http://mis.cenia.cz using a key word „eroze"to search for the map. This map can be easily updated using high precision soil map (1:5000 scale) existing for the whole Czech territory. Unfortunately the soil map was not available for the recent assessment. Next example of application, generation of the map of rainfall-runoff conditions for sub catchments with area of ca 5 - 10 km2 can be mentioned. This Map classifies individual sub catchments according to their surface runoff production as response to causal rainfall event (Vrana et al, 2004). This material helps since 2004 for decision making related to state financial subsidy policy for flood control prevention in upper parts of the catchments. Related example are also Assessments of retention capacity of riverine floodplains or urban areas flood risk by surface runoff from agricultural land, which are recently processed for entire territory of The Czech Republic. One of the basic obstructions for wider implementation of simulation models and other mathematic-based tools in practice and especially for decision making support is relatively weak coordination within EU countries. There exist valid and relatively strict regulative on entire EU level on one hand, but the methods, which should be used to determine fixed values and limits are not specified properly. The approach within individual countries is very different regarding to both of methodologies recommended or accepted and input data availability for desired calculations and designs. The third problem is insufficient foreknowledge of important decision makers (local governments and state authorities) about current state of the art in mathematical modeling and GIS application in watershed and water

  12. 6p22.3 amplification as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target of advanced stage bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Underwood, Willie; Yang, Nuo; Frangou, Costa; Eng, Kevin; Head, Karen; Bollag, Roni J.; Kavuri, Sravan K.; Rojiani, Amyn M.; Li, Yingwei; Yan, Li; Hill, Annette; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.; Candace, Johnson S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified as to contribute directly or indirectly to the generation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB). In a comparative fashion much less is known about copy number alterations in TCC-UB, but it appears that amplification of chromosome 6p22 is one of the most frequent changes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, we evaluated chromosomal 6p22 amplification in a large cohort of bladder cancer patients with complete surgical staging and outcome data. We have also used shRNA knockdown candidate oncogenes in the cell based study. We found that amplification of chromosome 6p22.3 is significantly associated with the muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) (22%) in contrast to superficial TCC-UB (9%) (p=7.2-04). The rate of 6p22.3 amplification in pN>1 patients (32%) is more than twice that in pN0 (16%) patients (p=0.05). Interestingly, we found that 6p22.3 amplification is as twice as high (p=0.0201) in African American (AA) than European American (EA) TCC-UB patients. Moreover, we showed that the expression of some candidate genes (E2F3, CDKAL1 and Sox4) in the 6p22.3 region is highly correlated with the chromosomal amplification. In particular, knockdown of E2F3 inhibits cell proliferation in a 6p22.3-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of CDKAL1 and Sox4 has no effect on cell proliferation. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified some common as well as distinctive subset targets of the E2F3 family members. In summary, our data indicate that E2F3 is a key regulator of cell proliferation in a subset of bladder cancer and the 6p22.3 amplicon is a biomarker of aggressive phenotype in this tumor type. PMID:24231253

  13. Potential immunological benefits of Echinacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.M.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, herbal remedy is becoming as the spotlight which capture the public attention. Echinacea is marketed as a dietary supplement to promote the immune system and it is currently one of the best-selling herbs according to the Nutrition Business Journal, and is touted as a favourite botanical remedy among herbal and alternative medicine experts. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral application of a commercially available Echinacea preparation on the immune system in Egyptian male and female volunteers. For this purpose, 25 healthy male and female adults, 23-45 years, will receive Echinacea preparation. The total daily dose 125 mg for consecutive 10 days. Blood was withdrawn to assess some immune markers just before beginning the study and after completing the course of medication. The herb extract induced a significant increase in IgG level and the percentage of immune cell populations, including CD4 and CD8 in both male and female volunteers. Also, there is a significant increase in CD4/CD8 ratio. In addition, there is a significant increase in the total leucocyte. In regard to the differential leucocyte, the Echinacea preparation significantly increased the lymphocytes in peripheral blood. For other leucocyte subpopulations (neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil), no significant difference was observed after Echinacea treatment. The erythrocytic counts, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit were in significantly increased in male but insignificantly in female. No remarkable change was noted in the platelets count after the treatment of Echinacea. These findings demonstrated that the plant Echinacea have immune-enhancing properties in male and female Egyptian volunteers

  14. Effect of minimally invasive surgery for cerebral hematoma evacuation in different stages on motor evoked potential and thrombin in dog model of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Zhong, Weibin

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effect of minimally invasive surgery for cerebral hematoma evacuation in different stages on motor evoked potential (MEP) and thrombin in dog model of intracranial hemorrhage. Twenty dogs were selected to prepare the intracranial hemorrhage model, which were randomly divided into 6, 12, 18 and 24 hour groups, respectively. The animals in each group underwent a minimally invasive surgery to evacuate the cerebral hematoma after the models were prepared. Before and after procedures, Purdy score, MEP and thrombin in hematoma region were determined and compared. Significant decreases in Purdy score, latency of MEP and thrombin expression were observed in 6 and 12 hour groups as compared with the 18 and 24 hour groups (pintracranial hemorrhage, which was minimally invasive, easy to operate, highly repeated, simulating the pathological and physiological changes of clinical hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage. Both the latency of MEP and the expression of thrombin decreased after evacuation of intracranial hematoma in early stages by minimally invasive procedures, indicating that minimally invasive procedures for cerebral hematoma in ultra-early and early stages might be more effective to limit brain injury and decrease the latency of MEP and thrombin expression.

  15. The result of a two-stages cross intra and interspecific selection of sugar cane crop potential clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwati A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of strategic and important food commodities in Indonesia because it is the main source of sugar producers. Domestic sugar production in 2015 only reached 2.5 million tons, while its needs are 5.6 million tons which resulting in a shortage of 3.1 million tons to be met from import. The production in 2016 just reached 2.5 million tons causing the shortages that must be filled by import as much as 3.1 million tons. The Ministry of Agriculture has a program for sugar self-sufficiency that is expected to be achieved by 2014 with production is expected to reach 5.7 million tons. The discrepancy between production levels at this time with the target in 2014 still quite wide. The target accession can be reached by intensification and land extension or expansion. The availability of land development with the availability of adequate water has to face obstacles competing with rice plant as the main staple food. In 2007 more than 60% sugar cane crop was in dry land (Hadisaputro, et al., 2008. The expansion of dry land still has an opportunity to be developed in various ways such as the availability of sugar cane varieties with drought resistant. The research objectives are to accomplish the drought resistant selection in the field to the result of crossbreeding clones in 2014 (MLG-14. The activities implemented in KP. Karangploso, Malang, started on January until December 2016. The research materials are 51 crop clones of two stage selection which 7 varieties are PSDK, PSJT 941, PS 881, PSJK, VMC 76-16, GLAGAH, ERIANTHUS, CENING, BL, and PS 881 as a control. Using a randomized block design with three replication were planted in plots consisting of three arc along the 5 m. The PKP range (from center to center of arc are 100 cm length. The range between replications is 2.5 – 3 cm length. The seeds form is a one eye mule (bud set. Furthermore, after 1.5 month old, the seeds were selected based on its uniformly conditions and then planted in

  16. The current and potential health benefits of the National Health Service Health Check cardiovascular disease prevention programme in England: A microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Jackson, Christopher; Steinacher, Arno; Goodman, Anna; Langenberg, Claudia; Griffin, Simon; Wareham, Nick; Woodcock, James

    2018-03-01

    being free of disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, dementia, and lung cancer) at age 80 years per million people aged 40-45 years at baseline. Over the life of the cohort (i.e., followed from 40-45 years to 100 years), the changes result in an additional 10,000 (95% credible interval 8,200 to 13,000) quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and an additional 9,000 (6,900 to 11,300) years of life. This equates to approximately 300 fewer premature deaths and 1,000 more people living free of these diseases each year in England. We estimate that the current programme is increasing QALYs by 3.8 days (95% credible interval 3.0-4.7) per head of population and increasing survival by 3.3 days (2.5-4.1) per head of population over the 60 years of follow-up. The current programme has a greater absolute impact on health for those living in the most deprived areas compared to those living in the least deprived areas (4.4 [2.7-6.5] days of additional quality-adjusted life per head of population versus 2.8 [1.7-4.0] days; 5.1 [3.4-7.1] additional days lived per head of population versus 3.3 [2.1-4.5] days). Making feasible changes to the delivery of the existing programme could result in a sizable increase in the benefit. For example, a strategy that combines extending eligibility to those with preexisting hypertension, extending the upper age of eligibility to 79 years, increasing uptake of health checks by 30%, and increasing treatment rates 2.5-fold amongst eligible patients (i.e., 'maximum potential' scenario) results in at least a 3-fold increase in benefits compared to the current programme (1,360 premature deaths versus 390; 5,100 people free of 1 of the 4 diseases versus 1,370; 37,000 additional QALYs versus 10,000; 33,000 additional years of life versus 9,000). Ensuring those who are assessed and eligible for statins receive statins is a particularly important strategy to increase benefits. Estimates of overall benefit are based on current incidence and management, and future

  17. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  18. Feasibility and Potential Benefits of a Self-Monitoring Enhanced Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Women Who Are Overweight or Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Yang, Ziyi; Haas, David M; Carpenter, Janet S

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a self-monitoring enhanced lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain in women who are overweight and obese. A one-group, prospective design involving 8 weeks of healthy eating and physical activity and self-monitoring of weight, nutrition, and walking. Recruitment and enrollment in prenatal clinics and self-monitoring at home. Women (N = 22) at 14 to 24 gestational weeks, with body mass indexes of 25 to 40 kg/m 2 , without medical and psychiatric diseases that affected cognition or walking. Participants self-monitored weight and nutrition intake for the first 4 weeks and weight, nutrition intake, and walking in the second 4 weeks. Feasibility data were collected weekly (attrition, self-monitoring adherence, program safety, participant feedback) or at the end of Week 8 (satisfaction ratings). Potential benefits included weight, nutrition, and physical activity, measured at baseline (T1), the end of Week 4 (T2), or the end of Week 8 (T3). Attrition rates were 27.3% by T2 and 40.9% by T3. Adherence to log return was 100%. No adverse effects were noted, but food craving was persistent, and stress levels were high. Program satisfaction was high. Trends for improved activity and reduced trans fat consumption were seen. Our findings indicate that the intervention is worthy of further development and testing with a randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pioneer and late stage tropical rainforest tree species (French Guiana) growing under common conditions differ in leaf gas exchange regulation, carbon isotope discrimination and leaf water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, R; Ferhi, A; Guehl, J M

    1994-09-01

    Leaf gas exchange rates, predawn Ψ wp and daily minimum Ψ wm leaf water potentials were measured during a wet-to-dry season transition in pioneer (Jacaranda copaia, Goupia glabra andCarapa guianensis) and late stage rainforest tree species (Dicorynia guianensis andEperua falcata) growing in common conditions in artificial stands in French Guiana. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) was assessed by measuring the stable carbon isotope composition of the cellulose fraction of wood cores. The Δ values were 2.7‰ higher in the pioneer species than in the late stage species. The calculated time integratedC i values derived from the Δ values averaged 281 μmol mol -1 in the pioneers and 240 μmol mol -1 in the late stage species. The corresponding time-integrated values of intrinsinc water-use efficiency [ratio CO 2 assimilation rate (A)/leaf conductance (g)] ranged from 37 to 47 mmol mol -1 in the pioneers and the values were 64 and 74 mmol mol -1 for the two late stage species. The high Δ values were associated-at least inJ. copaia-with high maximumg values and with high plant intrinsinc specific hydraulic conductance [C≔g/(Ψ wm -Ψ wp ], which could reflect a high competitive ability for water and nutrient uptake in the absence of soil drought in the pioneers. A further clear discriminating trait of the pioneer species was the very sensitive stomatal response to drought in the soil, which might be associated with a high vulnerability to cavitation in these species. From a methodological point of view, the results show the relevance of Δ for distinguishing ecophysiological functional types among rainforest trees.

  20. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4 Contributes to High Salt Diet-Mediated Early-Stage Endothelial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Ding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4 channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD-induced endothelial injuries. Methods: Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Carboxy-H2DCFDA, a membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, was used to detect intracellular ROS levels. Results: TRPM4 was mainly expressed near the plasma membrane of mesenteric artery endothelial cells, and its expression level increased in SS hypertensive rats fed a HSD. Its protein expression was significantly upregulated upon treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and aldosterone in cultured HUVECs. Cell viability decreased upon treatment with both agents in a concentration-dependent manner, which could be partially reversed by 9-phenanthrol, a specific TRPM4 inhibitor. Exogenous H2O2 induced apoptosis, enhanced cell migration, and increased the release of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, all of which were significantly attenuated upon treatment with 9-phenanthrol. Aldosterone and H2O2 induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which was significantly inhibited by 9-phenanthrol, suggesting that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-induced endothelial injury. Conclusions: Given the fact that oxidative stress and high levels of circulating aldosterone are present in hypertensive patients, we suggest that the upregulation of TRPM4 in the vascular

  1. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) Contributes to High Salt Diet-Mediated Early-Stage Endothelial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Qing; Ban, Tao; Liu, Zeng-Yan; Lou, Jie; Tang, Liang-Liang; Wang, Jia-Xin; Chu, Wen-Feng; Zhao, Dan; Song, Bin-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD)-induced endothelial injuries. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. Carboxy-H2DCFDA, a membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive fluorescent probe, was used to detect intracellular ROS levels. TRPM4 was mainly expressed near the plasma membrane of mesenteric artery endothelial cells, and its expression level increased in SS hypertensive rats fed a HSD. Its protein expression was significantly upregulated upon treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and aldosterone in cultured HUVECs. Cell viability decreased upon treatment with both agents in a concentration-dependent manner, which could be partially reversed by 9-phenanthrol, a specific TRPM4 inhibitor. Exogenous H2O2 induced apoptosis, enhanced cell migration, and increased the release of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, all of which were significantly attenuated upon treatment with 9-phenanthrol. Aldosterone and H2O2 induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which was significantly inhibited by 9-phenanthrol, suggesting that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-induced endothelial injury. Given the fact that oxidative stress and high levels of circulating aldosterone are present in hypertensive patients, we suggest that the upregulation of TRPM4 in the vascular endothelium may be involved in endothelial injuries caused

  2. Maternal sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy impairs the emotional and cognitive functions, and suppresses hippocampal long-term potentiation in the offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Tao; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang; Wang, Yu Tian; Han, Huili

    2016-02-15

    Sleep deprivation during pregnancy is a serious public health problem as it can affect the health of pregnant women and newborns. However, it is not well studied whether sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy has similar effects on emotional and cognitive functions of the offspring, and if so, the potential cellular mechanisms also remain poorly understood. In the present study, the pregnant rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 6 h per day by gentle handling during the first (gestational days 1-7), second (gestational days 8-14) and third trimester (gestational days 15-21) of pregnancy, respectively. The emotional and cognitive functions as well as hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were tested in the offspring rats (postnatal days 42-56). The offspring displayed impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory, and increased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Quantification of BrdU-positive cells revealed that adult hippocampal neurogenesis was significantly reduced compared to control. Electrophysiological recording showed that maternal sleep deprivation impaired hippocampal CA1 LTP and reduced basal synaptic transmission, as reflected by a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy disrupts the emotional and cognitive functions of the offspring that might be attributable to the suppression of hippocampal LTP and basal synaptic transmission.

  3. Is splash erosion potential species specific? Measuring of splash erosion potential under forest in different succession stages along a biodiversity gradient in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Kühn, P.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    is 2.5 times higher than in open field despite the fact that only 60 percent of open field rainfall reaches the ground. The results also indicate that sand loss is a function of the age of the specific forest stand and the variability of sand loss under different species with respect to space and time. These and future results will help managing afforestation projects in giving implications which of the species (resp. species compositions) may reduce most effectively potential splash erosion. References: Brandt, C. J. (1989): The size distribution of throughfall drops under vegetation canopies. Catena 16, p. 507-524. Calder, I. R. (2001): Canopy processes: implications for transpiration, interception and splash induced erosion, ultimately for forest management and water resources. Plant Ecology 153, p. 203-214. Ellison, W. D. (1947): Soil Erosion Studies - Part II. Soil Detachment Hazard by Raindrop Splash. Agricultural Engineering 28, p. 197-201. Foot, K.; Morgan, R. P. C. (2005): The role of leaf inclination, leaf orientation and plant canopy architecture in soil particle detachment by raindrops. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30, p. 1509-1520. Nanko, K.; Hotta, N. & Suzuki, M. (2006): Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution. Journal of Hydrology 329, p. 422-431. Vis, M. (1986): Interception, drop size distributions and rainfall kinetic energy in four colombian forest ecosystems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 11, p. 591-603.

  4. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Harvie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction (IER has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  5. Chemical characterization of 21 species of marine macroalgae common in Norwegian waters: benefits of and limitations to their potential use in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Belghit, Ikram; Bruckner, Christian G; Liland, Nina S; Waagbø, Rune; Amlund, Heidi; Heesch, Svenja; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-11-28

    In the past few years, much effort has been invested into developing a new blue economy based on harvesting, cultivating and processing marine macroalgae in Norway. Macroalgae have high potential for a wide range of applications, e.g. as source of pharmaceuticals, production of biofuels or as food and feed. However, data on the chemical composition of macroalgae from Norwegian waters are scant. This study was designed to characterize the chemical composition of 21 algal species. Both macro- and micronutrients were analysed. Concentrations of heavy metals and the metalloid arsenic in the algae were also quantified. The results confirm that marine macroalgae contain nutrients which are relevant for both human and animal nutrition, the concentrations whereof are highly dependent on species. Although heavy metals and arsenic were detected in the algae studied, concentrations were mostly below maximum allowed levels set by food and feed legislation in the EU. This study provides chemical data on a wide range of algal species covering the three taxonomic groups (brown, red and green algae) and discusses both benefits of and potential limitations to their use for food and feed purposes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern ..... Table 4. Other socioeconomic benefits of coffee shade tree species alluded by the respondents, Southwestern Ethiopia. Mentioned benefits. Responses (%). Yes. No. Firewood ... (fast growth, longevity, possession of thin and small ...

  7. Growing insights into the potential benefits and risks of activated protein C administration in sepsis: a review of preclinical and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Altaweel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Laith Altaweel, Daniel Sweeney, Xizhong Cui, Amisha Barochia, Charles Natanson, Peter Q EichackerCritical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC was developed to reduce excessive coagulant and inflammatory activity during sepsis. Basic and clinical research has suggested these pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of this lethal syndrome and are inhibited by rhAPC. Based in large part on the results of a single multicenter randomized controlled trial, rhAPC was first approved in 2001 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA as adjunctive therapy in septic patients with a high risk of death. This was followed closely by approval in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. At the original FDA review of rhAPC, concerns were raised as to whether a confirmatory trial should be done before final regulatory approval because of concerns that rhAPCs bleeding risk might outweigh its potential benefit during clinical use. Since 2001, continuing basic and clinical research has further elucidated the complex role activated protein C may have in both adaptive and maladaptive responses during sepsis. Moreover, subsequent controlled trials in other types of septic patients and observational studies appear to support earlier concerns that the benefit-to-risk ratio of rhAPC may not support its clinical use. This experience has prompted additional trials presently underway, to define whether treatment with rhAPC as it was originally indicated in septic patients with persistent shock, is safe and effective. Until such trials are complete, physicians employing this agent must carefully consider which patients may be appropriate candidates for rhAPC administration.Keywords: rhAPC, treatment, sepsis

  8. A clinical analysis of 500 medico-legal claims evaluating the causes and assessing the potential benefit of alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Lynch, C; Coker, A; Dua, J A

    1996-12-01

    1. To evaluate the common causes of medico-legal dispute in obstetrics and gynaecology. 2. To assess the potential benefit of early alternative dispute resolution. A prospective analysis of over 500 cases submitted from over 100 solicitors between 1984 and 1994 for medical expert opinion on potential medico-legal claims. Five hundred consecutive cases that met the inclusion criteria: 488 from the United Kingdom and 12 from abroad (Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland). The main principles underlining medico-legal disputes and causes of such claims. Analysis of 500 claims show 46% were misguided allegations, 19% incompetent care, 12% error of judgement, 9% lack of expertise, 7% failure of communication, 6% poor supervision and 1% inadequate staffing. Of the misguided allegations 119/225 cases (59%) were obstetric and 111/275 (40%) cases were gynaecological. The most common cause of obstetric dispute was "cerebral palsy' (22%), while the commonest cause of gynaecological dispute was failed sterilisation (19%). Settled claims were under-reported by solicitors. Because of the high percentage (46%) of misguided allegations, an alternative course of dispute resolution must be a realistic way forward. This course of action, combined with improved communication, could result in a major reduction in the costs of potential medical litigation. Early alternative dispute resolution should be considered in an attempt to reduce the escalating quantum of damages and costs. We recommend recruiting independent, experienced and unbiased consultants in active practice within the appropriate specialty to review such cases at the level of hospital complaints management as an in house review procedure, particularly for small and moderate-sized claims, as a means whereby doctors can retain control of medico-legal disputes, in contrast to control by the legal profession.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Approach to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M.; Mason, R. Preston; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis have excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden with substantially increased CV event rates compared with the general population. Summary Traditional interventions that, according to standard clinical guidelines, reduce CV risk such as antihypertensive therapy, diet, exercise, and statins are not similarly effective in the hemodialysis population. This raises the question of whether additional risk factors, such as enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, may drive the increased CVD burden in hemodialysis patients. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into the atherosclerotic plaque as well as membrane phospholipid bilayers and produces beneficial effects on inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. EPA levels and the ratio of EPA to the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are reduced in hemodialysis patients. Serum EPA levels have been inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines, and the EPA/AA ratio has been inversely associated with CV events in hemodialysis cohorts. Three recent studies involving over 800 hemodialysis patients and follow-up of 2–3 years suggest that EPA therapy may improve clinical outcomes in this patient population as evidenced by significant reductions in cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and/or CV events. Key Messages Further studies with high-purity EPA are warranted in patients on hemodialysis, especially given the fact that other interventions including antihypertensives, diet, exercise, and statins have not provided meaningful benefit. PMID:29344023

  10. Bioelectric patterning during oogenesis: stage-specific distribution of membrane potentials, intracellular pH and ion-transport mechanisms in Drosophila ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Julia; Bohrmann, Johannes

    2015-01-16

    Bioelectric phenomena have been found to exert influence on various developmental and regenerative processes. Little is known about their possible functions and the cellular mechanisms by which they might act during Drosophila oogenesis. In developing follicles, characteristic extracellular current patterns and membrane-potential changes in oocyte and nurse cells have been observed that partly depend on the exchange of protons, potassium ions and sodium ions. These bioelectric properties have been supposed to be related to various processes during oogenesis, e. g. pH-regulation, osmoregulation, cell communication, cell migration, cell proliferation, cell death, vitellogenesis and follicle growth. Analysing in detail the spatial distribution and activity of the relevant ion-transport mechanisms is expected to elucidate the roles that bioelectric phenomena play during oogenesis. To obtain an overview of bioelectric patterning along the longitudinal and transversal axes of the developing follicle, the spatial distributions of membrane potentials (Vmem), intracellular pH (pHi) and various membrane-channel proteins were studied systematically using fluorescent indicators, fluorescent inhibitors and antisera. During mid-vitellogenic stages 9 to 10B, characteristic, stage-specific Vmem-patterns in the follicle-cell epithelium as well as anteroposterior pHi-gradients in follicle cells and nurse cells were observed. Corresponding distribution patterns of proton pumps (V-ATPases), voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+)-channels, amiloride-sensitive Na(+)-channels and Na(+),H(+)-exchangers (NHE) and gap-junction proteins (innexin 3) were detected. In particular, six morphologically distinguishable follicle-cell types are characterized on the bioelectric level by differences concerning Vmem and pHi as well as specific compositions of ion channels and carriers. Striking similarities between Vmem-patterns and activity patterns of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channels were found, suggesting

  11. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    incorporation under elevated pCO2 (Sr / Ca = 2.10 ± 0.06 mmol mol−1; Mg / Ca = 67.4 ± 3.9 mmol mol−1, juveniles of Southern California origin partitioned ~8% more Sr into their skeletons when exposed to higher pCO2 (Sr / Ca = 2.26 ± 0.08 vs. 2.09 ± 0.005 mmol mol−1 1 SD. Together these results suggest that the diversity of carbonate minerologies present across different skeletal structures and life stages in purple sea urchins does not translate into an equivalent geochemical plasticity of response associated with geographic variation or temporal shifts in seawater properties. Rather, composition of S. purpuratus skeleton precipitated during both early and adult life history stages appears relatively robust to spatial gradients and predicted future changes in carbonate chemistry. An exception to this trend may arise during early life stages, where certain populations of purple sea urchins may alter skeletal mineral precipitation rates and composition beyond a given pCO2 threshold. This potential for geochemical plasticity during early development in contrast to adult stage geochemical resilience adds to the growing body of evidence that ocean acidification can have differing effects across organismal life stages.

  12. The value of the bulbocavernosus reflex and pudendal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in distinguishing between multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease at an early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z-Y; Niu, X-T; Pan, J; Ni, P-Q; Wang, X; Shao, B

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical value of the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) and pudendal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) in the differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage. A total of 31 patients with MSA, 45 patients with PD, and 60 healthy participants were included in this study. A Keypoint EMG/EP system was used for BCR and PSEP measurements. Electrophysiological parameters were collected for statistical analysis. The BCR elicitation rates were significantly lower in the patients with MSA than in the patients with PD (P<.05). Prolonged BCR latencies were found in the MSA group compared to the PD and control groups (P<.05). Bulbocavernosus reflex latencies were significantly prolonged in patients with MSA compared with PD patients showing early urogenital symptoms (P<.05). There was no significant difference in PSEP P41 latencies among the three groups (P=.434 in males, P=.948 in females). Both BCR and PSEP amplitudes were significantly lower in the MSA/PD group than in the control group (P<.001). Pudendal nerve damage is more severe in MSA than in PD. Prolonged BCR latency may be valuable for distinguishing between MSA and PD in the early stages. BCR and PSEP testing may also contribute to localized and qualitative diagnosis of the distribution of neurodegenerative pathologies in these two disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Is FDG PET/CT cost-effective for pre-operation staging of potentially operative non-small cell lung cancer? – From Chinese healthcare system perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu-ting; Huang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The remarkable morbidity and mortality of lung cancer in the large population address major economic challenges to Chinese healthcare system. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT for staging patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Management of potentially operative NSCLC was modeled on decision analysis employing data in China. The strategies compared were conventional CT staging (strategy A), additional PET/CT in all patients (strategy B) or only in patients with normal-sized lymph nodes on CT (strategy C). Published medical data for Chinese patients was extracted. The costs corresponded to reimbursement by Chinese public health provider in 2010. Uncertainly of employed parameters was calculated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Taking strategy A as baseline, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of strategy B was 23,800 RMB ($3500) per life year saved, which was acceptable in views of a developing country as China; while strategy C exhibited some loss of life years. Sensitivity analysis suggested the ICER (B–A) was raised more remarkably by a deterioration of PET specificity than by that of its sensitivity. The ICER was turned negative by PET specificity lower than 0.79. Economically, PET cost was proportional to the ICER (B–A), and decrease of palliative therapy cost could reduce both the ICER and overall cost. Conclusions: The PET/CT strategy is potentially cost-effective for management of NSCLC in China. Patients with nodal-positive CT results are not suggested to be excluded from further PET/CT. Furthermore, maintaining high specificity of PET in clinical scenarios is crucial. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results into policy making.

  14. Studies on meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages

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    Qin Ping Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and expression of genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages. Methods Sixty 4-week-old Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 6 replicate groups, each containing 10 pigs. One pig from each group was sacrificed at day 35, 63, 98, and 161 to isolate longissimus dorsi and triceps muscles. Results Meat color scores were higher in pigs at 35 d than those at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05, and those at 98 d were lower than those at 161 d (p<0.05. The total myoglobin was higher on 161 d compared with those at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05. Increase in the proportions of metmyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin and a decrease in oxymyoglobin were observed between days 35 and 161 (p<0.05. Meat color scores were correlated to the proportion of oxymyoglobin (r = 0.59, p<0.01, and negatively correlated with deoxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin content (r = −0.48 and −0.62, p<0.05. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity at 35 d and 98 d was higher than that at 161 d (p<0.05. The highest lactate dehydrogenase/MDH ratio was achieved at 161 d (p<0.05. Calcineurin mRNA expression decreased at 35 d compared to that at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 mRNA results indicated a higher expression at 161 d than that at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05. Conclusion Porcine meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential varied at different stages.

  15. Opinion of South African pre- and post-menopausal women on the potential menopause-related health benefits of soy and soy products

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    Magdalena JC Bosman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of alternative treatment for menopausal symptoms is mainly due to women’s changing opinions of conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT. The objective of this study was to assess the opinion of pre and post-menopausal South African women regarding the potential menopause-related health benefits of soy. The sample used for the study was a sub-dataset of 825 respondents, which included only pre- and post-menopausal women that had heard of soy before, selected from a representative sample of the adult South African metropolitan and rural populations. A structured questionnaire was used. Neither age nor racial groups differed practically significantly in opinion regarding any of the various statements. The study also shows that a practically significant lower proportion of women in the sub-population across both age and race groups had a positive opinion on the health benefits of soy as an alternative to HRT and reliever of menopausal symptoms than those who acknowledged its benefit for preventing cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Practically significantly more women who used soy than women who never used soy agreed that soy keeps bones strong. In addition, more women who were of opinion that soy has few or no health benefits disagreed that soy could be used as an alternative to HRT compared to women who held a positive opinion. Opsomming Die toenemende gebruik van alternatiewe behandelings vir menopousale simptome kan aan vroue se veranderende opinies oor konvensionele hormoonvervangingsterapie (HVT toegeskryf word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om pre- en post- menopousale Suid-Afrikaanse vroue se opinie aangaande die potensiële menopouseverwante gesondheids-voordele van soja te bepaal. Die steekproef vir die studie het uit ‘n subdatastel bestaan van 825 vroue in hul pre- en post-menopousale stadium wat al voorheen van soja gehoor het, en is vanuit ‘n verteenwoordigende steekproef van die volwasse Suid

  16. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  17. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Bethany P; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Graham, James L; Kim, Jaehyoung; Ma, Fangrui; Shibata, Noreene; Stanhope, Kimber L; Giulivi, Cecilia; Hansen, Frederik; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels; Kowala, Mark; Chouinard, Michael L; Haj, Fawaz G; Havel, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  18. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  19. Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufman, Jamie A; Johnston, Nikki

    2012-07-01

    At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity. Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters. The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters. Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

  20. Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Potential benefits and underlying mechanisms: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Innes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. While the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this paper, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.

  1. Approaches of [i]Rhodiola kirilowii [/i]and [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  2. Examining the potential public health benefit of offering STI testing to men in amateur football clubs: evidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Catherine H; Fuller, Sebastian S; Saunders, John M; Muniina, Pamela; Copas, Andrew J; Hart, Graham J; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Johnson, Anne M; Cassell, Jackie A; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2015-07-17

    In Britain, young people continue to bear the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) so efforts are required, especially among men, to encourage STI testing. The SPORTSMART study trialled an intervention that sought to achieve this by offering chlamydia and gonorrhoea test-kits to men attending amateur football clubs between October and December 2012. With football the highest participation team sport among men in England, this paper examines the potential public health benefit of offering STI testing to men in this setting by assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and healthcare behaviour and comparing them to men in the general population. Data were collected from 192 (male) members of 6 football clubs in London, United Kingdom, aged 18-44 years via a 20-item pen-and-paper self-completion questionnaire administered 2 weeks after the intervention. These were compared to data collected from 409 men of a similar age who were resident in London when interviewed during 2010-2012 for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability survey that used computer-assisted-personal-interviewing with computer-assisted-self-interview. Age standardisation and multivariable regression were used to account for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Relative to men in the general population, SPORTSMART men were younger (32.8 % vs. 21.7 % aged under 25 y), and more likely to report (all past year) at least 2 sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 3.25, 95 % CI: 2.15-4.92), concurrent partners (AOR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.39-3.02), and non-use of condoms (AOR: 2.17, 95 % CI: 1.39-3.41). No difference was observed in STI/HIV risk perception (AOR for reporting "not at all at risk" of STIs: 1.25, 95 % CI: 0.76-2.04; of HIV: AOR: 1.54, 95 % CI: 0.93-2.55), nor in reporting STI testing in the past year (AOR: 0.83, 95 % CI: 0.44-1.54), which was reported by only one in six men. Relative to young

  3. Accessibility, Availability, and Potential Benefits of Psycho-Oncology Services: The Perspective of Community-Based Physicians Providing Cancer Survivorship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann-Schlegel, Verena; Hartmann, Mechthild; Sklenarova, Halina; Herzog, Wolfgang; Haun, Markus W

    2017-06-01

    As persons of trust, community-based physicians providing survivorship care (e.g., general practitioners [GPs]) often serve as the primary contacts for cancer survivors disclosing distress. From the perspective of physicians providing survivorship care for cancer patients, this study explores (a) the accessibility, availability, and potential benefits of psycho-oncology services; (b) whether physicians themselves provide psychosocial support; and (c) predictors for impeded referrals of survivors to services. In a cross-sectional survey, all GPs and community-based specialists in a defined region were interviewed. In addition to descriptive analyses, categorical data were investigated by applying chi-square tests. Predictors for impeded referrals were explored through logistic regression. Of 683 responding physicians, the vast majority stated that survivors benefit from psycho-oncology services (96.8%), but the physicians also articulated that insufficient coverage of psycho-oncology services (90.9%) was often accompanied by impeded referrals (77.7%). A substantial proportion (14.9%) of physicians did not offer any psychosocial support. The odds of physicians in rural areas reporting impeded referrals were 1.91 times greater than the odds of physicians in large urban areas making a similar report (95% confidence interval [1.07, 3.40]). Most community-based physicians providing survivorship care regard psycho-oncology services as highly beneficial. However, a large number of physicians report tremendous difficulty referring patients. Focusing on those physicians not providing any psychosocial support, health policy approaches should specifically (a) raise awareness of the role of physicians as persons of trust for survivors, (b) highlight the effectiveness of psycho-oncology services, and (c) encourage a proactive attitude toward the assessment of unmet needs and the initiation of comprehensive care. Community-based physicians providing survivorship care for cancer

  4. The estimation of CO2 storage potential of gas-bearing shale complex at the early stage of reservoir characterization: the case of Baltic Basin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Adam; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    For the stage of shale gas production, like in the USA, prediction of the CO2 storage potential in shale reservoir can be performed by dynamic modeling. We have made an attempt to estimate this potential at an early stage of shale gas exploration in the Lower Paleozoic Baltic Basin, based on data from 3,800 m deep vertical well (without hydraulic fracking stimulation), supplemented with additional information from neighboring boreholes. Such an attempt makes a sense as a first guess forecast for company that explores a new basin. In our approach, the storage capacity is build by: (1) sorption potential of organic matter, (2) open pore space and (3) potential fracture space. the sequence. our estimation is done for 120 m long shale sequence including three shale intervals enriched with organic mater. Such an interval is possible to be fracked from a single horizontal borehole as known from hydraulic fracture treatment in the other boreholes in this region. The potential for adsorbed CO2 is determined from Langmuir isotherm parameters taken from laboratory measurements in case of both CH4 and CO2 adsorption, as well as shale density and volume. CO2 has approximately three times higher sorption capacity than methane to the organic matter contained in the Baltic Basin shales. Finally, due to low permeability of shale we adopt the common assumption for the USA shale basins that the CO2 will be able to reach effectively only 10% of theoretical total sorption volume. The pore space capacity was estimated by utilizing results of laboratory measurements of dynamic capacity for pores bigger than 10 nm. It is assumed for smaller pores adsorption prevails over free gas. Similarly to solution for sorption, we have assumed that only 10 % of the tight pore space will be reached by CO2. For fracture space we have considered separately natural (tectonic-origin) and technological (potentially produced by hydraulic fracturing treatment) fractures. From fracture density profile and

  5. The Osteogenic Potential of Human Non-differentiated and Pre-differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with an Osteoconductive Scaffold – Early Stage Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Tuček

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge research into stem cells and their regenerative properties for bone healing, there are still unanswered questions including the recipient’s respond to the presence of the stem cells, the fate of stem cells inside the bone defect and the possible advantage in utilizing pre-differentiated cells. To address these problems, we used human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs, GMP Grade, in a rat model of bone formation. In a “bioreactor concept” approach seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 2 × 106 MSCs, seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 1 × 106 predifferentiated osteoblasts and 1 × 106 pre-differentiated endothelial cells and 14 Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold without seeded cells into an intramuscular pocket on the left side of their back. The right side of each rat was used as a control, and 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold was implanted into the intramuscular pocket alone. To see the early stage healing the samples were harvested 14 days after the implantation, MSCs were detected by positive DAPI and MTCO2 staining in 43% of all the samples implanted with MSCs, and no inflammation signs were present in any implanted animal. New vessels could be found in both groups implanted with MSCs, but not in the control group of animals. However, hematoxylin-eosin staining could not detect newly created bone within the implant in any of the groups. These results were in line with COLL1 staining, where we could detect positive staining only in three cases, all of which were implanted with un-differentiated MSCs. According to our findings, there were no benefits of using the pre-differentiated of MSC.

  6. Neuroprotective Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Acute Stages of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Guinea-Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainsley M Robinson

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the earliest time point at which locally administered MSC-based therapies avert enteric neuronal loss and damage associated with intestinal inflammation in the guinea-pig model of colitis.At 3 hours after induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate (TNBS, guinea-pigs received either human bone marrow-derived MSCs, conditioned medium (CM, or unconditioned medium by enema into the colon. Colon tissues were collected 6, 24 and 72 hours after administration of TNBS. Effects on body weight, gross morphological damage, immune cell infiltration and myenteric neurons were evaluated. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and antibody array kit were used to identify neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs.MSC and CM treatments prevented body weight loss, reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the colon wall and the myenteric plexus, facilitated repair of damaged tissue and nerve fibers, averted myenteric neuronal loss, as well as changes in neuronal subpopulations. The neuroprotective effects of MSC and CM treatments were observed as early as 24 hours after induction of inflammation even though the inflammatory reaction at the level of the myenteric ganglia had not completely subsided. Substantial number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs was identified in their secretome.MSC-based therapies applied at the acute stages of TNBS-induced colitis start exerting their neuroprotective effects towards enteric neurons by 24 hours post treatment. The neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-based therapies can be exerted independently to their anti

  7. Cost effectiveness of endosonography versus surgical staging in potentially resectable lung cancer: a health economics analysis of the ASTER trial from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rintoul, Robert C.; Glover, Matthew J.; Jackson, Christopher; Hughes, Victoria; Tournoy, Kurt G.; Dooms, Christophe; Annema, Jouke T.; Sharples, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    In the ASTER study, mediastinal staging was more accurate for patients randomised to combined endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound, followed by surgical staging if endoscopy was negative, versus surgical staging alone. Here, we report survival, quality of life and cost effectiveness up to 6

  8. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metrics for Identifying Food Security Status and the Population with Potential to Benefit from Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Walker, Neff; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet 's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted. Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as the food security proxy indicator in LiST. Methods: We carried out a desk review to identify available indicators of food security. We identified 3 indicators and compared them by using scatterplots, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. We generated LiST projections to compare the modeled impact results with the use of the different indicators. Results: There are many food security indicators available, but only 3 additional indicators were identified with the data availability requirements to be used as the food security indicator in LiST. As expected, analyzed food security indicators were significantly positively correlated ( P security indicators that were used in the meta-analyses that produced the effect estimates. These are the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d for CF interventions and the prevalence of a low body mass index in women of reproductive age for balanced energy supplementation interventions. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  11. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bilandžija

    Full Text Available Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish, albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  12. Benefits and Potential Harms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: An Implementation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilu; Tang, Weiming; Nowacki, Amy; Mollan, Katie; Reifeis, Sarah A; Hudgens, Michael G; Wong, Ngai-Sze; Li, Haochu; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) holds great promise for reaching high-risk key populations who do not access facility-based services. We sought to characterize unsupervised HIVST implementation among men who have sex with men in China. We conducted a nationwide online survey in China. Eligible men were at least 16 years, had anal sex with a man, and had recent condomless sex. We assessed benefits (first-time testing, increased testing frequency, confirmatory testing) and potential harms (coercion, violence, suicidality) of HIVST. Among men who have sex with men who reported ever testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we identified correlates of HIVST as first-time HIV test being a self-test using multivariable logistic regression. Among 1610 men who met the eligibility criteria and started the survey, 1189 (74%) completed it. Three hundred forty-one (29%) of 1189 reported ever self-testing for HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 7% (24/341) among self-testers and 5% (15/306) among non-self-testers. Two hundred (59%) of 341 men who self-tested reported HIVST as a first-time HIV test. Thirty-one (9%) men experienced coercion with HIVST. Thirty-one (78%) of 40 men with positive HIV self-tests sought confirmation. Multivariable analysis revealed that HIVST as first-time HIV test was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.99), not being "out" (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.60-3.28), not using the internet to meet sex partners (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.69), and group sex (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.9). Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing reached high-risk individuals that had never received facility-based testing. Further implementation research is needed to better understand HIVST outside of research programs.

  13. Potential benefits and harms of a peer support social network service on the internet for people with depressive tendencies: qualitative content analysis and social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-07-23

    Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of "friends," were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was performed by determining the access

  14. Impact of postharvest processing on the fungal population contaminating African walnut shells (Tetracarpidium conophorum Mull. Arg) at different maturity stages and potential mycotoxigenic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwonta, Chikere G; Medina, Angel; Del Carmen Alamar, Maria; Terry, Leon A

    2015-02-02

    African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Mull. Arg) is commonly processed by boiling or toasting and consumed as a snack or used as a thickener in many West African soup preparations. The nuts are usually exposed to both high temperatures and high relative humidity in open markets which predisposes them to fungal growth. Hence, the dangers of spore inhalation and resultant mycosis cannot be over-emphasized as retailers and consumers are always in direct contact with these nuts during harvest, processing and consumption. So far, there is no reported research on potential mycotoxin contamination of African walnut and whether this risk might be accentuated by processing. African walnut, at early and late maturity stages, were processed by toasting, boiling or left unprocessed before being stored at 25°C and 37°C, respectively under controlled relative humidity for 7days. Nuts were cracked and shell pieces cultured in malt extract agar (MEA) and Dichloran Glycerol 18 (DG18) media and incubated at 25°C for 7days. Results revealed that potential mycotoxigenic species - Aspergillus section Nigri, Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. - were frequently isolated. When compared with unprocessed nuts, toasting completely prevented fungal contamination in shell pieces from nuts in the non-stored (NSN) group at the early maturity stage, while boiling significantly reduced the level of contamination to about 58% (pAflatoxins - G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates with both AFG1 and AFB1 being predominant at concentration ranges 4.33-32,200 and 4.20-22,700ng/g plug weight, respectively. No ochratoxin A (OTA) was detected out of 23 isolates analysed. From these findings, it is suggested that toasting of nuts, preferably at early maturity is a safer processing option than boiling in terms of prevention of possible fungal growth on nut shells and risk of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  15. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  16. Assessing the Effect of Potential Reductions in Non-Hepatic Mortality on the Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis C Treatment in Early Stages of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Spradling, Philip R.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2018-01-01

    Background Most cost-effectiveness analyses of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy focus on the benefits of reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Objectives Our objective was to assess how cost-effectiveness estimates of HCV therapy can vary depending on assumptions regarding the potential impact of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. Methods We adapted a state-transition model to include potential effects of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We assumed successful treatment could reduce non-hepatic mortality by as little as 0 % to as much as 100 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment and comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment. Results Comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment, when we included a 44 % reduction in nonhepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by HCV treatment fell by 76 % (from US$314,100 to US$76,900) for patients with no fibrosis and by 43 % (from US$62,500 to US$35,800) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment, assuming a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per QALY gained by HCV treatment fell by 64 % (from US$186,700 to US$67,300) for patients with no fibrosis and by 27 % (from US$35,000 to US$25,500) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Conclusion Including reductions in non-hepatic mortality from HCV treatment can have substantial effects on the estimated cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:27480538

  17. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO METHYLMERCURY AND PCBS AFFECTS DISTINCT STAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY WITH INUIT CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Bastien, Célyne H.; Saint-Amour, Dave; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are seafood contaminants known for their adverse effects on neurodevelopment. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to these contaminants to information processing assessed with event-related potentials (ERPs) in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). In a prospective longitudinal study on child development, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and 11 years of age. An auditory oddball protocol was administered at 11 years to measure ERP components N1 and P3b. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of levels of the contaminants to auditory oddball performance (mean reaction time, omission errors and false alarms) and ERP parameters (latency and amplitude) after control for potential confounding variables. A total of 118 children provided useable ERP data. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with slower reaction times and fewer false alarms during the oddball task. Analyses of the ERP parameters revealed that prenatal MeHg exposure was related to greater amplitude and delayed latency of the N1 wave in the target condition but not to the P3b component. MeHg effects on the N1 were stronger after control for seafood nutrients. Prenatal PCB exposure was not related to any endpoint for sample as a whole but was associated with a decrease in P3b amplitude in the subgroup of children who had been breast-fed for less than 3 months. Body burdens of MeHg and PCBs at 11 years were not related to any of the behavioural or ERP measures. These data suggest that prenatal MeHg exposure alters attentional mechanisms modulating early processing of sensory information. By contrast, prenatal PCB exposure appears to affect information processing at later stages, when the information is being consciously evaluated. These effects seem to be mitigated in children who are breast-fed for a more extended period. PMID:20403381

  18. The Actual Stage of Potential Development Regarding the Tourism in Slănic Moldova Resort, Bacău County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ovidiu Cristian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the concept of tourism potential, which includes all natural and human tourism resources which generate various forms of tourism. Slănic Moldova town is in a great development, being sustained by the glorious oldtime image: ”Moldova‟s Pearl”. The recent accomplishments, the implementation projects and the short and medium time investment programs aim not only to affirm the resort at a regional level, but to transform it in to an authentic “Romanian tourism pearl”. Developing Slănic Moldova town will aim to develop its natural resources. For the years to come, it is willing to sustain a long-lasting economy especially based on touristic services at a European level, but also on diversifying the local economic activities, in respect for the nature and permanent environment preoccupation. In order to reach certain values the contribution of all factors that can determine the town‟s socio-economic development are needed: the local community and the local‟s support, keeping the environment intact and not the least increasing the number of tourists. Slănic Moldova will be one of the main touristic balneoclimatheric mountain destinations in Romania having a diverse and attractive touristic offer during the entire year, high quality touristic services, in an exceptional, pollution free, natural environment. Slănic Moldova will pass through an essential stage of its development, in which the national and external touristic context will be redefined. Being guided by the reputation of „Moldova‟s Pearl”, Slănic Moldova will develop its mineral waters and great natural environment extraordinary potential, thus becoming the great „pearl of Romanian tourism”.

  19. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Skogen Chauton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development.

  20. Systematic evaluation of MRI findings in different stages of treatment of cervical cancer: Potential of MRI on delineation of target, pathoanatomic structures, and organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes; Schard, Gerdi; Berger, Daniel; Lang, Stefan; Goldner, Gregor; Helbich, Thomas; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at different stages of cervix cancer treatment and to define the potential of MRI to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), pathoanatomic structures, and organs at risk (OAR) in brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine patients underwent MRI at diagnosis and at brachytherapy. The ability to discriminate anatomic structures on MRI was assessed (quality factor: 0 = inability to discriminate; 1 = fair discrimination; 2 = good discrimination; 3 = excellent discrimination). The overall ability to visualize (percentage of patients with quality factors greater than 0) and the overall discrimination quality score (mean quality factors of all patients) were estimated for the applicator, GTV at diagnosis (GTV D ), GTV at brachytherapy (GTV BT )/'gray zones,' cervix rim/uterine corpus, OAR, vaginal wall, and parametria. Results: The overall ability to visualize the applicator on MRI at brachytherapy was 100%; for the GTV BT /'gray zones,' cervix rim/uterine corpus, OAR, and vaginal wall, visualization was 98% (overall discrimination quality factors: 1.2, 2.9, 2.1, 1.9, 1.7, and 2.6). Three of 4 borders of parametrial space were defined in more than 98% (discrimination quality factors: 2.9, 2.1, and 1.2). Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging provides appropriate information for definition of the applicator, GTV, CTV, pathoanatomic structures, and OAR that enables precise delineation for cervix cancer brachytherapy

  1. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Galloway, Trina Falck; Kjørsvik, Elin; Størseth, Trond Røvik; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-11-06

    Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  3. Potential benefits of some antioxidant nutrients in reducing the high levels of some biochemical variables associated with induced hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Abdel-Moneim, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    trend of change was exactly followed either as a function of treatment or time intervals in the levels of all classes of lipid profile, total nitrogen oxide, endothelin-1 and angiotensin-II. Although the amelioration in all variables recorded herein was observable, their values did not revert to normal. Treatment with antioxidant nutrients may require more duration of time. The results of this investigation showed that the above mentioned nutrients possess potential benefits in lessening number of risk factors in blood associated with induced hypertension in rats

  4. WE-FG-BRA-05: Potential Clinical Benefit of LINAC Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) Mode - Improvement of Treatment Therapeutic Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill/ North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Clinical Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rivera, J [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill/ North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tian, H [Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Lineberger Clinical Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Price, A [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Santos, C [Lineberger Clinical Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Zhang, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Lineberger Clinical Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrahigh dose-rate radiation at >40Gy/s has demonstrated astonishing normal-tissue sparing and tumor control in recent preclinical naive and tumor-bearing rodent studies when compared to the same radiation dose at a conventional dose-rate. The working mechanism of this fascinating dose-rate effect is currently under investigation. The aims of this work include investigating 1) whether LINAC FFF mode radiation at approximately 1Gy/s also has an improved therapeutic ratio compared to the same radiation dose at the conventional dose-rate of 0.05Gy/s, and 2) the dose-rate effect’s potential working mechanism by studying the expression of the P53 gene, linked to tumor suppression and cell regulation after radiation damage. Methods: We used mouse model C57BL/6J, the same as that used in the ultrahigh dose-rate studies, and exposed them to total body irradiation (TBI) using the Elekta Versa accelerator 10MV photons. Mice (N=20) were given a total dose of 12Gy in both the high dose-rate group (n=10) using the FFF-mode and the conventional dose-rate group (n=10) using the conventional does rate mode. The FFF-mode treatment setup consisted of a 15cm×15cm field size setting at 53.2cm SSD while the conventional-mode set-up consisted of a 10cm×10cm field size at 100SSD. Post-radiation, animals were monitored daily for survival analysis and signs of moribundity requiring euthanasia. In addition, mouse spleens were harvested for P53 analysis at different time points. Results: For 12Gy TBI, the 1.3Gy/s FFF-mode high dose-rate produced a statistically significant (p=0.02) improvement in mouse survival compared to the 0.05Gy/s conventional dose-rate. An initial P53 study at the time of death time-point indicates that high dose-rate radiation induced a stronger expression of P53 than conventional dose-rate radiation. Conclusion: Our pilot study indicates that the FFF-mode high dose-rate radiation, which has been used largely to improve clinical throughput, may provide

  5. WE-FG-BRA-05: Potential Clinical Benefit of LINAC Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) Mode - Improvement of Treatment Therapeutic Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S; Rivera, J; Tian, H; Price, A; Santos, C; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrahigh dose-rate radiation at >40Gy/s has demonstrated astonishing normal-tissue sparing and tumor control in recent preclinical naive and tumor-bearing rodent studies when compared to the same radiation dose at a conventional dose-rate. The working mechanism of this fascinating dose-rate effect is currently under investigation. The aims of this work include investigating 1) whether LINAC FFF mode radiation at approximately 1Gy/s also has an improved therapeutic ratio compared to the same radiation dose at the conventional dose-rate of 0.05Gy/s, and 2) the dose-rate effect’s potential working mechanism by studying the expression of the P53 gene, linked to tumor suppression and cell regulation after radiation damage. Methods: We used mouse model C57BL/6J, the same as that used in the ultrahigh dose-rate studies, and exposed them to total body irradiation (TBI) using the Elekta Versa accelerator 10MV photons. Mice (N=20) were given a total dose of 12Gy in both the high dose-rate group (n=10) using the FFF-mode and the conventional dose-rate group (n=10) using the conventional does rate mode. The FFF-mode treatment setup consisted of a 15cm×15cm field size setting at 53.2cm SSD while the conventional-mode set-up consisted of a 10cm×10cm field size at 100SSD. Post-radiation, animals were monitored daily for survival analysis and signs of moribundity requiring euthanasia. In addition, mouse spleens were harvested for P53 analysis at different time points. Results: For 12Gy TBI, the 1.3Gy/s FFF-mode high dose-rate produced a statistically significant (p=0.02) improvement in mouse survival compared to the 0.05Gy/s conventional dose-rate. An initial P53 study at the time of death time-point indicates that high dose-rate radiation induced a stronger expression of P53 than conventional dose-rate radiation. Conclusion: Our pilot study indicates that the FFF-mode high dose-rate radiation, which has been used largely to improve clinical throughput, may provide

  6. Potential Benefits and Harms of a Peer Support Social Network Service on the Internet for People With Depressive Tendencies: Qualitative Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. Objective The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of “friends,” were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. Results There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was

  7. The potential benefits from respiratory gating for breast cancer patients regarding target coverage and dose to organs at risk when applying strict dose limits to the heart: results from the DBCG HYPO trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Martin; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Jensen, Ingelise

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The potential benefits from respiratory gating (RG) compared to free-breathing (FB) regarding target coverage and dose to organs at risk for breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy (RT) in the DBCG HYPO multicentre trial are reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients i...

  8. Potential effects of the herbicide Diuron on mammary and urinary bladder two-stage carcinogenesis in a female Swiss mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci Antunes; Grassi, Tony Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2010-02-01

    The potential promoting effect of Diuron was investigated in a mouse model of mammary and urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). Four-week old female Swiss mice were allocated to five groups: Groups G1-G3 received DMBA (5 x 1.5 mg/mouse) and BBN (8 x 7.5 mg/mouse) and G4 and G5 groups received only vehicles during the first 6 weeks. At week 7, G1 and G5 groups received basal diet and G2, G3 and G4 groups were fed a diet containing Diuron at 1,250, 2,500 and 2,500 ppm, respectively, during 13 weeks. At week 20, the animals were euthanized and the gross tumors were registered. Mammary glands and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analysis. Samples from non-tumor areas were evaluated for cell proliferation by 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index (BrdU-LI%) and apoptosis. Dietary treatment with Diuron at 1,250 and 2,500 ppm significantly increased BrdU-LI% (P Diuron 2,500 ppm (G3). In contrast, in the mammary gland, Diuron feeding for 13 weeks did not significantly alter cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes or the incidence of hyperplastic lesions or neoplasms in the DMBA/BBN-initiated groups. These findings suggest that Diuron is a promoting agent to the urinary bladder but not to the mammary gland in female Swiss mice submitted to a medium-term two-stage carcinogenesis bioassay.

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  11. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance and distri......Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance...

  12. Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Laurent-Babot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation.

  13. Screening: the information individuals need to support their decision: per protocol analysis is better than intention-to-treat analysis at quantifying potential benefits and harms of screening

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing individuals with the information necessary to make informed decisions is now considered an ethical standard for health systems and general practitioners. Discussion Results from intention-to-treat analysis have thus far been used to illustrate screening benefits and harms, but intention-to-treat analysis in most screening trials compares no intervention to invitation to screening. Therefore, the intervention arm includes everyone who was invited, regardless of actual part...

  14. Characterization and potential role of microRNA in the Chinese dominant malaria mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout four different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Wu, Jiatong; Zhou, Shuisen; Wang, Jingwen; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are one kind of small non-coding RNAs widely distributed in insects. Many studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in development, differentiation, apoptosis, and innate immunity. However, there are a few reports describing miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis , the most common, and one of the dominant malaria mosquito in China. Here, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile across four different developmental stages including embryo, larval, pupal, and adult stages using Illumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing. In total, 164 miRNAs were obtained out of 107.46 million raw sequencing reads. 99 of them identified as known miRNAs, and the remaining 65 miRNAs were considered as novel. By analyzing the read counts of miRNAs in all developmental stages, 95 miRNAs showed stage-specific expression (q  1) in consecutive stages, indicating that these miRNAs may be involved in critical physiological activity during development. Sixteen miRNAs were identified to be commonly dysregulated throughout four developmental stages. Many miRNAs showed stage-specific expression, such as asi-miR-2943 was exclusively expressed in the embryo stage, and asi-miR-1891 could not be detected in larval stage. The expression of six selected differentially expressed miRNAs identified by qRT-PCR were consistent with our sequencing results. Furthermore, 5296 and 1902 target genes were identified for the dysregulated 68 known and 27 novel miRNAs respectively by combining miRanda and RNAhybrid prediction. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis for the predicted genes of dysregulated miRNAs revealed that they might be involved in a broad range of biological processes related with the development, such as membrane, organic substance transport and several key pathways including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, propanoate metabolism and folate biosynthesis. Thirty-two key miRNAs were identified by microRNA-gene network analysis. The present study represents the

  15. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  16. Eosinophil granule proteins ECP and EPX as markers for a potential early-stage inflammatory lesion in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra

    2014-01-01

    pathology, as viable schistosome egg granulomas often are eosinophil rich. Here it was investigated whether eosinophil granule proteins ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and EPX (eosinophil protein-X) in urine and genital lavage can be used as markers for active FGS lesions. METHODS: Uro-genital samples...... with GSP. This could indicate that RP lesions might be more recently established and thus represent an earlier inflammatory lesion stage. CONCLUSION: ECP in genital lavage might be a future tool aiding the identification of FGS pathology at a stage where reversibility remains a possibility following...

  17. Screening: The information individuals need to support their decision: per protocol analysis is better than intention-to-treat analysis at quantifying potential benefits and harms of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2014-03-28

    Providing individuals with the information necessary to make informed decisions is now considered an ethical standard for health systems and general practitioners. Results from intention-to-treat analysis have thus far been used to illustrate screening benefits and harms, but intention-to-treat analysis in most screening trials compares no intervention to invitation to screening. Therefore, the intervention arm includes everyone who was invited, regardless of actual participation. These results may be misleading for individual decision-making. We propose to use a per protocol analysis that includes all subjects who presented to screening and compares them to those in control arm, adjusting for self-selection bias. Such an analysis can give more accurate and useful information for individual decision-making. Correct information for individual decision to participate in screening or not should consider the efficacy, benefits, and harms observed for subjects who actually participated at least once in screening compared to the control arm, adjusting for self-selection bias. Thus, per protocol analysis, even a very conservative one, should be used, not a full intention-to-treat analysis.

  18. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  19. Physical Activity Characteristics of Potential Participants in Nutrition and Fitness Programs Based on Stages of Change, Self-Efficacy, and Decisional Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruby H.; Stimpson, Tara S.; Poole, Kathleen P.; Lambur, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 213 of 545 adults surveyed showed that physical activity rate was higher than in other studies. Stage of change was positively associated with education, self-efficacy, and decisional balance. Physical activity was positively correlated with educational level. A mailed questionnaire appeared to be a feasible means of collecting data…

  20. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  1. Long-term follow-up of the potential benefits of early nutritional intervention in adults with upper gastrointestinal cancer: a pilot randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Kate; Silvers, Mary Anne; Savva, June; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term survival of all patients who participated in a pilot randomised trial of an early nutritional intervention for adults with upper gastrointestinal cancer. It also sought to identify factors that predicted patient mortality. All participants (n = 21) who were randomised into the original study were followed for a maximum of 5 years and 2 months (final follow-up April 2016). The primary outcome measure was time from date of recruitment until date of death, ascertained by the Victorian Cancer Registry and/or Monash Health Scanned Medical Records. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify factors that adversely affected survival. At the end of the follow-up period, three patients were alive in the nutrition intervention group whilst only two patients were living from the standard care group. Visual evaluation of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated a possible survival benefit from being exposed to the intervention between 6 months and 1.4 years post-recruitment, though this benefit dissipated soon after. The intervention was not associated with increased survival in univariate analyses, but was after adjustment for other factors found to adversely impact on survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.12 (95% CI 0.02-0.72) p = 0.02). These factors were being a smoker (14.2 (1.43 to 140.67), p = 0.02); low baseline physical functioning (1.11 (1.01 to 1.21), p = 0.03); high baseline fatigue (1.09 (1.02-1.16), p = 0.007); and high baseline dyspnoea (1.08 (1.02-1.13), p = 0.003). Early and intensive nutrition intervention may increase the survival of people with upper gastrointestinal cancer.

  2. Climate Benefits of Potential Avoided Emissions from Forest Conversion Diminished by Albedo Warming: Comprehensive, Data-Driven Assessment for the US and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. A.; Gu, H.; Jiao, T.

    2017-12-01

    Avoided deforestation is a leading pathway for climate change mitigation, featuring prominently in many country's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, but its climate benefits remain contested, in part because of reports of large offsetting effects in some regions of the world. It is well known that avoiding forest to non-forest conversion prevents forest carbon release, and sustains forest carbon uptake, but also increases albedo thus diminishing the potency of this mitigation strategy. While the mechanisms are known, their relative importance and the resulting climate benefit remain unclear. This is in part due to a lack of quantitative assessments documenting geographic variation in rates of forest conversion, associated carbon emissions, resulting radiative forcing, and the magnitude of simultaneous albedo offsets. This study (i) quantifies the current rate of forest conversion and carbon release in the United States with Landsat remote sensing and a carbon assessment framework, and (ii) compares this to quantitative estimates of the radiative forcing from the corresponding albedo change. Albedo radiative forcing is assessed with a recently-generated, global atlas of land-cover-specific albedos derived from a fusion of MODIS and Landsat reflectances, combined with snow cover and solar radiation datasets. We document the degree to which albedo warming offsets carbon cooling from contemporary forest conversions taking place in different regions of the United States and identify the underlying drivers of spatial variability. We then extend this to other regions of the world where forests are under threat and where avoided deforestation is viewed as a primary tool for climate mitigation. Results shed light on the, at times contentious, debate about the efficacy of forest protection as a mitigation mechanism.

  3. Are potentially clinically meaningful benefits misinterpreted in cardiovascular randomized trials? A systematic examination of statistical significance, clinical significance, and authors' conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Finley, Caitlin R; McCormack, James; Kumar, Vivek; Kwong, Simon; Braschi, Emelie; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Lindblad, Adriennne J; Babenko, Oksana; Garrison, Scott

    2017-03-20

    While journals and reporting guidelines recommend the presentation of confidence intervals, many authors adhere strictly to statistically significant testing. Our objective was to determine what proportions of not statistically significant (NSS) cardiovascular trials include potentially clinically meaningful effects in primary outcomes and if these are associated with authors' conclusions. Cardiovascular studies published in six high-impact journals between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were identified via PubMed. Two independent reviewers selected trials with major adverse cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) as primary outcomes and extracted data on trial characteristics, quality, and primary outcome. Potentially clinically meaningful effects were defined broadly as a relative risk point estimate ≤0.94 (based on the effects of ezetimibe) and/or a lower confidence interval ≤0.75 (based on the effects of statins). We identified 127 randomized trial comparisons from 3200 articles. The primary outcomes were statistically significant (SS) favoring treatment in 21% (27/127), NSS in 72% (92/127), and SS favoring control in 6% (8/127). In 61% of NSS trials (56/92), the point estimate and/or lower confidence interval included potentially meaningful effects. Both point estimate and confidence interval included potentially meaningful effects in 67% of trials (12/18) in which authors' concluded that treatment was superior, in 28% (16/58) with a neutral conclusion, and in 6% (1/16) in which authors' concluded that control was superior. In a sensitivity analysis, 26% of NSS trials would include potential meaningful effects with relative risk thresholds of point estimate ≤0.85 and/or a lower confidence interval ≤0.65. Point estimates and/or confidence intervals included potentially clinically meaningful effects in up to 61% of NSS cardiovascular trials. Authors' conclusions often reflect potentially meaningful results of

  4. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Baron, John A.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age < 50) populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics...

  5. Limited thymectomy as a potential alternative treatment option for early-stage thymoma: A multi-institutional propensity-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narm, Kyoung Shik; Lee, Chang Young; Do, Young Woo; Jung, Hee Suk; Byun, Go Eun; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Hwang, Yoohwa; Park, In Kyu; Kang, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Tae; Cho, Jong Ho; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Yong Mog; Hwang, Su Kyung; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Seung-Il; Chung, Kyung Young

    2016-11-01

    For early-stage thymoma, complete thymectomy has classically been regarded as the standard treatment protocol. However, several studies have shown that limited thymectomy may be an alternative treatment option for thymoma. This study compared perioperative outcomes, survival, and recurrence rates between patients undergoing limited thymectomy and complete thymectomy. Between January 2000 and December 2013, a total of 762 patients underwent thymectomy for stage I or II thymomas at four institutions participating in the Korean Association for Research on the Thymus. Patients were divided into two groups: limited thymectomy group (n=295) and complete thymectomy group (n=467). Comparative clinicopathological, surgical, and oncological features were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 49 months (range: 0.2-189 months). A propensity score-matching analysis, based on seven variables (age, sex, surgical approach, tumor size, WHO histological type, Masaoka-Koga stage, and adjuvant radiotherapy), was performed using 141 patients selected from each group. The 5- and 10-year freedom-from-recurrence rates in the limited thymectomy group were 96.3% and 89.7%, respectively, and those in the complete thymectomy group were 97.0% and 85.0%, respectively. No significant differences in these rates were observed between groups (p=0.86). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that overall survival and freedom-from-recurrence rates did not significantly differ by surgery extent (p=0.27, 0.66, respectively). Perioperative outcomes were better in the limited thymectomy group. Limited thymectomy was not inferior to complete thymectomy with respect to recurrence, and had better perioperative outcomes. Limited thymectomy may be a viable treatment option for early-stage thymoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-06-14

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with 'blue space' (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval has been obtained for the BlueHealth International Survey and

  7. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe’s blue spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe’s coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Aims and methods The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Ethics and dissemination Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval

  8. Memorandum Potential benefits of energy-efficient tyres and correct tyre pressure maintenance for the vehicle fleet of the Dutch National Road Authority (RWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, R.; Zyl, S. van; Stelwagen, U.; Dittrich, M.; Ruijs, P.

    2015-01-01

    In two previous studies performed by TNO and M+P, it has been shown that energy-efficient tyres can have a large effect on the fuel consumption of Dutch and EU road transport. In this study, the specific fuel savings potential is calculated for the vehicle fleet of the Dutch National Road Authority

  9. Socio-economic impacts of future electricity generation scenarios in Europe : Potential costs and benefits of using CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelbl, B.S.; Wood, Richard; van den Broek, M.A.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.; Faaij, A.P.C.; van Vuuren, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a potential key-technology to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as its use can lead to lower mitigation cost. However, research on other economic impacts of using CCS is scarce. In this paper, we look into economic upstream impacts of CCS use in terms of

  10. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition...

  11. Nano and the environment – Part I: Potential environmental benefits and sustainability effects (NanoTrust Dossier No. 026en – March 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Nentwich, Michael; Greßler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology products, processes and applications have the potential to make important contributions to environmental and climate protection by helping save raw materials, energy and water as well as by reducing greenhouse gases and problematic wastes. Nanomaterials, for example, can increase the durability of materials; dirt- and water-repellant coatings are designed to help reduce cleaning efforts; novel insulating materials can improve the energy efficiency of buildings; adding nanoparti...

  12. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence

  13. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  14. Potential dosimetric benefits of adaptive tumor tracking over the internal target volume concept for stereotactic body radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karava, Konstantina; Ehrbar, Stefanie; Riesterer, Oliver; Roesch, Johannes; Glatz, Stefan; Klöck, Stephan; Guckenberger, Matthias; Tanadini-Lang, Stephanie

    2017-11-09

    Radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer has two major challenges: (I) the tumor is adjacent to several critical organs and, (II) the mobility of both, the tumor and its surrounding organs at risk (OARs). A treatment planning study simulating stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic tumors with both the internal target volume (ITV) concept and the tumor tracking approach was performed. The two respiratory motion-management techniques were compared in terms of doses to the target volume and organs at risk. Two volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans (5 × 5 Gy) were created for each of the 12 previously treated pancreatic cancer patients, one using the ITV concept and one the tumor tracking approach. To better evaluate the overall dose delivered to the moving tumor volume, 4D dose calculations were performed on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) size for each technique was analyzed. Target and OAR dose parameters were reported and analyzed for both 3D and 4D dose calculation. Tumor motion ranged from 1.3 to 11.2 mm. Tracking led to a reduction of PTV size (max. 39.2%) accompanied with significant better tumor coverage (p<0.05, paired Wilcoxon signed rank test) both in 3D and 4D dose calculations and improved organ at risk sparing. Especially for duodenum, stomach and liver, the mean dose was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with tracking for 3D and 4D dose calculations. By using an adaptive tumor tracking approach for respiratory-induced pancreatic motion management, a significant reduction in PTV size can be achieved, which subsequently facilitates treatment planning, and improves organ dose sparing. The dosimetric benefit of tumor tracking is organ and patient-specific.

  15. Potential Benefits of Scanned Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Advanced Photon Therapy With Regard to Sparing of the Salivary Glands in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Jong, Marije E. de; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) results in a significant dose reduction to the parotid and submandibular glands as compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with photons (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for oropharyngeal cancer. In addition, we investigated whether the achieved dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal carcinoma were used. The intensity-modulated plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV2) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal areas (PTV1). The 3D-CRT technique delivered sequentially 70 Gy and 46 Gy to PTV2 and PTV1, respectively. Normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Planning target volume coverage results were similar for IMPT and IMRT. Intensity-modulated proton therapy clearly improved the conformity. The 3D-CRT results were inferior to these results. The mean dose to the parotid glands by 3D-CRT (50.8 Gy), IMRT (25.5 Gy), and IMPT (16.8 Gy) differed significantly. For the submandibular glands no significant differences between IMRT and IMPT were found. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT theoretically translated into a significant reduction in normal tissue complication probability. Conclusion: Compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT, IMPT improved sparing of the organs at risk, while keeping similar target coverage results. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT vs. IMRT and 3D-CRT varied widely per individual patient. Intensity-modulated proton therapy theoretically translated into a clinical benefit for most cases, but this requires clinical validation.

  16. Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  17. Admissions screening: clinical benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvin, C C; Pearce, R H; Stanley, J

    1975-08-01

    One thousand patients admitted to a 575-bed general hospital during a 6-month period each underwent 20 chemical and hematologic tests. The potential clinical benefit was assessed. There were 2223 abnormal results found; 675 were predicted on clinical assessment, 1325 did not yield new diagnoses, and the remaining 223 led to 83 new diagnoses in 77 patients. On critical evaluation of the new diagnoses, none were unequivocally beneficial to the patient. Up to 30 patients might have benefited had these abnormal findings been followed up diligently, 39 others had findings or diagnoses of no lasting significance, and in 14 patients asymptomatic mild biochemical diabetes was discovered. Although screening may reveal many abnormal test results, the clinical benefits are not impressive.

  18. Potential benefits of using a toolkit developed to aid in the adaptation of HTA reports: a case study considering positron emission tomography (PET and Hodgkin's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Alison

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preparation of HTA reports requires a great deal of time, effort and resource, and there is a desire to improve efficiency, avoid duplication of effort and facilitate the transfer of knowledge between countries. This is of particular importance for countries with more limited resources which have less capacity to produce their own reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of duplication of published Health Technology Assessment (HTA reports, on the same technology, for the same indication; using positron emission tomography (PET for lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease as a case study. This was done in order to assess the potential usefulness of a toolkit developed to aid in the adaptation of HTA reports from one context or country to another. Methods A systematic search of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR CRD HTA database was conducted in June 2008 in order to identify full HTA reports containing information on the use of PET for lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease, written in English, and readily available on the web. The contents of the reports identified were then examined to assess the extent of duplication of content between reports and potential for the use of the toolkit. Results From 132 records of HTA reports about PET, 8 reports were identified as fulfilling all the criteria set, and therefore demonstrating potential duplication of effort. All these reports covered four similar domains, technology use, safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation. Five of the reports also considered organisational aspects. Conclusions There was some duplication of effort in the preparation of HTA reports concerned with the use of PET for lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. This is an example of where resource could have been conserved and time saved by the use of a toolkit developed to aid in the adaptation of HTA reports from one context to another.

  19. Potential benefit of physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service for regional trauma care system activation: An observational study in rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Nagano, Takehiko; Ochiai, Hidenobu

    2017-05-01

    Objective: Involvement of all regional medical facilities in a trauma system is challenging in rural regions. We hypothesized that the physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service potentially encouraged local facilities to participate in trauma systems by providing the transport of patients with trauma to those facilities in a rural setting. Materials and Methods: We performed two retrospective observational studies. First, yearly changes in the numbers of patients with trauma and destination facilities were surveyed using records from the Miyazaki physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service from April 2012 to March 2014. Second, we obtained data from medical records regarding the mechanism of injury, severity of injury, resuscitative interventions performed within 24 h after admission, secondary transports owing to undertriage by attending physicians, and deaths resulting from potentially preventable causes. Data from patients transported to the designated trauma center and those transported to non-designated trauma centers in Miyazaki were compared. Results: In total, 524 patients were included. The number of patients transported to non-designated trauma centers and the number of non-designated trauma centers receiving patients increased after the second year. We surveyed 469 patient medical records (90%). There were 194 patients with major injuries (41%) and 104 patients with multiple injuries (22%), and 185 patients (39%) received resuscitative interventions. The designated trauma centers received many more patients with trauma (366 vs. 103), including many more patients with major injuries (47% vs. 21%, p service potentially encouraged non-designated trauma centers to participate in trauma systems while maintaining patient safety.

  20. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  1. Reducing young driver crash casualties in Great Britain - use of routine police crash data to estimate the potential benefits of graduated driver licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah J; Begg, Dorothy J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Crashes involving young drivers (YD) cause significant morbidity and mortality in Great Britain (GB). Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is used in some countries to address this. This study assessed potential casualty and cost savings of possible GDL programmes in GB. Police road crash data were analysed to identify YD crashes at night or while carrying passengers. These data were then used to estimate the potential effects of GDL. 314,561 casualties and 3469 fatalities occurred in YD crashes. 25.1% of YD crashes occurred between 9 pm and 6 am and 24.4% occurred with a 15- to 24-year old passenger in the car. A 'strict' form of GDL in GB (night time restriction 9 pm-6 am, no 15-24 year old passengers) with 50% compliance would prevent 114 deaths and 872 serious casualties each year. The estimated value of prevention is £424M pa. A 'less strict' form of GDL (night time restriction 10 pm-5 am, maximum of one 15-19 year old passenger) with 50% compliance would prevent 81 deaths and 538 serious injuries. The estimated value of prevention is £273M pa. Implementing GDL in GB could save significant numbers of lives. Public health organisations have a duty to advocate for such legislation.

  2. [Systematic Review of the Application of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and their Potential Therapeutic Benefits in the Treatment of Ophthalmology Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, A K; Hahn, U; Büssing, A; Krummenauer, F

    2017-05-01

    . Phytotherapeutic methods gave significant results in half of the reported controlled trials, whereas there were few significant benefits with acupuncture or acupressure. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. An exploratory study of the potential learning benefits for medical students in collaborative drawing: creativity, reflection and ‘critical looking’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Building on a series of higher educational arts/medicine initiatives, an interdisciplinary drawing module themed on the human body was developed for both year 3 Craft students and year 3 Medicine degree students. This became the subject of a research project exploring how the collaborative approach to drawing adopted on this module impacted on the students’ learning. In this article, emphasis is given to issues thought to have most potential relevance to medical education. Methods Using an ethnographic research design, the methods adopted were: direct observation of all aspects of the module sessions, audio and video recordings and photographs of the sessions, the incorporation of a semi-structured discussion at the end of each session, and anonymous student questionnaires. Results A number of key themes emerged. The complex, phased and multi-sensory nature of the ‘critical looking’ skills developed through the drawing exercises was seen as of potential value in medical education, being proposed as analogous to processes involved in clinical examination and diagnosis. The experience of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing was significant to the students as a creative, participatory and responsive form of learning. The emphasis on the physical experience of drawing and the thematic use of the human body as drawing subject led to reflective discussions about bodily knowledge and understanding. There were indications that students had a meta-cognitive awareness of the learning shifts that had occurred and the sessions provoked constructive self-reflective explorations of pre-professional identity. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests, through the themes identified, that there may be potential learning outcomes for medical students in this model of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing of the human body. Further research is needed to explore their applicability and value to medical education. There is a need to explore in more depth the

  4. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  5. Off-Label Use of Crizotinib as a Neoadjuvant Treatment for a Young Patient When Conventional Chemotherapy Gave No Benefits in Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Delphine; Dô, Pascal; Lerouge, Delphine; Planchard, Gaëtane; Riffet, Marc; Dubos-Arvis, Catherine; Danhier, Serge; Gervais, Radj

    2017-08-15

    BACKGROUND The treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy. Each case is discussed and the best strategy is chosen individually, following international guidelines. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old man was diagnosed with locally advanced broncho-pulmonary adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA). The disease was stable after 2 cycles of cisplatin plus Navelbine used as neoadjuvant therapy. FISH analysis revealed an ALK rearrangement. The patient then received unlicensed crizotinib as second-line neoadjuvant treatment, which led to an almost complete radiological and metabolic response. A left upper lobectomy was performed, followed by post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 18 months post-surgery, the patient is still disease-free according to the last CT scan. CONCLUSIONS Targeted therapy was an alternative solution when chemotherapy was not helping. Randomized studies are needed to define its precise role in the neoadjuvant scheme.

  6. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  7. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  8. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; Santos, Tamires Daros dos; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance) group (GCR + IMT, n=12) and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12), over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax), peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of Pinspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

  9. Investigation of the Potential Health Benefits as Lipase Inhibitor and Antioxidant of Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl.: Variability of Chemical Composition of Wild and Cultivated Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; La Grotteria, Stefania; Araniti, Fabrizio; Conforti, Filomena

    2017-09-01

    There is a great interest in the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits and how the habitat affects nutritive and biological properties. In vitro studies here reported were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations from edible plant on pancreatic lipase. The aim of this study was also to evaluate the biovariability of L. comosa (L.) Parl. bulbs from Italy. The wild bulbs were compared with the same cultivated species that are commonly commercialized to identify samples with the best quality for a potential therapeutic application. Hydroalcoholic extract and polar fraction of wild bulbs showed a very important pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, with IC 50 values of 0.166 ± 0.005 and 0.153 ± 0.005 mg/mL, respectively. In order to characterize the extracts, gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed, revealing the predominance of palmitic acid. Phenolic and flavonoid composition was also evaluated. L. comosa extract obtained from wild bulbs demonstrated both antioxidant and anti-obesity activities that might be attributed to a wide range of present phenolic compounds.

  10. A review of potential uses for fiber optic sensors in nuclear power plants, with attendant benefits in plant safety and operational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.E.; Antonescu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Fiber optic-based sensing has a wide range of potential applications in nuclear power plants, and a fiber optic analog presently exists for virtually every conventional nuclear power plant sensing system. Fiber optic-based sensors are likely to eventually supplant many conventional sensors because of their inherent advantages-reduced mass, reduced size, ruggedness to vibration and shock, physical flexibility, high sensitivity, electrical isolation, extreme resistance to electromagnetic interference, high temperature resistance, reduced calibration requirements, passive operation, and high radiation resistance. In addition, fiber optic-based sensors exist which are capable of measuring parameters important to safety and performance which cannot be conventionally measured (high electromagnetic field, in-core, and distributed measurements). However, fiber optic sensors remain at too low a level of development for immediate application in safety-critical systems. Moreover, fiber optic sensors have different failure modes and mechanisms than conventional sensors; hence, considerable regulatory research will be necessary to establish the technical basis for the use of fiber optic sensors in safety-critical systems

  11. Glioblastoma-synthesized G-CSF and GM-CSF contribute to growth and immunosuppression: Potential therapeutic benefit from dapsone, fenofibrate, and ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E; Hill, Quentin A; Wion, Didier; Mellstedt, Håkan; Focosi, Daniele; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Heiland, Tim; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2017-05-01

    Increased ratio of circulating neutrophils to lymphocytes is a common finding in glioblastoma and other cancers. Data reviewed establish that any damage to brain tissue tends to cause an increase in G-CSF and/or GM-CSF (G(M)-CSF) synthesized by the brain. Glioblastoma cells themselves also synthesize G(M)-CSF. G(M)-CSF synthesized by brain due to damage by a growing tumor and by the tumor itself stimulates bone marrow to shift hematopoiesis toward granulocytic lineages away from lymphocytic lineages. This shift is immunosuppressive and generates the relative lymphopenia characteristic of glioblastoma. Any trauma to brain-be it blunt, sharp, ischemic, infectious, cytotoxic, tumor encroachment, or radiation-increases brain synthesis of G(M)-CSF. G(M)-CSF are growth and motility enhancing factors for glioblastomas. High levels of G(M)-CSF contribute to the characteristic neutrophilia and lymphopenia of glioblastoma. Hematopoietic bone marrow becomes entrained with, directed by, and contributes to glioblastoma pathology. The antibiotic dapsone, the lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate, and the antiviral drug ribavirin are Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved medicines that have potential to lower synthesis or effects of G(M)-CSF and thus deprive a glioblastoma of some of the growth promoting contributions of bone marrow and G(M)-CSF.

  12. In vitro investigation of the potential health benefits of wild Mediterranean dietary plants as anti-obesity agents with α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nicoletti, Marcello; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of digestive enzymes is one of the most widely studied mechanisms used to determine the potential efficacy of natural products as anti-obesity agents. In vitro studies reported here were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations of edible plants from Italy on amylase and lipase by monitoring the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl caprilate and the hydrolysis of glycoside bonds in digestible carbohydrate foods. The formulation obtained from Capparis sicula exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 0.53 mg mL(-1) ) while the Borago officinalis formulation exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on α-amylase (IC50 = 31.61 µg mL(-1) ). In order to characterise the extracts, high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of the formulations was performed, revealing the predominance of (±)-catechin in Mentha aquatica formulation, rutin in C. sicula, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in Echium vulgare. The results obtained indicated that the extracts of C. sicula and B. officinalis could be good candidates for further studies to isolate pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitors, respectively. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Hermes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance group (GCR + IMT, n=12 and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12, over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001, PEmax (P<0.001, peak VO2 (P<0.001 and quality of life scores (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

  14. Attitudes of people in the UK with HIV who Are Antiretroviral (ART) Naïve to starting ART at high CD4 counts for potential health benefit or to prevent HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Alison J; Phillips, Andrew; Speakman, Andrew; Gilson, Richard; Fisher, Martin; Wilkins, Ed; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; O'Connell, Rebecca; Collins, Simon; Elford, Jonathan; Sherr, Lorraine; Lampe, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    To assess if a strategy of early ART to prevent HIV transmission is acceptable to ART naïve people with HIV with high CD4 counts. ASTRA is a UK multicentre, cross sectional study of 3258 HIV outpatients in 2011/12. A self-completed questionnaire collected sociodemographic, behavioral and health data, and attitudes to ART; CD4 count was recorded from clinical records. ART naïve participants with CD4 ≥350 cells/µL (n = 281) were asked to agree/disagree/undecided with the statements (i) I would want to start treatment now if this would slightly reduce my risk of getting a serious illness, and (ii) I would want to start treatment now if this would make me less infectious to a sexual partner, even if there was no benefit to my own health. Participants were 85% MSM, 76% white, 11% women. Of 281 participants, 49.5% and 45.2% agreed they would start ART for reasons (i) and (ii) respectively; 62.6% agreed with either (i) or (ii); 12.5% agreed with neither; 24.9% were uncertain. Factors independently associated (pactive. A strategy of starting ART at high CD4 counts is likely to be acceptable to the majority of HIV-diagnosed individuals. Almost half with CD4 >350 would start ART to reduce infectiousness, even if treatment did not benefit their own health. However a significant minority would not like to start ART either for modest health benefit or to reduce infectivity. Any change in approach to ART initiation must take account of individual preferences. Transmission models of potential benefit of early ART should consider that ART uptake may be lower than that seen with low CD4 counts.

  15. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Sanoff, Hanna K; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Baron, John A; Lund, Jennifer L; Sandler, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 ( n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age age 50-69, age ≥ 70) CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13%) and Hispanic (15%) than patients aged 50-69 years (11% and 10%, resp.) and ≥70 years (7% each). A larger proportion of young white (41%) and Hispanic (33%) patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%). The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%). Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  16. A novel small molecule target in human airway smooth muscle for potential treatment of obstructive lung diseases: a staged high-throughput biophysical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Rechenberg Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A newly identified mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation is the interaction between the small heat shock protein 20 (HSP20 and 14-3-3 proteins. Focusing upon this class of interactions, we describe here a novel drug target screening approach for treating airflow obstruction in asthma. Methods Using a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP assay, we screened a library of compounds that could act as small molecule modulators of HSP20 signals. We then applied two quantitative, cell-based biophysical methods to assess the functional efficacy of these molecules and rank-ordered their abilities to relax isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM. Scaling up to the level of an intact tissue, we confirmed in a concentration-responsive manner the potency of the cell-based hit compounds. Results Among 58,019 compound tested, 268 compounds caused 20% or more reduction of the polarized emission in the FP assay. A small subset of these primary screen hits, belonging to two scaffolds, caused relaxation of isolated ASM cell in vitro and attenuated active force development of intact tissue ex vivo. Conclusions This staged biophysical screening paradigm provides proof-of-principle for high-throughput and cost-effective discovery of new small molecule therapeutic agents for obstructive lung diseases.

  17. Lack of XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 in metastatic lymph nodes may predict the potential survival of stage III melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mariko; Funakoshi, Takeru; Kameyama, Kaori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Sato, Eiichi; Nakayama, Eiichi; Amagai, Masayuki; Tanese, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed by a variety of cancer cells and primitive germ cells of the adult testis and placenta. These tumor-restricted expressing patterns suggest that CTA would be ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapy. XAGE-1 is a CTA that was originally identified by computer-based screening, and four transcription variants, XAGE-1a, -1b, -1c and -1d, have been characterized to date. Although the presence of XAGE-1 transcripts has been reported in various cancers, the expression of XAGE-1b in melanoma has not been fully characterized. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical staining of XAGE-1b together with NY-ESO-1, a well-known CTA, in 113 melanoma samples obtained from 84 patients and evaluated their expression in tumor cells. The effects of expression on tumor progression and patient prognosis were analyzed. Both XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 were expressed at high levels in lymph node metastasis and skin metastasis samples compared with the primary site (P ESO-1). In a subgroup analysis of 22 patients with stage III lymph node metastasis, overall survival was significantly higher in the XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 double-negative group than in the other groups (P ESO-1 expression could have a positive influence on clinical outcome in patients with melanoma. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Increased platelet expression of FcGammaRIIa and its potential impact on platelet reactivity in patients with end stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobel Burton E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased platelet reactivity has been implicated in cardiovascular disease – the major cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. FcGammaRIIA is a component of glycoprotein VI and Ib-IX-V that mediate activation of platelets by collagen and von Willebrand factor. To determine whether expression of FcGammaRIIA impacts platelet reactivity we quantified its expression and platelet reactivity in 33 patients with ESRD who were undergoing hemodialysis. Methods Blood samples were obtained from patients immediately before hemodialysis and before administration of heparin. Platelet expression of FcGammaRIIA and the activation of platelets in response to low concentrations of convulxin (1 ng/ml, selected to mimic effects of collagen, thrombin (1 nM, adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 0.2 uM, or platelet activating factor (PAF, 1 nM were determined with the use of flow cytometry in samples of whole blood anticoagulated with corn trypsin inhibitor (a specific inhibitor of Factor XIIa. Results Patients were stratified with respect to the median expression of FcGammaRIIA. Patients with high platelet expression of FcGammaRIIA exhibited 3-fold greater platelet reactivity compared with that in those with low expression in response to convulxin (p Conclusion Increased platelet reactivity in response to low concentrations of diverse agonists is associated with high expression of FcGammaRIIA and may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with ESRD.

  19. A novel small molecule target in human airway smooth muscle for potential treatment of obstructive lung diseases: a staged high-throughput biophysical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Steven S; Askovich, Peter S; Zarembinski, Thomas I; Ahn, Kwangmi; Peltier, John M; von Rechenberg, Moritz; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-13

    A newly identified mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation is the interaction between the small heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) and 14-3-3 proteins. Focusing upon this class of interactions, we describe here a novel drug target screening approach for treating airflow obstruction in asthma. Using a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay, we screened a library of compounds that could act as small molecule modulators of HSP20 signals. We then applied two quantitative, cell-based biophysical methods to assess the functional efficacy of these molecules and rank-ordered their abilities to relax isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Scaling up to the level of an intact tissue, we confirmed in a concentration-responsive manner the potency of the cell-based hit compounds. Among 58,019 compound tested, 268 compounds caused 20% or more reduction of the polarized emission in the FP assay. A small subset of these primary screen hits, belonging to two scaffolds, caused relaxation of isolated ASM cell in vitro and attenuated active force development of intact tissue ex vivo. This staged biophysical screening paradigm provides proof-of-principle for high-throughput and cost-effective discovery of new small molecule therapeutic agents for obstructive lung diseases.

  20. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C. Murphy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in younger (age < 50 populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute’s Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n=6,862. Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age < 50 and older (age 50–69, age ≥ 70 CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13% and Hispanic (15% than patients aged 50–69 years (11% and 10%, resp. and ≥70 years (7% each. A larger proportion of young white (41% and Hispanic (33% patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%. The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%. Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  1. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Galloway, Trina Falck; Kj?rsvik, Elin; St?rseth, Trond R?vik; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, ?rjan; R?nnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as tempera...

  2. Individual isotoxic radiation dose escalation based on V20 and advanced technologies benefits unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy: long term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Zhongtang; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Antang; Zhao, Qian; Li, Hongsheng; Sun, Hongfu; Huang, Wei; Li, BaoSheng

    2017-08-01

    Under the assumption that the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing the total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, the phase I trial was conducted in patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, to determine the feasibility and effects of individual isotoxic radiation dose escalation based on bilateral lung V20 and advanced technologies. Consecutive eligible patients were assigned to cohorts of eight. V20 of each cohort was increased from 27% to 30%, 33%, 35%, 37%, and so on. The criterion for cessation of dose escalation was defined as ≥ 2 patients in each cohort experienced dose limiting toxicity. Isotoxic dose escalation was based on V20, functional imaging was used to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy. To test the power of escalation dose, patients with TTD over 66 Gy were assigned to the higher dose group (HD), while the others to the standard dose one (SD). In result, the recommended value of V20 was 35%. For all patients, follow-up ranged from 1 to 112 months, median overall and progression free survivals were 25.0 and 13.0 months, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year overall survival (OS) rates were 72.5%, 22.5%, 17.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. Especially, the OS and local recurrence-free survival of patients in HD group were significantly longer than those in SD one ( P =0.035, P=0.007, respectively) without increasing severe toxicity. Thus, individual isotoxic dose escalation based on V20 with advanced technologies was feasible and effective.

  3. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn L L Chatrou

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. Histochemical analysis of calcification and the expression of proteins involved in mineralization are usually based on whole section analysis, thereby often ignoring regional differences in atherosclerotic lesions. At present, limited information is available about factors involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.This study investigates the intra-section association of micro-calcifications with markers for atherosclerosis in randomly chosen section areas of human coronary arteries. Moreover, the possible causal relationship between calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammation was explored in vitro.To gain insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we performed analysis of the distribution of micro-calcifications using a 3-MeV proton microbeam. Additionally, we performed systematic analyses of 30 to 40 regions of 12 coronary sections obtained from 6 patients including histology and immuno-histochemistry. Section areas were classified according to CD68 positivity. In vitro experiments using human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs were performed to evaluate causal relationships between calcification and inflammation.From each section multiple areas were randomly chosen and subsequently analyzed. Depositions of calcium crystals at the micrometer scale were already observed in areas with early pre-atheroma type I lesions. Micro-calcifications were initiated at the elastica interna concomitantly with upregulation of the uncarboxylated form of matrix Gla-protein (ucMGP. Both the amount of calcium crystals and ucMGP staining increased from type I to IV atherosclerotic lesions. Osteochondrogenic markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin were only significantly increased in type IV atheroma lesions, and at this stage correlated with the degree of calcification. From atheroma area type III onwards a considerable number of CD68 positive cells were observed

  4. Peer Tutoring and Clinical Stage: analysis of experience and potential applications in the First Level Degree Course in Nursing, section of Desenzano Del Garda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Biondo, Paolo; Avino, Nicola; Podavini, Enrica; Prandelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Among the various methods of learning and experience in the literature, the methodology of Peer Tutoring is particularly important for the formation of the student nurses. The Peer Tutoring identifies a model of cooperative learning, aiming to activate a spontaneous process to transfer knowledge, emotions and experiences from some members of a group to other members of equal status but with a difference in the knowledge and cognitive skills or relational. The First level degree course in Nursing, section of Desenzano del Garda (Brescia, Italy) has been applying a methodology that can be defined as Peer Tutoring for the last four years. The applicability of the method is based on the coupling of an expert student of the 3rd year of the course to a group of students from the 1st or 2nd year. The study has the main objective to analyze the experience in the branch of Desenzano del Garda and see if the learning method of the Peer Tutoring is valid within the context of clinical internship. The study, of descriptive-observational type, was conducted in the academic year 2013-2014. The samples in the research are two: the first sample consisted of 53 students in their first year of studies, 46 students of the 2nd year of the course and 30 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience as tutoring students (students tutors), for a total of 129 students; the second sample consisted of 15 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience of the Peer Tutoring applied to the Stage clinical students as tutors (students Tutor). The research allowed important information to be gathered regarding the utility and interventions to improve the quality of the project of Peer tutoring. Peer Tutoring is a learning methodology that works and that can be applied in learning pathways for nursing students. The training of students Tutor is a matter of considerable importance: in fact the students ask to be trained to respect the structure and functions

  5. Potential Benefits of Ultrasonically Assisted Fusion Welding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the processes in which ultrasonic oscillations have been beneficial are similar to fusion welding process where the quality of welds depends on porosity, crystallisation rate, inclusions, inter-metallic compounds, depth of penetration, heat affected zone, etc. Some preliminary tests were performed to assess the effects ...

  6. The CTBT regime, significance and potential benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong-Lae

    2002-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines the CTBT's background, describes the activities of the Preparatory Commission, the verification regime, the role of the National Data Centres and international coopereation. The objectives of the Nairobi workshop are listed

  7. Determining the Potential Benefit of Powered Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Journal publications. Nothing to Report 9 Books or other non-periodical, one-time publications. Nothing to Report Website(s) or other Internet...Active Kids Intervention on Habitual and Sustainable Physical Activity Behaviors The objective of this proposal is to use a 2-arm, 5-year...randomized control trial to examine the long-term effects of Active Schools and Active Kids , an intervention with multiple components at intrapersonal

  8. Thorium fuel cycle - Potential benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    There has been significant interest among Member States in developing advanced and innovative technologies for safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles, while minimizing waste and environmental impacts. This publication provides an insight into the reasons for renewed interest in the thorium fuel cycle, different implementation scenarios and options for the thorium cycle and an update of the information base on thorium fuels and fuel cycles. The present TECDOC focuses on the upcoming thorium based reactors, current information base, front and back end issues, including manufacturing and reprocessing of thorium fuels and waste management, proliferation-resistance and economic issues. The concluding chapter summarizes future prospects and recommendations pertaining to thorium fuels and fuel cycles

  9. Potential benefits of phytochemicals against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Emma L

    2017-05-01

    Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits. The present paper will look at the more benign terpene (such as Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Salvia lavandulaefolia (sage)) and phenolic (such as resveratrol) phytochemicals; arguing that they offer a safer alternative and that, as well as demonstrating efficacy in cholinesterase inhibition, these phytochemicals are able to target other salient systems such as cerebral blood flow, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammation, inhibition of amyloid-β neurotoxicity, glucoregulation and interaction with other neurotransmitters (such as γ-aminobutyric acid) and signalling pathways (e.g. via kinase enzymes).

  10. A qualitative systematic review of service user and service provider perspectives on the acceptability, relative benefits, and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alison; Uttley, Lesley; Sutton, Anthea

    2017-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize qualitative evidence relating to user and service provider perspective on the acceptability and relative benefits and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 13 major bibliographic databases from May to July 2013. A qualitative evidence synthesis was conducted using thematic framework synthesis. The searches identified 10,270 citations from which 12 studies were included. Ten studies included data from 183 service users, and two studies included data from 16 service providers. The evidence demonstrated that art therapy was an acceptable treatment. The benefits associated with art therapy included the following: the development of relationships with the therapist and other group members; understanding the self/own illness/the future; gaining perspective; distraction; personal achievement; expression; relaxation; and empowerment. Small numbers of patients reported varying reasons for not wanting to take part, and some highlighted potentially negative effects of art therapy which included the evoking of feelings which could not be resolved. The findings suggest that for the majority of respondents art therapy was an acceptable intervention, although this was not the case for all respondents. Therefore, attention should be focussed on both identifying those who are most likely to benefit from art therapy and ensuring any potential harms are minimized. The findings provide evidence to commissioners and providers of mental health services about the value of future art therapy services. Art therapy was reported to be an acceptable treatment for the majority of respondents. Art therapy may not be a preferred treatment option for a small number of patients, emphasizing the importance of considering patient preference in choice of treatment, and selection of the most suitable patients for art therapy. Consideration should be made of adjustments

  11. Regional study is the next important stage in evaluation of oil and gas industry potential of sedimentary basins of Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Azhgaliev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general state of exploration and regional geotectonic characteristics of the structure of the basins of Western Kazakhstan (the Caspian Basin, Ustyurt-Bozashi and Mangyshlak. Principal results of regional studies carried out on the «Comprehensive study of sedimentary basins of the Republic of Kazakhstan» project for 2009-2013 are given. Based on this, topical issues in the study of the deep structure of basins are emphasized, from the perspective of further assessment of the forecasted hydrocarbon potential. In accordance with the new deep drilling data (5.5-7.0 km and more in recent years, the importance and necessity of specifying the structure and high prospects of the Paleozoic deposits are substantiated. In this regard, it is stated that it is advisable to post a parametric well in the future with an anomalous projected depth (14-15 km in the central part of the Caspian Basin (Eurasia Project. Also, the program of regional studies (geotraverses and 2D seismic profiles on the most important geological «cuttings» from the sides of the Caspian basin to the center, the zones of its articulation with the other basins that apply in the south, was considered. The characteristic of the problems solved by the program of regional study of the basins of Western Kazakhstan is given.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection acts as an endothelial stressor with the potential to initiate the earliest heat shock protein 60-dependent inflammatory stage of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutmayer, Simone; Csordas, Adam; Kern, Jan; Maass, Viola; Almanzar, Giovanni; Offterdinger, Martin; Öllinger, Robert; Maass, Matthias; Wick, Georg

    2013-05-01

    We identified increased expression and redistribution of the intracellular protein 60-kDa human heat shock protein (hHSP60) (HSPD1) to the cell surface in human endothelial cells subjected to classical atherosclerosis risk factors and subsequent immunologic cross-reactivity against this highly conserved molecule, as key events occurring early in the process of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed at investigating the role of infectious pathogens as stress factors for vascular endothelial cells and, as such, contributors to early atherosclerotic lesion formation. Using primary donor-matched arterial and venous human endothelial cells, we show that infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae leads to marked upregulation and surface expression of hHSP60 and adhesion molecules. Moreover, we provide evidence for an increased susceptibility of arterial endothelial cells for redistribution of hHSP60 to the cellular membrane in response to C. pneumoniae infection as compared to autologous venous endothelial cells. We also show that oxidative stress has a central role to play in endothelial cell activation in response to chlamydial infection. These data provide evidence for a role of C. pneumoniae as a potent primary endothelial stressor for arterial endothelial cells leading to enrichment of hHSP60 on the cellular membrane and, as such, a potential initiator of atherosclerosis.

  13. Predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae on different stages of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: a threat to cotton in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators.

  14. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma