Sample records for stage suggesting hormonal

  1. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions? (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert


    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail:; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.


    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  3. Altered gene synchrony suggests a combined hormone-mediated dysregulated state in major depression.

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    Chris Gaiteri


    Full Text Available Coordinated gene transcript levels across tissues (denoted "gene synchrony" reflect converging influences of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors; hence they are informative of the biological state of an individual. So could brain gene synchrony also integrate the multiple factors engaged in neuropsychiatric disorders and reveal underlying pathologies? Using bootstrapped Pearson correlation for transcript levels for the same genes across distinct brain areas, we report robust gene transcript synchrony between the amygdala and cingulate cortex in the human postmortem brain of normal control subjects (n = 14; Control/Permutated data, p<0.000001. Coordinated expression was confirmed across distinct prefrontal cortex areas in a separate cohort (n = 19 subjects and affected different gene sets, potentially reflecting regional network- and function-dependent transcriptional programs. Genewise regional transcript coordination was independent of age-related changes and array technical parameters. Robust shifts in amygdala-cingulate gene synchrony were observed in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, denoted here "depression" (n = 14; MDD/Permutated data, p<0.000001, significantly affecting between 100 and 250 individual genes (10-30% false discovery rate. Biological networks and signal transduction pathways corresponding to the identified gene set suggested putative dysregulated functions for several hormone-type factors previously implicated in depression (insulin, interleukin-1, thyroid hormone, estradiol and glucocorticoids; p<0.01 for association with depression-related networks. In summary, we showed that coordinated gene expression across brain areas may represent a novel molecular probe for brain structure/function that is sensitive to disease condition, suggesting the presence of a distinct and integrated hormone-mediated corticolimbic homeostatic, although maladaptive and pathological, state in major depression.

  4. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda


    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Technical safety factors: Suggestions for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the six sites for repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland which have been proposed in Stage 1 of the program concerning nuclear waste repositories. Three of these sites are proposed for both highly radioactive wastes as well as for low and medium-active wastes, the other three for low and medium-active wastes only. The evaluation of the sites is discussed. The sites are to be further evaluated in Stage 2 of the program. The work to be done in the further stages involved in the selection of the final site (or sites) is described. Along with definition of the regions where deep repositories could possibly be built, suggestions for the placing of the facilities required on the surface are discussed. Geological requirements on the repositories and safety-relevant characteristics of the various site options are discussed. The results of the assessments made are presented in tabular form. Maps and geological cross-sections of all the suggested areas are included

  6. Influence of cigarette smoking on hormone and lipid metabolism in women in late reproductive stage

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    Szkup M


    Full Text Available Małgorzata Szkup,1 Anna Jurczak,2 Beata Karakiewicz,3 Artur Kotwas,3 Jacek Kopeć,4 Elżbieta Grochans1 1Department of Nursing, 2Department of Clinical Nursing, 3Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 4School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Background: The aim of the study was to analyze lipid and hormone metabolism, body mass index (BMI, and age parameters in late reproductive stage women in relation to cigarette smoking.Methods: The study enrolled 345 healthy late reproductive stage women living in Poland; 13.33% were smokers. The first part of the study assessed lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides and hormone metabolism (estradiol [E2], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], and anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH] levels in women in the early phase of the follicular menstrual cycle. The second part of study was carried out using the diagnostic survey method, with a standardized questionnaire (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders [PRIME-MD] and the authors’ own research tools.Results: The women were aged 42.3±4.5 years (mean ± SD. The BMI (24.8±4.04 kg/m2 did not differ significantly between the groups. The women who smoked cigarettes had a statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower level of HDL as well as higher LDL and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. Differences were also shown in hormone levels: non-smoking participants had statistically significantly higher levels of E2 and FSH (p<0.05. In the group of non-smoking women, age was a predictor exerting a significant positive impact on the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and AMH (p<0.05. BMI contributed to a decline in HDL and triglyceride levels. In the group of smoking women, age significantly positively influenced the level of E2, and negatively influenced AMH

  7. Hormones (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. Hormone profiling, WHO 2010 grading, and AJCC/UICC staging in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Emilie; Cheng, Sonia; Mete, Ozgur; Serra, Stefano; Araujo, Paula B; Temple, Sara; Cleary, Sean; Gallinger, Steven; Greig, Paul D; McGilvray, Ian; Wei, Alice; Asa, Sylvia L; Ezzat, Shereen


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms, exhibiting a complex spectrum of clinical behaviors. To examine the clinico-pathological characteristics associated with long-term prognosis we reviewed 119 patients with pNETs treated in a tertiary referral center using the WHO 2010 grading and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging systems, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Tumor size, immunohistochemistry (IHC) profiling and patient characteristics-determining stage were analyzed. Primary clinical outcomes were disease progression or death. The mean age at presentation was 52 years; 55% were female patients, 11% were associated with MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) or VHL (Von Hippel–Lindau); mean tumor diameter was 3.3 cm (standard deviation, SD) (2.92). The clinical presentation was incidental in 39% with endocrine hypersecretion syndromes in only 24% of cases. Nevertheless, endocrine hormone tissue immunoreactivity was identified in 67 (56.3%) cases. According to WHO 2010 grading, 50 (42%), 38 (31.9%), and 3 (2.5%) of tumors were low grade (G1), intermediate grade (G2), and high grade (G3), respectively. Disease progression occurred more frequently in higher WHO grades (G1: 6%, G2: 10.5%, G3: 67%, P = 0.026) and in more advanced AJCC stages (I: 2%, IV: 63%, P = 0.033). Shorter progression free survival (PFS) was noted in higher grades (G3 vs. G2; 21 vs. 144 months; P = 0.015) and in more advanced AJCC stages (stage I: 218 months, IV: 24 months, P < 0.001). Liver involvement (20 vs. 173 months, P < 0.001) or histologically positive lymph nodes (33 vs. 208 months, P < 0.001) were independently associated with shorter PFS. Conversely, tissue endocrine hormone immunoreactivity, independent of circulating levels was significantly associated with less aggressive disease. Age, gender, number of primary tumors, and heredity were not significantly associated with

  9. Combination therapy with hormonal, radiation and chemotherapy for stage C prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Toshihisa; Matsumoto, Hidetsugu


    To improve the effectiveness of treatment for patients with stage C prostate cancer, therapy in combination with hormonal, radiation and chemotherapy was given for the initial period, and there after, hormonal therapy was continuously administered to 18 patients with chemotherapy and three patients without it. At the Social Health Insurance Medical Center, between May 1988 and August 1991, 21 patients were diagnosed to have stage C histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The average age of the patients was 69.0 years. The tumor was well, moderate and poorly differentiated in 5, 6 and 10 patients, respectively. As hormonal therapy, orchiectomy was performed on 19 of the 21 patients. Furthermore, 11 patients were administered estramustine phosphate, 9 chlormadinone acetate, and one diethylstilbesterol diphosphate. As, radiation therapy, all patients were treated with AP-PA parallel opposing technique to small pelvis with a 12 cm x 12 cm treatment field (44-45 Gy) combined with conformation radiotherapy to prostate (20-26 Gy). Chemotherapy was performed using either one or a combination of the following; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide. The observation period was 54.5 months on the average. Recurrence was observed in 3 patients, for all of which the sites were at bone. The 5-year non-recurrence rate was 90.4% by Kaplan-Meier's method. There were 4 deaths, three were due to prostate cancer and one to gastric cancer. The 5-year cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier's method was 90.5%. In conclusion, this treatment was effective for stage C cases of prostate cancer. (author)

  10. Two-stage DNA compaction induced by silver ions suggests a cooperative binding mechanism (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Yan; Ran, Shi-Yong


    The interaction between silver ions and DNA plays an important role in the therapeutic use of silver ions and in related technologies such as DNA sensors. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, the dynamics of Ag+-DNA interaction at a single-molecule level was studied using magnetic tweezers. AgNO3 solutions with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 20 μM led to a 1.4-1.8 μm decrease in length of a single λ-DNA molecule, indicating that Ag+ has a strong binding with DNA, causing the DNA conformational change. The compaction process comprises one linear declining stage and another sigmoid-shaped stage, which can be attributed to the interaction mechanism. Considering the cooperative effect, the sigmoid trend was well explained using a phenomenological model. By contrast, addition of silver nanoparticle solution induced no detectable transition of DNA. The dependence of the interaction on ionic strength and DNA concentration was examined via morphology characterization and particle size distribution measurement. The size of the Ag+-DNA complex decreased with an increase in Ag+ ionic strength ranging from 1 μM to 1 mM. Morphology characterization confirmed that silver ions induced DNA to adopt a compacted globular conformation. At a fixed [AgNO3]:[DNA base pairs] ratio, increasing DNA concentration led to increased sizes of the complexes. Intermolecular interaction is believed to affect the Ag+-DNA complex formation to a large extent.

  11. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

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    Ignacio Fernández


    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  12. Palliative radiotherapy for local progression of hormone refractory stage D2 prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Satoru; Kawai, Tsuneo; Yonese, Junji; Yamauchi, Tamio; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ueda, Tomohiro


    From 1970 to 1992, 10 patients with hormone refractory stage D2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate presenting themselves with urinary retention and/or gross hematuria were treated by palliative irradiation for local progression at Cancer Institute Hospital. External beam irradiation was delivered to the primary lesion at dose of 38 Gy to one patient and 30∼27 Gy to seven patients. Five of these patients in whom an urethral catheter had been indwelt were able to void without difficulty following the treatment. Of four patients with severe hematuria resulting from vesical tamponade, none had hematuria after the treatment. These effect lasted until patients' death or more than 11 months follow-up. In other 2 patients, irradiation had to be discontinued at dose less than 20 Gy because of deteriorated general conditions and no significant effect. Complications of the treatment were minimal. These results indicate that the optimal dose of local palliative irradiation is around 30 Gy. Irradiation is a good choice for palliation of locally progressive hormone refactory prostate cancer in view of its certain and long-lasting effect, low invasiveness and minimal complications. When to institute palliative irradiation is one of the most important question in order to secure a good quality of life of patients. From our experiences, it is our belief that if local progression is symptomatic, palliative irradiation should be initiated as soon as possible. (author)

  13. Palliative radiotherapy for local progression of hormone refractory stage D2 prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Satoru; Kawai, Tsuneo; Yonese, Junji; Yamauchi, Tamio; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ueda, Tomohiro (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)


    From 1970 to 1992, 10 patients with hormone refractory stage D2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate presenting themselves with urinary retention and/or gross hematuria were treated by palliative irradiation for local progression at Cancer Institute Hospital. External beam irradiation was delivered to the primary lesion at dose of 38 Gy to one patient and 30[approx]27 Gy to seven patients. Five of these patients in whom an urethral catheter had been indwelt were able to void without difficulty following the treatment. Of four patients with severe hematuria resulting from vesical tamponade, none had hematuria after the treatment. These effect lasted until patients' death or more than 11 months follow-up. In other 2 patients, irradiation had to be discontinued at dose less than 20 Gy because of deteriorated general conditions and no significant effect. Complications of the treatment were minimal. These results indicate that the optimal dose of local palliative irradiation is around 30 Gy. Irradiation is a good choice for palliation of locally progressive hormone refactory prostate cancer in view of its certain and long-lasting effect, low invasiveness and minimal complications. When to institute palliative irradiation is one of the most important question in order to secure a good quality of life of patients. From our experiences, it is our belief that if local progression is symptomatic, palliative irradiation should be initiated as soon as possible. (author).

  14. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

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    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate


    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  15. Detailed characterisation of STC-1 cells and the pGIP/Neo sub-clone suggests the incretin hormones are translationally regulated. (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Pan, Xiaobei; Marco-Ramell, Anna; Meharg, Caroline; Green, Brian D


    STC-1 is a heterogeneous plurihormonal cell line producing several prominent gut peptide hormones. pGIP/Neo is a genetically selected sub-clone of STC-1 with augmented levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Morphometric parameters, hormone concentrations, mRNA transcripts, hormone immunocytochemistry and nutrient utilisation/production of these two cell lines were compared. Proglucagon-derived peptides (Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and - 2(GLP-2)) were lower in sub-clone cells than progenitor cells. High Content Analysis found altered intracellular GLP-1, GIP, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) levels and differing hormone co-localisation. The proportion pGIP/Neo cells containing GIP immunoreactivity (82%) was greater than STC-1 (65%), as were the proportion with 'GIP only', 'GLP-1+GIP' or 'GIP+PYY' immunoreactivity. Most surprisingly mRNA transcripts of the proglucagon and GIP genes were inversely correlated to the levels of their translated peptides. This strongly suggests that proglucagon and GIP are encoded on 'translationally regulated genes' - a characteristic possessed by other endocrine hormones. Metabolomic profiling revealed differences in cellular nutrient utilisation/production and that under normal culture conditions both cell lines exhibit signs of overflow metabolism. These studies provide an insight into the metabolism and properties of these valuable cells, suggesting for the first time that incretin hormone genes are translationally regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat

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    Binod Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of risingtemperature on the metabolic as well as the reproductive performance of the black Bengal goat. Materials and Methods: A total 27 numbers of non-pregnant black Bengal goats of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (average 14-18 kg. Goats in Group-I were kept between the temperature ranges of 35-40°C, in Group-II between 20°Cand 27°C, and Group-III were kept under loose housing system and serve as a control. Goats in all the groups were bred naturally. Blood was collected prior to feeding in the morning on the day 1 (estrus, 20, 45, 90, and 135, expected day of parturition and also 2 days after parturition from goats of all the three groups. Results: It was observed that the level of plasma estrogen decreased (p˂0.05 up to day 45 of gestation, then after increased up to 135 days of gestation and was maximum on expected day of parturition which was significantly (p˂0.05 higher than all the values. Plasma progesterone level increased from day 20 and was the highest on day 90 and then decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected date of parturition. The luteinizing hormone value decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected day of parturition and day 2 after parturition in all the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone concentration showed a significant (p˂0.05 decrease from day 1 to 2 days after parturition in all the groups. The plasma triiodothyronine (T3 level did not vary between and within the treatment groups at any stage of the experiment. The plasma thyroxine (T4 level varied significantly (p˂0.01 within and (p˂0.05 between groups at all stages of reproduction. A significant (p<0.05 variation in plasma cortisol concentration in all the groups increased significantly until the day of parturition and dropped significantly (p<0.01 in 2 days after

  17. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

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    Karen A. Willoughby


    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development (United States)

    Li, Yan; Meng, Jingjing; Yang, Sha; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jialei; Geng, Yun; Cui, Li; Wan, Shubo; Li, Xinguo


    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+)-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4) and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3) showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2), S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway. PMID:28769950

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development

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    Yan Li


    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4 and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3 showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2, S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway.

  20. Clearance of glucoregulatory peptide hormones during haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration in non-diabetic end-stage renal disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten B; Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K


    BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased fasting concentrations and disturbed postprandial responses of several glucoregulatory hormones. We aimed to evaluate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and high-volume haemodiafiltration (HDF) on fasting and postpran......BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased fasting concentrations and disturbed postprandial responses of several glucoregulatory hormones. We aimed to evaluate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and high-volume haemodiafiltration (HDF) on fasting...... and postprandial plasma levels of glucoregulatory pancreatic and gut peptide hormones in ESRD patients. METHODS: Ten non-diabetic HD-treated ESRD patients were included to undergo a 3-h standardized liquid mixed meal test 1 h into an HD and an HDF, respectively. On a third, optional, examination day, the meal test...... during HDF and four completed the optional meal test without dialysis. All plasma hormone concentrations declined significantly during the first fasting hour of dialysis with no differences between HD and HDF. Significant clearance of the investigated hormones was observed for both dialysis modalities...

  1. Surgery Should Complement Endocrine Therapy for Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

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    Olivier Nguyen


    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocrine therapy (ET is an integral part of breast cancer (BC treatment with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of curative treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the survival of elderly postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage BC treated with ET alone, without radiation or chemotherapy, versus ET plus surgery. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study based on a prospective database. The medical records of postmenopausal BC patients referred to the surgical oncology service of two hospitals during an 8-year period were reviewed. All patients were to receive ET for a minimum of four months before undergoing any surgery. Results. Fifty-one patients were included and divided in two groups, ET alone and ET plus surgery. At last follow-up in exclusive ET patients (n=28, 39% had stable disease or complete response, 22% had progressive disease, of which 18% died of breast cancer, and 39% died of other causes. In surgical patients (n=23, 78% were disease-free, 9% died of recurrent breast cancer, and 13% died of other causes. Conclusions. These results suggest that surgical resection is beneficial in this group and should be considered, even for patients previously deemed ineligible for surgery.

  2. Study of Red Cell Fragility in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Relation to Parathyroid Hormone. (United States)

    Panda, Suchismita; Mishra, Anuva; Jena, Manoranjan; Rout, Sashi Bhusan; Mohapatra, Srikrushna


    Anaemia is one of the common complications associated with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) responsible for the increase in the morbidity and mortality in such patients. Several factors have been attributed to cause renal anaemia, amongst which hyperparathyroidism is one of the less recognised reasons. Most studies have been conducted in this regard in CKD patients undergoing haemodialysis. The level of PTH in early stages of chronic kidney disease has not been much studied. The excess amount of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) secondary to CKD has been suggested to be a causative factor for anaemia. To evaluate the serum PTH level in CKD patients before haemodialysis and to study the association of the haemoglobin status with the parathyroid hormone. Forty CKD patients above 18 years of age before haemodialysis and 25 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Routine biochemical and haematological parameters such as Routine Blood Sugar (RBS), urea, creatinine, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , PTH and Hb% were perfomed. Red cell osmotic fragility was measured by serial dilutions of whole blood with varying concentrations of sodium chloride ranging from 0.1% to 0.9%. The study revealed a significant fall in Hb%, along with a rise in Median Osmotic Fragility (MOF) and PTH in the CKD patients when compared to the control group. Linear regression of PTH with Hb% revealed significant negative association between both the parameters with a R 2 value of 0.677. Multilinear regression analysis of MOF and other independent variables such as Hb%, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , urea, PTH and creatinine highlighted the variance of MOF by 72%, maximal variance contributed by PTH. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.980 with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87% in detecting osmotic fragility at a cut off value of PTH ≥100 pg/ml. The underlying cause of anaemia should be identified early in the CKD patients before haemodialysis. Secondary

  3. Energy regulation in context: Free-living female arctic ground squirrels modulate the relationship between thyroid hormones and activity among life history stages. (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M; Williams, Cory T


    Thyroid hormones (THs), key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, are likely modulators of energy allocation within and among animal life history stages. Despite their role in modulating metabolism, few studies have investigated whether THs vary among life history stages in free-living animals or if they exhibit stage-specific relationships to total energy expenditure and activity levels. We measured plasma total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) at four, discrete life history stages of female arctic ground squirrels from two different populations in northern Alaska to test whether plasma THs correlate with life history stage-specific changes in metabolic rate and energy demand. We also tested whether THs explained individual variation in aboveground activity levels within life history stages. T3 peaked during lactation and was lowest during pre-hibernation fattening, consistent with known changes in basal metabolism and core body temperature. In contrast, T4 was elevated shortly after terminating hibernation but remained low and stable across other life-history stages in the active season. THs were consistently higher in the population that spent more time above-ground but the relationship between THs and activity varied among life history stages. T3 was positively correlated with activity only during lactation (r(2)=0.50) whereas T4 was positively correlated with activity immediately following lactation (r(2)=0.48) and during fattening (r(2)=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that THs are an important modulator of basal metabolism but also suggest that the relationship between THs and activity varies among life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormone and enzyme determination as influenced by corticoids and tocolytics in the final stage of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, G.; Kayser, I.B.


    In order to prevent membrane syndrome, the synthetic corticoids betamethasone, dexamethasone and 16-methylene prednisolone combined with tokolytic substances. The hormones ACTH, cortisol, oestriol, and the enzyme renine have been investigated by RIA in order to find out whether the various corticoids cause different changes in the endocrinous parameters of mother and foetus. A suppression of the four measured parameters was found in the presence of corticoids. (orig./MG) [de

  5. [The influence of hypothyroidism on the conversion and binding of thyroid hormones in patients with end-stage renal disease]. (United States)

    Dubczak, Iwanna; Niemczyk, Longin; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Saracyn, Marek; Niemczyk, Stanisław


    Hypothyroidism in patients with renal failure (RF) causes many metabolic and clinical problems, and both these diseases can mutually exacerbate their disturbances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on conversion of thyroid hormones (TH) in patients with ESRD treated with chronic hemodialysis (HD). The study was performed in 74 patients, including 41 women (K) and 33 men (M) aged 28-83 y.o. in 4 groups: G1 - 12 people with ESRD treated with HD and with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism without substitution (6 K and M 6) aged 66,83±12,90 y.o., G2 - 26 patients with ESRD treated with HD without hypothyroidism (10 F, 16 M) aged 58,85±15,52 y.o., G3 - 11 hypothyroid patients without RF (9 K, 2 M) aged 54,73±21,26 y.o., G4 - 25-persons from control group of healthy subjects (16 M, 9 M) aged 51,24±12,58 y.o. In all subjects the concentration of TSH and TH (T4, T3, fT4, TSH, FT3, rT3) were measured and values of conversion factors (T3/T4, FT3/ fT4, rT3/fT4 and rT3/fT3) and binding TH to protein factors (fT4/T4 and fT3/T3) were calculated. Lower concentration of T3 (p=0.012), fT3 (phypothyroidism than in healthy subjects. Renal failure with concomitant hypothyroidism intensify the disturbances of T4 to T3 conversion (p=0.034) and hypothyroidism with concomitant renal failure disrupts binding of T3 to proteins (p=0.001). FT3 to fT4 ratio in renal failure with concomitant hypothyroidism group was significantly lower than in each other group. rT3 concentrations were the highest in healthy subjects. Concomitance of hypothyroidism and end-stage renal disease reduces the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, but does not increase the production of rT3. Hypothyroidism significantly increases the disorders of thyroid hormones in end-stage renal disease. There is decreased tendency to bind of thyroid hormone to protein in hypothyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease.

  6. Morphine administration during low ovarian hormone stage results in transient over expression of fear memories in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Perez-Torres


    Full Text Available Acute exposure to morphine after a traumatic event reduces trauma related symptoms in humans and conditioned fear expression in male rats. We aimed to determine whether acute administration of morphine alters consolidation of fear learning and extinction. Male and female rats in proestrus and metaestrus (high and low ovarian hormones respectively underwent fear conditioning and received saline or morphine (2.5 mg/kg s.c.. The next day they underwent extinction. Results showed increased freezing during extinction only in the morphine metaestrus group while morphine did not affect males or proestrus females. Recall of extinction was similar on all groups. On a second experiment, a subset of rats conditioned during metaestrus was administered morphine prior to extinction producing no effects. We then measured mu opioid receptor (MOR expression in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG at the end of extinction (day 2. In males and proestrus females, morphine caused an increase in MOR in the amygdala but no in the PAG. In metaestrus females, morphine did not change MOR expression in either structure. These data suggests that ovarian hormones may interact with MORs in the amygdala to transiently alter memory consolidation. Morphine given after trauma to females with low ovarian hormones might increase the recall of fear responses, making recovery harder.

  7. Transcriptional, translational, and physiological signatures of undernourished honey bees (Apis mellifera) suggest a role for hormonal factors in hypopharyngeal gland degradation. (United States)

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Meador, Charlotte A D; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Anderson, Kirk E


    Honey bee colonies function as a superorganism, where facultatively sterile female workers perform various tasks that support the hive. Nurse workers undergo numerous anatomical and physiological changes in preparation for brood rearing, including the growth of hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). These glands produce the major protein fraction of a protein- and lipid-rich jelly used to sustain developing larvae. Pollen intake is positively correlated with HG growth, but growth in the first three days is similar regardless of diet, suggesting that initial growth is a pre-determined process while later HG development depends on nutrient availability during a critical window in early adulthood (>3 d). It is unclear whether the resultant size differences in nurse HG are simply due to growth arrest or active degradation of the tissue. To determine what processes cause such differences in HG size, we catalogued the differential expression of both gene transcripts and proteins in the HGs of 8 d old bees that were fed diets containing pollen or no pollen. 3438 genes and 367 proteins were differentially regulated due to nutrition. Of the genes and proteins differentially expressed, undernourished bees exhibited more gene and protein up-regulation compared to well-nourished bees, with the affected processes including salivary gland apoptosis, oogenesis, and hormone signaling. Protein secretion was virtually the only process up-regulated in well-nourished bees. Further assays demonstrated that inhibition of ultraspiracle, one component of the ecdysteroid receptor, in the fat body caused larger HGs. Undernourished bees also had higher acid phosphatase activity, a physiological marker of cell death, compared to well-nourished bees. These results support a connection between poor nutrition, hormonal signaling, and HG degradation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Hybrid stage I palliation for hypo-plastic left heart condition without a hybrid suite: Suggestions for developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anuradha


    Full Text Available Cardiac hybrid procedures are performed in modern, spacious, and highly equipped hybrid suites in developed countries. Organizing such expensive suites in countries with an emerging economy is difficult from both a financial and logistics point of view. We share our experience of safely performing a Hybrid stage I palliation procedure for Aortic atresia with ventricular septal defect on a 2-month-old infant weighing 3.35 kg using minimal resources in a conventional catheterization laboratory.

  9. Proposta de estadiamento topográfico para papilomatose laríngea Suggestion of topographic staging for laryngeal papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.G. Avelino


    propose a staging based on the classification of the site and intensity of the lesions in the larynx that can have easily application for the physician. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We divided the larynx in three sites: supraglottis (S, glottis (G and infraglottis (I; and in four degree of extension. Classification: S1 (focal lesion, S2 (less than 2/3 of extension of the lumen, S3 (more than 2/3 of extension and S4 (obstructive lesion or tracheotomy; G1 (focal lesion on the fold or on the anterior or posterior commissure - less than 1/3 of extension, G1a (only one vocal fold G1b (both vocal folds, G2 (more than 1/3 extension of the vocal fold, G2a (only one vocal fold, G2b (both vocal folds, G3 (more than 2/3 extension of the vocal fold and G4 (obstructive lesion or tracheotomy; I1 (focal lesion, I2 (less than 2/3 extension of the lumen, I3 (more than 2/3 extension of the lumen, and I4 (obstructive lesion or tracheotomy. Based on this topographic classification we obtain 4 stages: I, II, III e IV. We evaluated 74 laryngoscopes of 10 patients with laryngeal papillomatosis before and after the treatment with cidofovir to establish the viability of the staging. RESULTS: All the exams could be submitted to the classification and staging. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the staging proposed was viable on the studied population.

  10. Concomitant changes in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during life stages of Drosophila melanogaster suggest radio-protective function of trehalose. (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Raghu, Shamprasad Varija; Patil, Rajashekhar K


    During development, various life stages of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) show different levels of resistance to gamma irradiation, with the early pupal stage being the most radiation sensitive. This provides us an opportunity to explore the biochemical basis of such variations. The present study was carried out to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance during life stages of D. melanogaster. Homogenates from all the life stages of D. melanogaster were prepared at stipulated age. These homogenates were used for the determination of (1) enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, D. melanogaster glutathione peroxidase (DmGPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); (2) reducing non-enzymatic antioxidants: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH) and non-reducing non-enzymatic antioxidant trehalose; and (3) levels of protein carbonyl (PC) content. Age-dependent changes in radiation resistance and associated biochemical changes were also studied in young (2 d) and old (20 and 30 d) flies. TAC and GSH were found high in the early pupal stage, whereas catalase and DmGPx were found to increase in the early pupal stage. The non-feeding third instar (NFTI) larvae were found to have high levels of SOD and GST, besides NFTI larvae showed high levels of trehalose. A remarkable decrease was observed in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during the early pupal stage. The PC level was the highest during early pupal stage and was the lowest in NFTI larvae. Older flies showed high level of PC compared with young flies. In vitro increments in trehalose concentration correspond to reduced formation of PCs, suggesting a protective role of trehalose against free radicals. A strong correlation between levels of trehalose and PC formation suggests amelioration of proteome damage due to ionizing radiation (IR). Stages with high trehalose levels showed protected proteome and high radiation resistance, suggesting a

  11. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones. (United States)

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo


    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these

  12. Unusually Deep Bonin Earthquake (M7.9) of May 30, 2015 Suggests that Stagnant Slab Transforms into Penetration Stage (United States)

    Obayashi, M.; Fukao, Y.; Yoshimitsu, J.


    A great shock occurred at an unusual depth of 678 km far away from the well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone of the Izu-Bonin arc (Fig.1). To the north of this region the slab is stagnant above the 660 km discontinuity and to the south it penetrates the discontinuity (Fig.2). Thus, the slab in this region can be viewed as in a transitional state from the stagnant to penetrating slab. Here, the steeply dipping part of the slab bends sharply to horizontal and the great shock happened at the lowest corner of this bending. The CMT indicates a pure normal faulting with the trench-normal near horizontal tensional axis and the near vertical compressional axis (Fig.1). We suggest that this mechanism reflects a transitional state of slab deformation from the bending-dominant mode to the penetration-dominant mode. The mechanism is consistent with either of these two two modes. We show that the mechanism is also consistent with the resultant stress field generated by many deep shocks occurring along the Wadati-Benioff zone. The calculated stress field changes rapidly along a trench-normal profile at a depth of 680 km and becomes similar to that generated by the great shock at points near the hypocenter (Fig.3). Thus, the stress field due to the Wadati-Benioff zone earthquakes works to enhance the occurrence of deep shocks of the type of the 2015 great shock, which represents slab deformation associated with the transition from stagnant to penetrating slab.

  13. Growth Hormone and Disease Severity in Early Stage of Multiple Sclerosis

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    M. Gironi


    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that neurohormones such as GH and IGF-I are involved in the neuroreparative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS. GH and IGF-I blood levels in naïve MS patients with different disease courses were investigated in this study. Serum GH and IGF-I in untreated MS patients (n=64, healthy controls (HC, n=62, and patients affected by other neurological diseases (OND, n=46 were evaluated with a solid-phase-enzyme-labeled-chemiluminescent-immunometric assay. No differences were detected in GH across MS, OND, and HC (MS=0.87±1.32 ng/mL; OND=1.66±3.7; and HC=1.69±3.35; P=0.858 when considering gender, disease duration, and disease course. However, GH was lower (P=0.007 in patients with more severe disease (expanded disability scale score, EDSS≥4.0 compared with milder forms (EDSS<4. IGF-I l did not differ across the 3 groups (P=0.160, as far as concern disease course, disability, and gender were. Lower IGF-I levels were detected in subjects older than 50 years compared to younger ones for all 3 groups. Lower GH was detected in patients with more severe MS, and age was confirmed as the main factor driving IGF-I levels in all subjects. These findings, relying on the natural course of the disease, could help in shedding lights on the mechanisms involved in autoreparative failure associated with poorer prognosis in MS.

  14. Low Ki67/high ATM protein expression in malignant tumors predicts favorable prognosis in a retrospective study of early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer. (United States)

    Feng, Xiaolan; Li, Haocheng; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Riabowol, Karl; Magliocco, Anthony M; Morris, Don; Watson, Peter H; Enwere, Emeka K; Bebb, Gwyn; Paterson, Alexander


    This study was designed to investigate the combined influence of ATM and Ki67 on clinical outcome in early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer (ES-HPBC), particularly in patients with smaller tumors (ATM and Ki67 proteins using fluorescence and brightfield immunohistochemistry respectively, and quantified their expression with digital image analysis. Data on expression levels were subsequently correlated with clinical outcome. Remarkably, ATM expression was useful to stratify the low Ki67 group into subgroups with better or poorer prognosis. Specifically, in the low Ki67 subgroup defined as having smaller tumors and no positive nodes, patients with high ATM expression showed better outcome than those with low ATM, with estimated survival rates of 96% and 89% respectively at 15 years follow up (p = 0.04). Similarly, low-Ki67 patients with smaller tumors, 1-3 positive nodes and high ATM also had significantly better outcomes than their low ATM counterparts, with estimated survival rates of 88% and 46% respectively (p = 0.03) at 15 years follow up. Multivariable analysis indicated that the combination of high ATM and low Ki67 is prognostic of improved survival, independent of tumor size, grade, and lymph node status (p = 0.02). These data suggest that the prognostic value of Ki67 can be improved by analyzing ATM expression in ES-HPBC.

  15. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy. (United States)

    Woo, Young Jae; Jang, Sun Young; Lim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Yoon, Jin Sook


    To investigate associations between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) activity/severity in chronic-stage GO and compare the performance of two newly-developed TRAb assays (third-generation TSH-binding inhibition immunoglobulin [TBII] assay versus Mc4 thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin [TSI] bioassay). This study is a retrospective review of medical charts and blood tests from Korean GO patients who first visited the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from January 2008 to December 2011, were diagnosed with GO and Graves' hyperthyroidism, and were followed up for ≥18 months. Third-generation M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI assays were performed in the chronic-inactive GO patients in whom euthyroidism status was restored. Patients' GO activity/severity clinical activity scores (CAS), and modified NOSPECS scores were examined for a correlation with TRAb assays. Fifty patients (mean age, 41.3 years; 41 females) were analyzed. The mean duration of Graves' hyperthyroidism symptom was 63 months (range, 18 to 401 months) and that of GO was 46 months (range, 18 to 240 months). All patients had been treated previously with anti-thyroid drugs for a median period of 52.3 months, and two patients underwent either radioiodine therapy or total thyroidectomy. Mean CAS and NOSPECS scores were 0.5 ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 4.8 ± 3.1, respectively. Mean M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI values were 7.5 ± 10.2 IL/L and 325.9 ± 210.1 specimen-to-reference control ratio. TSI was significantly correlated with NOSPECS score (R = 0.479, p 0.05), because GO inflammatory activity subsided in the chronic stages of GO. In chronic-inactive GO after euthyroid restoration, GO activity score did not associate with serum levels of TRAb or TBII. However, levels of the functional antibody Mc4-TSI did correlate with GO severity. Therefore, the TSI bioassay is a clinically relevant measure of disease

  16. The disruption of GDP-fucose de novo biosynthesis suggests the presence of a novel fucose-containing glycoconjugate in Plasmodium asexual blood stages. (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Bandini, Giulia; Damerow, Sebastian; Absalon, Sabrina; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Samuelson, John; Izquierdo, Luis


    Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation reactions, in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The GDP-Fuc de novo pathway, which requires the action of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-L-fucose synthase (FS), is conserved in the parasite genome, but the importance of fucose metabolism for the parasite is unknown. To functionally characterize the pathway we generated a PfGMD mutant and analyzed its phenotype. Although the labelling by the fucose-binding Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was completely abrogated, GDP-Fuc was still detected in the mutant. This unexpected result suggests the presence of an alternative mechanism for maintaining GDP-Fuc in the parasite. Furthermore, PfGMD null mutant exhibited normal growth and invasion rates, revealing that the GDP-Fuc de novo metabolic pathway is not essential for the development in culture of the malaria parasite during the asexual blood stages. Nonetheless, the function of this metabolic route and the GDP-Fuc pool that is generated during this stage may be important for gametocytogenesis and sporogonic development in the mosquito.

  17. The disruption of GDP-fucose de novo biosynthesis suggests the presence of a novel fucose-containing glycoconjugate in Plasmodium asexual blood stages (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Bandini, Giulia; Damerow, Sebastian; Absalon, Sabrina; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Samuelson, John; Izquierdo, Luis


    Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation reactions, in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The GDP-Fuc de novo pathway, which requires the action of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-L-fucose synthase (FS), is conserved in the parasite genome, but the importance of fucose metabolism for the parasite is unknown. To functionally characterize the pathway we generated a PfGMD mutant and analyzed its phenotype. Although the labelling by the fucose-binding Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was completely abrogated, GDP-Fuc was still detected in the mutant. This unexpected result suggests the presence of an alternative mechanism for maintaining GDP-Fuc in the parasite. Furthermore, PfGMD null mutant exhibited normal growth and invasion rates, revealing that the GDP-Fuc de novo metabolic pathway is not essential for the development in culture of the malaria parasite during the asexual blood stages. Nonetheless, the function of this metabolic route and the GDP-Fuc pool that is generated during this stage may be important for gametocytogenesis and sporogonic development in the mosquito. PMID:27849032

  18. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis via APOBEC3B induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ohba

    Full Text Available High prevalence of infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV ranging from 25 to 100% (average 31% was observed in breast cancer (BC patients in Singapore using novel DNA chip technology. Early stage of BC demonstrated higher HPV positivity, and BC positive for estrogen receptor (ER showed significantly higher HPV infection rate. This unique association of HPV with BC in vivo prompted us to investigate a possible involvement of HPV in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. Using normal breast epithelial cells stably transfected with HPV-18, we showed apparent upregulation of mRNA for the cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3B (A3B which is reported to be a source of mutations in BC. HPV-induced A3B overexpression caused significant γH2AX focus formation, and DNA breaks which were cancelled by shRNA to HPV18 E6, E7 and A3B. These results strongly suggest an active involvement of HPV in the early stage of BC carcinogenesis via A3B induction.

  19. Postprandial responses of incretin and pancreatic hormones in non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten


    of the insulinotropic gut-derived incretin hormones and pancreatic hormones play a critical role in the maintenance of a normal postprandial glucose tolerance. METHODS: We studied patients with ESRD and either normal (n = 10) or impaired (n = 10) glucose tolerance, and control subjects (n = 11). Plasma concentrations...... glucose responses were comparable between groups (P > 0.082). Patients with ESRD exhibited higher fasting levels of GIP and glucagon compared with controls (P corrected GLP-1 and glucagon responses were enhanced (P corrected insulin responses and insulin excursions...... increased secretion of the insulinotropic incretin hormone GLP-1. Fasting levels and baseline-corrected responses of glucagon were elevated and gastric emptying was delayed in the ESRD patients. These perturbations seem to be caused by uraemia per se and may contribute to the disturbed glucose metabolism...

  20. Regulated expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mouse mammary gland development suggests a role in hormone action and epithelial-stromal interactions. (United States)

    Friedmann, Y; Daniel, C W


    The murine homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during mouse embryogenesis. We now report the developmentally regulated expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the mouse mammary gland and show that their expression patterns point toward significant functional roles. Msx-1 and Msx-2 transcripts were present in glands of virgin mice and in glands of mice in early pregnancy, but transcripts decreased dramatically during late pregnancy. Low levels of Msx-1 transcripts were detected in glands from lactating animals and during the first days of involution, whereas Msx-2 expression was not detected during lactation or early involution. Expression of both genes increased gradually as involution progressed. Msx-2 but not Msx-1 expression was decreased following ovariectomy or following exposure to anti-estrogen implanted directly into the gland. Hormonal regulation of Msx-2 expression was confirmed when transcripts returned to normal levels after estrogen was administered to ovariectomized animals. In situ molecular hybridization for Msx-1 showed transcripts localized to the mammary epithelium, whereas Msx-2 expression was confined to the periductal stroma. Mammary stroma from which mammary epithelium had been removed did not transcribe detectable amounts of Msx-2, showing that expression is regulated by contiguous mammary epithelium, and indicating a role for these homeobox genes in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during mammary development.

  1. Results of radiation therapy combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for stage III prostate cancer. Comparison of two different definitions of PSA failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Sasaki, Yoshihide; Mizowaki, Takashi


    We herein report the clinical outcome of radical radiation therapy combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) for stage III (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] 1997: UICC 97) prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free survival was assessed according to two different definitions, and the appropriateness of each definition is discussed. Between October 1997 and December 2000, 27 patients with stage III prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. The median pretreatment PSA level was 29 ng/ml (range, 7.4-430 ng/ml). The Gleason score (GS) was 7 or more in 22 patients (81%). All patients received 3 months of NHT with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, in combination with an antiandrogen (flutamide), given during the first 2 weeks, followed by 70-Gy external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in 35 fractions. The initial 46 Gy was given with a four-field technique, while the remainder was given with a dynamic conformal technique. No adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) was given. The median follow-up time was 63 months. PSA levels decreased to the normal range (<4 ng/ml) after irradiation in all but one patient. The 5-year PSA failure-free survival was 34.8% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition and it was 43.0% according to the ''nadir plus 2'' definition. Discordance of the results between the two definitions was seen in two patients. The 5-year overall and cause-specific survivals were 83.0% and 93.3%, respectively. No severe acute or late adverse effects were observed. Seventy Gy of EBRT following 3 months of NHT produced therapeutic results comparable to those reported in other studies which used long-term AHT. The value of long-term AHT for Japanese men should be tested in a clinical trial. (author)

  2. Anti-Müllerian hormone remains highly expressed in human cumulus cells during the final stages of folliculogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, M L; Nielsen, M Eilsø; Dal Canto, M B


    This study evaluated whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was differentially expressed in cumulus (CC) and granulosa (GC) cells from large antral and pre-ovulatory follicles collected from individual follicles in women undergoing in-vitro maturation (IVM) or IVF treatment. Expression studies of A...

  3. Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings. (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L


    I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Tarnow


    Full Text Available Recently it was shown explicitly that free recall consists of two stages: the first few recalls empty working memory and a second stage, a reactivation stage, concludes the recall ([20]; for a review of the theoretical prediction see [15]. Here it is shown that the serial position curve changes in mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD and acute cannabis usage - lowered total recall and lessened primacy - are similar to second stage recall and different from working memory recall.Since cannabis and AD affect the second stage of free recall, the intersection of the two localizes the second stage of free recall to the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Since the second stage of recall uses a retrieval process that is accompanied by a linear rise in the error rate [18] this error generating mechanism should give clues to the structure of the corresponding neural network.

  5. Colorectal cancer and the 7th revision of the TNM staging system: review of changes and suggestions for uniform pathologic reporting. (United States)

    Obrocea, F L; Sajin, Maria; Marinescu, Elena Cristina; Stoica, D


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a neoplastic disease with a continuously growing incidence in Romania and throughout the world. Although the surgery remains the first line treatment for most of the cases, newly discovered targeted molecular therapies - effective for some patients, but with various side effects and significant financial burden for the national health systems - requires not only stratification of patients in prognostic groups but also evaluation of some non-anatomic factors with major impact on the prognosis and therapeutic strategy. The AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, in his 7th revision, effective for cases diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010, responds to these needs. On the other hand, the role of the pathologist is increasing in terms of workload and amount of information to be included in the pathology report in order to deliver a personalized diagnosis. There are concerns worldwide regarding relevance, validity and completeness of pathologic reporting of CRC in the absence of a uniform reporting format. Therefore, suggestions for a standardized pathology report of CRC are made, based on TNM 7 and recent, up-to-date conclusive published data.

  6. Uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep quality in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: potential role of homocysteine and parathyroid hormone. (United States)

    Gade, Katrin; Blaschke, Sabine; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Becker, Andreas; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; Cohrs, Stefan


    The aetiology of uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains unclear. Our research investigated whether an elevated plasma concentration of the excitatory amino acid homocysteine might be associated with RLS occurrence in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis. Total plasma homocysteine as well as creatinine, urea, folate, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, and albumin levels were compared between 26 RLS-affected (RLSpos) and 26 non-affected (RLSneg) patients on chronic hemodialysis. We further compared subjective sleep quality between RLSpos and RLSneg patients using the Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index and investigated possible relationships between laboratory parameters and sleep quality. Taking individual albumin concentrations into account, a significant positive correlation between total plasma homocysteine and RLS occurrence was observed (r= 0.246; p=0.045). Sleep quality was significantly more reduced in RLSpos compared to RLSneg patients and RLS severity correlated positively with impairment of sleep quality. Bad sleep quality in all patients was associated with higher concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Our results suggest a possible aetiological role of homocysteine in uremic RLS. They confirm that uremic RLS is an important factor causing sleep impairment in patients on hemodialysis. Higher parathyroid hormone levels might also be associated with bad sleep quality in these patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effects of Serum Albumin, Calcium Levels, Cancer Stage and Performance Status on Weight Loss in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Positive or Negative Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS.MethodsA cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL, corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL, cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4, or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4, respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8% experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels.ConclusionEarly recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.

  8. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogev Rosianski


    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  9. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari


    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  10. Effect of stage of development and sex on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in in vitro hypothalamic perifusion. (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G; Thyssen-Cano, S; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D


    Marked sexual and ontogenic differences have been described in gonadotropin regulation in the rat. These could arise from events occurring both at the hypothalamic or hypophyseal levels. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the capacity of the hypothalamus in releasing GnRH in vitro, basally and in response to depolarization with KCl, during ontogeny in the rat. To that end we chose two well-defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of gonadotropin regulation, 15 and 30 days. We compared GnRH release from hypothalami of females, neonatal androgenized females and males. Mediobasal hypothalami were perifused in vitro, and GnRH measured in the effluent. Basal secretion of the decapeptide increased with age in the three groups with no sexual differences encountered. When studying GnRH release induced by membrane depolarization, no differences within sex or age were encountered. On the other hand FSH serum levels decreased with age in females and increased in males, and in neonatal androgenized females followed a similar pattern to that of females. LH levels were higher in infantile females than in age-matched males or androgenized females. Such patterns of gonadotropin release were therefore not correlated to either basal or K+-induced GnRH release from the hypothalamus. We conclude that sexual and ontogenic differences in gonadotropin secretion in the developing rat are not dependent on the intrinsic capability of the hypothalamus to release GnRH in response to membrane depolarization. The hormonal differences observed during development and between sexes are probably related to differences in the sensitivity of the GnRH neuron to specific secretagogue and neurotransmitter regulation, and/or to differences in hypophyseal GnRH receptors and gonadotrope sensitivity.

  11. Stage-dependent and temperature-controlled expression of the gene encoding the precursor protein of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Xu, W H; Sato, Y; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, O


    Embryonic diapause and sex pheromone biosynthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are, respectively, induced by diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), which are produced in the subesophageal ganglion from a common polyprotein precursor (DH-PBAN precursor) encoded by a single gene (DH-PBAN gene). Using DH-PBAN cDNA as a probe, we quantitatively measured DH-PBAN mRNA content throughout embryonic and postembryonic development and observed the effects of incubation temperature, which is a key factor for determination of diapause, on DH-PBAN gene expression. The silkworm, which is programmed to lay diapause eggs by being incubated at 25 degrees C, showed peaks of DH-PBAN mRNA content at five different stages throughout the life cycle: at the late embryonic stage, at the middle of the fourth and the fifth larval instars, and at early and late stages of pupal-adult development. In the non-diapause type silkworms programmed by a 15 degrees C incubation, only the last peak of DH-PBAN mRNA in pupal-adult development was found, and the other peaks were absent. Furthermore, interruption of the incubation period at 25 degrees C by incubation at 15 degrees C decreased both DH-PBAN mRNA content in mature embryos and in subesophageal ganglia of day 3 pupae and the incidence of diapause eggs. Thus, there were two types of regulatory mechanisms for DH-PBAN gene expression. One is a temperature-controlled expression that is responsible for diapause induction, and the other is a temperature-independent, stage-dependent expression related to pheromone production.

  12. Utility of the CPS+EG staging system in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (United States)

    Marmé, Frederik; Lederer, Bianca; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban Dan; Denkert, Carsten; Eidtmann, Holger; Gerber, Bernd; Hanusch, Claus; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Jackisch, Christian; Kümmel, Sherko; Loibl, Sibylle; Paepke, Stefan; Untch, Michael; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Schneeweiss, Andreas


    Pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) correlates with overall survival (OS) in primary breast cancer. A recently described staging system based on pre-treatment clinical stage (CS), final pathological stage (PS), estrogen receptor (ER) status and nuclear grade (NG) leads to a refined estimation of prognosis in unselected patients. Its performance in luminal type breast cancers has not been determined. This study investigates the clinical utility of this CPS+EG score when restricted to hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) patients and compares the results to a cohort of unselected patients. The CPS+EG score was calculated for 6637 unselected patients and 2454 patients with HR+/HER2- tumours who received anthracycline/taxane-based NACT within 8 prospective German trials. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and OS were 75.6% and 84.1% for the unselected cohort and 80.6% and 87.8% for the HR+/HER2- subgroup, respectively. The CPS+EG system distinguished different prognostic groups with 5-year DFS ranging from 0% to 91%. The CPS+EG system leads to an improved categorisation of patients by outcome compared to CS, PS, ER or NG alone. When applying the CPS+EG score to the HR+/HER2- subgroup, a shift to lower scores was observed compared to the overall population, but 5-year DFS and OS for the individual scores were identical to that observed in the overall population. In HR+/HER2- patients, the CPS+EG staging system retains its ability to facilitate a refined stratification of patients according to outcome. It can help to select candidates for post-neoadjuvant clinical trials in luminal breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of Recurrence or Contralateral Breast Cancer More than 5 Years After Diagnosis of Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Wilson, Sheridan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott; Chia, Stephen; Kennecke, Hagen; Ellard, Susan; Lohrisch, Caroline


    Three large studies have shown a survival benefit from 10 years of adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT). We evaluated the risk of an event 5 years after the initial breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and identified the prognostic factors to assist clinicians considering extended AHT. Patients newly referred to the BC Cancer Agency with stage I to III estrogen receptor-positive BC diagnosed from 1989 to 2004 who had undergone AHT were identified by the BC Cancer Agency's Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit. Cases with recurrence, death, or contralateral BC occurring within the first 5 years were excluded. The 10-year event-free survival (EFS) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. This provided estimates of recurrence risk after the fifth year following the diagnosis. The histopathologic and age variables were examined for prognostic value by univariate analysis. Within our cohort, 6615 women were postmenopausal and 1886 were premenopausal at the BC diagnosis. The median follow-up period was 11 years. The 10-year EFS for women aged cancer (any grade) and for stage II (node-negative and node-positive), grade I cancer. Our data have identified BCs associated with a very low recurrence risk 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, providing women with such cancers confidence about a decision to discontinue AHT after 5 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The RIA studies on the changes of serum hormone levels during induction stage of intravenous anesthesia with three different drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Changsheng; Huang Jianmin; Pan Liping; Li Dongxue; Feng Rongfang


    Objective: To investigate of effects of propofol, thiopental and etomidate on pituitary adrenal functions during the induction stage of intravenous anaesthesia with them. Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective surgery were randomly divided into three groups, propofol (group I), thipental (group II) and etomidate (group III). Peripheral blood samples were taken for the measurement of E, NE, PRL, GH, B-EP and cortisone before induction (T 0 ), During induction (T 1 ) and 2, 5, 15 min after intubation with RIA. Results: The study showed that none of the three drugs could inhibit increase in E and NE during induction and intubation, but propofol was significantly better than the other two. Conclusion: Propofol has less effects on pituitary-adrenal functions and is the drug of choice for induction

  15. The Existence of Primary Age-Related Tauopathy Suggests that not all the Cases with Early Braak Stages of Neurofibrillary Pathology are Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Giaccone, Giorgio


    The distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART) is a hotly debated issue. As most lines of evidence support the tenet that tau pathology occurs downstream of amyloid-β deposition, it seems reasonable to consider PART as a separate disease process not necessarily related to Aβ and hence AD. Following this view, the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology may not always be the forerunner of diffuse neurofibrillary changes and AD. The ongoing debate further enhances the need for greater caution against any future predictions using tau cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers.

  16. Thyroid remnant ablation success and disease outcome in stage III or IV differentiated thyroid carcinoma: recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal. (United States)

    Vallejo Casas, Juan A; Mena Bares, Luisa M; Gálvez Moreno, Maria A; Moreno Ortega, Estefanía; Marlowe, Robert J; Maza Muret, Francisco R; Albalá González, María D


    Most publications to date compare outcomes after post-surgical thyroid remnant ablation stimulated by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withholding/withdrawal (THW) in low-recurrence risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. We sought to perform this comparison in high-risk patients. We retrospectively analyzed ~9-year single-center experience in 70 consecutive adults with initial UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stage III/IV, M0 DTC undergoing rhTSH-aided (N.=54) or THW-aided (N.=16) high-activity ablation. Endpoints included ablation success and DTC outcome. Assessed ≥1 year post-ablation, ablation success comprised a) no visible scintigraphic thyroid bed uptake or pathological extra-thyroidal uptake; b) undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) without interfering autoantibodies; c) both criteria. DTC outcome, determined at the latest visit, comprised either 1) "no evidence of disease" (NED): undetectable Tg, negative Tg autoantibodies, negative most recent whole-body scan, no suspicious findings clinically, on neck ultrasonography, or on other imaging; 2) persistent disease: failure to attain NED; or 3) recurrence: loss of NED. After the first ablative activity, ablation success by scintigraphic plus biochemical criteria was 64.8% in rhTSH patients, 56.3% in THW patients (P=NS). After 3.5-year versus 6.2-year median follow-up (P<0.05), DTC outcomes were NED, 85.2%, persistent disease, 13.0%, recurrence, 1.9%, in the rhTSH group and NED, 87.5%, persistent or recurrent disease, 6.3% each, in the THW group (P=NS). In patients with initial stage III/IV, M0 DTC, rhTSH-aided and THW-assisted ablation were associated with comparable remnant eradication or DTC cure rates.

  17. Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analog, on survival of various developmental stages, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. (United States)

    Brar, Gurpreet S; Meyer, Wendy; Stelinski, Lukasz L


    The Asian citrus citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, transmits a bacterium that causes huanglongbing in citrus. Frequent and repeated use of neurotoxic insecticides against D. citri has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. We evaluated the effects of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene on egg hatch, nymphal development, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of D. citri. Methoprene significantly reduced the viability of eggs that were between 0 and 4 days old. Egg hatch of 0-48-h-old and 49-96-h-old eggs was 8 and 9%, respectively, when treated with 320 µg mL(-1) of methoprene. Methoprene caused significant mortality of first-, third- and fifth-instar D. citri nymphs and reduced adult emergence as compared with controls. Methoprene caused less than 5% adult emergence when first- and third-instar stages were treated, respectively, and less than 40% adult emergence when fifth instars were treated. Reduced fertility of females was observed when they emerged from methoprene-treated fifth instars. Methoprene was effective in reducing egg hatch, suppressing nymphal development and decreasing adult emergence of D. citri under laboratory conditions. Treatment of fifth instars reduced the fertility of females. Methoprene might be a possible tool for integrated management of D. citri. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.


    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model. (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving


    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  20. The different requirement of L-T4 therapy in congenital athyreosis compared with adult-acquired hypothyroidism suggests a persisting thyroid hormone resistance at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. (United States)

    Bagattini, Brunella; Cosmo, Caterina Di; Montanelli, Lucia; Piaggi, Paolo; Ciampi, Mariella; Agretti, Patrizia; Marco, Giuseppina De; Vitti, Paolo; Tonacchera, Massimo


    Levothyroxine (l-T4) is commonly employed to correct hormone deficiency in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and in adult patients with iatrogenic hypothyroidism. To compare the daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 in athyreotic adult patients affected by CH and adult patients with thyroid nodular or cancer diseases treated by total thyroidectomy. A total of 36 adult patients (27 females and nine males) aged 18-29 years were studied; 13 patients (age: 21.5±2.1, group CH) had athyreotic CH treated with l-T4 since the first days of life. The remaining 23 patients (age: 24±2.7, group AH) had hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy (14 patients previously affected by nodular disease and nine by thyroid carcinoma with clinical and biochemical remission). Patient weight, serum free thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg, and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured. Required l-T4 dosage was evaluated. At the time of the observations, all patients presented free thyroid hormones within the normal range and TSH between 0.8 and 2 μIU/ml. Patients had undetectable Tg and anti-thyroid antibodies. The daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 to reach euthyroidism in patients of group CH was significantly higher than that in those of group AH (2.16±0.36 vs 1.73±0.24 μg/kg, Phypothyroidism, patients of group CH required a daily l-T4 dose/kg higher than group AH patients, despite higher levels of TSH. The different requirement of replacement therapy between adult patients with congenital and those with surgical athyroidism could be explained by a lack of thyroid hormones since fetal life in CH, which could determine a different set point of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Combined effects of goserelin and tamoxifen on estradiol level, breast density, and endometrial thickness in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomised controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Yang, H; Zong, X; Yu, Y; Shao, G; Zhang, L; Qian, C; Bian, Y; Xu, X; Sun, W; Meng, X; Ding, X; Chen, D; Zou, D; Xie, S; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J; He, X; Sun, C; Yu, X; Ni, J


    This study is to investigate the effects of geserelin+tamoxifen (TAM) on estradiol level, breast density (BD), endometrial thickness (ET), and blood lipids in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. This study recruited 110 premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer between 22 June 2008 and 31 December 2009 and randomly assigned them to receive either goserelin plus TAM or TAM alone for 1.5 years. Blood levels of sex hormones and lipids and ET were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Contralateral BD was also measured at 0, 12, and 18 months. Five participants dropped out of the goserelin plus TAM group, and two participants dropped out of the TAM-alone group before initiation of endocrine therapy. The rest of patients received scheduled treatment and 3 years of median follow-up. No serious adverse effects were observed, and only two local recurrences have been observed in these patients. Estradiol level and BD were lower in the goserelin plus TAM group than in the TAM-alone group (Pwomen in the TAM-alone group exhibited endometrial thickening over the course of the study. Furthermore, no significant differences in blood lipid levels were reported between the two groups. The data from the current study demonstrated that the addition of goserelin to TAM results in downregulation of estradiol level, followed by significant reduction in BD and ET in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which may eventually lead to better outcome in these patients.

  2. The role of hormones and growth factors in the cellular proliferation control in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, H.A.


    A review is done about fibroblast proliferation, its control by classic hormones and hormonal growth factors, showing their main implications and the stage of this research at present. The control exerted on fibronlast proliferation by hormonal growth factors and classic hormones is demonstrated. The existence of basic mechanisms valid for all types of cells is suggested. Experiences are carried out with the aim of finding growth mutants useful in the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms involved in growth regulation. Radiactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Root-to-shoot hormonal communication in contrasting rootstocks suggests an important role for the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in mediating plant growth under low-potassium nutrition in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez-Andújar


    Full Text Available Selection and breeding of rootstocks that can tolerate low K supply may increase crop productivity in low fertility soils and reduce fertilizer application. However, the underlying physiological traits are still largely unknown. In this study, 16 contrasting recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between domestic and wild tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium have been used to analyse traits related to the rootstock-mediated induction of low (L, low shoot fresh weight or high (H, high shoot fresh weight vigour to a commercial F1 hybrid grown under control (6 mM, c and low-K (1mM, k. Based on hormonal and ionomic composition in the root xylem sap and the leaf nutritional status after long-term (7 weeks exposure low-K supply, a model can be proposed to explain the rootstocks effects on shoot performance with the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC playing a pivotal negative role. The concentration of this hormone was higher in the low-vigour Lc and Lk rootstocks under both conditions, increased in the sensitive HcLk plants under low-K while it was reduced in the high-vigour Hk ones. Low ACC levels would promote the transport of K vs Na in the vigorous Hk grafted plants. Along with K, Ca and S, micronutrient uptake and transport were also activated in the tolerant Hk combinations under low-K. Additionally, an interconversion of trans-zeatin into trans-zeatin riboside would contribute to decrease ACC in the tolerant LcHk plants. The high vigour induced by the Hk plants can also be explained by an interaction of ACC with other hormones (cytokinins and salicylic, abscisic and jasmonic acids. Therefore, Hk rootstocks convert an elite tomato F1 cultivar into a (micro nutrient-efficient phenotype, improving growth under reduced K fertilization.

  4. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  5. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize. (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas


    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  6. Anti-müllerian hormone protein expression is reduced during the initial stages of follicle development in human polycystic ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Stubbs (Sharron); S. Franks (Stephen); K. Hardy (Kate); P. Da Silva-Buttkus (Patricia); J. Stark (Jaroslav); L.J. Webber (Lisa); A.M. Flanagan (Adrienne); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Visser (Jenny); N.P. Groome (Nigel)


    textabstractContext: Polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by disordered folliculogenesis, notably increased progression from the primordial to the primary stages. This ovarian phenotype is similar to that observed in mice lacking

  7. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.


    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  8. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.


    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  9. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)


    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  10. Hormone Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  11. Hormone Therapy (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  12. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development. (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L


    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  13. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.


    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  14. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue. (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F


    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  15. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  16. External radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma and its relationship to hormonal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Chitose; Ito, Koushiro; Nishi, Junko; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Hatanaka, Yoshimi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa.


    From 1980 to 1990, a total of 54 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated with external radiation therapy at the Kumamoto National Hospital. Ten patients were classified as Stage B, 22 as Stage C, and another 22 as Stage D according to the American Urological Association Clinical Staging System. The 5-year survival for all 54 patients was 30%. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 67% for Stage B, 47% for Stage C, and 26% for Stage D. The 5-year survival was 43% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated immediately after the first diagnosis or with less than one year of hormonal therapy, while it was 0% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated after more than one year of hormonal therapy (p=0.01). The cause of intercurrent death was acute myocardial infarction in four patients and acute cardiac failure in one. Four of these patients received hormonal therapy for more than one year. The incidence of radiation-induced proctitis was not severe. This study suggests that long-term hormonal therapy prior to radiation therapy worsens the prognosis of patients with prostatic carcinoma. (author)

  17. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A


    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  18. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh


    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  19. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500 on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    Full Text Available For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05, and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05. Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  20. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500) on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels. (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui


    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (pconfined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  1. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  2. Pituitary transcription factors in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency. (United States)

    Pfäffle, R; Klammt, J


    The somatotropic axis is the central postnatal regulator of longitudinal growth. One of its major components--growth hormone--is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which also expresses and secretes five additional hormones (prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Proper development of the pituitary assures the regulation of critical processes such as metabolic control, puberty and reproduction, stress response and lactation. Ontogeny of the adenohypophysis is orchestrated by inputs from neighbouring tissues, cellular signalling molecules and transcription factors. Perturbation of expression or function of these factors has been implicated in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Mutations within the genes encoding for the transcription factors LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, and POU1F1 (PIT1) that act at different stages of pituitary development result in unique patterns of hormonal deficiencies reflecting their differential expression during organogenesis. In the case of LHX3 and LHX4 the phenotype may include extra-pituitary manifestations due to the function of these genes/proteins outside the pituitary gland. The remarkable variability in the clinical presentation of affected patients indicates the influence of the genetic background, environmental factors and possibly stochastic events. However, in the majority of CPHD cases the aetiology of this heterogeneous disease remains unexplained, which further suggests the involvement of additional genes. Identification of these factors might also help to close the gaps in our understanding of pituitary development, maintenance and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand


    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  4. The effects of exogenous hormones on rooting process and the activities of key enzymes of Malus hupehensis stem cuttings. (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxiang; Fan, Junjun; Tan, Qianqian; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Ting; Cao, Fuliang


    Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3). The suitable concentrations of the three exogenous hormones, IAA, NAA and GGR, were 100 mg·L-1, 300 mg·L-1, and 300 mg·L-1, respectively. They shortened the rooting time by 25-47.4% and increased the rooting percentages of cuttings by 0.9-1.3 times, compared with that in the control. The dispersion in S0 stage was 3.6 times of that in the S1 stage after exogenous hormone application. The earlier the third critical point (P3) appeared, the shorter the rooting time and the greater the rooting percentage of the cuttings. During rhizogenesis, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, and PPO) showed an A-shaped trend. However, peak values of enzyme activity appeared at different points, which were 9 d before the P3, P3, and the fourth critical point (P4), respectively. Exogenous hormone treatment reduced the time to reach the peak value by 18 days, although the peak values of the enzymatic activities did not significantly changed. Our results suggested that exogenous hormone treatment mainly acted during the root pre-emergence stage, accelerated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, reduced the rooting time, and consequently promoted root formation. The three kinds of antioxidant enzymes acted on different stages of rooting.

  5. Study on the relationship between serum sex hormones levels and essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qingzhang; Yang Xiuhong; Di Fang


    Objective: To investigate the possible relationship existing between serum sex hormones levels and development of essential hypertension. Methods: Serum sex hormones (LH, FSH, E 2 , P, T) levels were determined with RIA in 87 males and 81 post-menopausal women with essential hypertension as well as in 44 normotensive males and 40 normotensive post-menopausal women serving as controls. Results: The serum E 2 , progesterone and testosterone levels in the hypertensives were significantly higher than those in the respective controls (P 0.05). Sex hormones levels were not much different among hypertensives of various stages (I , II, III). The serum E 2 levels in male hypertensives and progesterone levels in female hypertensives were not correlated with the respective FSH and LH levels. Conclusion: The authors suggested that the changes of serum sex hormones levels might be a risk factor rather than a consequence of the development of essential hypertension. (authors)

  6. Ovarian hormones and obesity. (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori


    central action of estrogens to increase the satiating potency of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin. Another mechanism involves a decrease in the preference for sweet foods during the follicular phase. Genetic defects in brain α-melanocycte-stimulating hormone-melanocortin receptor (melanocortin 4 receptor, MC4R) signaling lead to a syndrome of overeating and obesity that is particularly pronounced in women and in female animals. The syndrome appears around puberty in mice with genetic deletions of MC4R, suggesting a role of ovarian hormones. Emerging functional brain-imaging data indicates that fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect eating by influencing striatal dopaminergic processing of flavor hedonics and lateral prefrontal cortex processing of cognitive inhibitory controls of eating. There is a dearth of research on the neuroendocrine control of eating after menopause. There is also comparatively little research on the effects of ovarian hormones on EE, although changes in ovarian hormone levels during the menstrual cycle do affect resting EE. The markedly greater obesity burden in women makes understanding the diverse effects of ovarian hormones on eating, EE and body adiposity urgent research challenges. A variety of research modalities can be used to investigate these effects in women, and most of the mechanisms reviewed are accessible in animal models. Therefore, human and translational research on the roles of ovarian hormones in women's obesity and its causes should be intensified to gain further mechanistic insights that may ultimately be translated into novel anti-obesity therapies and thereby improve women's health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Open to Suggestion. (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987


    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  8. Studies on the relationship between leptin secretion and several pregnancy-related hormones during pregnancy in the golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Yang Liguo; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya


    Objective: To determine the relationships between leptin secretion and several pregnancy related hormones, the body weight as well as food intaken in the golden hamster during pregnancy and early lactation. Methods: 100 golden hamsters were mated and divided into 16 groups. Blood specimens were taken at 11:00 daily and were determined for plasma leptin, growth hormone (GH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone estradiol and inhibin with RIA. Relationships between leptin level and food intake as well as material body weight were also noted. Results: A plasma leptin peak level occurred on day 12 of the pregnancy. Leptin levels were significantly correlated with levels of gonadal hormones but not with pituitary hormones. Food intake and material total body weight (including the fetus) bore no significant correlationship with plasma leptin throughout the whole pregnancy stage. However, if the fetus weight was subtracted, the net maternal body weight would be significantly correlated with the leptin concentration. Conclusion: These results suggest that leptin-resistance may exits in the golden hamster during pregnancy. Some pregnancy-related hormones, especially gonadal hormones, have regulatory effect on the secretion of leptin. Positive correlation between leptin and net maternal body weight suggests that leptin is still a signal of the body weight to the central nerves system during pregnancy

  9. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility. (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M


    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  10. Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G


    . Prognosis is also dependent on tumor differentiation and stage, and treatment should be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, the different types of endometrial cancer, staging, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and their relationship to estrogen and other female hormones are reviewed....

  11. Longitudinal Study of Hormonal and Physical Development in Young Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenis, M.M.G.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Baal, G.C.M.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Peper, J.S.; van Leeuwen, M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.


    Context and Objective: Information on the correlation of normative reproductive hormone levels with physical development (Tanner stages) during puberty and on the influences of genes and environment on variation in these hormones and Tanner stages is limited. Design, Setting, and Participants: One

  12. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann


    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  13. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn


    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  14. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.


    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  15. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van


    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  16. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad


    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  17. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces depression-like changes of sleep electroencephalogram in healthy women. (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Kluge, M; Gamringer, W; Wetter, T C; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Rupprecht, R; Steiger, A


    We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women. After CRH compared to placebo, intermittent wakefulness increased during the total night and the sleep efficiency index decreased. During the first third of the night, REM sleep and stage 2 sleep increased and sleep stage 3 decreased. Cortisol concentration was elevated throughout the night and during the first and second third of the night. GH secretion remained unchanged. Our data suggest that after CRH some sleep and endocrine activity parameters show also depression-like changes in healthy women. These changes are more distinct in women than in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J


    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  19. Frecuencia y características clínicas, hormonales y ultrasonográficas sugestivas de síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos en un grupo de mujeres con síndrome metabólico Frequency and clinical, hormonal and ultrasonographic characteristics suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome in a group of females with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisel Ovies Carballo


    51,1 % cumplió con los criterios para el diagnóstico del síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos. Cuando comparamos el comportamiento entre el grupo de mujeres con y sin síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos, observamos que la media del índice de insulinorresistencia fue superior en aquellas que presentaron síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos (7,5 vs. 6,5, en relación con la tensión arterial, la sistólica fue significativamente superior en el grupo con poliquistosis (145,9 mmHg vs. 138,6 mmHg. En relación con el índice de masa corporal, aunque no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas, el porcentaje de mujeres con él ³ 30 kg/m² fue superior en las diagnosticadas con síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos que en las que no lo tenían (54,1 % vs. 45,9 %. CONCLUSIONES: la frecuencia de síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos es elevada en mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico, los signos más frecuentes son el hirsutismo, los niveles elevados de testosterona y la presencia de ³ 10 folículos menores de 10 mm en la periferia del ovario. Existe mayor tendencia de desarrollarse el síndrome en aquellas con síndrome metabólico que tengan niveles más elevados de tensión arterial sistólica, mayor índice de insulinorresistencia y mayor peso corporal.The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most frequent endocrine affection in females at reproductive age. Nowadays, it is known that insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinism seem to be the basis of the disorders characterizing it. That's why, it is not erroneous to think that in females with metabolic syndrome, whose physiopathological bases are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, there may appear clinical, humoral and ultrasonographic elements of the polycystic ovarian syndrome. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency and clinical, hormonal and ultrasonographic characteristics suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome in a group of females with diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: a cross

  20. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  1. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P


    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  2. Carotid Artery Distensibility and Hormone Therapy and Menopause: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study (LAAS) (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B. Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey


    Objective Observational studies suggest that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, the relation to hormone therapy use is controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use during different menopause stages. Methods 161 women between 42–61 years of age without cardiovascular disease had carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate the distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Over 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning, defined as change from premenopausal-to-perimenopausal, premenopausal-to-postmenopausal, perimenopausal-to-perimenopausal, or perimenopausal-to-postmenopausal. Results Distensibility declined over time in all menopause stages (pmenopause transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during menopause transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine if hormone therapy use beyond menopause transition is related to distensibility. PMID:26308234

  3. Carotid artery distensibility and hormone therapy and menopause: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C Noel Bairey


    Observational studies have suggested that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, its relationship with hormone therapy use remains controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use at different menopause stages. One hundred sixty-one women (aged between 42 and 61 y) without cardiovascular disease underwent carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Across 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning (defined as change from premenopausal to perimenopausal, from premenopausal to postmenopausal, from perimenopausal to perimenopausal, or from perimenopausal to postmenopausal). Distensibility declined across time at all menopause stages (P menopausal transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during the menopausal transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether hormone therapy use beyond the menopausal transition is related to distensibility.

  4. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato


    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E


    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  6. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry. (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge


    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  7. Menopause and Hormones (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  8. Thyroid Hormone Treatment (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  9. Antidiuretic hormone blood test (United States)

    ... Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  10. Hormonal effects in newborns (United States)

    ... page: // Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test (United States)

    ... this page: // Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  12. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior. (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D


    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  13. Acute effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang


    Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.

  14. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird. (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela


    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  15. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones. (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N


    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  16. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)


    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  17. Bladder Involvement in Stage I Endometriosis. (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Laufer, Marc R


    Endometriosis-the ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of adolescent females and adults. Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. Postoperatively, she reported persistent dysuria and passage of tissue in her urine. Cystoscopy showed diffuse erythema; urine cytology revealed glandular and spindle cells suggestive of endometriosis. She was transitioned from oral contraceptives to an intranasal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, with symptom resolution. Intravesicular endometriosis coinciding with stage I disease supports a mechanism of endometriosis dissemination other than direct bladder infiltration. Patients with endometriosis who complain of urinary symptoms warrant assessment, because intravesicular bladder involvement cannot be excluded using pelviscopy. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormone receptor expression in male breast cancers | Akosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male breast cancers are rare but have been found in higher proportions in Black Africans. Prognostic factors for breast cancers include tumour size, grade and stage, and hormone receptor status. The hormone receptor status is an invaluable guide in the use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, but none of the reports available ...

  19. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael


    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  20. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes. (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B


    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3-23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10(-12)), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10(-8)) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10(-8)). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10(-8)) and LH (P=3.94 × 10(-9)) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10(-14)) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10(-14)). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation.

  1. Metabolic and hormonal signatures in pre-manifest and manifest Huntington’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eWang


    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder typified by involuntary body movements, and psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities. Many HD patients also exhibit metabolic changes including progressive weight loss and appetite dysfunction. Here we have investigated metabolic function in pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects to establish an HD subject metabolic hormonal plasma signature. Individuals at risk for HD who have had predictive genetic testing showing the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG expansion causative of HD, but who do not yet present signs and symptoms sufficient for the diagnosis of manifest HD are said to be pre-manifest. Pre-manifest and manifest HD patients, as well as both familial and non-familial controls, were evaluated for multiple peripheral metabolism signals including circulating levels of hormones, growth factors, lipids and cytokines. Both pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects exhibited significantly reduced levels of circulating growth factors, including growth hormone and prolactin. HD-related changes in the levels of metabolic hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon and amylin were also observed. Total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were significantly decreased in HD subjects. C-reactive protein was significantly elevated in pre-manifest HD subjects. The observation of metabolic alterations, even in subjects considered to be in the pre-manifest stage of HD, suggests that in addition, and prior, to overt neuronal damage, HD affects metabolic hormone secretion and energy regulation, which may shed light on pathogenesis, and provide opportunities for biomarker development.

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy. (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E


    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  4. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis (United States)

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof


    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  5. Glue protein production can be triggered by steroid hormone signaling independent of the developmental program in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Kaieda, Yuya; Masuda, Ryota; Nishida, Ritsuo; Shimell, MaryJane; O'Connor, Michael B; Ono, Hajime


    Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We monitored expression of a 20E-inducible glue protein gene, Salivary gland secretion 3 (Sgs3), using a Sgs3:GFP fusion transgene. In wild type larvae, Sgs3-GFP expression is activated at the midpoint of the third larval instar stage in response to the rising endogenous level of 20E. By first knocking down endogenous 20E levels during larval development and then feeding 20E to these larvae at various stages, we found that Sgs3-GFP expression could be triggered at an inappropriate developmental stage after a certain time lag. This stage-precocious activation of Sgs3 required expression of the Broad-complex, similar to normal Sgs3 developmental regulation, and a small level of nutritional input. We suggest that these studies provide evidence for a tissue-autonomic regulatory system for a metamorphic event independent from the primary 20E driven developmental progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D


    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.


    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  8. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta


    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  9. Association between asthma and female sex hormones. (United States)

    Baldaçara, Raquel Prudente de Carvalho; Silva, Ivaldo


    The relationship between sex hormones and asthma has been evaluated in several studies. The aim of this review article was to investigate the association between asthma and female sex hormones, under different conditions (premenstrual asthma, use of oral contraceptives, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy). Narrative review of the medical literature, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). We searched the CAPES journal portal, a Brazilian platform that provides access to articles in the MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used based on Medical Subject Headings: asthma, sex hormones, women and use of oral contraceptives. The associations between sex hormones and asthma remain obscure. In adults, asthma is more common in women than in men. In addition, mortality due to asthma is significantly higher among females. The immune system is influenced by sex hormones: either because progesterone stimulates progesterone-induced blocking factor and Th2 cytokines or because contraceptives derived from progesterone and estrogen stimulate the transcription factor GATA-3. The associations between asthma and female sex hormones remain obscure. We speculate that estrogen fluctuations are responsible for asthma exacerbations that occur in women. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of estrogen, it decreases TNF-α production, interferon-γ expression and NK cell activity. We suggest that further studies that highlight the underlying physiopathological mechanisms contributing towards these interactions should be conducted.

  10. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.


    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  11. Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in cats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano H. Giovaninni


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.

  12. Aging changes in hormone production (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  13. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.


    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  14. Patient communication in hormone therapy. (United States)

    Schnare, S M


    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  15. [Gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones]. (United States)

    Torres, A; Gómez-Gil, E; Vidal, A; Puig, O; Boget, T; Salamero, M


    To review scientific evidence on gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. Systematical search of related studies identified in Medline. Women outperform men on verbal fluency, perceptual speed tasks, fine motor skills, verbal memory and verbal learning. Men outperform women on visuospatial ability, mathematical problem solving and visual memory. No gender differences on attention and working memory are found. Researchers distinguish four methods to investigate hormonal influence on cognitive performance: a) patient with hormonal disorders; b) neuroimaging in individuals during hormone administration; c) in women during different phases of menstrual cycle, and d) in patients receiving hormonal treatment (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, postmenopausal women and transsexuals). The findings mostly suggest an influence of sex hormones on some cognitive functions, but they are not conclusive because of limitations and scarcity of the studies. There are gender differences on cognitive functions. Sex hormones seem to influence cognitive performance.

  16. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.


    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  17. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  18. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility. (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz


    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  19. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect. (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving


    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development. (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D


    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status.

  1. Hormones and Hypertension (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: or ...

  2. Growth hormone test (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel


    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  4. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  7. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi


    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim


    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  9. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei


    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  10. Expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes in the embryo of the leopard gecko. (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Park, Min Kyun


    Sex steroid hormones are known to play a central role in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation. However, the tissues in which they are produced or received during development, especially around the period of sex determination of the gonads, have rarely been investigated. In this study, we identified the cDNA sequence, including the full-length of the coding region of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), from the leopard gecko; a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Embryonic expression analysis of two steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc and P450 aromatase (P450arom), and four sex steroid hormone receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and progesterone receptor, was subsequently conducted. mRNA expression of both steroidogenic enzymes was observed in the brain and gonads prior to the temperature-sensitive period of sex determination. The mRNAs of the four sex steroid hormone receptors were also detected in the brain and gonads at all stages examined. These results suggest the existence of a gonad-independent sex steroid hormone signaling system in the developing leopard gecko brain.

  11. Aldosterone and parathyroid hormone interactions as mediators of metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, A.; Ritz, E.; Pieske, B.; Rus-Machan, J.; Kienreich, K.; Verheyen, N.; Gaksch, M.; Grubler, M.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Mrak, P.; Toplak, H.; Kraigher-Krainer, E.; Marz, W.; Pilz, S.


    Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is strongly linked with development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Accumulating evidence suggests a bidirectional interplay between parathyroid hormone and aldosterone. This interaction may lead to a disproportionally

  12. Effects of hormone treatment on chromosomal radiosensitivity of somatic and germ cells of Snell's dwarf mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van; Buul-Offers, S.C. van


    The X-ray induction of micronuclei and structural chromosomal aberrations was studied in bone-marrow cells of normal and dwarf mice in combination with thyroxin and/or prolactin treatment or otherwise. Hormone treatment clearly increased micronuclei induction but not chromosome breakage, suggesting that indirect effects were involved. Since no clear differences in the timing of the final stage of erythropoiesis could be found, it is likely that the indirect effects are mediated via the formation-differentiation kinetics of erythroblasts. The induction of reciprocal translocations by X-rays in stem cell spermatogonia of dwarf mice was lower than in normals and treatment with prolactin, growth hormone and/or thyroxin, did not influence the chromosomal radiosensitivity of spermatogonial cells. 19 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  13. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae) (United States)

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.


    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  14. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher


    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  15. A common polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor is associated with increased responsiveness to growth hormone. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Christine; Essioux, Laurent; Teinturier, Cécile; Tauber, Maïté; Goffin, Vincent; Bougnères, Pierre


    Growth hormone is used to increase height in short children who are not deficient in growth hormone, but its efficacy varies largely across individuals. The genetic factors responsible for this variation are entirely unknown. In two cohorts of short children treated with growth hormone, we found that an isoform of the growth hormone receptor gene that lacks exon 3 (d3-GHR) was associated with 1.7 to 2 times more growth acceleration induced by growth hormone than the full-length isoform (P < 0.0001). In transfection experiments, the transduction of growth hormone signaling through d3-GHR homo- or heterodimers was approximately 30% higher than through full-length GHR homodimers (P < 0.0001). One-half of Europeans are hetero- or homozygous with respect to the allele encoding the d3-GHR isoform, which is dominant over the full-length isoform. These observations suggest that the polymorphism in exon 3 of GHR is important in growth hormone pharmacogenetics.

  16. Hormonal control of euryhalinity (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.


    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  17. [Hormones and hair growth]. (United States)

    Trüeb, R M


    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  18. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the embryonic and adult Mammalian brain. (United States)

    Desouza, Lynette A; Sathanoori, Malini; Kapoor, Richa; Rajadhyaksha, Neha; Gonzalez, Luis E; Kottmann, Andreas H; Tole, Shubha; Vaidya, Vidita A


    Thyroid hormone is important for development and plasticity in the immature and adult mammalian brain. Several thyroid hormone-responsive genes are regulated during specific developmental time windows, with relatively few influenced across the lifespan. We provide novel evidence that thyroid hormone regulates expression of the key developmental morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh), and its coreceptors patched (Ptc) and smoothened (Smo), in the early embryonic and adult forebrain. Maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism bidirectionally influenced Shh mRNA in embryonic forebrain signaling centers at stages before fetal thyroid hormone synthesis. Further, Smo and Ptc expression were significantly decreased in the forebrain of embryos derived from hypothyroid dams. Adult-onset thyroid hormone perturbations also regulated expression of the Shh pathway bidirectionally, with a significant induction of Shh, Ptc, and Smo after hyperthyroidism and a decline in Smo expression in the hypothyroid brain. Short-term T₃ administration resulted in a significant induction of cortical Shh mRNA expression and also enhanced reporter gene expression in Shh(+/LacZ) mice. Further, acute T₃ treatment of cortical neuronal cultures resulted in a rapid and significant increase in Shh mRNA, suggesting direct effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed on adult neocortex indicated enhanced histone acetylation at the Shh promoter after acute T₃ administration, providing further support that Shh is a thyroid hormone-responsive gene. Our results indicate that maternal and adult-onset perturbations of euthyroid status cause robust and region-specific changes in the Shh pathway in the embryonic and adult forebrain, implicating Shh as a possible mechanistic link for specific neurodevelopmental effects of thyroid hormone.

  19. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, J.; Lyons, D.J.; Sällström, J.; Vujoviv, M.; Dudazy-Gralla, S.; Warner, A.; Wallis, K.; Alkemade, A.; Nordström, K.; Monyer, H.; Broberger, C.; Arner, A.; Vennström, B.


    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s

  20. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  1. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue


    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  2. Clinical application of determination of plasma intact parathyroid hormone content in kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wang Zhaohui; Zhou Xiaoli; Ren Chunling; Chen Huaqian


    Objective: To observe intact parathyroid hormone in kidney disease with clinical application. Methods: Plasma i-PTH level was measured in 46 patients with chronic renal insufficiency lose compensation stage, 39 patients with chronic renal failure, 35 patients with uremia. Besides, control group (n=41) was established. Results: Result shown that plasma i-PTH levels were experiment group and control group were obvious difference (P<0.01), among experiment group plasma i-PTH level was obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: Results suggested along with renal function were worsen that plasma i-PTH level increasing gradually during renal insufficiency. (authors)

  3. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  4. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir


    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  5. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility. (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah


    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  6. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi


    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.


    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  9. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.


    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  10. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.


    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  11. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.


    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  12. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya


    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  13. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  14. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  15. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  17. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E


    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  18. [Potentialities of computed tomography and ultrasound in diagnosis of hormonally active adrenal diseases: results of comparison CT and US with operative adn histological data]. (United States)

    Denisova, L B; Vorontsova, S V; Emel'ianova, L N


    The data given in the paper suggest that X-ray computed tomography (CT) is highly effective in detecting all types of hormonally active adrenal abnormalities. CT used in hormonally active adrenal diseases yielded data on major quantitative and qualitative (primarily densitometric) criteria that could be used in assessing the images of the adrenal area in these patients. Ultrasound study (USS) made at the first stage of topical diagnostic searches was of informative value in detecting adrenal tumor lesions, the technique being highly sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytomas and adenocarcinomas, but less informative in the detection of hormonally active adrenocortical adenomas (aldesterone-producing ones in particular) than CT. The diagnosis of various adrenocortical hyperplasies and the differentiation of hyperplastic and tumor forms of hypercorticoidism are a prerogative of CT that substantially supplements USS findings in such cases.

  19. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Yozo


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.)

  20. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  1. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M


    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may...... influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function......, and testosterone. Thus, although levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone decreased into the range observed later in childhood by the age of 6-9 months, serum inhibin B levels remained elevated up to at least the age of 15 months. In girls, the hormonal pattern was generally more complex, with a high interindividual...

  2. Association between thyroid hormones and TRAIL. (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Bossi, Fleur; Toffoli, Barbara; Giudici, Fabiola; Bramante, Alessandra; Furlanis, Giulia; Stenner, Elisabetta; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Carretta, Renzo; Fabris, Bruno


    Recent studies suggest that a circulating protein called TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) might have a role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Interestingly, thyroid hormones seem to increase TRAIL tissue expression. This study aimed at evaluating whether overt thyroid disorders affected circulating TRAIL levels. TRAIL circulating levels were measured in euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients before and after thyroid function normalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones and TRAIL. Then, the stimulatory effect of both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) on TRAIL was evaluated in vitro on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Circulating levels of TRAIL significantly increased in hyperthyroid and decreased in hypothyroid patients as compared to controls. Once thyroid function was restored, TRAIL levels normalized. There was an independent association between TRAIL and both fT3 and fT4. Consistent with these findings, T3 and T4 stimulated TRAIL release in vitro. Here we show that thyroid hormones are associated with TRAIL expression in vivo and stimulate TRAIL expression in vitro. Given the overlap between the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones and TRAIL, this work sheds light on the possibility that TRAIL might be one of the molecules mediating thyroid hormones peripheral effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bulimia from a gynecological view: hormonal changes. (United States)

    Resch, M; Szendei, G; Haász, P


    Gynecological problems are one of the most frequent somatic complications of eating disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of improper eating habits in the aetiology of menstrual disturbances, anovulation and hormonal related changes. Bulimia nervosa is the focus of attention since amenorrhea is considered a diagnostic criterium in anorexia nervosa. Subjects of the BITE (Bulimia Investigation Test, Edinburgh) test who were infertile were studied (n = 58) In the studied population there were 6 cases of clinical and 8 cases of subclinical bulimia nervosa. Symptoms and severity subscales of the BITE test significantly correlated with body mass index (p = 0.003). All 14 patients suffering from clinical and subclinical bulimia nervosa had pathologically low FSH and LH hormone levels. In those with clinical bulimia nervosa (n = 6) we diagnosed 4 cases of multicystic ovary (MCO) and in the eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) group (n = 22) there were 2 cases of MCO and 5 cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The results suggest that unsatisfactory nutrition (binges and "crash diet") in bulimia nervosa results in hormonal dysfunction, menstrual disturbances and infertility. The authors question the necessity for immediately estrogen replacement: they consider the reversibility of the hormonal status by early treatment of eating disorders is more appropriate. Excessive use of hormonal contraceptives in therapy has to be questioned.

  4. Hormonal alterations in PCOS and its influence on bone metabolism. (United States)

    Krishnan, Abhaya; Muthusami, Sridhar


    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented. Hormones, which include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the leutinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, estrogens, growth hormones (GH), cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin are disturbed in PCOS women. These hormones influence bone metabolism in human subjects directly as well as indirectly. The imbalance in these hormones results in increased prevalence of osteoporosis in PCOS women. Limited evidence suggests that the drugs taken during the treatment of PCOS increase the risk of bone fracture in PCOS patients through endocrine disruption. This review is aimed at the identification of the relationship between bone mineral density and hormonal changes in PCOS subjects and identifies potential areas to study bone-related disorders in PCOS women. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.


    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D


    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  7. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D


    /ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure.......The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during...

  8. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release


    Rimmele, U; Spillmann, M; Bärtschi, C; Wolf, O T; Weber, C S; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, P H


    RATIONALE: Animal studies suggest that the pineal hormone melatonin influences basal stress hormone levels and dampens hormone reactivity to stress. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether melatonin also has a suppressive effect on stress-induced catecholamine and cortisol release in humans. As stress hormones affect memory processing, we further examined a possible accompanying modulation of memory function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty healthy young men received a single oral dose of either 3...

  9. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. (United States)

    Luk, Cynthia T; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael; Booth, Gillian L


    To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.



    Троценко, А. В.


    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  11. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Christensen, E


    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  12. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael


    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  13. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.


    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  14. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  15. Suspensions: to be continued: the consequences of the Appellate Body report in 'Hormones II'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, C.E.


    In October 2008, the WTO Appellate Body (AB) issued its report on Hormones II, marking the next stage in the long-running Hormones case. This comment discusses the AB’s findings on the matter. It outlines how the AB has shown the correct procedural avenue for cases involving compliance panels,

  16. Receptors and effects of gut hormones in three osteoblastic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Peter JM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years the interest on the relationship of gut hormones to bone processes has increased and represents one of the most interesting aspects in skeletal research. The proportion of bone mass to soft tissue is a relationship that seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle regulations that imply "cross-talks" between the nutrient intake and tissues like fat. Thus, recognition of the mechanisms that integrate a gastrointestinal-fat-bone axis and its application to several aspects of human health is vital for improving treatments related to bone diseases. This work analysed the effects of gut hormones in cell cultures of three osteoblastic cell lines which represent different stages in osteoblastic development. Also, this is the first time that there is a report on the direct effects of glucagon-like peptide 2, and obestatin on osteoblast-like cells. Methods mRNA expression levels of five gut hormone receptors (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2], ghrelin [GHR] and obestatin [OB] were analysed in three osteoblastic cell lines (Saos-2, TE-85 and MG-63 showing different stages of osteoblast development using reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. The responses to the gut peptides were studied using assays for cell viability, and biochemical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptides (P1NP, and osteocalcin production. Results The gut hormone receptor mRNA displayed the highest levels for GIP in Saos-2 and the lowest levels in MG-63, whereas GHR and GPR39 (the putative obestatin receptor expression was higher in TE-85 and MG-63 and lower in Saos-2. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were expressed only in MG-63 and TE-85. Treatment of gut hormones to cell lines showed differential responses: higher levels in cell viability in Saos-2 after GIP, in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2, ghrelin and

  17. Staging for vulvar cancer. (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L


    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stages of Thyroid Cancer (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  19. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selden, R.F.; Wagner, T.E.; Blethen, S.; Yun, J.S.; Rowe, M.E.; Goodman, H.M.


    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, the authors have expressed a mouse methallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itself with respect to reactivity with anti-growth hormone monoclonal antibodies, behavior during column chromatography, and isoelectric point. Transgenic mice expressing the growth hormone variant protein are 1.4- to 1.9-fold larger than nontransgenic controls, suggesting that the protein has growth-promoting properties

  20. Effect of alternative hormones on the rootability of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve the knowledge of vegetative propagation and create a paradigm shift in the attention of farmers and researchers through the introduction of the use of alternative hormones which will help to bypass the juvenile stages of certain species for better field establishment and to improve reforestation of certain ...

  1. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction. (United States)

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia


    when choosing a spawning induction procedure include (a) the developmental stage of the gonads at the time the hormonal therapy is applied, (b) the type of hormonal therapy, (c) the possible stress induced by the manipulation necessary for the hormone administration and (d) in the case of artificial insemination, the latency period between hormonal stimulation and stripping for in vitro fertilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transdermal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women: A review of metabolic effects and drug delivery technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W Kopper


    Full Text Available Nathan W Kopper, Jennifer Gudeman, Daniel J ThompsonKV Pharmaceutical, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS associated with menopause can cause significant discomfort and decrease the quality of life for women in the peri-menopausal and post-menopausal stages of life. Hormone therapy (HT is the mainstay of treatment for menopausal symptoms and is currently the only therapy proven effective for VMS. Numerous HT options are available to treat VMS, including estrogen-only and estrogen-progestogen combination products to meet the needs of both hysterectomized and nonhysterectomized women. In addition to selecting an appropriate estrogen or estrogen-progestogen combination, consideration should be given to the route of administration to best suit the needs of the patient. Delivery systems for hormone therapy include oral tablets, transdermal patches, transdermal topical (nonpatch products, and intravaginal preparations. Oral is currently the most commonly utilized route of administration in the United States. However, evidence suggests that oral delivery may lead to some undesirable physiologic effects caused by significant gut and hepatic metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery may mitigate some of these effects by avoiding gut and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Advantages of transdermal delivery include the ability to administer unmetabolized estradiol directly to the blood stream, administration of lower doses compared to oral products, and minimal stimulation of hepatic protein production. Several estradiol transdermal delivery technologies are available, including various types of patches, topical gels, and a transdermal spray.Keywords: estradiol, hormone therapy, menopause, transdermal drug delivery, vasomotor symptoms

  3. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  4. Metabolic clues regarding the enhanced performance of elite endurance athletes from orchiectomy-induced hormonal changes. (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L


    This article examines the metabolic performance of an elite cyclist, Lance Armstrong, before and after his diagnosis with testicular cancer. Although a champion cyclist in 1-day events prior to his diagnosis of testicular cancer at age 25, he was not a contender in multi-day endurance cycle races such as the 3-week Tour de France. His genetic makeup and physiology (high VO2max, long femur, strong heavy build) coupled with his ambition and motivation enabled him at an early age to become one of the best 1-day cyclists in the world. Following his cancer diagnosis, he underwent a unilateral orchiectomy, brain surgery and four cycles of chemotherapy. After recovering, he returned to cycling and surprisingly excelled in the Tour de France, winning this hardest of endurance events 7 years running. This dramatic transformation from a 1-day to a 3-week endurance champion has led many to query how this is possible, and under the current climate, has led to suggestions of doping as to the answer to this metamorphosis. Physiological tests following his recovery indicated that physiological parameters such as VO2max were not affected by the unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy. We propose that his dramatic improvement in recovery between stages, the most important factor in winning multi-day stage races, is due to his unilateral orchiectomy, a procedure that results in permanent changes in serum hormones. These hormonal changes, specifically an increase in gonadotropins (and prolactin) required to maintain serum testosterone levels, alter fuel metabolism; increasing hormone sensitive lipase expression and activity, promoting increased free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization to, and utilization by, muscles, thereby decreasing the requirement to expend limiting glycogen stores before, during and after exercise. Such hormonal changes also have been associated with ketone body production, improvements in muscle repair and haematocrit levels and may facilitate the loss of body weight

  5. Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro


    Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan


    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that

  7. Evaluation of erythropoietin hormone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during exacerbation and after remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. El Gazzar


    Conclusion: EPO hormone level was significantly higher in grade (II, III than grade (I, IV COPD patients (p = 0.005, and also COPD with anemia was higher in stage (II, III than stage (I, IV, EPO hormone level significantly higher in anemic than non anemic COPD patients and was significantly higher (p = 0.005 during remission than during exacerbation.

  8. Sustained long-term immune responses after in situ gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and hormonal therapy in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tetsuo; Teh, Bin S.; Timme, Terry L.; Mai, W.-Y.; Satoh, Takefumi; Kusaka, Nobuyuki; Naruishi, Koji; Fattah, Elmoataz Abdel; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Butler, E. Brian; Thompson, Timothy C.


    Purpose: To explore long-term immune responses after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with prostate specific antigen 10 or higher or Gleason score of 7 or higher or clinical stage T2b to T3 were treated with gene therapy that consisted of 3 separate intraprostatic injections of AdHSV-tk on Days 0, 56, and 70. Each injection was followed by 2 weeks of valacyclovir. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was delivered 2 days after the second AdHSV-tk injection for 7 weeks. Hormonal therapy was initiated on Day 0 and continued for 4 months or 2.3 years. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after treatment. Lymphocytes were analyzed by fluorescent antibody cell sorting (FACS). Results: Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 4-48 months). The mean percentages of DR + CD8 + T cells were increased at all timepoints up to 8 months. The mean percentages of DR + CD4 + T cells were increased later and sustained longer until 12 months. Long-term (2.3 years) use of hormonal therapy did not affect the percentage of any lymphocyte population. Conclusions: Sustained long-term (up to 8 to 12 months) systemic T-cell responses were noted after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Prolonged use of hormonal therapy does not suppress this response. These results suggest the potential for sustained activation of cell-mediated immune responses against cancer

  9. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger


    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  10. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola ePeñarrubia


    Full Text Available To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalisation, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signalling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signalling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency.

  11. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis. (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J


    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations. (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta


    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  13. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K


    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  14. Sex hormones and female homosexuality: a critical examination. (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F


    To ascertain the validity of hormonal theories of human homosexuality, which are based on animal research, this article reviews psychoendocrine data on lesbian and transsexual women. Sex hormone levels were found to be normal in the majority of homosexual women, but about a third of the subjects studied had elevated androgen levels. In women with prenatal androgen excess, heterosexuality appears to be more frequent than bisexuality, and exclusive homosexuality is rare. Two recent reports suggest abnormalities of the neuroendocrine regulation of LH secretion in female transsexuals. Clearly, prenatal or postpubertal hormone levels do not determine the development of sexual orientation, but a facilitating neuroendocrine predisposition cannot be ruled out at present.

  15. Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan


    Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population.

  16. Do glycine-extended hormone precursors have clinical significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens Frederik


    Half of the known peptide hormones are C-terminally amidated. Subsequent biogenesis studies have shown that the immediate precursor is a glycine-extended peptide. The clinical interest in glycine-extended hormones began in 1994, when it was suggested that glycine-extended gastrin stimulated cancer...... and clinical effects of glycine-extended precursors for most other amidated hormones than gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The idea of glycine-extended peptides as independent messengers was interesting. But clinical science has to move ahead from ideas that cannot be supported at key points after decades...

  17. Pathology of excessive production of growth hormone. (United States)

    Scheithauer, B W; Kovacs, K; Randall, R V; Horvath, E; Laws, E R


    Since its clinical description in the last century, much progress has been made in our understanding of acromegaly. From an initial description of pituitary enlargement as just another manifestation of generalized visceromegaly, the pituitary abnormality has come to be recognized, in most instances, as the underlying aetiological factor. Gigantism and acromegaly are manifestations of disordered pituitary physiology, but the lesion responsible may be hypothalamic, adenohypophyseal or ectopic in location. The best known pathological hypothalamic basis for acromegaly is represented by a neuronal malformation or 'gangliocytoma'. It usually takes the form of an intrasellar gangliocytoma or, more rarely, a hypothalamic hamartoma. The neuronal elaboration of GHRH may play a role in the development of a growth hormone adenoma; the pituitary process may pass through an intermediate stage of somatotropic hyperplasia. When acromegaly has its basis in a pituitary abnormality, the lesion is almost exclusively an adenoma; the non-tumorous adenohypophysis shows no evidence of coexistent hyperplasia. Surprisingly, such tumours are more often engaged in the formation of multiple hormones rather than GH alone. They frequently produce not only GH and prolactin, the products characteristics of cells of the acidophil line, but also glycoprotein hormones, usually TSH. The spectrum of adenomas also varies in its degree of differentiation from a histogenetically primitive lesion, the acidophil stem cell adenoma, to well-differentiated tumours of varying cellular composition and hormone content. Each adenoma type has its clinicopathological, histochemical, immunocytological and ultrastructural characteristics. The isolation and characterization of GHRH has permitted the identification of neuroendocrine tumours, most of foregut origin, elaborating this releasing hormone. Such functional tumours induce hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and may, on occasion, result in the formation of

  18. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu


    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Arbogast

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a crucial regulator of gene expression in the developing and adult retina. Here we sought to map sites of thyroid hormone signaling at the cellular level using the transgenic FINDT3 reporter mouse model in which neurons express β-galactosidase (β-gal under the control of a hybrid Gal4-TRα receptor when triiodothyronine (T3 and cofactors of thyroid receptor signaling are present. In the adult retina, nearly all neurons of the ganglion cell layer (GCL, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells showed strong β-gal labeling. In the inner nuclear layer (INL, a minority of glycineric and GABAergic amacrine cells showed β-gal labeling, whereas the majority of amacrine cells were unlabeled. At the level of amacrine types, β-gal labeling was found in a large proportion of the glycinergic AII amacrines, but only in a small proportion of the cholinergic/GABAergic 'starburst' amacrines. At postnatal day 10, there also was a high density of strongly β-gal-labeled neurons in the GCL, but only few amacrine cells were labeled in the INL. There was no labeling of bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller glia cells at both stages. Most surprisingly, the photoreceptor somata in the outer nuclear layer also showed no β-gal label, although thyroid hormone is known to control cone opsin expression. This is the first record of thyroid hormone signaling in the inner retina of an adult mammal. We hypothesize that T3 levels in photoreceptors are below the detection threshold of the reporter system. The topographical distribution of β-gal-positive cells in the GCL follows the overall neuron distribution in that layer, with more T3-signaling cells in the ventral than the dorsal half-retina.

  20. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in End-Stage Renal Disease: No Longer a Matter for Surgeons? (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Elli, Francesca; Carugo, Stefano; Ciceri, Paola


    Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency are the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Moreover, the skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone is not only a high-turnover bone accompanying SHPT, but may also play a crucial role in the onset of low-turnover bone disease in uremia. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that other hormones play a key role in this disease, such as fibroblast growth factor 23, Klotho and sclerostin. SHPT causes both bone-associated and non-skeletal consequences, including cardiovascular calcifications. Furthermore, vitamin D and calcium (Ca)-containing phosphate binders may increase Ca load. Anyway, the rate of parathyroidectomy in end-stage renal disease has greatly decreased during the last decade. Is there any room left for surgeons? © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer. (United States)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Kjær, Susanne Krüger


    Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50-79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were followed 1995-2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.86 and 0.88, 0.80-0.96) and rectal cancer (0.83, 0.72-0.96 and 0.89, 0.80-1.00), compared to never users. Transdermal estrogen-only therapy implied more protection than oral administration, while no significant influence was found of regimen, progestin type, nor of tibolone. The benefit of HT was stronger for long-term hormone users; and hormone users were at lower risk of advanced stage of colorectal cancer, which seems supportive for a causal association between hormone therapy and colorectal cancer.

  2. The role of low levels of juvenile hormone Esterase in the metamorphosis of Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Browder


    Full Text Available The activity of juvenile hormone esterase (JHE in feeding fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta increases gradually with larval weight and rises to a peak after larvae pass the critical weight when juvenile hormone secretion ceases. Starvation of larvae of Manduca sexta (L. that had exceeded the critical weight inhibited peak levels of JHE, but did not delay entry into the wandering stage when larvae leave the plant in search of a pupation site. This suggests that peak levels of JHE may not be essential for the normal timing of metamorphosis. Starved larvae pupated normally, indicating the peak of JHE was not necessary for a morphologically normal pupation. Treatments of larvae with the selective JHE inhibitor O-ethyl-S-phenyl phosphoramidothiolate (EPPAT that began immediately after larvae achieved the critical weight (6.0 to 6.5 grams for our strain of Manduca delayed entry into the wandering stage. By contrast, EPPAT treatment of larvae at weights above 8.0g had no effect on the subsequent timing of the onset of wandering. Therefore, although the normal timing of the onset of wandering does not require peak levels of JHE, it requires low to moderate levels of JHE to be present until larvae reach a weight of about 8.0g.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. (United States)

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D


    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  4. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  5. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae. (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis


    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats. (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P


    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) reverses hyperglycemia in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Luguang; Luo, John Z.Q.; Jackson, Ivor M.D.


    Hyperglycemia in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) null mice indicates that TRH is involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Further, TRH levels in the pancreas peak during the stages of late embryonic and early neonatal β cell development. These observations are consistent in linking TRH to islet cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we examined the effect of TRH administration in damaged pancreatic rat (streptozotocin, STZ) to determine whether TRH could improve damaged pancreatic β cells function. We hypothesize that TRH is able to reverse STZ-induced hyperglycemia by increasing pancreatic islet insulin content, preventing apoptosis, and potentially induce islet regeneration. It was found that following intra-peritoneal (ip) injection, TRH (10 μg/kg body weight (bwt)) reverses STZ (65 mg/kg bwt)-induced hyperglycemia (TRH given 3 days after STZ injection). Increased circulating insulin levels and insulin content in extracted pancreas suggests that TRH reversed STZ-induced hyperglycemia through improving pancreatic islet β cell function. Further studies show a significantly lower level of apoptosis in islets treated with TRH as well as the presence of proliferation marker nestin and Brdu, suggesting that the TRH has the potential to prevent apoptosis and stimulate islet proliferation

  8. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko


    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  9. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana


    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  10. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.J.; Brent, G.A.; Warne, R.L.; Larsen, P.R.; Moore, D.D.


    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor

  11. Effect of pollination and fertilization on the expression of genes related to floral transition, hormone synthesis and berry development in grapevine. (United States)

    Dauelsberg, Patricia; Matus, José Tomás; Poupin, María Josefina; Leiva-Ampuero, Andrés; Godoy, Francisca; Vega, Andrea; Arce-Johnson, Patricio


    In the present work, the effect of assisted fertilization on anatomical, morphological and gene expression changes occurring in carpels and during early stages of berry development in Vitis vinifera were studied. Inflorescences were emasculated before capfall, immediately manually pollinated (EP) and fruit development was compared to emasculated but non-pollinated (ENP) and self-pollinated inflorescences (NESP). The diameter of berries derived from pollinated flowers (EP and NESP) was significantly higher than from non-pollinated flowers (ENP) at 21 days after emasculation/pollination (DAE), and a rapid increase in the size of the inner mesocarp, together with the presence of an embryo-like structure, were observed. The expression of gibberellin oxidases (GA20ox and GA2ox), anthranilate synthase (related to auxin synthesis) and cytokinin synthase coding genes was studied to assess the relationship between hormone synthesis and early berry development, while flower patterning genes were analyzed to describe floral transition. Significant expression changes were found for hormone-related genes, suggesting that their expression at early stages of berry development (13 DAE) is related to cell division and differentiation of mesocarp tissue at a later stage (21 DAE). Expression of hormone-related genes also correlates with the expression of VvHB13, a gene related to mesocarp expansion, and with an increased repression of floral patterning genes (PISTILLATA and TM6), which may contribute to prevent floral transition inhibiting fruit growth before fertilization takes place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. An Analysis of Kohlberg's "Stage 4 1/2" within an Enhanced Framework of Moral Stages. (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    This paper discusses a well-known problem of stage categorization within Kohlberg's theory of moral stages (L. Kohlberg, 1973), that of "Stage 4 1/2." Some subjects previously scored at stage 4 in Kohlberg's framework took on some characteristics of stage 2 reasoning, which suggested the possibility of regression. To reconcile this…

  13. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  14. [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case]. (United States)

    Mora-Bautista, Víctor M; Mendoza-Rojas, Víctor; Contreras-García, Gustavo A


    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. His bone age was delayed, so he underwent full endocrinological panel. Central hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and low luteinizing hormone-follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies diagnosis was made. Basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin levels were normal. He received thyroid hormonal substitution. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies are an unusual feature of De Lange syndrome. We suggest evaluating all different endocrine axes in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco


    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  16. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy. (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid


    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  17. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  18. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B


    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  19. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.


    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović


    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  1. Nonreproductive role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of ascidian metamorphosis. (United States)

    Kamiya, Chisato; Ohta, Naoyuki; Ogura, Yosuke; Yoshida, Keita; Horie, Takeo; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Satake, Honoo; Sasakura, Yasunori


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) are neuropeptides that play central roles in the reproduction of vertebrates. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, GnRHs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous systems at the larval stage, when animals are not yet capable of reproduction, suggesting that the hormones have non-reproductive roles. We showed that GnRHs in Ciona are involved in the animal's metamorphosis by regulating tail absorption and adult organ growth. Absorption of the larval tail and growth of the adult organs are two major events in the metamorphosis of ascidians. When larvae were treated with GnRHs, they completed tail absorption more frequently than control larvae. cAMP was suggested to be a second messenger for the induction of tail absorption by GnRHs. tGnRH-3 and tGnRH-5 (the "t" indicates "tunicate") inhibited the growth of adult organs by arresting cell cycle progression in parallel with the promotion of tail absorption. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis conducted by non-reproductive GnRHs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Contribution of stress and sex hormones to memory encoding. (United States)

    Merz, Christian J


    Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words. On the next day, delayed free and cued recall was tested. Sex hormone levels verified distinct estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels between groups. Stress increased blood pressure, cortisol concentrations, and ratings of stress appraisal in all four groups as well as cued recall performance of negative words in men. Stress exposure in OC women led to a blunted cortisol response and rather enhanced cued recall of neutral words. Thus, pre-encoding stress facilitated emotional cued recall performance in men only, but not women with different sex hormone statuses pointing to the pivotal role of circulating sex hormones in modulation of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette


    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad


    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  6. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  7. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior. (United States)

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S


    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas. (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A


    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  9. Hormones and breast cancer: can we use them in ways that could reduce the risk?


    Khalid Mahmud


    Many hormones promote or inhibit breast cancer in different ways. These effects and the mechanisms involved are reviewed in order to suggest a potentially safer use of hormones. Natural estrogens, administered transdermally, and natural progesterone may be the safest combination of female hormones. Increased intake of cruciferous vegetables could provide additional safety by improving 2-hydoxyestrone and diminishing 16 alphahydroxyestrone. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may di...

  10. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  11. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  12. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  13. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  14. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.


    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  15. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja


    Full Text Available Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception, among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings, progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives, their economic effects as well as their ethical-social and legal implications.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted in April 2006 starting from 2000. The evaluation is primarily based on systematic reviews. Results: In perfect use, all hormonal contraceptives excluding emergency contraceptives proved to be the most effective reversible contraceptive methods (rate of unintended pregnancies 0.05% to 0.3%. However, the typical use of oral contraceptives, injections, skin patches, and vaginal rings, which also considers possible application errors, showed a lower contraceptive efficacy (rate of unintended pregnancies 3% to 8%. It was lower than that of copper spirals. The risk of venous thromboembolism increased three to six times in users of hormonal contraceptives, the risks of stroke and myocardial infarction two to three times. The risk declined after discontinuation of use. The effects were estrogen-dose and progestogen-type dependent. The use of hormonal contraceptives showed a relative risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas of approximately 0.5 or 0.7, of breast and cervical cancer of approximately 1.2 or 1.6. The effect remained several years after discontinuation of use. The results concerning hepatocellular carcinoma suggested a carcinogenic effect. In women with acne, an improvement due to use of hormonal contraceptives was proven. Cervical chlamydial infections were more frequent in users of hormonal

  16. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  17. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas. (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin


    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  18. Thyroid hormone action: Astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMorte


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase, expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by type 2 deiodinase. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local thyroid hormone action during development.

  19. Identification of an estrogenic hormone receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimoto, Ai; Fujii, Madoka; Usami, Makoto; Shimamura, Maki; Hirabayashi, Naoko; Kaneko, Takako; Sasagawa, Noboru; Ishiura, Shoichi


    Changes in both behavior and gene expression occur in Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound. However, only one steroid hormone receptor has been identified. Of the 284 known nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in C. elegans, we selected nhr-14, nhr-69, and nhr-121 for analysis as potential estrogenic hormone receptors, because they share sequence similarity with the human estrogen receptor. First, the genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the affinity of each protein for estrogen was determined using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. All three NHRs bound estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. To evaluate the specificity of the binding, we performed a solution competition assay using an SPR biosensor. According to our results, only NHR-14 was able to interact with estrogen. Therefore, we next examined whether nhr-14 regulates estrogen signaling in vivo. To investigate whether these interactions actually control the response of C. elegans to hormones, we investigated the expression of vitellogenin, an estrogen responsive gene, in an nhr-14 mutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin expression was significantly reduced in the mutant. This suggests that NHR-14 is a C. elegans estrogenic hormone receptor and that it controls gene expression in response to estrogen

  20. A patient who sufferred pulmonary tuberculosis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, after radiotherapy for pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kashin; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Hata, Hideharu; Sasaki, Yasushi; Hirose, Masahiro; Shiga, Mamoru; Kondo, Rieko; Tachikawa, Souichi


    A 62-year-old man presented in June 2006 with right thoracic pain, cough, and weight loss, which had persisted for 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a mass-like shadow in the right pulmonary apex, suggesting a stage IIIb adenocarcinoma which was confirmed by biopsy. We gave a total radiation dose of 60 Gy, after this which general malaise and weakness were noted. The results of endocrinological examinations suggested syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Thoracic CT showed ground-glass opacity (GGO) in both lungs, and we could not rule out pulmonary tuberculosis. A sputum was positive for acid-fast stain and polymerase polymerase chain reaction-Tuberculosa (PCR-Tb), suggesting that SIADH was associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Water restriction, i.v. physiological saline, and anti-tuberculosis therapy relieved hyponatremia and the symptoms. (author)

  1. Altered Appetite-Mediating Hormone Concentrations Precede Compensatory Overeating After Severe, Short-Term Energy Deprivation in Healthy Adults. (United States)

    O'Connor, Kristie L; Scisco, Jenna L; Smith, Tracey J; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Price, Lori Lyn; Lieberman, Harris R; Karl, J Philip


    Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Twenty-one adults with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 3 y and body mass index of 25 ± 3 kg/m(2) consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 ± 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 ± 92 kcal/d) or was overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at as NCT01603550. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil. (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed


    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA 3 content and GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on blood levels of hormones in patients undergoing surgery and radiation therapy for cervical cancer, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Motofumi


    Blood levels of LH, FSH, prolactin (PRL), progesterone (Prog), estrone (E 1 ), estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone (T), and cortisol (Cor) were determined in 5 patients treated with radiation therapy following surgical transposition of the ovaries (group A) and in 9 patients treated with surgical transposition alone (group B). Although disturbance in ovarian function was transiently observed during and after X-ray irradiation in the group A, blood levels of hormones returned to normal at 5-7 months after the completion of treatment. Cyclic changes in blood hormones were observed in 4 patients. These results indicated that ovarian function is fully conserved after X-ray irradiation. No remarkable changes in blood hormones were observed in the group B, suggesting that there is no effect of surgical procedure on ovarian function. However, because one patient receiving anticancer agents had transient disturbance in ovarian function, caution is necessary in the selection of anticancer agents. Surgical transposition of the ovaries is therefore considered to be a very simple, reasonable procedure when radiation therapy is required in patients with Ib or more advanced stages cervical cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans. (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D


    Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) insecticides are biological and structural mimics of JH, a key insect developmental hormone. Toxic and anti-developmental effects of the JHA insecticides methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen were investigated on the larval and pupal stages of Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioassays showed that fenoxycarb has the highest toxicity and fastest speed of kill in 2nd instar S. littoralis. All three JHAs affected the development of 6th instar (i.e., final instar) and pupal S. frugiperda. JH esterase (JHE) is a critical enzyme that helps to regulate JH levels during insect development. JHE activity in the last instar S. littoralis and S. frugiperda was 11 and 23 nmol min(-1) ml(-1) hemolymph, respectively. Methoprene and pyriproxyfen showed poor inhibition of JHE activity from these insects, whereas fenoxycarb showed stronger inhibition. The inhibitory activity of fenoxycarb, however, was more than 1000-fold lower than that of OTFP, a highly potent inhibitor of JHEs. Surprisingly, topical application of methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen on 6th instars of S. littoralis and S. frugiperda prevented the dramatic reduction in JHE activity that was found in control insects. Our findings suggest that JHAs may function as JH agonists that play a disruptive role or a hormonal replacement role in S. littoralis and S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormone therapy and radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: A utility-adjusted number needed to treat (NNT) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jani, Ashesh B.; Kao, Johnny; Heimann, Ruth; Hellman, Samuel


    Purpose: To quantify, using the number needed to treat (NNT) methodology, the benefit of short-term (≤6 months) hormone therapy adjuvant to radiotherapy in the group of patients with early (clinical stage T1-T2c) prostate cancer. Methods and materials: The absolute biochemical control benefit for the use of hormones adjuvant to radiotherapy in early-stage disease was determined by literature review. A model was developed to estimate the utility-adjusted survival detriment due to the side effects of hormone therapy. The NNTs before and after the incorporation of hormone sequelae were computed; the sign and magnitude of the NNTs were used to gauge the effect of the hormones. Results: The absolute NNT analysis, based on summarizing the results of 8 reports including a total of 3652 patients, demonstrated an advantage to the addition of hormones for the general early-stage prostate cancer population as well as for all prognostic groups. After adjustment for hormone-induced functional loss, the advantage of hormones remained considerable in the high- and intermediate-risk groups, with the utility-adjusted NNT becoming weakened in the low-risk group when the utility compromise from complications of hormones was assumed to be considerable. Conclusions: Short-term hormone therapy seems to be beneficial for selected early-stage prostate cancer patients. The advantage seems to be greatest in the intermediate- and high-risk groups; with current follow-up, the side effects of hormones may outweigh their benefit in certain clinical situations in the favorable group. The present investigation demonstrates the significant role of the NNT technique for oncologic and radiotherapeutic management decisions when treatment complications need to be considered and balanced with the beneficial effects of the treatment

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones. (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H


    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.


    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  8. Outcome of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy with or without hormonal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Rex; Kamat, Ashish M.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Allen, Pamela K.; Lee, Andrew K.; Tucker, Susan L.; Pisters, Louis; Babaian, Richard J.; Kuban, Deborah


    Background: This study analyzed the outcome of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). By comparing the outcomes for patients who received RT alone and for those who received combined RT and hormonal therapy, we assessed the potential benefits of hormonal therapy. Patients and Methods: This cohort was comprised of 101 patients who received salvage RT between 1990 and 2001 for biochemical failure after RP. Fifty-nine of these patients also received hormone. Margin status (positive vs. negative), extracapsular extension (yes vs. no), seminal vesicle involvement (yes vs. no), pathologic stage, Gleason score, pre-RP PSA, post-RP PSA, pre-RT PSA, hormonal use, radiotherapy dose and technique, RP at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, and time from RP to salvage RT were analyzed. Statistically significant variables were used to construct prognostic groups. Results: Independent prognostic factors for the RT-alone group were margin status and pre-RT PSA. RP at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center was marginally significant (p = 0.06) in multivariate analysis. Pre-RT PSA was the only significant prognostic factor for the combined-therapy group. We used a combination of margin status and pre-RT PSA to construct a prognostic model for response to the salvage treatment based on the RT group. We identified the favorable group as those patients with positive margin and pre-RT PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL vs. the unfavorable group as otherwise. This stratification separates patients into clinically meaningful groups. The 5-year PSA control probabilities for the favorable vs. the unfavorable group were 83.7% vs. 61.7% with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.03). Androgen ablation seemed to be most beneficial in the unfavorable group. Conclusion: After prostatectomy, favorable-group patients may fare well with salvage radiotherapy alone. These patients may be spared the toxicity of androgen ablation. The other patients may benefit most from a combined approach with hormonal

  9. Sex hormones selectively impact the endocervical mucosal microenvironment: implications for HIV transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Goode

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that progesterone and estrogens may affect HIV transmission in different, possibly opposing ways. Nonetheless, a direct comparison of their effects on the mucosal immune system has never been done. We hypothesize that sex hormones might impact the availability of cells and immune factors important in early stages of mucosal transmission, and, in doing so influence the risk of HIV acquisition. To test this hypothesis, we employed 15 ovarectomized rhesus macaques: 5 were treated with Depot Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA, 6 with 17-β estradiol (E2 and 4 were left untreated. All animals were euthanized 5 weeks after the initiation of hormone treatment, a time post-DMPA injection associated with high susceptibility to SIV infection. We found that DMPA-treated macaques exhibited higher expression of integrin α4β7 (α4β7 on CD4+ T cells, the gut homing receptor and a marker of cells highly susceptible to HIV, in the endocervix than did the E2-treated animals. In contrast, the frequency of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in DMPA-treated macaques was higher than in the E2-treated group in vaginal tissue, but lower in endocervix. α4β7 expression on dendritic cells (DCs was higher in the DMPA-treated group in the endocervical tissue, but lower in vaginal tissue and on blood DCs compared with the E2-treated animals. Soluble MAdCAM-1, the α4β7 ligand, was present in the vaginal fluids of the control and E2-treated groups, but absent in the fluids from DMPA-treated animals. Both hormones modulated the expression and release of inflammatory factors and modified the distribution of sialomucins in the endocervix. In summary, we found that sex hormones profoundly impact mucosal immune factors that are directly implicated in HIV transmission. The effect is particularly significant in the endocervix. This may increase our understanding of the potential hormone-driven modulation of HIV susceptibility and potentially guide contraceptive

  10. Why sex hormones matter for neuroscience: A very short review on sex, sex hormones, and functional brain asymmetries. (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus


    Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.


    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  12. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino


    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis.

  13. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents. (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J


    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Growth hormone and bone health. (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger


    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Suggested MR staging classification of early rheumatoid arthritis at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, R.J.; Hoischen, S.H.; Willemsen, U.F.; Pfluger, T.; Kueffer, G.; Krueger, K.; Schattenkirchner, M.; Hahn, K.


    Purpose: MRI can demonstrate pathology of joint disease in the early course of rheumatoid arthritis prior to destructions seen on conventional radiographs. In a prospective study, we tried to develop a systematical classification of joint pathology demonstrated by MRI, which would be essential for scoring the course of the disease. Patients and method: Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of 48 patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (mean disease duration: 6.4 months) were evaluated by MRI using a high-resolution transmitter-receiver coil. Examinations included 2 mm sliced T 2 -, T 1 - and gadolinium enhanced T 1 -SE sequences in coronal and axial orientation. In consideration of pathological findings on MRI and histopathogenetical pathways of destruction in rheumatoid arthritis a MR-score (0-5) was established. Results: This allowed to score each joint examined: Score 0 (normal) in 47.8%/49.5%, score 1 in 35.5%/50.5%, score 2 in 4.2%/0%, score 3 in 10.8%/0%, score 4 in 1.5%/0% of the metacarpophalangeal/interphalangeal joints, respectively. Conclusions: Using the MR-score a relative individual destruction number can be calculated, which may be used to follow up patients in the early course of rheumatoid arthritis (e.g. drug therapy studies). The presented MR scoring system has to be evaluated further in longitudinal studies and must be correlated to radiographical and clinical findings. (orig.) [de

  16. CRISPR-Cas9 Corrects Mutation in Immune Disorder, Suggesting New Therapeutic Approach | FNLCR Staging (United States)

    Gene editing using the powerful new CRISPR-Cas9 system is showing promise as a tool for developing potential treatments for inherited diseases, particularly for those caused by single genetic defects. Examples of these diseases are cystic fibrosis, m

  17. Hormones in pain modulation and their clinical implications for pain control: a critical review. (United States)

    Chen, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wang, Xiangrui


    Recently, more and more studies have found that pain generation, transmission and modulation are under hormonal regulation. Indeed, hormonal dysregulation is a common component of chronic pain syndromes. Studies have attempted to determine whether the relationship between the pain and its perception and hormones is a causative relationship and how these processes interrelate. This review summarizes and analyzes the current experimental data and provides an overview of the studies addressing these questions. The relationship between pain perception and endocrine effects suggests that hormones can be used as important biomarkers of chronic pain syndromes and/or be developed into therapeutic agents in the fight against pain.

  18. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.


    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  19. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.


    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  20. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin


    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  1. The hormonal control of begging and early aggressive behavior : Experiments in black-headed gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Ros, AFH; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    The hormonal control of begging and sibling competition is largely unknown, but recent evidence suggests a role for steroid hormones. We tested the influence of the aromatizable androgen testosterone (T), the non-aromatizable androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E) on

  2. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide: A Novel Endocrine Cardioprotective "Conditioning Mimetic". (United States)

    Datta, Tanuka; Przyklenk, Karin; Datta, Nabanita S


    An as-yet limited body of evidence suggests that calcium-regulating endocrine hormones-in particular, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)-may have unappreciated cardioprotective effects. The current review focuses on the concept that PTHrP may, via modulation of classic cardioprotective signaling pathways, provide a novel strategy to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  3. Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Sophie M; Begemann, Marieke J H; Goverde, Angelique J; Sommer, Iris E C


    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest sex hormones play a protective role in the pathophysiology. Such a role is also proposed for oxytocin, another important regulator of reproduction function. Evidence on the efficacy of sex hormones and oxytocin in

  4. The hippocampal formation: morphological changes induced by thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones. (United States)

    Gould, E; Woolley, C S; McEwen, B S


    The hippocampal formation is of considerable interest due to its proposed role in a number of important functions, including learning and memory processes. Manipulations of thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones have been shown to influence hippocampal physiology as well as learning and memory. The cellular events which underlie these hormone-induced functional changes are largely unexplored. However, studies suggest that hormonal manipulations during development and in adulthood result in dramatic morphological changes within the hippocampal formation. Because neuronal physiology has been suggested to depend upon neuronal morphology, we have been determining the morphologic sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to thyroid and steroid hormones in an effort to elucidate possible structural mechanisms to account for differences in hippocampal function. In this review, hormone-induced structural changes in the developing and adult hippocampal formation are discussed, with particular emphasis on their functional relevance. Sex differences, as well as the developmental effects of thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids, are described. Moreover, the effects of ovarian steroids, thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids on neuronal morphology in the hippocampal formation of the adult rat are reviewed. These hormone-induced structural changes may account, at least in part, for previously reported hormone-induced changes in hippocampal function.

  5. Preliminary studies of plasma growth hormone releasing activity during medical therapy of acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.C.; Lawrence, A.M.; Kirsteins, L.


    The in vitro growth hormone releasing activity of plasma obtained from six acromegalic subjects was measured before and during therapy. In five subjects, plasmas were obtained before and during successful medical therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The sixth subject was sampled before and after transphenoidal Sr 90 -induced hypopituitarism. All subjects had a decrement in fasting growth hormone levels with respective therapies (29-88%). The in vitro growth hormone released from Rhesus monkey anterior pituitaries was assessed after incubating one lateral half in control plasma (pre-therapy) and the contralateral pituitary half in plasma obtained during or after therapy. Studies with plasmas obtained from the five patients successfully treated with MPA showed a decrease in growth hormone releasing activity during therapy in all (18-57%). Plasma obtained after Sr 90 pituitary ablation in the sixth subject had 35% more growth hormone releasing activity than obtained before therapy. These results suggest that active acromegalics who respond to MPA with significantly lowered growth hormone levels may actually achieve this response because of a decrease in growth hormone releasing factor measured peripherally. The opposite response in one acromegalic subject, following Sr 90 pituitary ablation and hypopituitarism, suggests that growth hormone releasing factor secretion may increase when growth hormone levels are lowered by ablative therapy. (orig.) [de

  6. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, M.E.


    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in 32 Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of 32 Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when [ 3 H]inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of [ 3 H]phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the [ 3 H]inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing [ 3 H]inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates

  7. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle. (United States)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro


    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor.

  8. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Kittilsen

    Full Text Available A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed.

  9. Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. (United States)

    Dai, Li; Adams, Michael E


    At the end of each developmental stage, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti performs the ecdysis behavioral sequence, a precisely timed series of behaviors that culminates in shedding of the old exoskeleton. Here we describe ecdysis triggering hormone-immunoreactive Inka cells located at branch points of major tracheal trunks and loss of staining coincident with ecdysis. Peptides (AeaETH1, AeaETH2) purified from extracts of pharate 4th instar larvae have--PRXamide C-terminal amino acid sequence motifs similar to ETHs previously identified in moths and flies. Injection of synthetic AeaETHs induced premature ecdysis behavior in pharate larvae, pupae and adults. Two functionally distinct subtypes of ETH receptors (AeaETHR-A, AeaETHR-B) of A. aegypti are identified and show high sensitivity and selectivity to ETHs. Increased ETHR transcript levels and behavioral sensitivity to AeaETHs arising in the hours preceding the 4th instar larva-to-pupa ecdysis are correlated with rising ecdysteroid levels, suggesting steroid regulation of receptor gene expression. Our description of natural and ETH-induced ecdysis in A. aegypti should facilitate future approaches directed toward hormone-based interference strategies for control of mosquitoes as human disease vectors.

  10. Expression and ontogeny of growth hormone (Gh) in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel (Monopterus albus). (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Wanping; Shi, Shuxia; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong


    Growth hormone (GH) is a single-chain polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is an important regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates including teleosts. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum against ricefield eel Gh was generated and the expression of Gh at the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Both RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that Gh was predominantly expressed in the pituitary glands of ricefield eels. The immunoreactive Gh signals were localized to the multicellular layers of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis in ricefield eels. Ontogenetic analysis showed that immunoreactive Gh signals could be detected in the pituitary glands of ricefield eel embryos as early as 3 days post-fertilization. During the sex change from female to male, the levels of the immunoreactive Gh signals in the pituitary glands of the ricefield eels peaked at the intersexual stage. These results suggest that Gh in the pituitary glands may be associated with embryonic development before hatching, as well as with the sex change in the adult ricefield eels, possibly via the classical endocrine manner.

  11. The essential role of endogenous ghrelin in growth hormone expression during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. (United States)

    Li, Xi; He, Jiangyan; Hu, Wei; Yin, Zhan


    Ghrelin, a multifunctional hormone, including potent GH stimulation activity, has been suggested to be important during embryonic development. Expression of ghrelin has been confirmed in the zebrafish pancreas during embryonic stages. Interfering with ghrelin function using two specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes defects during zebrafish embryonic development. In ghrelin morphants the expression of GH was abolished in zebrafish somatotropes, whereas the expression patterns of the other key molecules involved in hypothalamic-pituitary development and distinct pituitary hormones genes remain largely intact at the appropriate time during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Effective rescue of the ghrelin morphants with exogenous ghrelin mRNA showed that the correct gene had been targeted. Moreover, by analyzing the efficiencies of the ghrelin morphants rescue experiments with various forms of exogenous mutant ghrelin mRNAs, we also demonstrated the essentiality of the form acyl-ghrelin on GH stimulation during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Our in vivo experiments, for the first time, also provided evidence of the existence of functional obestatin in the C-terminal part of zebrafish proghrelin peptides. Our research here has demonstrated that zebrafish is a unique model for functional studies of endogenous ghrelin, especially during embryonic development.

  12. Two stages of economic development


    Gong, Gang


    This study suggests that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth. The two stages of economic development have been indicated in the growth theory of macroeconomics and in the various "turning point" theories in development economics, including Lewis's dual economy theory, Kuznet...

  13. Mechanisms of action of nonpeptide hormones on resveratrol-induced antiproliferation of cancer cells. (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Chin, Yu-Tang; Shih, Ya-Jung; Nana, André Wendindondé; Lin, Shin-Ying; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Chiang, I-Jen; Wang, Kuan


    Nonpeptide hormones, such as thyroid hormone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrogen, have been shown to stimulate cancer proliferation via different mechanisms. Aside from their cytosolic or membrane-bound receptors, there are receptors on integrin α v β 3 for nonpeptide hormones. Interaction between hormones and integrin α v β 3 can induce signal transduction and eventually stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Resveratrol induces inducible COX-2-dependent antiproliferation via integrin α v β 3 . Resveratrol and hormone-induced signals are both transduced by activated extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2); however, hormones promote cell proliferation, while resveratrol induces antiproliferation in cancer cells. Hormones inhibit resveratrol-stimulated phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15, resveratrol-induced nuclear COX-2 accumulation, and formation of p53-COX-2 nuclear complexes. Subsequently, hormones impair resveratrol-induced COX-2-/p53-dependent gene expression. The inhibitory effects of hormones on resveratrol action can be blocked by different antagonists of specific nonpeptide hormone receptors but not integrin α v β 3 blockers. Results suggest that nonpeptide hormones inhibit resveratrol-induced antiproliferation in cancer cells downstream of the interaction between ligand and receptor and ERK1/2 activation to interfere with nuclear COX-2 accumulation. Thus, the surface receptor sites for resveratrol and nonpeptide hormones are distinct and can induce discrete ERK1/2-dependent downstream antiproliferation biological activities. It also indicates the complex pathways by which antiproliferation is induced by resveratrol in various physiological hormonal environments. . © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova


    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  15. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses. (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal


    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stages of Endometrial Cancer (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  17. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  18. Hormonal, anthropometric and lipid factors associated with idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia. (United States)

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Al Azkawi, Hanan; Badri, Motasim; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammed; Tamimi, Waleed


    To determine factors associated with pubertal gynecomastia. A cross-sectional study among healthy male school children and adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects were selected from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, blood hormonal levels (leutilizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], total testosterone, and estradiol), and anthropometric and lipid parameters (body mass index [BMI], triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), were collected and compared in children with and without gynecomastia. The study included 542 children and adolescents. Median (interquartile range) age in the whole group was 11(8-13) years. The prevalence of gynecomastia was 185/542 (34%), with a peak at age 14. The 2 groups compared had nonsignificant difference in cholesterol (P=.331), LH (P=.215) and FSH (P=.571) levels. Those with gynecomastia were significantly older, had lower gonad stage, had higher anthropometric (height, weight, and BMI), and lipid (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL) values. In multivariate regression analysis, factors significantly associated with gynecomastia were BMI (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.10; P=.013), HDL (OR=0.42; 95%CI 0.19-0.92; P=.03), and gonad (Stage II OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.92; P=.005, Stage III OR=6.40; 95%CI 2.70-15.0; P gynecomastia tends to increase in mid-puberty. In our setting, BMI, HDL, and gonad stage were the major factors associated with the development of pubertal gynecomastia.

  19. Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D correlates with serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone in male patients with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, F F; Soliman, A F; Lashin, F E S


    This study was designed to assess the relationship between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in chronic kidney disease male patients. For that, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-Müllerian hormone along with follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, prolactin, total testosterone and estradiol were assayed in 59 patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and 21 healthy participants. Compared to controls, serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were significantly decreased in patients with chronic kidney disease. The decreased anti-Müllerian hormone level correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum levels of testosterone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Meanwhile, it was negatively correlated with age and serum levels of urea, creatinine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D and luteinising hormone explained the 65.9% variability of anti-Müllerian hormone in a multiple linear regression model. However, anti-Müllerian hormone in crude correlation was more strongly associated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than luteinising hormone. In conclusion, serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D might be a determinant factor of anti-Müllerian hormone level, and their relationship might explain in part the dysfunction of Sertoli cells and the impaired testicular functions in chronic kidney disease male patients. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Characterization of the hormone-binding domain of the chicken c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Zenke, M; Gehring, U


    mutations present in the carboxy-terminal half of P75gag-v-erbA co-operate in abolishing hormone binding, and that the ligand-binding domain resides in a position analogous to that of steroid receptors. Furthermore, a point mutation that is located between the putative DNA and ligand-binding domains of P75......To identify and characterize the hormone-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor, we analyzed the ligand-binding capacities of proteins representing chimeras between the normal receptor and P75gag-v-erbA, the retrovirus-encoded form deficient in binding ligand. Our results show that several......gag-v-erbA and that renders it biologically inactive fails to affect hormone binding by the c-erbA protein. These results suggest that the mutation changed the ability of P75gag-v-erbA to affect transcription since it also had no effect on DNA binding. Our data also suggest that hormone...

  1. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K


    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  2. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.


    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  3. Advances in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina


    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  4. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta


    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  5. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.


    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  6. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind


    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  7. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction. (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L


    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostate cancer staging (United States)

    ... this page: // Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  9. Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice. (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Ramanantsoa, Nélina; Saurini, Françoise; Callebert, Jacques; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Ringot, Maud; Bourgeois, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Collet, Corinne; Nardelli, Jeannette; Mallet, Jacques; Vodjdani, Guilan; Gallego, Jorge; Launay, Jean-Marie; Berrard, Sylvie


    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development. ACh, together with these hormones and their receptors, is expressed before birth, and somatotroph cells are already responsive to GHRH, SRIF, and ghrelin. We thus hypothesized that ACh could contribute to the modulation of the main components of the somatotropic axis during development. In this study, we generated a choline acetyltransferase knockout mouse line and showed that heterozygous mice display a transient deficit in ACh from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 10, and they recover normal ACh levels from the second postnatal week. This developmental ACh deficiency had no major impact on weight gain and cardiorespiratory status of newborn mice. Using this mouse model, we found that endogenous ACh levels determined the concentrations of circulating GH and IGF-1 at embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, serum GH level was correlated with brain ACh content. ACh also modulated the levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the stomach, and it affected the levels of these hormones in the circulation. This study identifies ACh as a potential regulator of the somatotropic axis during the developmental period.

  10. Aldosterone and parathyroid hormone: a precarious couple for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, A.; Ritz, E.; Pieske, B.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Kienreich, K.; Horina, J.H.; Drechsler, C.; Marz, W.; Ofner, M.; Pieber, T.R.; Pilz, S.


    Animal and human studies support a clinically relevant interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and suggest an impact of the interaction on cardiovascular (CV) health. This review focuses on mechanisms behind the bidirectional interactions between aldosterone and PTH and

  11. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  12. The POU Factor Ventral Veins Lacking/Drifter Directs the Timing of Metamorphosis through Ecdysteroid and Juvenile Hormone Signaling (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K.; Smith, Wendy A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro


    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation. PMID:24945490

  13. Reconceptualizing Children's Suggestibility: Bidirectional and Temporal Properties (United States)

    Gilstrap, Livia L.; Ceci, Stephen J.


    Forty-one children (3 to 7 years) were exposed to a staged event and later interviewed by 1 of 41 professional interviewers. All interviews were coded with a detailed, mutually exclusive, and exhaustive coding scheme capturing adult behaviors (leading questions vs. neutral) and child behaviors (acquiescence vs. denial) in a temporally organized…

  14. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis. (United States)

    Laron, Zvi


    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  15. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies. (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J


    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  16. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  17. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.


    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  18. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C


    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  19. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  20. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav


    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  1. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes. (United States)

    Lema, Sean C


    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email:

  2. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  4. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.


    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  5. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image) (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  6. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.


    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  7. The Role of the Multiple Hormonal Dysregulation in the Onset of “Anemia of Aging”: Focus on Testosterone, IGF-1, and Thyroid Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio


    Full Text Available Anemia is a multifactorial condition whose prevalence increases in both sexes after the fifth decade of life. It is a highly represented phenomenon in older adults and in one-third of cases is “unexplained.” Ageing process is also characterized by a “multiple hormonal dysregulation” with disruption in gonadal, adrenal, and somatotropic axes. Experimental studies suggest that anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones are able to increase erythroid mass, erythropoietin synthesis, and iron bioavailability, underlining a potential role of multiple hormonal changes in the anemia of aging. Epidemiological data more consistently support an association between lower testosterone and anemia in adult-older individuals. Low IGF-1 has been especially associated with anemia in the pediatric population and in a wide range of disorders. There is also evidence of an association between thyroid hormones and abnormalities in hematological parameters under overt thyroid and euthyroid conditions, with limited data on subclinical statuses. Although RCTs have shown beneficial effects, stronger for testosterone and the GH-IGF-1 axis and less evident for thyroid hormones, in improving different hematological parameters, there is no clear evidence for the usefulness of hormonal treatment in improving anemia in older subjects. Thus, more clinical and research efforts are needed to investigate the hormonal contribution to anemia in the older individuals.


    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie


    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  9. Hormonal changes in 3-month-old cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Anne-Maarit; Main, Katharina M; Kaleva, Marko M


    CONTEXT: Hormonal dysregulation has been suggested to be one of many etiological factors of cryptorchidism. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in cryptorchid boys during the postnatal hormonal surge. DESIGN: This was a prospective......, longitudinal, population-based study. SETTING: The study was performed at two primary obstetric centers. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants included 388 Finnish and 433 Danish boys (88 and 34 with cryptorchidism, respectively). INTERVENTIONS: Clinical examinations were performed at 0 and 3 months. Blood samples...... were taken at 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were testis position and reproductive hormone levels. RESULTS: Finnish cryptorchid boys had significantly higher FSH [1.59 (0.50-3.53) vs. 1.30 (0.49-2.92) IU/liter; P

  10. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J


    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  11. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Schmidt, I M; Skakkebaek, N E


    Healthy boys have a considerable production of reproductive hormones during the first postnatal months, the biological significance of which is poorly understood. We report on cases of male infants with hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, n = 1; panhypopituitarism, n = 2) who showed lack...... of penile growth and involution of the scrotum. In two boys, diagnoses were obtained in early infancy and hormonal measurements at 3-4 months of age showed serum testosterone levels below detection limits in both low inhibin B (37 and 199 pg/mL, respectively; normal range, 193-563 pg/mL) and low......RH. All cases required hormonal treatment with testosterone, administered as suppositories in daily doses between 1 and 5 mg, which reintroduced male genital development. Our observations suggest that normal phallic and scrotal development in humans is dependent on intact testosterone secretion during...

  12. Incretin hormones and beta cell function in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip Krag


    insulinotropic incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP are secreted from the small intestines in response to ingestion of nutrients. The incretin defect of T2DM has been characterised by a virtually lost insulinotropic effect of GIP......, with and without pancreatic enzyme supplementation (PES), we observed preserved incretin responses as compared to matched healthy subjects; and, further, that PES increased postprandial incretin responses in these patients. This suggests not only that the secretion of incretin hormones is regulated by the mere...... effect of the incretin hormones in 8 patients with CP and normal glucose tolerance and in 8 patients with secondary DM, and observed that patients with CP and secondary DM exhibit an impaired insulinotropic effect of GIP, and that this most likely occurs as a consequence of the diabetic state...

  13. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M


    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  14. The hormonal fountains of youth: myth or reality? (United States)

    Kim, M J; Morley, J E


    There has been a long search for the best approach of ensuring successful aging. The remarkable demographic transformations in this century have not only led to increased medical needs of older people, who often have multiple chronic conditions, decrements in functional ability and age-related disease, but also to the increase of social expenditures, such as pension funds and health insurance to support them. Therefore, it is no wonder that there is now a great endeavor to find a fountain of youth in both society and individuals. In this review each of the hormones that have been suggested to play a role in rejuvenating older persons, ie, the so-called "hormonal fountain of youth" is briefly discussed. Any hope of a fountain of youth to stop people from getting older, however, is a long way off, with science just beginning to understand the complex genetic, physical and hormonal causes of aging. An essential, but still unanswered question, is whether the age-related decline in hormone systems is physiological, perhaps conveying a benefit, or if the changes are pathological, causing harm. Modern research has, however, demonstrated that the concept of a "hormonal fountain of youth" is predominantly mythological.

  15. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.


    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  16. Sex Hormones and the QT Interval: A Review (United States)

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos


    Abstract A prolonged QT interval is a marker for an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones have been shown to affect the QT interval. Endogenous testosterone and progesterone shorten the action potential, and estrogen lengthens the QT interval. During a single menstrual cycle, progesterone levels, but not estrogen levels, have the dominant effect on ventricular repolarization in women. Studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in the form of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) have suggested a counterbalancing effect of exogenous estrogen and progesterone on the QT. Specifically, ET lengthens the QT, whereas EPT has no effect. To date, there are no studies on oral contraception (OC) and the QT interval, and future research is needed. This review outlines the current literature on sex hormones and QT interval, including the endogenous effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone and the exogenous effects of estrogen and progesterone therapy in the forms of MHT and hormone contraception. Further, we review the potential mechanisms and pathophysiology of sex hormones on the QT interval. PMID:22663191

  17. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))


    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  18. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.


    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  19. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation. (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others


    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  20. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald


    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional


    Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Noel, Janet; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Refetoff, Samuel


    Two members of a Turkish family, a mother and son, had thyroid function tests suggestive of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). The clinical presentation was, however, different. The mother (proposita) had palpitation, weakness, tiredness, nervousness, dry mouth and was misdiagnosed as having multinodular toxic goiter which was treated with antithyroid drugs and partial thyroidectomy. Her younger son had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and primary encopresis, but normal intellectual quotient. Both had elevated serum iodothyronine levels with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. A mutation in one allele of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453A) was identified, providing a genetic confirmation for the diagnosis of RTH. PMID:18561095

  2. Developmental processes and responses to hormonal stimuli in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaves are controlled by GRF and GIF gene families. (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhuang, Jing


    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an important leaf-type woody crop used for producing of non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. The GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) transcription factors cooperated with GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) transcriptional coactivators positively regulate leaf development. In the present study, six GRF and two GIF genes were identified and characterized in the leaf transcriptome of C. sinensis, respectively. The alignment results showed that the feature structures of the predicted homologous GRF and GIF proteins of C. sinensis hold a high identity with Arabidopsis and rice. The presence of C. sinensis miR396 target sites suggested that these miR396 members are the potential post-transcriptional regulators of CsGRF genes. The expression profiles of CsGRF and CsGIF1 genes were higher in tender leaves and consistently downregulated during tea plant leaf development. Those results suggested that these genes may be actively involved in the early stage leaf tissue formation in tea plant. The divergence of CsGRF and CsGIF genes in response to different hormonal stimuli revealed the possible multiple functions of these genes in hormonal regulation. This study provided the potential molecular basis of the CsGRF and CsGIF family genes for future functional research on leaf development and hormonal stimuli in C. sinensis.

  3. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan; Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine M; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon


    Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathway which is critical to healthy brain function and has been implicated in psychiatric illness. We review normative developmental changes in dopamine, sex hormone, and stress hormone signaling during adolescence and throughout postnatal life, then highlight the interaction of sex and stress hormones and review their impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. Adolescence is a time of increased responsiveness to sex and stress hormones, during which the maturing dopaminergic neural circuitry is profoundly influenced by these factors. Testosterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoids interact with each other and have distinct, brain region-specific impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain, shaping brain maturation and cognitive function in adolescence and adulthood. Some effects of stress/sex hormones on cortical and subcortical dopamine parameters bear similarities with dopaminergic abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible role for sex/stress hormones at adolescence in influencing risk for psychiatric illness via modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Stress and sex hormones may prove useful targets in future strategies for modifying risk for psychiatric illness.

  4. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist. (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven


    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice. (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K


    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  7. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection? (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  8. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  9. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  10. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  11. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby


    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  12. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  13. The influence of suggestibility on memory. (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L


    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability. (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina


    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  15. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil


    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  16. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  17. [Sex hormones and the metabolism of carbohydrates]. (United States)

    Boukhris, R


    Sex hormones play an important role in the control of glucose metabolism and insulin. Decreased glucose tolerance observed at the end of pregnancy in most cases remains within normal limits. Pregnancy has an important effect on the islets of Langerhans and on the growth of beta cellules. At the end of pregnancy, assimilation of glucose and triglycerides by maternal tissues is slowed and transfer to the fetus is favored. Hyperinsulinism persists but insulin resistance at the level of maternal tissue becomes very strong and the number of receptors declines. This late pregnancy insulin resistance has not been satisfactorily explained. The declining number of receptors may be a mechanism, or the "antiinsulin" pregnancy hormones which includes estrogens and progesterone may play a major role. Although other mechanisms have been proposed to explain the antiinsulin effect, the role of sex hormones and especially of progesterone (and synthetic progestins used in contraception) appears crucial. The presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the beta cellules of the islets of Langerhans suggests a direct effect of these hormones on the cellules. Estrogens however work by other mechanisms than insulin secretion. Experimental evidence indicates that during pregnancy, progesterone increases insulin release while human placental lactogen stimulates hyperplasia of the islets. The progestins derived from progesterone used in contraception have a parallel action. A slight elevation of blood sugar and insulinemia have been observed in oral contraceptive (OC) users. Only 3-5% of OC users develop true hyperglycemia. The changes are usually transitory and disappear on termination of OC use except in the small number of women predisposed to diabetes. The decreased glucose tolerance of OC users differs from true diabetes. Combined OCs favor vascular accidents and myocardial infarct in insulin-dependent diabetics. The mechanisms involved include deteriorating control of diabetes

  18. Physiological Regulation of Gut Peptide Hormone (PYY) Levels by Age, Sex, Hormonal and Nutritional Status in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.


    Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes

  19. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.


    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  20. Ethanol preference is impacted by estrus stage but not housing or stress in female C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly N. Williams


    Full Text Available Vulnerability to maladaptive patterns of alcohol use, including dependence and relapse, is influenced by a combination of biological and environmental factors. A better understanding of how individual factors influence alcohol use is needed to help reduce alcohol dependence and relapse rates in the general population. This study explored how environmental enrichment (EE, stress and estrus cycle stage affect ethanol (ETOH preference in female mice. Mice were housed in enriched or standard environments and exposed chronically to ETOH for two hours a day for twelve days, before entering a brief ETOH-free abstinence period. At the end of this abstinence period, mice were exposed to a series of mild stressors (forced swim tests and anxiety was assessed via an elevated plus-maze. Preference was measured using a two-bottle choice test prior to ETOH exposure (baseline, after chronic ETOH exposure, and immediately following the abstinence period and stressor. Results revealed that mice preferred ETOH more strongly after chronic ETOH exposure, but that this increase was not affected by environment. ETOH preference was further increased after a brief abstinence period, but preference was not affected by environment or mild stress. However, mice in the proestrus/estrus stage of the estrus cycle preferred ETOH more strongly after a brief abstinence period than did mice in the metestrus/diestrus stage, suggesting that circulating levels of gonadal hormones may contribute to the incubation of drug preference. Anxiety- and despair-like behaviors were not impacted by estrus cycle stage. These findings suggest that estrus stage may affect ETOH preference, even after relatively short drug-free periods. Further research is needed to rectify the role of EE and stress in individual vulnerability or resilience to substance abuse. These findings also highlight a need for increased research into how gonadal hormones may influence ETOH preference in both mice and humans.

  1. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution. (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M


    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  2. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats. (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F


    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  3. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea


    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  4. 'Femoral head necrosis' in metabolic and hormonal osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Treugut, H.


    The pathogenesis of bone necrosis is discussed with special attention and with respect to metabolic, hormonal, and vascular factors. The influence of statics and dynamics of the hip joint bones for the development of aseptic necrosis are discussed. 45 patients with ''idiopathic femoral head necroses'' were observed, including 6 cases of renal osteopathy following renal transplantation and immune suppression therapy, 14 cases of long term corticoid therapy, and 11 cases of liver diseases of different genesis. The femoral head necrosis understood as complication of an osteopathy. In our patients there were 31 males and 14 females - which means higher involvement of males. Plain radiological findings and CT-findings of changes of the femoral heat structure in different stages of the disease are described. Early diagnosis of metabolic and hormonal osteopathies is demanded for a joint keeping therapy of the beginning femoral head necrosis. (orig.) [de

  5. Seasonal and Sexual Variation in Metabolism, Thermoregulation, and Hormones in the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus). (United States)

    Richardson, Christopher S; Heeren, Tim; Kunz, Thomas H

    In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase). We hypothesized that all three hormones are seasonally primarily metabolic hormones and secondarily thermogenic hormones. In males, only BMR significantly changed seasonally. In females, all five variables significantly changed seasonally. The seasonal pattern of plasma leptin and cortisol levels correlated with the seasonal pattern of BMR, with an initial increase followed by a decrease, suggesting that leptin and cortisol are primarily metabolic hormones. The seasonal pattern of plasma T 3 levels generally paralleled the basic seasonal pattern of RNST, with both increasing at the second half of the season, suggesting that T 3 is primarily a thermogenic hormone. The observed decrease in plasma leptin levels may be necessary to allow for the observed seasonal decrease in BMR, with the similar cortisol pattern important for leptin regulation. While T 3 is needed to maintain BMR, it may play a more critical role in the seasonal regulation of RNST than of BMR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko


    Full Text Available End stage liver disease is often associated with growth retardation in children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. The aim was to investigate the serum growth hormone level before and after liver transplantation in 52 children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. Data of our research work revealed increased serum level of growth hormone in children with liver cirrhosis (3,32 ± 7,7 ng/ml vs. 1,16 ± 1,46 ng/ml in healthy children, p = 0,01, which correlates with PELD score (r = 0,62, p < 0,001. In a month after liver transplantation growth hormone concentration decreases (p < 0,001 and in a year after transplantation it doesn’t differ from healthy children. There wasn’t revealed any interaction between serum growth hormone level and anthropometric parameters before liver transplantation, but in a year after there was significant correlation between growth hormone concentration and height (r = 0,79, p = 0,01. Investigation of growth hormone level in children with liver cirrhosis and its evolution after liver transplantation is of interest as objective criterion of recovery of physical development regulation and as an additional parameter, which cor- relates with severity of end-stage liver disease. 

  7. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly


    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  8. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  9. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory. (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph


    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  10. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah


    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  11. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah


    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  12. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Post Manopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah


    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  13. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes


    Molz, Günter


    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  14. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders. (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A


    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  15. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach


    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa


    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  16. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV


    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  17. Thyroid hormone actions on male reproductive system of teleost fish. (United States)

    Tovo-Neto, Aldo; da Silva Rodrigues, Maira; Habibi, Hamid R; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique


    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In general a positive correlation has been shown between THs and fish reproductive status; where THs are associated with testicular development, growth and maturation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THs in spermatogenesis have been unraveled in zebrafish testis. THs promote germ cell proliferation and differentiation by increasing a stimulatory growth factor of spermatogenesis produced by Sertoli cells. In addition, THs enhanced the gonadotropin-induced androgen release in zebrafish testis. Next to their functions in the adult testis, THs are involved in the gonadal sex differentiation through modulating sex-related gene expression, and testicular development via regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation. In conclusion, this mini-review showed that THs modulate the male reproductive system during the different life stages of fish. The physiological and molecular mechanisms showed a link between the thyroid and reproduction, suggesting a possibly co-evolution and interdependence of these two systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormonal contraception usage is associated with altered memory for an emotional story. (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ertman, Nicole; Lakhani, Yasmeen S; Cahill, Larry


    Substantial evidence now documents sex-related influences on the neurobiology of emotional memory. Robust sex influences exist, for example, on the amygdala's role in emotional memory formation, as well as on retention of central information (gist) and detail for an emotional event. Evidence also suggests that the well-documented effects of stress hormones on memory depend upon sex hormone levels. Since hormonal contraception alters sex hormone levels, and must by extension alter sex/stress hormone interactions in memory, we examined whether the use of hormonal contraception also alters memory for an emotional story. Two groups of healthy female subjects--one naturally cycling, one using hormonal contraception--viewed either a brief, emotionally arousing story, or a closely matched, but more emotionally neutral story. Each subject's eye movements and pupil dilation changes were recorded as they viewed the story. Additionally, saliva samples were taken throughout the experimental session to examine salivary alpha-amylase, a biomarker for norepinephrine. A surprise free recall test one week later measured story memory in all subjects. Naturally cycling women exhibited enhanced memory of story details, but not of central information (gist), in the emotional compared with neutral story conditions. In contrast, women using hormonal contraception exhibited enhanced memory of gist, but not story details, in the emotional compared with neutral story conditions. Analysis of eye movements made while watching the stories indicated that the differences in memory could not be attributed either to a differential attention focus or to the degree of arousal induced by the stories in the two groups. These findings suggest that the use of hormonal contraception alters memory for an emotional event, perhaps by altering sex/stress hormone interactions in memory formation. They also suggest that further investigation of the mnemonic effects of these very widely used treatments is

  19. Hypothyroidism in Pancreatic Cancer: Role of Exogenous Thyroid Hormone in Tumor Invasion—Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Sarosiek


    Full Text Available According to the epidemiological studies, about 4.4% of American general elderly population has a pronounced hypothyroidism and relies on thyroid hormone supplements daily. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in our patients with pancreatic cancer was much higher, 14.1%. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure or distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy (DPS at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, from 2005 to 2012. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters including tumor stage, grade, and survival. To further understand how thyroid hormone affects pancreatic cancer behavior, functional studies including wound-induced cell migration, proliferation, and invasion were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1. We found that hypothyroid patients taking exogenous thyroid hormone were more than three times likely to have perineural invasion, and about twice as likely to have higher T stage, nodal spread, and overall poorer prognostic stage (P<0.05. Pancreatic cancer cell line studies demonstrated that exogenous thyroid hormone treatment increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion (P<0.05. We conclude that exogenous thyroid hormone may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki


    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.


    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  2. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance. (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H


    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  3. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John


    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  4. Hormones, stress, and cognition: The effects of glucocorticoids and oxytocin on memory (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M.


    Hormones have nuanced effects on learning and memory processes. The degree and direction of the effect (e.g., is memory impaired or enhanced?) depends on the dose, type and stage of memory, and type of material being learned, among other factors. This review will focus on two specific topics within the realm of effects of hormones on memory: (1) How glucocorticoids (the output hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) affect long-term memory consolidation, retrieval, and working memory, with a focus on neural mechanisms and effects of emotion; and (2) How oxytocin affects memory, with emphasis on a speculative hypothesis that oxytocin might exert its myriad effects on human social cognition and behavior via impacts on more general cognitive processes. Oxytocin-glucocorticoid interactions will be briefly addressed. These effects of hormones on memory will also be considered from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25893159

  5. Hormonal contraception and HPV: a tale of differing and overlapping mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks MA


    Full Text Available Morgan A Marks1, Sabra L Klein2,3, Patti E Gravitt1,21Department of Epidemiology, 2W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Hormonal contraceptive use is an identified co-factor that modifies cervical cancer risk. The mechanisms by which sex steroid hormones affect the multi-stage natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis are still unclear, with no consistent evidence in support of a single biological hypothesis. Understanding the means by which hormonal contraception affects HPV infection and cervical cancer risk may provide critical information to guide future secondary interventions for cancer prevention.Keywords: hormones, human papillomavirus, cervical cancer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević


    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  7. Second-stage transsphenoidal approach (TSA) for highly vascular pituicytomas in children. (United States)

    Kim, Young Gyu; Park, Young Seok


    A pituicytoma in the sellar area is extremely rare in children and, due to its highly vascularized nature, can be difficult to address using the transsphenoid approach (TSA) to surgery. Here, we report a rare case of a pituicytoma that was completely removed from a child through a staged operation using the TSA. A 13-year-old girl was admitted with a 1-year history of visual disturbance and amenorrhea. Visual field examination showed left total blindness and right temporal hemianopsia. Laboratory results revealed hormonal levels all within normal ranges. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a homogeneous, highly enhancing sellar and suprasellar mass, typically suggestive of a pituitary adenoma. TSA surgery revealed the tumor had a rubbery-firm consistency, hypervascularity, and profuse bleeding. We removed the tumor partially and planned a second-stage operation. Gross total removal is the treatment of choice for this type of tumor. Attempted resection of these presumed adenomas or meningiomas using the TSA often results in unexpectedly heavy intraoperative bleeding due to the high vascularity of this rare tumor, making surgery challenging, especially in children where the tumor is within a relatively narrow corridor. While pituicytomas are a rare differential diagnosis for sellar or parasellar tumors in children, total removal by second-stage TSA surgery is indicated in the case of profuse bleeding or uncertainty of biopsy. Following first-stage TSA surgery and pathologic confirmation of pituicytoma, the strategy is typically gross total removal during second-stage TSA surgery. Although very rare in children, a pituicytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass in the sellar area if the tumor is highly enhancing or very vascular. Second-stage TSA surgery is another strategy when the pathology is not clear during the first-stage TSA surgery.

  8. Changes of endocrine and ultrasound markers as ovarian aging in modifying the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage. (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Luo, Aiyue; Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xiaofang; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Shen, Wei; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding; Wang, Shixuan


    To demonstrate the changes of ovarian aging markers across the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) stages and modify it with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage (MR). Healthy females were classified according to the STRAW system. Serum basal FSH, LH, E2, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were detected, FSH/LH ratio calculated, and antral follicle counts (AFCs) determined in follicular phase. Progression through the whole STRAW stages under MR stage subdivided is associated with elevations in FSH, LH, FSH/LH ratio and decreases in E2, AMH and AFCs (p age in MR stage. 0.982 ng/ml AMH and 3 antral follicles (low level of MR 25-30 years) were set as cutoffs to distinguish MR stage into early mid reproductive age (EMR) and late mid reproductive age (LMR) stages. The women in EMR stage compared with LMR could retrieve more oocytes in IVF treatment (p stage, demonstrating disparate reproductive aging period with reduced ovarian reserve in young age across the STRAW stages.

  9. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise during different menstrual cycle states. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Aizawa, Katsuji; Imai, Tomoko; Kono, Ichiro; Mesaki, Noboru


    To investigate the effect of menstrual cycle states on ovarian and anabolic hormonal responses to acute resistance exercise in young women. Eight healthy women (eumenorrhea; EM) and eight women with menstrual disorders including oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea (OAM) participated in this study. The EM group performed acute resistance exercises during the early follicular (EF) and midluteal (ML) phases, and the OAM group performed the same exercises. All subjects performed three sets each of lat pull-downs, leg curls, bench presses, leg extensions, and squats at 75%-80% of one-repetition maximum with a 1-min rest between sets. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after the exercise. In the EM group, resting serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase were higher than those in the EF phase and higher than those in the OAM group. Serum estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase increased after the exercise but did not change in the EF phase or in the OAM group. In contrast, resting levels of testosterone in the OAM group were higher than those in both the ML and EF phases of the EM group. After the exercise, serum growth hormone increased in both the ML and EF phases but did not change in the OAM group. The responses of anabolic hormones to acute resistance exercise are different among the menstrual cycle states in young women. Women with menstrual disturbances with low estradiol and progesterone serum levels have an attenuated anabolic hormone response to acute resistance exercise, suggesting that menstrual disorders accompanying low ovarian hormone levels may affect exercise-induced change in anabolic hormones in women.

  10. The effects of genetic polymorphism on treatment response of recombinant human growth hormone. (United States)

    Chen, Shi; You, Hanxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Linjie; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Chengsheng


    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used in clinical treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or non GHD since 1985 and technology have achieved a great development in different long-acting formulations. Although the mathematical models for predicting the growth hormone response could help clinicians get to an individual personalized growth dose, many patients just can't reach the target height and the growth hormone responses differed.Genetic polymorphisms may play a role in the varies of individual responses in this treatment process.This article gives an overview of the genetic polymorphisms research of growth hormone in recent years, in order to give some potential suggestion and guide for the dose titration during treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  11. Sensitive double-antibody method for simultaneous determination of insulin and growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, O.; Sotirov, G.; Tyrkolev, N.


    A method is described for simultaneous determination of insulin and growth hormone in one sample, using double-antibody technique. The method is characterized by appreciable sensitivity (2.5 μE/ml for insulin and a.2 ng/ml for growth hormone), exactness (variation quotient 6-16 per cent) and reproducibility (96.9-117 per cent). There was no statistically significant difference in the insulin and growth hormone values of the same sera, determined by the here suggested and the standard methods. The necessary test material for examination of either hormone is minimal (0.2 ml). One may thus extend the possibilities for radioimmunologic determination of insulin and growth hormone, when only minor amounts of serum or other biological fluid are available. The method is also less time consuming. Results are reported of statistical processing of an experimental model and different sera determined by the standard method and the one described by the authors. (author)

  12. Usefulness of MRI in evaluation of hormonal therapy for the ovarian chocolate cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kono, Michio; Yamasaki, Katsuhito


    We evaluated the diagnostic capability of MRI in ovarian chocolate cysts treated by Danazol (analogue of testosterone). Both inversion recovery as T1-weighted image and long TE and TR spin echo as T2-weighted image were performed before and during hormonal therapy. Temporal change of signal intensity and size was evaluated in three ovarian chocolate cysts (stage II: 2 cases, stage III: 1 case by Beecham classification, 1966) using the 0.15-T MR system. The high intense signal from all of the cysts was seen on both T1 and T2 weighted images before treatment. There was marked decrease in size of the chocolate cysts during hormonal therapy, and they were of considerably lower signal intensity than initially on T2-weighted image. We concluded that MRI was useful to evaluate hormonal therapy for ovarian chocolate cysts.

  13. The usefulness of MRI in evaluation of hormonal therapy for the ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kono, Michio; Yamasaki, Katsuhito.


    We evaluated the diagnostic capability of MRI in ovarian chocolate cysts treated by Danazol (analogue of testosterone). Both inversion recovery as T1-weighted image and long TE and TR spin echo as T2-weighted image were performed before and during hormonal therapy. Temporal change of signal intensity and size was evaluated in three ovarian chocolate cysts (stage II: 2 cases, stage III: 1 case by Beecham classification, 1966) using the 0.15-T MR system. The high intense signal from all of the cysts was seen on both T1 and T2 weighted images before treatment. There was marked decrease in size of the chocolate cysts during hormonal therapy, and they were of considerably lower signal intensity than initially on T2-weighted image. We concluded that MRI was useful to evaluate hormonal therapy for ovarian chocolate cysts. (author)

  14. Mechanisms of action of hormonal emergency contraceptives. (United States)

    Leung, Vivian W Y; Levine, Marc; Soon, Judith A


    Hormonal emergency contraceptives have been used to prevent unwanted pregnancy for more than 3 decades. The mechanisms of action of the regimen containing a combination of estrogen and progestin, known as the Yuzpe regimen, and those of the levonorgestrel regimen continue to be controversial, especially over the possibility that these regimens might act by interfering with implantation of the fertilized ovum. We performed a search of the PubMed (1949-July 2009) and EMBASE (1980-July 2009) databases to identify literature on the mechanisms of action of these contraceptive regimens, and data were extracted from pertinent English-language studies. We classified studies according to the approach taken by the investigators to study the actions of emergency contraceptives on pregnancy: an indirect method that uses statistical models to determine whether emergency contraceptives would be as effective as reported if they act only by disrupting ovulation; direct observation of the effects of emergency contraceptives on surrogate outcomes, including ovulation, sperm activity, hormonal levels, and endometrial receptivity to implantation; and analysis of directly observed pregnancy outcomes against statistical data. Acceptability of emergency contraceptives by women and clinicians may depend on personal opinions about when life or pregnancy begins. The evidence strongly supports disruption of ovulation as a mechanism of action. The data suggest that emergency contraceptives are unlikely to act by interfering with implantation, although the possibility has not been completely excluded. The data also suggest that emergency contraceptives are ineffective after ovulation. Women and clinicians who consider implantation or later events to be the beginning of pregnancy should be aware that emergency contraceptives are likely nonabortive by this definition of pregnancy.

  15. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time. (United States)

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J P; Waldie, K E; Kirk, I J


    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Here, we employed visual-evoked EEG potentials to obtain a direct measure of interhemispheric communication during different phases of the menstrual cycle. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) was estimated from the interhemispheric latency difference of the N170 component of the visual-evoked potential from either left or right visual field presentation. Nineteen right-handed women with regular menstrual cycles were tested twice, once during the menstrual phase, when progesterone and estradiol levels are low, and once during the luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol levels are high. Plasma steroid levels were determined by blood-based immunoassay at each session. It was found that IHTT, in particular from right-to-left, was generally longer during the luteal phase relative to the menstrual phase. This effect occurred as a consequence of a slowed absolute N170 latency of the indirect pathway (i.e. left hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) and, in particular, a shortened latency of the direct pathway (i.e. right hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) during the luteal phase. These results show that cycle-related effects are not restricted to modulation of processes between hemispheres but also apply to cortical interactions, especially within the right hemisphere. The findings support the view that plastic changes in the female brain occur during relatively short-term periods across the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing. (United States)

    Engeland, Christopher G; Sabzehei, Bahareh; Marucha, Phillip T


    Wound healing studies, which have chiefly examined dermal tissues, have reported a female advantage in healing rates. In contrast, our laboratory recently demonstrated women heal mucosal wounds more slowly than men. We hypothesized sex hormones influence wound healing rates, possibly through their modulating effects on inflammation. This study involved 329 younger subjects aged 18-43 (165 women, 164 men) and 93 older subjects aged 50-88 (60 women, 33 men). A 3.5mm diameter wound was created on the hard oral palate and videographed daily to assess wound closure. Blood collected at the time of wounding was used to assess circulating testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels, and in vitro cytokine production in response to LPS. No strong associations were observed between healing times and estradiol or progesterone levels. However, in younger subjects, lower testosterone levels related to faster wound closure. Conversely, in older women higher testosterone levels related to (1) lower inflammatory responses; and (2) faster healing times. No such relationships were seen in older men, or in women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy [HRT]. Older women (50-54 years) not yet experiencing menopause healed similarly to younger women and dissimilarly from age-matched post-menopausal women. This suggests that the deleterious effects of aging on wound healing occur secondary to the effects of menopause. Supporting this, there was evidence in post-menopausal women that HRT augmented wound closure. Overall, this study suggests that human mucosal healing rates are modulated by testosterone levels. Based upon when between-group differences were observed, testosterone may impact upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as re-epithelialization and angiogenesis.

  17. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  18. Gene transcription ontogeny of thyroid-axis development in early-life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone signaling is a form of endocrine disruption that is of concern to both human health and ecosystems. Research is being conducted to define the biological targets chemicals may interact with to disrupt thyroid hormone signaling and the stages in develo...

  19. Gene transcription ontogeny of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis development in early-life stage fathead minnow and zebrafish (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone signaling is a form of endocrine disruption that is of concern to both human health and ecosystems. Research is being conducted to define the biological targets chemicals may interact with to disrupt thyroid hormone signaling and the stages in develo...

  20. Hormonal balance of breast cancer patients treated by various radiotherapy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozinskaya, I.N.; Yakimova, T.P.


    Examination of patients with breast cancer has shown a relationship between disease stage, on the one hand, and thyroid function depression, carcinoembryonic antigen and somatotropin levels, on the other. High levels of carcinoembrionic antigen are conducive to depression of immune stromal reactions in the tumor and unfavorably tell on five-year survival. Radiotherapy leads to nonuniversal changes in the hormonal system, related to cancer stage

  1. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage II (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  3. Late-Stage Caregiving (United States)

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  4. Stages and Behaviors (United States)

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  5. Early-Stage Caregiving (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB (United States)

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  7. Breast cancer staging (United States)

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  8. The use of suggestion in sports practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive, integrated modified technique of personal psycho-physiological regulation based on a system of Raja Yoga. The study involved candidates and masters of sports of freestyle skiing in the amount of 21 people aged 17 to 23 years. Found that athletes co 2 and stage 3 of the hypnotic state successfully acquired by dhyana and can apply it in preparation for a competition. The proposed method includes a high quality optimal fighting condition, modeling and programming training and competitive processes using deferred units, the correction of motor skills. Athletes in their imagination run program of the second day of competition. Then, the third day of competition modeled, programmed overall health. Are told that in the day of the event will have a good mood, great feeling, a surge of strength, vigor, vitality, desire to show all of their sporting qualities.

  9. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility


    Romuald Polczyk


    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  10. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V


    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  11. Growth hormone-releasing peptides. (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F


    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  12. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari


    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  13. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari


    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  14. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn


    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

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  16. Cervical Cancer Stage IA (United States)

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  17. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA (United States)

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  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB (United States)

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  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IB (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  2. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues. (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh


    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  3. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction. (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O'Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C


    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs. This 14-month monitoring study shows a strong correlation between anemone bleaching (zooxanthellae loss), anemonefish stress response, and reproductive hormones that decreased fecundity by 73%. These findings suggest that hormone stress responses play a crucial role in changes to population demography following climate change and plasticity in hormonal responsiveness may be a key mechanism enabling individual acclimation to climate change.Elevated temperatures can cause anemones to bleach, with unknown effects on their associated symbiotic fish. Here, Beldade and colleagues show that climate-induced bleaching alters anemonefish hormonal stress response, resulting in decreased reproductive hormones and severely impacted reproduction.

  4. Overt hypoadrenalism is uncommon in patients with stage 3 and 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of primary hypoadrenalism, as defined by a subnormal cortisol response to the 250 µg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, in patients with stage 3 and 4 lung cancer. Methods. Thirty patients with stage 3 and 4 bronchogenic carcinoma were prospectively ...

  5. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews. (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D


    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility. (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H


    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps


    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  8. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh


    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  9. Acute effects of clonidine and growth-hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Giustina, A; Buffoli, M G; Bussi, A R; Wehrenberg, W B


    Patients with hyperthyroidism have reduced growth hormone (GH) responses to pharmacological stimuli and reduced spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion. The stimulatory effect of clonidine on GH secretion has been suggested to depend on an enhancement of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) release. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of clonidine and GHRH on GH secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism. Eight hyperthyroid females with recent diagnosis of Graves' disease (age range 20-55 years, body mass index range 19.2-26.2 kg/m2) and 6 healthy female volunteers (age range 22-35 years, body mass index range 19-25 kg/m2) underwent two experimental trials at no less than 7-day intervals: (a) an intravenous infusion of clonidine 150 micrograms in 10 ml of saline, or (b) a bolus intravenous injection of human GHRH (1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms in 1 ml of saline. Hyperthyroid patients showed blunted GH peaks after clonidine (7.1 +/- 1.7 micrograms/l) as compared to normal subjects receiving clonidine (28.5 +/- 4.9 micrograms/l, p less than 0.05). GH peaks after GHRH were also significantly lower in hyperthyroid subjects (8.0 +/- 1.7 micrograms/l) as compared to normal subjects receiving GHRH (27.5 +/- 4.4 micrograms/l, p less than 0.05). No significant differences in the GH values either after clonidine or GHRH were observed in the two groups of subjects examined. Our data demonstrate that the GH responses to clonidine as well as to GHRH in patients with hyperthyroidism are inhibited in a similar fashion with respect to normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra


    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  11. Breeding status affects the hormonal and metabolic response to acute stress in a long-lived seabird, the king penguin. (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René


    Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl


    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  13. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.


    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  14. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation. (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others


    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  15. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile


    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  16. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet


    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  17. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.


    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  18. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.


    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  19. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance. (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.


    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting. (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  2. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps


    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  3. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.


    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  4. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  5. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.


    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  6. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell


    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  7. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva


    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  8. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš


    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  9. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen


    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  10. Endogenous sex hormones and cognitive function in the elderly. (United States)

    Boss, Lisa; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bergstrom, Nancy; Leasure, J Leigh


    Estrogen and testosterone may influence cognitive function in the older adult, but the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function is complex. To examine associations of sex hormones and cognitive function among older adults ≥65 years old. Using a cross-sectional research design, data were collected once from 71 elderly (mean age 86.4 years). Global cognitive function and executive function were measured with standardized instruments, and saliva samples were collected for salivary estradiol and testosterone. Estradiol was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive function in men only (r = 0.54, p cognitive function or executive function in either gender. Associations between sex hormones and cognitive function were mostly non-significant. However, higher estradiol was significantly correlated with better global cognitive function in men, suggesting gender-specific differences. Along with sex hormones, other comorbidity may need to be assessed together in relation to cognitive function in the elderly. Accordingly, clinicians play an important role in educating and promoting beneficial actions to preserve cognitive function.

  11. Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones. (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Pearl, D; Glaser, R


    We evaluated hormonal changes and problem-solving behaviors in 90 newlywed couples who were admitted to a hospital research unit for 24 hours. The subjects were selected on the basis of stringent mental and physical health criteria, and admissions were scheduled during the follicular phase of the woman's menstrual cycle. For frequent, unobtrusive endocrine sampling during the interaction tasks, a long polyethylene tube was attached to a heparin well, allowing nurses to draw blood samples at set intervals, out of subjects' sight. Five blood samples were obtained before, during, and after a 30-minute structured problem-solving or conflict task. The conflict session was recorded on videotapes that were later scored for problem-solving behaviors using the Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS). Marital conflict and MICS-coded hostile or negative behavior during conflict was closely linked to changes in serum hormonal levels across five of the six hormones we studied, in spite of the high marital satisfaction of our newlywed couples and the healthy lifestyles demanded by our exclusion criteria. Hostile behavior was associated with decreased levels of prolactin (PRL) and increases in epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NEPI), ACTH, and growth hormone (GH), but not cortisol. These data suggest that the endocrine system may be an important mediator between personal relationships and health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever Ozen


    Full Text Available Plyometric training activities are commonly used by a wide range of athletes to increase jump performance and improve explosive power and muscular activation patterns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on male reproductive hormones. Nineteen recreationally active males volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to plyometrically trained (n=10, 21.2 ±2.3 years and control groups (n=9, 21.4± 2.1. The plyometric training group performed in a six-week plyometric training programme and the control group did not perform any plyometric training techniques. Resting serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinising hormone (LH, and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the training, t1 (end of third week and t2 (end of training. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05 interaction effects for testosterone, prolactin, FSH and cortisol. Six-week plyometric training decreased serum levels of testosterone, cortisol and FSH and increased serum levels of prolactin. These results suggest the presence of alterations in anabolic and catabolic hormonal responses to resistance exercise in men.

  13. Focus on growth hormone deficiency and bone in adults. (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A


    Growth hormone (GH) exerts several effects on the skeleton, mediated either directly or indirectly, leading to increased bone formation and resorption rates. Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of adult onset have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some, but not all, studies have found that adults with childhood onset GHD also have lower BMD than healthy controls. Adults with GHD of childhood onset have smaller bone dimensions, leading to possible underestimation of areal BMD (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), thus potentially confounding the interpretation of densitometric data. Available data suggest that patients with childhood onset GHD are at increased fracture risk. Prospective studies and some clinical trials found that GH replacement for at least 18-24 months leads to increased BMD. Retrospective and prospective data suggest that GH replacement is associated with decreased fracture risk in adults. However, data from randomized clinical trials are lacking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide


    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  15. Identificação de isolados de Azospirillum amazonense associados a Brachiaria spp., em diferentes épocas e condições de cultivo e produção de fitormônio pela bactéria Identification of Azospirillum amazonense isolates associated to Brachiaria spp. at different stages and growth conditions, and bacterial plant hormone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Reis Junior


    pastures a higher longevity. Among the diazotrophic bacteria found in association with these forage grasses, the species Azospirillum amazonense is most outstanding. This study aimed to verify the influence of the Brachiaria species, pasture management, and seasonal variations on the A. amazonense populations associated to the plant roots. Different pastures (B. humidicola, B. decumbens, and B. brizantha were implanted in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest ecosystem areas. Two management systems with different stocking rates were evaluated and samples collected at different times of the year. The A. amazonense populations were quantified, and the isolates' identity as well as the capacity to produce phyto-hormones like IAA in growth media tested. A. amazonense isolates were obtained from root samples of the three evaluated Brachiaria species. The estimates of bacterial populations varied from 10³-10(7 cells. g-1 of roots. In the Cerrado, the sampling time had a significant influence on the population of these bacteria. Data from the Atlantic forest showed that Brachiaria plants from different species and pastures under different stocking rates can present distinct population numbers of A. amazonense associated to their roots. The "analise de restrição do DNA ribossome amplificado" amplifed ribossomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA technique confirmed the identity of all tested isolates. These isolates were able to produce phyto-hormones like IAA.

  16. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, M.A.


    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via β-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents

  17. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy


    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  18. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects. (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin


    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  19. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami


    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  20. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas


    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.


    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  1. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.


    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  2. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update


    Litsas, George


    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  3. Hormonal Contraception, Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Risk of HIV Disease Progression Among Zambian Women. (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Lakhi, Shabir; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Mulenga, Joseph; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan


    Some studies suggest that hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and/or breastfeeding may influence rates of HIV disease progression. From 1994 to 2012, HIV discordant couples recruited at couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing centers in Lusaka were followed 3-monthly. Multivariate survival analyses explored associations between time-varying contraception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding and 2 outcomes among HIV-positive women: (1) time to death and (2) time to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Among 1656 female seropositive, male seronegative couples followed for 3359 person-years (PY), 224 women died [6.7/100 PY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8 to 7.6]. After 2003, 290 women initiated ART (14.5/100 PY; 95% CI: 12.9 to 16.2). In a multivariate model of time to death, hormonal implant [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.98] and injectable (aHR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.97) were significantly protective relative to nonhormonal method use, whereas oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was not (aHR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.57) controlling for baseline HIV disease stage, time-varying pregnancy, time-varying breastfeeding, and year of enrollment. In a multivariate model of time-to-ART initiation, implant was significantly protective (aHR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.95), whereas OCP (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.10) and injectable (aHR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.32) were not relative to nonhormonal method use controlling for variables above, woman's age, and literacy. Pregnancy was not significantly associated with death (aHR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.66) or ART initiation (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.86), whereas breastfeeding was protective for death (aHR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.62) and ART initiation (aHR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.85). Hormonal implants and injectables significantly predicted lower mortality; implants were protective for ART initiation. OCPs and pregnancy were not associated with death or ART initiation, whereas

  4. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke


    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  5. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed


    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  6. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.


    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  7. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation. (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B


    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  8. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie


    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  9. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology. (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin


    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne


    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  11. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration]. (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L


    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  12. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  13. Frequency and clinical, hormonal and ultrasonographic characteristics suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome in a group of females with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovies Carballo, Gisel; Dominguez Alonso, Emma; Verdeja Varela, Olga L; Zamora Recinos, Hugo


    The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most frequent endocrine affection in females at reproductive age. Nowadays, it is known that insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinism seem to be the basis of the disorders characterizing it. That's why, it is not erroneous to think that in females with metabolic syndrome, whose physiopathological bases are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, there may appear clinical, humoral and ultrasonographic elements of the polycystic ovarian syndrome

  14. Prevention of adsorption losses during radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones: effectiveness of albumins, gelatin, caseins, Tween 20 and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.H.; Donald, R.A.


    It is well known that polypeptide hormones adsorb to glass and plastic surfaces and that this adsorption may be reduced by adding a relatively large quantity of another protein. Consequently proteins (or sometimes detergents) are added almost universally to peptide hormone radioimmunassays to minimise loss of analyte by adsorption. This study was undertaken because there are few reports of the relative effectiveness of the proteins so used. The results suggest that moderate concentrations of the widely used albumins of Tween 20 do not always adequately prevent the adsorption of hormonal polypeptides to surfaces. Casein and alkali-treated casein appear to be more effective than the adsorption inhibitors in general use in radioimmunoassay for the range of hormones and adsorptive surfaces tested. They were also found to be very effective for preventing the adsorption of radio-labelled human luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone and Tyr-somatostatin. (Auth.)

  15. Steroid hormone signaling during development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L; Monteiro, Antónia


    It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought.

  16. Prolactin, thyrotropin, and growth hormone release during stress associated with parachute jumping. (United States)

    Noel, G L; Dimond, R C; Earll, J M; Frantz, A G


    Prolactin, growth hormone, and thyrotropin (TSH) release during the stress of parachute jumping has been evaluated in 14 male subjects. Subjects were studied at several times before and immediately after their first military parachute jump. All three hormones had risen significantly 1 to 14 min after the jump, compared to mean levels measured immediately beforehand. Earlier studies of physical exercise by ourselves and others would suggest that emotional stress played a role in producing changes of this magnitude. We conclude that prolactin, TSH, and growth hormone are released in physiologically significant amounts in association with the stress of parachute jumping.

  17. Estrogen receptor quantitation and staging as complementary prognostic indicators in breast cancer: a study of 583 patients. (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Elwood, J M; Spinelli, J J


    Estrogen receptor (ER) quantity was measured at the time of primary diagnosis on 583 patients with breast cancer seen at the major treatment centre in British Columbia between 1975 and 1979. Survival rates (overall, recurrence-free and post-recurrence) were assessed relative to ER concentration, staging, menopausal status, age, differentiation, and therapy. A linear trend in increased survival was demonstrable through variations in ER concentration from less than 1 to greater than 260 fmoles/mg cytosol protein. This trend was highly significant and remained after adjustment for stage, menopausal status, and age, and was seen for all groups of patients except those with metastatic disease. The association of high ER concentration with increased recurrence-free survival was not due to differing responses to adjuvant therapy, but the trend in post-recurrence survival was only significant in patients who had received hormonal therapy. Survival was as strongly associated with receptor concentration as with staging, and these two factors were almost completely independent. A proportional hazards model was fitted to produce predictions of survival, and showed that TNM stage III patients with high ER concentrations have a better survival than stage I or II patients with lower ER concentrations. This suggests that quantitative assessment of ER status is essential to definition of risk in breast cancer patients and that stratification in clinical trials and consideration for adjuvant therapy ought to be guided, in part, by a standardized ER-quantitative determination performed on the primary tumor.


    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  19. An Analysis of Cosecretion and Coexpression of Gut Hormones From Male Rat Proximal and Distal Small Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Pedersen, Jens; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer


    Gut endocrine cells are generally thought to have distinct localization and secretory products. Recent studies suggested that the cells are highly related and have potential to express more than one hormone. We studied co-expression and co-secretion of gut hormones in separate segments of rat sma...

  20. Hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis. (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dehui; Hu, Li; Liu, Quan; Sun, Xicai


    This work demonstrated that juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) express high levels of hormone receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with normal nasal mucosa. The interaction between hormone receptors and VEGF may be involved in the initiation and growth of JNA. JNA is a rare benign tumor that occurs almost exclusively in male adolescents. Although generally regarded as a hormone-dependent tumor, this has not been proven in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hormone receptors in JNA and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Standard immunohistochemical microarray analysis was performed on 70 JNA samples and 10 turbinate tissue samples. Specific antibodies for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and VEGF were examined, and the relationships of receptor expression with age, tumor stage, and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS showed that JNA expressed ER-α (92.9%), ER-β (91.4%), AR (65.7%), PR (12.8%), and VEGF (95.7%) at different levels. High level of VEGF was linked to elevated ER-α and ER-β. There was no significant relationship between hormonal receptors and age at diagnosis, tumor stage or bleeding. However, overexpression of ER-α was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis (p = 0.031).

  1. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  2. The rationale and design of TransCon Growth Hormone for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennett Sprogøe


    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge of developing a long-acting growth hormone (LAGH is to create a more convenient growth hormone (GH dosing profile while retaining the excellent safety, efficacy and tolerability of daily GH. With GH receptors on virtually all cells, replacement therapy should achieve the same tissue distribution and effects of daily (and endogenous GH while maintaining levels of GH and resulting IGF-1 within the physiologic range. To date, only two LAGHs have gained the approval of either the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the European Medicines Agency (EMA; both released unmodified GH, thus presumably replicating distribution and pharmacological actions of daily GH. Other technologies have been applied to create LAGHs, including modifying GH (for example, protein enlargement or albumin binding such that the resulting analogues possess a longer half-life. Based on these approaches, nearly 20 LAGHs have reached various stages of clinical development. Although most have failed, lessons learned have guided the development of a novel LAGH. TransCon GH is a LAGH prodrug in which GH is transiently bound to an inert methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG carrier. It was designed to achieve the same safety, efficacy and tolerability as daily GH but with more convenient weekly dosing. In phase 2 trials of children and adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD, similar safety, efficacy and tolerability to daily GH was shown as well as GH and IGF-1 levels within the physiologic range. These promising results support further development of TransCon GH.

  3. Hormones as doping in sports. (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera


    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  4. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  5. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.


    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  6. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson


    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  7. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives. (United States)

    Fraser, I S


    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  8. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.


    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  9. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans. (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo


    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  10. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M


    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones. (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E


    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  12. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk


    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  13. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang


    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO ( BmFOXO ) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L


    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  15. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.


    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  16. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients. (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy


    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  17. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  18. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias


    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  19. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.


    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  20. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies. (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay


    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.