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Sample records for stage sizing evaluation

  1. The internationalization process of small and medium-sized enterprises : An evaluation of stage theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gankema, H.G.J.; Snuif, H.R.; Zwart, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide better insight into the internationalization process of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using a five-year panel dataset and a relatively new technique, DEL analysis, the predictive validity of the export stage concept of Cavusgil's innovation-related

  2. Computed tomography in the evaluation of malignant pleural mesothelioma-Association of tumor size to a sarcomatoid histology, a more advanced TNM stage and poor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Wolff, Henrik; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Kuosma, Eeva; Ollila, Hely; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vehmas, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    Appropriate clinical staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is critical for correct treatment decisions. Newly revised TNM staging protocol has been released for MPM. We investigated baseline computed tomography (CT) characteristics of MPM patients, the new staging system and a simple tumor size (TS) assessment in terms of survival. As part of our study that included all MPM patients diagnosed in Finland 2000-2012, we retrospectively reviewed 161 CT scans of MPM patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2012 in the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa. TS was estimated by using the maximal tumor thickness and grading tumor extension along the chest wall. Cox Regression models were used to identify relationships between survival, clinicopathological factors and CT-findings. The median length of follow-up was 9.7 months and the median survival 9.1 months. The right sided tumors tended to be more advanced at baseline and had worse prognosis in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate survival model, TS, pleural effusion along with non-epithelioid histology were predictors of poor survival. Tumor size correlated significantly with a sarcomatoid histopathological finding and several parameters linked to a more advanced TNM stage. Most patients were diagnosed with locally advanced stage, while 12 (7%) had no sign of the tumor in CT. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for MPM tumor size evaluation that has a strong relationship with mortality, sarcomatoid histology and TNM stage groups. TS could be used for prognostic purposes and it may be a useful method for assessing therapy responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-Stage Adaptive Optimal Design with Fixed First-Stage Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In adaptive optimal procedures, the design at each stage is an estimate of the optimal design based on all previous data. Asymptotics for regular models with fixed number of stages are straightforward if one assumes the sample size of each stage goes to infinity with the overall sample size. However, it is not uncommon for a small pilot study of fixed size to be followed by a much larger experiment. We study the large sample behavior of such studies. For simplicity, we assume a nonlinear regression model with normal errors. We show that the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimates converges to a scale mixture family of normal random variables. Then, for a one parameter exponential mean function we derive the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimate explicitly and present a simulation to compare the characteristics of this asymptotic distribution with some commonly used alternatives.

  4. Structured population dynamics: continuous size and discontinuous stage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Giuseppe; Pasquali, Sara

    2007-04-01

    A nonlinear stochastic model for the dynamics of a population with either a continuous size structure or a discontinuous stage structure is formulated in the Eulerian formalism. It takes into account dispersion effects due to stochastic variability of the development process of the individuals. The discrete equations of the numerical approximation are derived, and an analysis of the existence and stability of the equilibrium states is performed. An application to a copepod population is illustrated; numerical results of Eulerian and Lagrangian models are compared.

  5. EVALUATION OF LIVER FAILURE STAGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Volynets

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to develop a system of evaluation of liver failure stage in children based on the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF. Patients and methods: based on the retrospective analysis of 14 biochemical markers, characterizing hepatic role in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates metabolism, of 115 children without liver diseases, 15 children who died of liver failure and 220 patients with various hepatic disorders, being followed-up in the SCCH of RAMS, a score system of evaluation of liver failure stage in children as an additional diagnostic tool was developed. Each of the biochemical markers was assessed according to the 5-point rating scale in dependence of its changes intensity. Results: the sum of points was considered to be a criterion of liver failure stage. According to the ICF recommendations, decrease of points on 0–4% (54–56 points corresponds with absence of liver failure; 5–24% (43–53 points — as mild dysfunction, 25–49% (29–42 points — as moderate; 50-95% (3–28 points — as severe; and 96–100% (0-2 points — as absolute failure. Conclusions: score system of evaluation of liver failure stage can be applied at any step of diagnostics and treatment of children of any age, due to independence of the used markers from the age. It can be used in assessment of the severity of disorder in dynamics, in determination of the prognosis and as criterion of indications to liver transplantation, as well as during medico-social examination.

  6. Sample size reassessment for a two-stage design controlling the false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmayer, Sonja; Graf, Alexandra C; Posch, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Sample size calculations for gene expression microarray and NGS-RNA-Seq experiments are challenging because the overall power depends on unknown quantities as the proportion of true null hypotheses and the distribution of the effect sizes under the alternative. We propose a two-stage design with an adaptive interim analysis where these quantities are estimated from the interim data. The second stage sample size is chosen based on these estimates to achieve a specific overall power. The proposed procedure controls the power in all considered scenarios except for very low first stage sample sizes. The false discovery rate (FDR) is controlled despite of the data dependent choice of sample size. The two-stage design can be a useful tool to determine the sample size of high-dimensional studies if in the planning phase there is high uncertainty regarding the expected effect sizes and variability.

  7. Echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçinaj, Dardan; Gashi, Masar; Berisha, Merita; Koçinaj, Allma; Ramadani, Naser; Korça, Hajrije

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac disease is the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is assumed that the high rate of cardiovascular mortality is related to accelerated atherosclerosis. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency have an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, silent myocardial ischaemia, complex ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, annular mitral and aortic valve calcification, and enlargement of the left atrium, than patients with normal renal function. It is also well known that haemodialysis is associated with cardiovascular structural changes and rapid fluctuations in electrolyte levels. In this study, we sought to estimate left atrial size by means of echocardiography and to determine any correlations between different echocardiographic measurements in patients with end-stage renal disease. We analysed data from 123 patients who were on regular haemodialysis, by means of traditional transthoracic echocardiographic examination. The usual statistical parameters, correlations and the Student's t-test were performed, with levels of significance of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The most presented age group was 60 to 69 years old, with a predomination of females (56.1%). We found dilated left atrium in 26.02% of the study patients and a high statistical correlation between different methods of measurement and calculated volumes of the left atrium. Evaluation of left atrial size should be determined by several different measurements, and left atrial enlargement should be seen as a risk factor for advancing disease.

  8. Modified Masaoka stage and size are independent prognostic predictors in thymoma and modified Masaoka stage is superior to histopathologic classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Anja C; Yi, Eunhee S; Jenkins, Sarah M; Edwards, Kelly K; Donovan, Janis L; Cassivi, Stephen D; Marks, Randolph S; Garces, Yolanda I; Aubry, Marie Christine

    2015-04-01

    The prognostic value of histopathologic classifications of thymoma is debated. Problematic reproducibility might cause this controversy. We studied the prognostic significance of three histopathologic classifications of thymomas after three thoracic pathologists agreed upon thymoma subtype and invasion. We also compared the outcome to established prognostic parameters. Patients, surgically treated for thymic epithelial neoplasm at Mayo Clinic (1942-2008), were staged according to the modified Masaoka staging and the recently proposed staging by Moran. Three thoracic pathologists independently classified all cases according to the World Health Organization, Bernatz, and proposed Suster and Moran classification. Only thymoma that all three pathologists diagnosed as the same histopathologic subtype and extent of invasion were included in outcome analysis. In 214 (proposed Suster and Moran classification), 145 (World Health Organization classification), and 120 cases (Bernatz classification), reviewers agreed upon subtype of thymoma and invasion and follow-up was available. Median follow-up time was 7.5-7.7 years (range between classifications). All histopathologic classifications were associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (p ≤ 0.0001 to p = 0.048); only Bernatz classification was independent of modified Masaoka staging associated with OS (p = 0.04). Modified Masaoka stage predicted outcome independent of all histopathologic classifications and resection status and strongly correlated with the proposed Moran stage (correlation coefficient, 0.95). Thymoma size and age were prognostic parameters for OS independent of any histopathologic classification. Histopathologic classifications of thymomas are associated with prognosis but are in general not independent predictors of outcome. Modified Masaoka stage and proposed Moran staging are independent prognostic parameters for thymoma and superior to histopathologic classifications.

  9. Evaluation of the prognostic significance of perirenal fat invasion and tumor size in patients with pT1-pT3a localized renal cell carcinoma in a comprehensive multicenter study of the CORONA project. Can we improve prognostic discrimination for patients with stage pT3a tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-May, Sabine D; May, Matthias; Wolff, Ingmar; Zigeuner, Richard; Hutterer, Georg C; Cindolo, Luca; Schips, Luigi; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Rocco, Bernardo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Coman, Ioman; Truss, Michael; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Feciche, Bogdan; Figenshau, Robert S; Madison, Kerry; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Santiago Martin, Maria del Carmen; Salzano, Luigi; Lotrecchiano, Giuseppe; Zastrow, Stefan; Wirth, Manfred; Sountoulides, Petros; Shariat, Shahrokh; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian; Gunia, Sven

    2015-05-01

    The current TNM system for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) merges perirenal fat invasion (PFI) and renal vein invasion (RVI) as stage pT3a despite limited evidence concerning their prognostic equivalence. In addition, the prognostic value of PFI compared to pT1-pT2 tumors remains controversial. To analyze the prognostic significance of PFI, RVI, and tumor size in pT1-pT3a RCC. Data for 7384 pT1a-pT3a RCC patients were pooled from 12 centers. Patients were grouped according to stages and PFI/RVI presence as follows: pT1-2N0M0 (n=6137; 83.1%), pT3aN0M0 + PFI (n=1036; 14%), and pT3aN0M0 (RVI ± PFI; n=211; 2.9%). Radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) (1992-2010). Cancer-specific survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models, as well as sensitivity and discrimination analyses, were used to evaluate the impact of clinicopathologic parameters on cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Compared to stage pT1-2, patients with stage pT3a RCC were significantly more often male (59.4% vs 53.1%) and older (64.9 vs 62.1 yr), more often had clear cell RCC (85.2% vs 77.7%), Fuhrman grade 3-4 (29.4% vs 13.4%), and tumor size >7 cm (39.1% vs 13%), and underwent NSS less often (7.5% vs 36.6%; all p<0.001). According to multivariate analysis, CSM was significantly higher for the PFI and RVI ± PFI groups compared to pT1-2 patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94 and 2.12, respectively; p<0.001), whereas patients with PFI only and RVI ± PFI did not differ (HR 1.17; p=0.316). Tumor size instead enhanced CSM by 7% per cm in stage pT3a (HR 1.07; p<0.001) with a 7 cm cutoff yielding the highest prediction accuracy. Since the prognostic impact of PFI and RVI on CSM seems to be comparable, merging both as stage pT3a RCC might be justified. Enhanced prognostic discrimination of stage pT3a RCC appears to be possible by applying a tumor size cutoff of 7 cm within an alternative staging system. Prognosis prediction for

  10. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P ewes fed grass silages....

  11. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  12. Stability patterns for a size-structured population model and its stage-structured counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Pedersen, Michael; Lin, Zhigui

    2015-01-01

    delayed system consisting of a renewal equation for the consumer population birth rate and a delayed differential equation for the resource. Results show that the size- and stage-structured models differ considerably with respect to equilibrium stability, although the two models have completely identical...

  13. Transcriptional profiling of five isolated size-matched stages of human preantral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Ebbesen, Pernille; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the early stages of human follicular development and the complex processes that regulate follicular growth. To identify genes of potential importance, we analysed follicle-related transcripts in five populations of isolated size-matched human preantral follicles by microarray a...

  14. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  16. Present stage evaluation of Furnas calculus methodology qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This technical note is about the present stage evaluation of FURNAS Calculus Methodology Qualification related to reload licensing process and licensing support of operation questions of Angra 1 NPP concerning transient and Core ThermalHydraulic areas. (Author) [pt

  17. Effects of host species, stage and size on the sex ratio and clutch size of the parasitoid, Dibrachys boarmiae (Walker, 1863) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, A; Gülel, A

    2011-06-01

    Effects of host species, stage and size on clutch size and sex ratio of the gregarious, idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dibrachys boarmiae were investigated at 25±2°C and 70±5% relative humidity. The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, small wax moth, Achroia grisella, and early stage solitary larvae of the endoparasitoid, Apanteles galleriae, were used as hosts. Clutch size was greatest from prepupae of the largest host, Galleria mellonella, with a mean of 40.07 offspring per host versus 14.73 and 2.93 for Achroia grisella and Apanteles galleriae, respectively. The mean clutch size from pupae was lower than from prepupae, being 17.27, 10.73 and 2.89 for Galleria mellonella, Achroia grisella and Apanteles galleriae, respectively. Within each host species and stage, heavier hosts resulted in larger clutches. The sex ratio of offspring (proportion of male) was approximately 0.20, with only minor differences among host species, stages and sizes.

  18. A Descriptive Evaluation of Software Sizing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    compensate for a lack of understanding of a software job to be done. 1.3 REPORT OUTLINE The guiding principle for model selection for this paper was...MODEL SIZE ESTIMATES FOR THE CAiSS SENSITIVITY MODEL MODEL SLOC ESD 37,600+ SPQR 35,910 BYL 22,402 PRICE SZ 21,410 ASSET-R 11,943 SSM 11,700 ASSET-R...disk. ?. Date LS, De fault current date, Re quire ] - ,, ... perffr: an,- 1 ,’ e e st i ma t e. Quantitative inputs Note- Each of the nine quantitative

  19. Quick pace of property acquisitions requires two-stage evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, R.; Lockwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional method of evaluating oil and gas reserves may be too cumbersome for the quick pace of oil and gas property acquisition. An acquisition evaluator must decide quickly if a property meets basic purchase criteria. The current business climate requires a two-stage approach. First, the evaluator makes a quick assessment of the property and submits a bid. If the bid is accepted then the evaluator goes on with a detailed analysis, which represents the second stage. Acquisition of producing properties has become an important activity for many independent oil and gas producers, who must be able to evaluate reserves quickly enough to make effective business decisions yet accurately enough to avoid costly mistakes. Independent thus must be familiar with how transactions usually progress as well as with the basic methods of property evaluation. The paper discusses acquisition activity, the initial offer, the final offer, property evaluation, and fair market value

  20. Early-stage evolution of particle size distribution with Johnson's SB function due to Brownian coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    The moment method can be used to determine the time evolution of particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation based on the general dynamic equation (GDE). But the function form of the initial particle size distribution must be determined beforehand for the moment method. If the assumed function type of the initial particle size distribution has an obvious deviation from the true particle population, the evolution of particle size distribution may be different from the real evolution tendency. Thus, a simple and general method is proposed based on the moment method. In this method, the Johnson's S B function is chosen as a general distribution function to fit the initial distributions including the log normal (L-N), Rosin–Rammler (R-R), normal (N-N) and gamma distribution functions, respectively. Meanwhile, using the modified beta function to fit the L-N, R-R, N-N and gamma functions is also conducted as a comparison in order to present the advantage of the Johnson's S B function as the general distribution function. And then, the time evolution of particle size distributions using the Johnson's S B function as the initial distribution can be obtained by several lower order moment equations of the Johnson's S B function in conjunction with the GDE during the Brownian coagulation process. Simulation experiments indicate that fairly reasonable results of the time evolution of particle size distribution can be obtained with this proposed method in the free molecule regime, transition regime and continuum plus near continuum regime, respectively, at the early time stage of evolution. The Johnson's S B function has the ability of describing the early time evolution of different initial particle size distributions. (paper)

  1. Testicular and related size evaluations in Nigerian Sahel goats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular and related size evaluations in Nigerian Sahel goats with optimal cauda epididymal sperm reserve. Y Abba, IO Igbokwe. Abstract. Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that ...

  2. Two-Stage Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Implant for Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: Getting the Size Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy is to craft a natural-looking breast with symmetry. The latissimus dorsi (LD flap with implant is an established technique for this purpose. However, it is challenging to obtain adequate volume and satisfactory aesthetic results using a one-stage operation when considering factors such as muscle atrophy, wound dehiscence and excessive scarring. The two-stage reconstruction addresses these difficulties by using a tissue expander to gradually enlarge the skin pocket which eventually holds an appropriately sized implant.MethodsWe analyzed nine patients who underwent unilateral two-stage LD reconstruction. In the first stage, an expander was placed along with the LD flap to reconstruct the mastectomy defect, followed by gradual tissue expansion to achieve overexpansion of the skin pocket. The final implant volume was determined by measuring the residual expander volume after aspirating the excess saline. Finally, the expander was replaced with the chosen implant.ResultsThe average volume of tissue expansion was 460 mL. The resultant expansion allowed an implant ranging in volume from 255 to 420 mL to be placed alongside the LD muscle. Seven patients scored less than six on the relative breast retraction assessment formula for breast symmetry, indicating excellent breast symmetry. The remaining two patients scored between six and eight, indicating good symmetry.ConclusionsThis approach allows the size of the eventual implant to be estimated after the skin pocket has healed completely and the LD muscle has undergone natural atrophy. Optimal reconstruction results were achieved using this approach.

  3. Optimal cost-effective staging evaluations in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Gregory L; Soderdahl, Douglas W; Hernandez, Javier

    2007-05-01

    A new diagnosis of prostate cancer presents to both the patient and physician questions regarding the best approach for further assessing the extent of disease prior to selecting a treatment strategy. In addition to the initial clinical data such as serum prostate-specific antigen level, findings on digital rectal examination, and core biopsy Gleason score, several procedures and imaging modalities are available to further stage newly diagnosed prostate cancer. A substantial percentage of the cost of managing prostate cancer is directly related to staging evaluations. Often, staging evaluations are performed that have limited test performance characteristics, subject the patient to unnecessary morbidity, or simply do not provide additional useful clinical information. It is important that the physician be familiar with the indications for the available staging modalities as well as the test performance characteristics in order to proceed appropriately and in an economically judicious fashion. This paper reviews the literature on this topic and summarizes previous experiences with procedures and imaging modalities for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

  4. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose...... in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution...

  5. Evaluation of the I. Stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasnova, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper author deals with following aspects: 1. Introduction of company Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc; 2. Evaluation of the I. stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1; (author)

  6. Evaluation of a prognostic model for risk of relapse in stage I seminoma surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    of 3 cm) was a predictor for relapse, HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.15, 3.06), whereas rete testis invasion HR 1.36, (95% CI 0.81, 2.28) was not statistically significant. The 3-year relapse risk based on the primary tumor size alone increased from 9% for 1 cm primary tumor to 26% for 8 cm tumor. A clinically...... useful, highly discriminating prognostic model remains elusive in stage I seminoma surveillance as we were unable to validate the previously developed model. However, primary tumor size retained prognostic importance and a scale of relapse risk based on the unit increment of tumor size was developed...... analyzed. Variables including age and pathology of the primary tumor: small vessel invasion, tumor size, and invasion of rete testis were analyzed. Specifically median tumor size and rete testis invasion was tested to evaluate the performance of the published model. Median follow-up was 3.85 years (0...

  7. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Møller-Sonnergaard, Jørn; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution. Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions. The multivariate data analysis was proven to be an efficient tool for evaluating the full information contained in a distribution.

  8. A two-stage DEA model to evaluate sustainability and energy efficiency of tomato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Raheli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of tomato production and to investigate the determinants of inefficiency of tomato farming in Marand region of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For these purposes, a two-stage methodology was applied, in which for the first time a fractional regression model (FRM was employed in the second stage of analysis, so that, in the first stage a nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to analyze the efficiencies of tomato production and in the second stage, farm specific variables such as education level, farmers’ age, total land size and use of manure were used in a fractional regression model to explain how these factors influenced efficiency of tomato farming. The results of the first stage showed that there are considerable differences between efficient and inefficient farmers in the studied area, so that the main differences were in the use of chemical fertilizers, biocides and water for irrigation. Also, the results of second stage revealed that farmers’ age, education level and total land size positively affected efficiency in tomato production. So, better use of land, chemical fertilizers, water for irrigation and improving the farmers’ educational levels through literacy campaign and land consolidation would probably increase the efficiency in the long term. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Energy efficiency, Fractional regression model, Tomato

  9. Evaluating damping elements for two-stage suspension vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Martinod R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical state of the damping elements for a vehicle having two-stage suspension was evaluated by using numerical models based on the multi-body system theory; a set of virtual tests used the eigenproblem mathematical method. A test was developed based on experimental modal analysis (EMA applied to a physical system as the basis for validating the numerical models. The study focused on evaluating vehicle dynamics to determine the influence of the dampers’ technical state in each suspension state.

  10. MR evaluation of postmenopausal ovarian size. Comparison with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Ishida, Kana; Matsushita, Toshi; Mimura, Seiichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Akagi, Noriaki; Miyagi, Yasunari; Hara, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ovarian size after menopause using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross specimens obtained from patients with uterine cancer after menopause in whom normal ovaries were confirmed at the time of surgery. The relationships between size of ovarian long axis and age, the number of years since menopause, and age at menopause were statistically evaluated for 130 ovaries observed in short-axis T 2 -weighted MR images of the uterine corpus and in 147 ovarian gross specimens. No significant relationships were found between size of ovarian long axis and these 3 factors. When the sizes of the ovaries in MR images were compared with those in gross specimens, the latter were larger, with a statistically significant difference. Similarly, when the sizes of the ovaries observed or not observed in MR images were compared in gross specimens, the former were larger, with a statistically significant difference. These results indicate that the size of the ovarian long axis observed in MR images does not accurately reflect the true size of the long axis, but ovarian size strongly affects visualization of the ovaries in MR images after menopause. In addition, these results indicate that there are no significant relationships between ovarian size after menopause and age, the number of years since menopause, or age at menopause. (author)

  11. Multimodal Dispersion of Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Size Distribution with 9 Size Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, Fanny; Makky, Ali; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Vauthier, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of particle size distribution (PSD) of multimodal dispersion of nanoparticles is a difficult task due to inherent limitations of size measurement methods. The present work reports the evaluation of PSD of a dispersion of poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with dextran known as multimodal and developed as nanomedecine. The nine methods used were classified as batch particle i.e. Static Light Scattering (SLS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), single particle i.e. Electron Microscopy (EM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and separative particle i.e. Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation coupled with DLS (AsFlFFF) size measurement methods. The multimodal dispersion was identified using AFM, TRPS and NTA and results were consistent with those provided with the method based on a separation step prior to on-line size measurements. None of the light scattering batch methods could reveal the complexity of the PSD of the dispersion. Difference between PSD obtained from all size measurement methods tested suggested that study of the PSD of multimodal dispersion required to analyze samples by at least one of the single size particle measurement method or a method that uses a separation step prior PSD measurement.

  12. Multimodal imaging evaluation in staging of rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Rectal cancer is a common cancer and a major cause of mortality in Western countries. Accurate staging is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategies and planning appropriate surgical procedures to control rectal cancer. Endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) is suitable for assessing the extent of tumor invasion, particularly in early-stage or superficial rectal cancer cases. In advanced cases with distant metastases, computed tomography (CT) is the primary approach used to evaluate the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess preoperative staging and the circumferential resection margin involvement, which assists in evaluating a patient’s risk of recurrence and their optimal therapeutic strategy. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT may be useful in detecting occult synchronous tumors or metastases at the time of initial presentation. Restaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains a challenge with all modalities because it is difficult to reliably differentiate between the tumor mass and other radiation-induced changes in the images. EUS does not appear to have a useful role in post-therapeutic response assessments. Although CT is most commonly used to evaluate treatment responses, its utility for identifying and following-up metastatic lesions is limited. Preoperative high-resolution MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging, and/or PET-CT could provide valuable prognostic information for rectal cancer patients with locally advanced disease receiving preoperative CRT. Based on these results, we conclude that a combination of multimodal imaging methods should be used to precisely assess the restaging of rectal cancer following CRT. PMID:24764662

  13. Infantile spasms: a proposal for a staged evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasmonte, J V; Barron, T F

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a staged, algorithmic evaluation of infantile spasms could be developed to minimize patient discomfort, treatment delay, and overall costs. A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with infantile spasms at the authors' institution during a 10-year period was performed, with 29 patients identified; 28 charts were reviewed. By history and physical examination, 21 were classified as symptomatic and seven as cryptogenic. Of the 21 symptomatic patients, 13 had a known etiology at presentation; with further testing the specific etiology was determined in two more. Two in the cryptogenic group were reclassified on the basis of neuroimaging findings. Evaluations included neuroimaging (27, 15 abnormal), cerebrospinal fluid studies (nine, all normal), comprehensive metabolic studies (17, all normal), chromosomal analysis (11, two abnormal), and ophthalmologic evaluation (27, six abnormal). The average cost of the studies per patient was $5,076 at the authors' institution. Etiologic yield was increased by 20% with neuroimaging. The other investigations either confirmed a known etiology or were noncontributory. On the basis of these findings, the authors propose an algorithm for a more focused evaluation of infantile spasms. Using the algorithm, the authors suggest directly proceeding to therapy in patients with specific etiologies determined by history and examination. Further evaluation should start with neuroimaging. Subsequent evaluations should be on the basis of those results. The authors estimate a potential 60-90% reduction in total costs if this algorithm is applied.

  14. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Loparo, Kenneth A; Kelly, Monica R; Kaplan, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG)-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® sleep monitoring system. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm called Z-PLUS, which further differentiates sleep as detected by Z-ALG into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep, against laboratory polysomnography (PSG) using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods Single night, in-lab PSG recordings from 99 subjects (52F/47M, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years), including both normal sleepers and those reporting a variety of sleep complaints consistent with chronic insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome, as well as those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications, previously evaluated using Z-ALG were re-examined using Z-PLUS. EEG data collected from electrodes placed at the differential-mastoids (A1–A2) were processed by Z-ALG to determine wake and sleep, then those epochs detected as sleep were further processed by Z-PLUS to differentiate into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and REM. EEG data were visually scored by multiple certified polysomnographic technologists according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales criterion, and then combined using a majority-voting rule to create a PSG Consensus score file for each of the 99 subjects. Z-PLUS output was compared to the PSG Consensus score files for both epoch-by-epoch (eg, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa) and sleep stage-related statistics (eg, Latency to Deep Sleep, Latency to REM, Total Deep Sleep, and Total REM). Results Sensitivities of Z-PLUS compared to the PSG Consensus were 0.84 for Light Sleep, 0.74 for Deep Sleep, and 0.72 for REM. Similarly, positive predictive values were 0.85 for Light Sleep, 0.78 for Deep Sleep, and 0.73 for REM. Overall, kappa agreement of 0

  15. Rho-Isp Revisited and Basic Stage Mass Estimating for Launch Vehicle Conceptual Sizing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The ideal rocket equation is manipulated to demonstrate the essential link between propellant density and specific impulse as the two primary stage performance drivers for a launch vehicle. This is illustrated by examining volume-limited stages such as first stages and boosters. This proves to be a good approximation for first-order or Phase A vehicle design studies for solid rocket motors and for liquid stages, except when comparing to hydrogen-fueled stages. A next-order mass model is developed that is able to model the mass differences between hydrogen-fueled and other stages. Propellants considered range in density from liquid methane to inhibited red fuming nitric acid. Calculated comparisons are shown for solid rocket boosters, liquid first stages, liquid upper stages, and a balloon-deployed single-stage-to-orbit concept. The derived relationships are ripe for inclusion in a multi-stage design space exploration and optimization algorithm, as well as for single-parameter comparisons such as those shown herein.

  16. Firm Size, Ownership, Training Duration and Training Evaluation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Muhammad Ali; Peretti, Jean Marie; Ali, Arain Ghulam; Bourgain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role of training duration in relationship between firm characteristics and training evaluation practices. In this paper, the authors also investigated if this mediating effect differs with respect to the size of the firm. Design/methodology/approach: The authors collected data from 260…

  17. Prediction of primary breast cancer size and T-stage using micro-computed tomography in lumpectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa M Sarraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathology is the only accepted method to measure and stage the breast tumor size. However, there is a need to find another method to measure and stage the tumor size when the pathological assessment is not available. Micro-computed tomography. (micro-CT has the ability to measure tumor in three dimensions in an intact lumpectomy specimen. In this study, we aimed to determine the accuracy of micro-CT to measure and stage the primary tumor size in breast lumpectomy specimens, as compared to the histopathology. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two women who underwent lumpectomy surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Surgery from June 2011 to September 2011, and from August 2013 to December 2013 participated in this study. The lumpectomy specimens were scanned using micro-CT followed by routine pathological processing. The maximum dimension of the invasive breast tumor was obtained from the micro-CT image and was compared to the corresponding pathology report for each subject. Results: The invasive tumor size measurement by micro-CT was underestimated in 24. cases. (33%, overestimated in 37. cases. (51%, and matched it exactly in 11. cases. (15% compared to the histopathology measurement for all the cases. However, micro-CT T.stage classification differed from histopathology in only 11. (15.2% with 6. cases. (8.3% classified as a higher stage by micro-CT, and 5. cases. (6.9% classified as lower compared to histopathology. In addition, micro-CT demonstrated a statically significant strong agreement (κ =0.6, P < 0.05 with pathological tumor size and staging for invasive ductal carcinoma. (IDC group. In contrast, there was no agreement. (κ = .2, P = 0.67 between micro-CT and pathology in estimating and staging tumor size for invasive lobular carcinoma. (ILC group. This could be explained by a small sample size. (7 for ILC group. Conclusions: Micro-CT is a promising modality for measuring and staging the IDC.

  18. Evaluation of Stages and Mean Age of Onset of Puberty in Boys of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golestan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genetic and health factors along with ethnicity and geographic location are factors that affect the time of puberty onset. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mean age of onset of puberty and its stages in boys of Yazd. Methods: This cross- sectional study with random clustering sampling method was conducted on 1018 healthy 9-16 years old male students of Yazd. All cases were examined and evaluated for onset and secondary characters of puberty with inspection of the genital region for pubic hair and scrotum and testicular size according to Tanner classification. Results: The mean age of G2 (onset of testicular growth and PH2 (onset of pubic hairs growth was 11.57±1.54 and 12.43±1.07 years. The mean age of G5 (final stage of testicular growth and PH5 (final stage of pubic hairs growth was 15.43±0.8 and 15.69±1.1 years. The mean BMI in the early stages of puberty (G2 was 16.32±2.02. Conclusion: The mean age of onset of puberty (G2 in boys of Yazd was 11.5 years that is similar to other researches in other countries.

  19. Evaluation of Case Size 0603 BME Ceramic Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    High volumetric efficiency of commercial base metal electrode (BME) ceramic capacitors allows for a substantial reduction of weight and sizes of the parts compared to currently used military grade precious metal electrode (PME) capacitors. Insertion of BME capacitors in space applications requires a thorough analysis of their performance and reliability. In this work, six types of cases size 0603 BME capacitors from three vendors have been evaluated. Three types of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) were designed for automotive industry and three types for general purposes. Leakage currents in the capacitors have been measured in a wide range of voltages and temperatures, and measurements of breakdown voltages (VBR) have been used to assess the proportion and severity of defects in the parts. The effect of soldering-related thermal shock stresses was evaluated by analysis of distributions of VBR for parts in 'as is' condition and after terminal solder dip testing at 350 C. Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) at different temperatures was used to assess the activation energy of degradation of leakage currents and predict behavior of the parts at life test and normal operating conditions. To address issues related to rework and manual soldering, capacitors were soldered onto different substrates at different soldering conditions. The results show that contrary to a common assumption that large-size capacitors are mostly vulnerable to soldering stresses, cracking in small size capacitors does happen unless special measures are taken during assembly processes.

  20. Evaluation of spiral CT in staging of colon and rectum carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the capability of a subsecond spiral-CT scanner using two contrast medium phases in staging of colorectal cancer. In our study we included 37 patients with proven rectum or colon carcinoma. Spiral CT was performed following tap-water enema of the colon in the arterial and venous phases of contrast medium enhancement. Our results were compared with the findings of pathological examination after surgery. The tumor's size and extension were evaluated in the arterial and venous phases, the lymph nodes in the venous phase of the CT scan. The tumor was in the rectum (n = 14), sigma (n = 11), descending colon (n = 6), and cecum (n = 6). Two-phase spiral CT had a sensitivity of 97.2 % in the arterial phase and 89.1 % in the venous phase in detecting the carcinoma. The staging results were in the arterial phase in 30 of 37 cases (81.0 %) and in the venous phase in 24 of 37 cases (64.8 %) according to pathology. In 27 of 32 patients (84.3 %) lymph nodes were detected. The correct classification of the N-stage was possible in 23 of 34 cases (67.6 %). The combined use of arterial and venous phases in staging of colorectal cancer can improve the T- and N-stage classification in comparison with using only one contrast medium phase. The arterial phase is superior compared with the venous phase for local tumor staging and the venous phase is used for lymph node assessment. (orig.) (orig.)

  1. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  2. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  3. Application of the Stage, Size, Grade, and Necrosis (SSIGN) Score for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in Contemporary Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William P; Cheville, John C; Frank, Igor; Zaid, Harras B; Lohse, Christine M; Boorjian, Stephen A; Leibovich, Bradley C; Thompson, R Houston

    2017-04-01

    The tumor stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score was originally defined using patients treated with radical nephrectomy (RN) between 1970 and 1998 for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), excluding patients treated with partial nephrectomy (PN). To characterize the original SSIGN score cohort with longer follow-up and evaluate a contemporary series of patients treated with RN and PN. Retrospective single-institution review of 3600 consecutive surgically treated ccRCC patients grouped into three cohorts: original RN, contemporary (1999-2010) RN, and contemporary PN. RN or PN. The association of the SSIGN score with risk of death from RCC was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, and predictive ability was summarized with a C-index. The SSIGN scores differed significantly between the original RN, contemporary RN, and contemporary PN cohorts (pcontemporary RN, and 1.70 for contemporary PN; all pcontemporary RN, and contemporary PN, respectively. After accounting for an era-specific improvement in survival among RN patients (HR: 0.53 for contemporary vs original RN; pcontemporary RN and PN patients, the score retained strong predictive ability. These results should assist in patient counseling and help guide surveillance for ccRCC patients treated with RN or PN. We evaluated the validity of a previously described tool to predict survival following surgery in contemporary patients with kidney cancer. We found that this tool remains valid even when extended to patients significantly different than were initially used to create the tool. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Khan, A; Mayya, Y S; Narayanan, K P; Purwar, R C; Sapra, B K; Sunny, F

    2002-01-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 mu m to 10 mu m and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the desig...

  5. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, A.; Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A.; Bankart, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) and in differentiating organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ-confined (≥T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ confined (≥T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  6. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, A., E-mail: arajesh27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Bankart, M.J.G. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) and in differentiating organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ-confined ({>=}T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ confined ({>=}T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  7. Movements vary according to dispersal stage, group size, and rainfall: The case of the African lion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas B. Elliot; Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Loveridge; Godfrey Mtare; David W. Macdonald

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is one of the most important life-history traits affecting species persistence and evolution and is increasingly relevant for conservation biology as ecosystems become more fragmented. However, movement during different dispersal stages has been difficult to study and remains poorly understood. We analyzed movement metrics and patterns of autocorrelation from...

  8. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Purwar, R.C.; Das, Tanmoy; Narayanan, K.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Sunny, Faby; Khan, Arshad; Mayya, Y.S.

    2002-06-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 μm to 10 μm and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the designed ones. The replotting of all the mass distribution data using the experimental cut-off diameters showed perfect lognormal fits, thereby indicating that these diameters are closer to the true stage cut-off diameters for BASS. The studies show that BASS will be suitable for determining the particle size distributions in the context of the radiological safety programmes of DAE. Being indigenous in design, it may be fabricated on a commercial scale at a cost far less than that of the imported units. Such a venture will greatly help several national programmes on atmospheric pollution being carried out by many laboratories and institutions across the country. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Staged Fowler-Stephens Orchiopexy for the High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first stage was done during diagnostic laparoscopy by clipping the internal spermatic artery and vein 2-3 cm superior to the intra-abdominal testis. Six months later the second stage of the procedure in the form of open (67cases) or laparoscopic orchiopexy (11 cases) was performed. Only 65 patients were available for ...

  10. SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOLID PARTICLES AT THE EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE FOR MULTI-STAGE BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hrnčířová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of ash content particles produced in biomass combustion at an experimental device. The main parts of the device are: the water heater, the gasifying chamber, the air preheater, and the fuel feeder. This device can be modified for combustion in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Sawdust and wood chips were used as fuel, and were laid loosely into the device. Ash specimens were extracted from various parts of the device. For the measurements themselves, we used the Analysette 22 MicroTec Plus universal laser diffraction device manufactured by the Fritch Company, in the size range from 0.08 μm to 2000 μm. The device utilizes laser diffraction for particle size analysis.

  11. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate divided...... by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic...... space in these granules consisted of AerAOB- and AnAOB-specific extracellular polymeric substances. Large reactor B aggregates were thin film-like nitrite sinks (NARR,

  12. The role of early stages of cortical visual processing in size and distance judgment: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago L; Costa, Marcelo F; Magalhães, Adsson; Rêgo, Gabriel G; Nagy, Balázs V; Boggio, Paulo S; Ventura, Dora F

    2015-02-19

    Recent research suggests that V1 plays an active role in the judgment of size and distance. Nevertheless, no research has been performed using direct brain stimulation to address this issue. We used transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to directly modulate the early stages of cortical visual processing while measuring size and distance perception with a psychophysical scaling method of magnitude estimation in a repeated-measures design. The subjects randomly received anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in separate sessions starting with size or distance judgment tasks. Power functions were fit to the size judgment data, whereas logarithmic functions were fit to distance judgment data. Slopes and R(2) were compared with separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with two factors: task (size vs. distance) and tDCS (anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham). Anodal tDCS significantly decreased slopes, apparently interfering with size perception. No effects were found for distance perception. Consistent with previous studies, the results of the size task appeared to reflect a prothetic continuum, whereas the results of the distance task seemed to reflect a metathetic continuum. The differential effects of tDCS on these tasks may support the hypothesis that different physiological mechanisms underlie judgments on these two continua. The results further suggest the complex involvement of the early visual cortex in size judgment tasks that go beyond the simple representation of low-level stimulus properties. This supports predictive coding models and experimental findings that suggest that higher-order visual areas may inhibit incoming information from the early visual cortex through feedback connections when complex tasks are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the technical condition of medium-sized boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošák Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend in the steam and electricity production has been both to increase the efficiency of the facility and to keep tightening legislation concerning emission limits. The lifetime of energy equipment is greatly influenced by the operating temperature, pressure and operating characteristics. The new conditions lead the operator to more often changes of these parameters, which has negative influence to the facility in terms of service life. Precise knowledge of the facility being operated and the ability to predict the residual life of its key parts in time is therefore necessary. A new methodology for determining the residual life and evaluating problematic situations of medium size boilers was developed at Brno University of Technology. Its approaches and advantages will be presented in this paper. The methodology provides the user with approaches for the lifetime evaluation of an equipment as a whole, based on detailed knowledge of the equipment being investigated and the ongoing damage. Additionally, if the equipment is continuously evaluated, it is possible to extend the inspection interval or to achieve a significantly higher lifetime of the entire equipment, thereby reducing the economic cost. If defined criteria are met, the methodology also allows inclusion of FEM and CFD simulations for achieving higher relevance of the results.

  15. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. The patients were in the range of 6-17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  16. Cost Evaluation of Haemodialysis for End Stage Renal Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maintenance haemodialysis is a life sustaining mode of treatment of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. However, the widespread and sustained application of this mode of treatment has been largely unsuccessful because of costs. Objectives: To assess the costs and use of haemodialysis in a ...

  17. Economic evaluation of end-stage renal disease treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wit (Ardine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOne of the main functions of the human kidney is the clarification of blood from human waste products, such as ureum and creatinine. Failure of functioning of the kidneys may ultimately lead to death. When the stage of very limited kidney functioning (5 to 10% of norm-al) is reached,

  18. Efficiency of Staging Work-Ups in the Evaluation of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan

    1991-01-01

    A series of 510 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix given the curative radiation therapy from March 1979 through December 1986 was evaluated to determine the value of intravenous pyelography(IVP), cystoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and abdomino-pelvic CT as staging work-up prior to treatment. On IVP and cystoscopy, 10.7%(49/456) and 5/3%(24/452) showed abnormality, respectively, but only 0.7% (3/413) did on signoidoscopy. As a result of these work-ups prerequisite to FIGO staging, twenty six (5.1%) out of 510 patients were upstaged from the stage determined by the findings of physical examination alone. The proportions of upstaging in each stage were as follows none in stage IB(35), IIA (89) and IIIA(8), 7.9%(20/252) in stage IIB(14 patients to FIGO Stage IIIB, 6 patients to FIGO stage IVA), and 4.8% (6/126) in stage IIIB (all to FIGO stage IVA). Positive findings of staging work-ups were found only in patients with advanced stages of stage IIB or over determined by physical examination alone but not in those with earlier stages. CT was performed in 337 patients. CT detected pelvic lymph node (LN) enlargement in 25.2% (85/337) and paraaortic LN enlargement in 7.4% (25/337). Pelvic LN positivity was well correlated with increasing stage but paraaortic LN positivity was not. In the evaluation of parametrial involvement, CT findings were in accordance with those of physical examination only in 65.6%(442/674). When compared with endoscopic studies, CT had much lower positive predictive value than negative predictive value in the evaluation of adjacent organ invasion. The staging work-ups should be individualized by the disease extent of each patient, and then the efficiency of work-ups may be increased without compromising the appropriate FIGO staging and treatment

  19. [Evaluation of the Initial Stage Career Exploration Inventory (ISCEI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2010-06-01

    The Initial Stage Career Exploration Inventory (ISCEI) was designed to assess career exploration among students in the early stage of making career decisions. The reliability, validity, and applicability of the ISCEI were investigated. In Study 1, responses on the ISCEI from student participants (n = 294 : 69 men, 225 women) were factor analyzed. The results suggested a 3-factor structure consisting of "self-understanding," "information gathering" and "learning from others." Comparison between the ISCEI and self-improvement motive, vocational decisions, and career decision-making self-efficacy scales from the Career Exploration Survey (CES) indicated that the ISCEI had sufficient construct validity. Study 2 investigated the applicability of the ISCEI. The responses of student participants (n = 859 : 451 men, 408 women) on the ISCEI indicated high "self-understanding," neutral "information gathering," and comparatively low "learning from others" scores, which were similarly related to the CES as in Study 1. These findings indicate that the ISCEI can be used as a tool for understanding career exploration among students in the initial stage of making career decision.

  20. Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Fredensborg, Brian L.; Huspeni, Todd C.; Lorda, Julio; Sandhu, Parwant K.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Torchin, Mark E.; Whitney, Kathleen L.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2001-01-01

    This data set presents food webs for three North American Pacific coast estuaries and a “Metaweb” composed of the species/stages compiled from all three estuaries. The webs have four noteworthy attributes: (1) parasites (infectious agents), (2) body-size information, (3) biomass information, and (4) ontogenetic stages of many animals with complex life cycles. The estuaries are Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California (CSM); Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California (EPB); and Bahía Falsa in Bahía San Quintín, Baja California (BSQ). Most data on species assemblages and parasitism were gathered via consistent sampling that acquired body size and biomass information for plants and animals larger than ∼1 mm, and for many infectious agents (mostly metazoan parasites, but also some microbes). We augmented this with information from additional published sources and by sampling unrepresented groups (e.g., plankton). We estimated free-living consumer–resource links primarily by extending a previously published version of the CSM web (which the current CSM web supplants) and determined most parasite consumer–resource links from direct observation. We recognize 21 possible link types including four general interactions: predators consuming prey, parasites consuming hosts, predators consuming parasites, and parasites consuming parasites. While generally resolved to the species level, we report stage-specific nodes for many animals with complex life cycles. We include additional biological information for each node, such as taxonomy, lifestyle (free-living, infectious, commensal, mutualist), mobility, and residency. The Metaweb includes 500 nodes, 314 species, and 11 270 links projected to be present given appropriate species' co-occurrences. Of these, 9247 links were present in one or more of the estuarine webs. The remaining 2023 links were not present in the estuaries but are included here because they may occur in other places or times. Initial analyses have examined

  1. Marketing potential evaluation at the analytical stage of marketing audit of an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Fayzulaueva, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the article the sequence of analytical stage of marketing audit by means of marketing potential evaluation is considered, the qualitative characteristics and indicators of marketing potential evaluation are determined.

  2. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Bonagura, J.D.; Biller, D.S.; Hartman, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  3. The Impact of Sociodemographic Factors on Racial/Ethnic Differences in Tumor Stage and Tumor Size for Cancer of the Female Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Barry A

    2000-01-01

    A population-based, case-control study was conducted to determine the importance of sociodemographic factors in explaining racial/ethnic differences in tumor stage and size at the time of diagnosis...

  4. Initial stage sintering of polymer particles – Experiments and modelling of size-, temperature- and time-dependent contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Regina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The early-stage sintering of thin layers of micron-sized polystyrene (PS particles, at sintering temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature Tg (~ 100°C, is studied utilizing 3D tomography, nanoindentation and confocal microscopy. Our experimental results confirm the existence of a critical particle radius (rcrit ~ 1 μm below which surface forces need to be considered as additional driving force, on top of the usual surfacetension driven viscous flow sintering mechanism. Both sintering kinetics and mechanical properties of particles smaller than rcrit are dominated by contact deformation due to surface forces, so that sintering of larger particles is generally characterized by viscous flow. Consequently, smaller particles require shorter sintering. These experimental observations are supported by discrete particle simulations that are based on analytical models: for small particles, if only viscous sintering is considered, the model under-predicts the neck radius during early stage sintering, which confirms the need for an additional driving mechanism like elastic-plastic repulsion and surface forces that are both added to the DEM model.

  5. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Sabbagh-Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3, which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS, which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05. In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%, giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%, and partial anodontia (1.82% were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  7. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Richard; Wang,Ying; Loparo,Kenneth; Kelly,Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ying Wang,1 Kenneth A Loparo,1,2 Monica R Kelly,3 Richard F Kaplan1 1General Sleep Corporation, Euclid, OH, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG)-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® s...

  8. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allibhai, Zishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Taremi, Mojgan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew J.; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Cho, B.C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective research ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ≥3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to 5.7 cm

  9. [Local recurrence based on size after conservative surgery in breast cancer stage T1-T2. A population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, David; Fortea-Sanchis, Carlos; Escrig-Sos, Javier; Prats-de Puig, Miguel; Queralt-Martín, Raquel; Salvador-Sanchis, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Conservative surgery can be regarded as the standard treatment for most early stage breast tumors. However, a minority of patients treated with conservative surgery will present local or locoregional recurrence. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the possible factors associated with this recurrence. A population-based retrospective study using data from the Tumor Registry of Castellón (Valencia, Spain) of patients operated on for primary nonmetastatic breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2008 was designed. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test to estimate 5-year local recurrence were used. Two groups of patients were defined, one with conservative surgery and another with nonconservative surgery. Cox multivariate analysis was conducted. The total number of patients was 410. Average local recurrence was 6.8%. In univariate analysis, only tumor size and lymph node involvement showed significant differences. On multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were conservative surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-16.82), number of positive lymph nodes (HR 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17) and tumor size (in mm) (HR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06). Local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is higher in tumors >2 cm. Although tumor size should not be a contraindication for conservative surgery, it should be a risk factor to be considered.

  10. The size of retrieved lymph nodes correlates with the number of retrieved lymph nodes and is an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazutake; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Saito, Gota; Masuda, Shinobu; Haruki, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    In stage II colon cancer, patients with many retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) have been reported to have better oncological outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that the greater number of retrieved LNs is related to a larger LN size. The subjects comprised 320 patients with stage II colon cancer who underwent curative resection. All operations were elective and were performed by the same surgeons. The maximum long axis and short axis diameters of LNs were measured on hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens. A total of 4,744 LNs were evaluated. The number of retrieved LNs was 14.8 ± 10.1 (mean ± SD). The long axis diameter was 4.8 ± 2.6 mm, with a median value of 4.3 mm, a maximum value of 20.4 mm, and a minimum value of 0.6 mm. The corresponding short axis diameters were 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.0, 15.1, and 0.5 mm, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient for the association with the number of LNs was obtained for the maximum value of the long axis diameter (0.59). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, tumor location, pathological T stage, and the maximum long axis diameter were independent prognostic factors. The number of LNs was not a significant factor. Patients with less than 12 LNs and a maximum long axis diameter of less than 10 mm had significantly poorer outcomes (p patients with stage II colon cancer, the maximum long axis diameter of LNs correlated with the number of LNs and was an independent prognostic factor.

  11. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... Key words: Oryza sativa, salt stress, different growth stage, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. INTRODUCTION .... Table 1. Modified standard evaluation system of visual salt injury at seedling stage. Score. Observation ..... Induction of salt tolerance on rice through mutation breeding.

  12. Evaluation of straw as a biofilm carrier in the methanogenic stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of crop residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jonatan; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2002-10-01

    Straw was evaluated as a biofilm carrier in the methanogenic stage of the two-stage anaerobic digestion of crop residues. Three reactor configurations were studied, a straw-packed-bed reactor, a glass packed-bed reactor and a reactor containing suspended plastic carriers. The reactor with the packed straw bed showed the best results. It had the highest methane production, 5.4 11(-1) d(-1), and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ranged from 73-50% at organic loading rates from 2.4-25 g COD l(-1) d(-1). The degradation pattern of volatile fatty acids showed that the degradation of propionate and longer-chain fatty acids was limiting at higher organic loading rates. A stable effluent pH showed that the packed-bed reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that can occur in the two-stage process. The conclusion is that straw would work very well in the intended application. A further benefit is that straw is a common agricultural waste product and requires only limited resources concerning handling and cost.

  13. Grain size evaluation of metallic specimens using laser-ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chung Soo; Park, Hyung Kook; Jeon, Hyung Ha; Kim, Dal Woo; Oh, Ki Jang; Hong, Soon Taek

    2002-01-01

    The laser-ultrasonics inspection techniques for the measurement of grain size have been developed in this study. The ultrasonics are generated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and the pulse energy is 300 mJ and wavelength is 1064 nm. Since the frequency bandwidth of laser-ultrasonics generated by pulsed laser is extremely broad, this laser-ultrasonics are suitable for analysis of frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation. The attenuation coefficients (α) in thick steel plates are measured by using laser-ultrasonics of 15 MHz and 30 MHz, which is probed by confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The results show that the attenuation coefficients are closely related with grain size and high frequency ultrasonics are more effective to measure the fine pain size. According to the experimental results of this study, we can conclude that laser-ultrasonics inspection is effective method for grain size measurement. The confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed for non-contact measurement of laser-ultrasonics. The transmittance characteristic of interferometer has been studied experimentally with CW single-mode laser system. The results show that the Fabry-Perot interferometer is a very effective tool for the measurement of ultrasonics. Using the developed Fabry-Perot interferometer, we have measured ultrasonic signals of high temperature specimen up to 1200 degrees C.

  14. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bazant & Sun. 1987). It was reported that the size .... fc + 120ρ. Vud. Mu. ) ≤ 0.3. √ fc, MPa, where. Vud. Mu. ≤ 1.0. (4). Equation 4 overestimates the shear strength of the concrete in the uncracked portion, while the contribution of the longitudinal ...

  15. Development of a multi-stage cloud water collector. Part 1: Design and field performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.F.; Sherman, D.E.; Reilly, J.; Collett, J.L. Jr. [Colarado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Cloud chemistry can vary as a function of drop size. In order to investigate variations in chemical composition across the drop size spectrum, a new multi-stage cloud water collector was developed. The Colorado State University 5-Stage cloud water collector (CSU 5-Stage) separates drops, based upon the principles of cascade inertial impaction, into five different fractions. Its design incorporates many features to facilitate its use in the field, and maintain both consistent performance between varying atmospheric conditions and the chemical and physical integrity of the collected sample. Limited field tests indicate the CSU 5-Stage works reasonably within field measurement uncertainty, and its results are comparable to those from other cloud collectors and consistent with additional concurrent measurements. Data obtained using the CSU 5-Stage provide additional insight into drop size-dependent chemistry in fogs/clouds. These insights should result in an improved understanding of both the impact of clouds on the fate of atmospheric species, and cloud microphysics and dynamics.

  16. Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were employed to evaluate several mixer geometries for a novel two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor. The addition of a second stage holds the promise of allowing the synthesis of functionalized nano-materials as for example core......-shell or decorated particles. Based on the simulation results, a reactor system employing a confined jet mixer in the first and a counter-flow mixer in the second stage was designed and built. The two-stage functionality and synthesis capacity is shown on the example of single- and two-stage syntheses of pure...

  17. Lymph node size as a simple prognostic factor in node negative colon cancer and an alternative thesis to stage migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, Bruno; Schaller, Tina; Kokot, Yuriy; Endhardt, Katharina; Kretsinger, Hallie; Hirschbühl, Klaus; Aumann, Georg; Schenkirsch, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Stage migration is an accepted explanation for the association between lymph node (LN) yield and outcome in colon cancer. To investigate whether the alternative thesis of immune response is more likely, we performed a retrospective study. We enrolled 239 cases of node negative cancers, which were categorized according to the number of LNs with diameters larger than 5 mm (LN5) into the groups LN5-very low (0 to 1 LN5), LN5-low (2 to 5 LN5), and LN5-high (≥6 LN5). Significant differences were found in pT3/4 cancers with median survival times of 40, 57, and 71 months (P = .022) in the LN5-very low, LN5-low, and LN5-high groups, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that LN5 number and infiltration type were independent prognostic factors. LN size is prognostic in node negative colon cancer. The correct explanation for outcome differences associated with LN harvest is probably the activation status of LNs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Staging to Evaluate the Stability of Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsubo, Toshiro; Murakami, Narumichi; Uemura, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Koichi; Hayashi, Masanori; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    Treatment for capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (COCD) lesions is usually based on their stability from the bony floor after arthroscopic or open direct observation. Thus, a noninvasive means of lesion stability assessment by use of imaging is desirable to preoperatively determine treatment strategy. To evaluate our modified MRI staging system for COCD, we compared the results of MRI staging with the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification for lesion stability. Intra- and interrater reliability for MRI staging was examined as well. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Fifty-two COCD lesions were preoperatively evaluated by T2-weighted MRI and classified into 5 stages: stage 1 = normally shaped capitellum with several spotted areas of high signal intensity that is lower than that of cartilage; stage 2 = as with stage 1 but with several spotted areas of higher intensity than that of cartilage; stage 3 = as with stage 2 but with both discontinuity and noncircularity of the chondral surface signal of the capitellum and no high signal interface apparent between the lesion and the floor; stage 4 = lesion separated by a high intensity line in comparison with cartilage; and stage 5 = capitellar lesion displaced from the floor or defect of the capitellar lesion noted. The MRI staging results were compared with the intraoperative ICRS classification for lesion stability of each patient. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were all determined for fragment instability. Intra- and interrater correlations for our MRI staging were calculated among 3 examiners. Preoperative MRI grading correctly matched ICRS classification in 49 of 52 patients (94%), with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80%. The PPV and NPV were 93% and 100%, respectively, for diagnosing lesion instability. Intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for MRI staging was high at ICC(1, 1

  19. Theoretical evaluation of the efficiency of gas single-stage reciprocating compressor medium pressure units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarov, S. S.; Vasil'ev, V. K.; Busarov, I. S.; Titov, D. S.; Panin, Ju. N.

    2017-08-01

    Developed earlier and tested in such working fluid as air, the technology of calculating the operating processes of slow-speed long-stroke reciprocating stages let the authors to obtain successful results concerning compression of gases to medium pressures in one stage. In this connection, the question of the efficiency of the application of slow-speed long-stroke stages in various fields of technology and the national economy, where the working fluid is other gas or gas mixture, is topical. The article presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of single-stage compressor units on the basis of such stages for cases when ammonia, hydrogen, helium or propane-butane mixture is used as the working fluid.

  20. A task-based evaluation of PEM detector element size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Smith, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) is a planar imaging method that utilizes arrays of discrete detector elements for the detection of radiotracer-avid breast cancer. In this investigation we have systematically studied, through computer simulations, the effect of detector element size (width and length) on breast lesion detection and localization tasks. The contrast-to-noise ratios of the spheres simulating breast lesions were calculated as a function of detector element dimension to gauge detectability. System resolution (fwhm) across the field-of-view was used as the metric for the localization task. For both tasks, individual detector elements of lyso with cross sectional dimensions of 2x2 mm (96x72 element arrays, step 2.1mm) and 3x3mm (65x49 element arrays, step 3.1 mm), and lengths of 10,15 and 20 mm were simulated. The results revealed that narrower pixel dimensions reduced the partial volume effect, while the thicker pixels increased pixel sensitivity, thus reducing noise per pixel and increasing the contrast-to-noise ratio.

  1. Screening and hit evaluation of a chemical library against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Vicky M; Bashyam, Sridevi; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duffy, Sandra; Papadatos, George; Puthukkuti, Shyni; Sambandan, Yuvaraj; Singh, Shivendra; Spangenberg, Thomas; Waterson, David; Willis, Paul

    2014-05-27

    In view of the need to continuously feed the pipeline with new anti-malarial agents adapted to differentiated and more stringent target product profiles (e.g., new modes of action, transmission-blocking activity or long-duration chemo-protection), a chemical library consisting of more than 250,000 compounds has been evaluated in a blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition assay and further assessed for chemical diversity and novelty. The selection cascade used for the triaging of hits from the chemical library started with a robust three-step in vitro assay followed by an in silico analysis of the resulting confirmed hits. Upon reaching the predefined requirements for selectivity and potency, the set of hits was subjected to computational analysis to assess chemical properties and diversity. Furthermore, known marketed anti-malarial drugs were co-clustered acting as 'signposts' in the chemical space defined by the hits. Then, in cerebro evaluation of the chemical structures was performed to identify scaffolds that currently are or have been the focus of anti-malarial medicinal chemistry programmes. Next, prioritization according to relaxed physicochemical parameters took place, along with the search for structural analogues. Ultimately, synthesis of novel chemotypes with desired properties was performed and the resulting compounds were subsequently retested in a P. falciparum growth inhibition assay. This screening campaign led to a 1.25% primary hit rate, which decreased to 0.77% upon confirmatory repeat screening. With the predefined potency (EC₅₀  10) criteria, 178 compounds progressed to the next steps where chemical diversity, physicochemical properties and novelty assessment were taken into account. This resulted in the selection of 15 distinct chemical series. A selection cascade was applied to prioritize hits resulting from the screening of a medium-sized chemical library against blood-stage P. falciparum. Emphasis was placed on chemical

  2. Evaluation of hemodynamic and SpO2 variability during different stages of periodontal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amoian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in pulse rate and blood pressure are common consequences during oral surgeries. Hypoxia during surgical process is another side effect. The objective of the present study was evaluation of blood hemoglobin oxygenation and hemodynamic changes during periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted upon 50 subjects aged 30-55 years who referred to the clinic of dental faculty of Babol University and needed periodontal surgery with modified widman flaps in the anterior section of the maxilla. Pulse rate, blood pressure, and pulse oximetric evaluations were recorded in five stages during surgery. Results: The average of systolic and diastolic blood pressure had been in their maximum amount in the second stage of evaluation and minimum amounts were in the first one; while pulse rate changes were greatest in the second stage and lowest in the fifth stage. Analyzing the data revealed no significant difference in Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2 measurements in none of the stages evaluated. Conclusions: Blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly after the injection of anesthetic drug and in further phases they were decreased after the elimination of stimulating effect of adrenaline. SpO 2 changes were not significantly prominent.

  3. Simplified HCC-ART score for highly sensitive detection of small-sized and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in the widely used Okuda, CLIP, and BCLC staging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Omran, Mohamed M; Attallah, Ahmed A; Abdelrazek, Mohamed A; Farid, Khaled; El-Dosoky, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Small-sized HCC can be effectively cured by surgery with good clinical outcomes. A highly sensitive HCC α-fetoprotein routine test (HCC-ART) for HCC diagnosis as well as a simplied form of the HCC-ART were reported in the British Journal of Cancer. Here, we verified and studied the applicability of the HCC-ART to the detection of early-stage HCC. 341 cirrhotic patients and 318 HCC patients were included in this study. For each, the HCC-ART score was calculated, and then the sensitivity, specificity, and results of an ROC curve analysis were compared between the HCC-ART and AFP when these biomarkers were used to detect small-sized HCC. Different HCC-ART cutoffs were set for the detection of different tumor sizes. The HCC-ART (AUC = 0.871, 70% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and the simplified HCC-ART (AUC = 0.934, 82% sensitivity, 100% specificity) were found to have high predictive power when attempting to separate cirrhotic patients from those with small-sized HCC. The simplified HCC-ART score was superior to AFP for determining stages according to the early Okuda (0.950 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), CLIP (0.945 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), and BCLC (1.000 AUC, 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity) staging systems. The simplified HCC-ART score was more strongly correlated than AFP and other staging systems with HCC tumor size (P HCC-ART is superior to AFP for diagnosing early-stage HCC. Due to its advantages of minimal variability and a wide continuous scale for assessing HCC severity, the simplified HCC-ART has the potential to be more widely used than the original HCC-ART.

  4. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of 2-stage IMZ implants placed in a single-stage procedure : 2-year results of a prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; Stegenga, B

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a 2-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap between the implant and the abutment. Materials and Methods: Sixty edentulous patients (Cawood class V or VI) participated in this

  5. Evaluation of the diagnosis on staging of the bladder cancers by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Xu Haiyan; Huan Haiming; Chen Yane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of the staging of the bladder cancers with the contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Methods: After rapid injection of the contrast agent SonoVue through the elbow vein, the staging of images was completed in 18 cases of bladder cancer. Results: The results of contrast-enhanced ultrasound were compared with post-operative pathological analysis, the rate of accuracy of diagnosis on T1, T2, T3 and T4 stage was 100%, 80%, 83% and 100% respectively. The accuracy made by new methods higher than those of other imaging examinations in T1 stage; the other stages were similar to those of other imaging examinations. Conclusion: The evaluation of Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on the staging of the bladder cancer is higher than that of the conventional ultrasound examination, while the observation of blood flow in the tumor can make accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, this method can be complement each other with CT and MRI to improve the rate of accuracy on the staging of bladder cancer. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of design flood estimates with respect to sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierska, Florian; Engeland, Kolbjorn

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of design floods forms the basis for hazard management related to flood risk and is a legal obligation when building infrastructure such as dams, bridges and roads close to water bodies. Flood inundation maps used for land use planning are also produced based on design flood estimates. In Norway, the current guidelines for design flood estimates give recommendations on which data, probability distribution, and method to use dependent on length of the local record. If less than 30 years of local data is available, an index flood approach is recommended where the local observations are used for estimating the index flood and regional data are used for estimating the growth curve. For 30-50 years of data, a 2 parameter distribution is recommended, and for more than 50 years of data, a 3 parameter distribution should be used. Many countries have national guidelines for flood frequency estimation, and recommended distributions include the log Pearson II, generalized logistic and generalized extreme value distributions. For estimating distribution parameters, ordinary and linear moments, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods are used. The aim of this study is to r-evaluate the guidelines for local flood frequency estimation. In particular, we wanted to answer the following questions: (i) Which distribution gives the best fit to the data? (ii) Which estimation method provides the best fit to the data? (iii) Does the answer to (i) and (ii) depend on local data availability? To answer these questions we set up a test bench for local flood frequency analysis using data based cross-validation methods. The criteria were based on indices describing stability and reliability of design flood estimates. Stability is used as a criterion since design flood estimates should not excessively depend on the data sample. The reliability indices describe to which degree design flood predictions can be trusted.

  7. [Application of a modified stage classification in evaluating wisdom tooth eruption in a German population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; Peschke, Corinna; Schulz, Ronald; Schmeling, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the eruption status of the wisdom teeth constitutes a significant component of the spectrum of dental methods available for purposes of forensic age diagnostics. In the present study, the status of wisdom tooth eruption was identified in 606 conventionally created orthopantomograms of 515 female and 91 male Germans, divided by sex and tooth, using a modified classification comprising four stages. Instead of the original stage C (gingival eruption) which cannot always be reliably identified on X-ray images of suboptimal quality, stage C of the modified classification was considered reached when the erupting wisdom tooth had reached at least half the length of the crown of the adjacent second molar, without however having yet reached the occlusal plane. The new stage classification is especially recommended for age estimation based on X-ray images in which a conclusive delimitation of the gingiva is not possible.

  8. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  9. Effect of stage of maturity of grass at harvest on intake, chewing activity and distribution of particle size in faeces from pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on the intake of grass silage, eating and ruminating activity and the distribution of faecal particle size in ewes during late pregnancy. A total of 18 Swedish Finull × Dorset 85 ± 8 kg (mean ± s.d.) ewes bearing...... and chewing activity were recorded and faeces were sampled over 4 continuous days for each individual ewe. The faeces samples were washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved with pore sizes from 2.4 mm to 0.1 mm; particles less than 0.1 mm in size were also collected. Subsamples of each sieving fraction...... eating and ruminating per kg of DM intake was affected by the stage of maturity at harvest; it was shorter in ewes fed EH compared with ewes fed MH and LH (P

  10. Evaluation of the stage IB designation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ballman, Karla V; McCall, Linda M; Yi, Min; Sahin, Aysegul A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Hansen, Nora; Gabram, Sheryl; Hurd, Thelma; Giuliano, Armando E; Hunt, Kelly K

    2015-04-01

    The seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for breast cancer differentiates patients with T1 tumors and lymph node micrometastases (stage IB) from patients with T1 tumors and negative nodes (stage IA). This study was undertaken to determine the utility of the stage IB designation. The following two cohorts of patients with breast cancer were identified: 3,474 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1993 to 2007 and 4,590 patients from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0010 trial. Clinicopathologic and outcomes data were recorded, and disease was staged according to the seventh edition AJCC staging system. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Median follow-up times were 6.1 years and 9.0 years for the MD Anderson Cancer Center and ACOSOG cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, there were no significant differences between patients with stage IA and stage IB disease in 5- or 10-year RFS, DSS, or OS. Estrogen receptor (ER) status and grade significantly stratified patients with stage I disease with respect to RFS, DSS, and OS. Among patients with T1 breast cancer, individuals with micrometastases and those with negative nodes have similar survival outcomes. ER status and grade are better discriminants of survival than the presence of small-volume nodal metastases. In preparing the next edition of the AJCC staging system, consideration should be given to eliminating the stage IB designation and incorporating biologic factors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Challenges of small and medium sized companies at early stage of development: Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Petković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discover and understand factors that lead to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs shutdown in transitional economies, such as the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The paper provides some findings about main influencing factors that lead to SMEs shut down in the first years of operation from entrepreneurs’ and managers’ perspective and suggests certain measures that should be taken to secure their survival, development and growth. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted, using stratified sampling of 110 SMEs from Republic of Srpska (49% of B&H territory. The section on methodology explains the entry criteria for the study population and methods of data analysis. Respondents from the research sample identified the following factors as the main obstacles to successful development of their businesses: difficulties in the collection of receivables from debtors, complicated legal procedures that regulate the work and business operations of enterprises, high rates of taxes and contributions on wages, the negative impact of the global economic crisis and expensive and complicated procedures for obtaining loans from commercial banks. Respondents didn’t evaluate their personal traits, level of formal and informal knowledge from business management field or lack of entrepreneurial spirit and readiness for being proactive, innovative or risk acceptance as potential causes of business failure. With its limitation, the paper contains novel information and insights about SMEs business obstacles and challenges in economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a solid base for more comprehensive future research.

  12. Teacher Aides, Class Size and Academic Achievement: A Preliminary Evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Daytner, Katrina M.; Kelly, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    This large-scale evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time, a funding mechanism designed to reduce class size or pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) in grades K-3 examined the academic performance of nearly 11,000 randomly selected third graders on the state mandated standardized achievement test as a function of class size, PTR, and presence of an instructional…

  13. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pooja; Rana, Vivek; Rehani, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess skeletal age and establish relationship between mandibular canine calcification and skeletal age. The study included 147 females aged 10 to 13 years. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I-comprising of 10 to 11 years old female; Group II-comprising of 11 to 12 years old female; Group III-12 to 13 years female. OPG and hand and wrist radiographs of left side for each subject were taken with prior consent of their parents. The calcification status of canine was evaluated from orthopantomograms according to scores given in Demirjian's method. The stages of ossification of various carpal bones were evaluated using radiographic atlas of Greulich-Pyle and skeletal age was calculated. Data collected was statistically analyzed. The results drawn from this study showed that a strong correlation was observed for canine calcification stage F for 10 to 11 years and for stage G in 11 to 12 years and 12 to 13 years respectively. How to cite this article: Malik P, Rana V, Rehani U. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1): 14-19.

  14. Relationship between quantitative evaluation of myocardial infarction size using gated CT and cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Kazunori

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between quantitative evaluation of myocardial infarction size on Gated CT and cardiac function. A total 56 cases of myocardial infarction were studied. Calculation of infarct size ratio to whole left ventricle myocardium was performed. Correlation was evaluated between infarct size and various methods of grading cardiac functions (effort tolerance potentiality, NYHA classification of cardiac function, cardiac failure and complications). Good correlation with NYHA classification of cardiac function and cardiac failure was obtained. However, there was no significant correlation with effort tolerance potentiality and complications. In conclusion, it is warranted to say that quantitative evaluation of myocardial infarction size on Gated CT is very useful for management decision of patients with myocardial infarction. (author)

  15. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Mara Fachardo Jaqueira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists, who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI. Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80 was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  16. Evaluation of crystallite size distribution by a capillary spinner-scan method in synchrotron powder diffractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Takashi; Goto, Taishi; Hibino, Hisashi

    2011-03-01

    A method to evaluate the effects of particle statistics in capillary-specimen transmission mode x-ray diffraction measurements has been developed. Average crystallite size of about several μm and dispersion of crystallite size distribution have been evaluated by statistical analysis of spinner-scan diffraction intensity data. The method can be applied to polycrystalline materials and also multi-phase mixtures.

  17. A review and re-interpretation of a group-sequential approach to sample size re-estimation in two-stage trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J; Mander, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the adaptive design methodology of Li et al. (Biostatistics 3:277-287) for two-stage trials with mid-trial sample size adjustment. We argue that it is closer in principle to a group sequential design, in spite of its obvious adaptive element. Several extensions are proposed that aim to make it even more attractive and transparent alternative to a standard (fixed sample size) trial for funding bodies to consider. These enable a cap to be put on the maximum sample size and for the trial data to be analysed using standard methods at its conclusion. The regulatory view of trials incorporating unblinded sample size re-estimation is also discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmaceutical Statistics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evaluation research of small and medium-sized enterprise informatization on big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na

    2017-09-01

    Under the background of big data, key construction of small and medium-sized enterprise informationization level was needed, but information construction cost was large, while information cost of inputs can bring benefit to small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper established small and medium-sized enterprise informatization evaluation system from hardware and software security level, information organization level, information technology application and the profit level, and information ability level. The rough set theory was used to brief indexes, and then carry out evaluation by support vector machine (SVM) model. At last, examples were used to verify the theory in order to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Caput succedaneum thickness in prolonged second stage of labour: a clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Kedem, Alon; Spira, Maya; Borkowski, Tamar; Moran, Orit; Katorza, Eldad; Achiron, Reuven

    2013-10-01

    Data are scarce regarding the association between the presence of caput succedaneum and the mode of delivery. To evaluate the presence and clinical significance of caput succedaneum thickness in prolonged second stage of labour. We conducted a prospective study of women, beyond 37 weeks of gestation, during prolonged second stage of labour. Transperineal ultrasound was performed to assess the caput succedaneum thickness. The relationships between caput succedaneum thickness, feto-maternal characteristics, delivery mode and immediate post-natal outcomes were analysed. Fifty-eight women, of whom 47 were nulliparas, in prolonged second stage of labour, were included in the study. The caput succedaneum thickness could be measured in all cases. Overall mean thickness was 21.9 (±4.9) mm (range 14-40 mm). No significant difference or correlation was found between caput succedaneum thickness, fetal head positions, modes of delivery, duration of second stage, head circumference or neonatal outcomes. Caput succedaneum is measurable in all cases at prolonged second stage using transperineal sonography. Its presence and dimensions presented in our pilot study seem to have no implication on delivery mode and neonatal outcome. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Evaluation of functional changes in the evolutionary stages of Parkinson's disease: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Feitoza do Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Parkinson's disease is one of the fastest growing neurological disorders in the world and is considered to be predominantly a motor disorder, classified as neurodegenerative, chronic and extrapyramidal, characterized by tremors, muscular rigidity, postural balance deficit and bradykinesia. Objective : To analyze the functional changes presented by Parkinson's disease patients in the different evolutionary stages of the disease. Methods : The sample included 30 patients of both genders, aged between 51 and 75 years, with clinical diagnoses of Parkinson's disease in different evolutionary stages, undergoing physiotherapy in the Pernambuco Parkinson Association. The patients were evaluated through the Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. Results : The results highlighted an increase in the presence and severity of the changes presented by the Parkinson's disease patients, according to the evolution of the stages of the disease, especially considering aspects relating to motor activity and activities of daily living, including changes related to speech, swallowing, the ability to get dressed, personal hygiene, turning in bed and arising from a chair, occurrence of falls, posture, gait, postural stability and the presence of bradykinesia/hypokinesia. Conclusion : It is believed that the classification of the evolutionary stage of patients through the Hoehn and Yahr Scale and the registration of functional change through the UPDRS are useful for the development of the physiotherapy treatment plan.

  1. Application of the development stages of a cluster randomized trial to a framework for evaluating complex health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark B

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Trials of complex health interventions often pose difficult methodologic challenges. The objective of this paper is to assess the extent to which the various development steps of a cluster randomized trial to optimize antibiotic use in nursing homes are represented in a recently published framework for the design and evaluation of complex health interventions. In so doing, the utility of the framework for health services researchers is evaluated. Methods Using the five phases of the framework (theoretical, identification of components of the intervention, definition of trial and intervention design, methodological issues for main trial, promoting effective implementation, corresponding stages in the development of the cluster randomized trial using diagnostic and treatment algorithms to optimize the use of antibiotics in nursing homes are identified and described. Results Synthesis of evidence needed to construct the algorithms, survey and qualitative research used to define components of the algorithms, a pilot study to assess the feasibility of delivering the algorithms, methodological issues in the main trial including choice of design, allocation concealment, outcomes, sample size calculation, and analysis are adequately represented using the stages of the framework. Conclusions The framework is a useful resource for researchers planning a randomized clinical trial of a complex intervention.

  2. (Sample) size matters! An examination of sample size from the SPRINT trial study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in patients with tibial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Tornetta, Paul; Rampersad, Shelly-Ann; Sprague, Sheila; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Sanders, David W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Walter, Stephen; Guyatt, Gordon; Buckingham, Lisa; Leece, Pamela; Viveiros, Helena; Mignott, Tashay; Ansell, Natalie; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Agel, Julie; Bombardier, Claire; Berlin, Jesse A.; Bosse, Michael; Browner, Bruce; Gillespie, Brenda; O'Brien, Peter; Poolman, Rudolf; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Konito, Ken; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Tieszer, Christina; Kreder, Hans; Stephen, David J. G.; Axelrod, Terry S.; Yee, Albert J. M.; Richards, Robin R.; Finkelstein, Joel; Holtby, Richard M.; Cameron, Hugh; Cameron, John; Gofton, Wade; Murnaghan, John; Schatztker, Joseph; Bulmer, Beverly; Conlan, Lisa; Laflamme, Yves; Berry, Gregory; Beaumont, Pierre; Ranger, Pierre; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Jodoin, Alain; Renaud, Eric; Gagnon, Sylvain; Maurais, Gilles; Malo, Michel; Fernandes, Julio; Latendresse, Kim; Poirier, Marie-France; Daigneault, Gina; McKee, Michael M.; Waddell, James P.; Bogoch, Earl R.; Daniels, Timothy R.; McBroom, Robert R.; Vicente, Milena R.; Storey, Wendy; Wild, Lisa M.; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Goetz, Thomas J.; Pate, Graham; Penner, Murray J.; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas; Pirani, Shafique; Dommisse, Ian G.; Loomer, Richard L.; Stone, Trevor; Moon, Karyn; Zomar, Mauri; Webb, Lawrence X.; Teasdall, Robert D.; Birkedal, John Peter; Martin, David Franklin; Ruch, David S.; Kilgus, Douglas J.; Pollock, David C.; Harris, Mitchel Brion; Wiesler, Ethan Ron; Ward, William G.; Shilt, Jeffrey Scott; Koman, Andrew L.; Poehling, Gary G.; Kulp, Brenda; Creevy, William R.; Stein, Andrew B.; Bono, Christopher T.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Brown, T. Desmond; Pacicca, Donna; Sledge, John B.; Foster, Timothy E.; Voloshin, Ilva; Bolton, Jill; Carlisle, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Ombremsky, William T.; LeCroy, C. Michael; Meinberg, Eric G.; Messer, Terry M.; Craig, William L.; Dirschl, Douglas R.; Caudle, Robert; Harris, Tim; Elhert, Kurt; Hage, William; Jones, Robert; Piedrahita, Luis; Schricker, Paul O.; Driver, Robin; Godwin, Jean; Hansley, Gloria; Obremskey, William Todd; Kregor, Philip James; Tennent, Gregory; Truchan, Lisa M.; Sciadini, Marcus; Shuler, Franklin D.; Driver, Robin E.; Nading, Mary Alice; Neiderstadt, Jacky; Vap, Alexander R.; Vallier, Heather A.; Patterson, Brendan M.; Wilber, John H.; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John K.; Moore, Timothy Alan; Brady, Drew; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Davis, John A.; Cureton, Beth Ann; Mandel, Scott; Orr, R. Douglas; Sadler, John T. S.; Hussain, Tousief; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Petrisor, Bradley; Drew, Brian; Bednar, Drew A.; Kwok, Desmond C. H.; Pettit, Shirley; Hancock, Jill; Cole, Peter A.; Smith, Joel J.; Brown, Gregory A.; Lange, Thomas A.; Stark, John G.; Levy, Bruce; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Garaghty, Mary J.; Salzman, Joshua G.; Schutte, Carol A.; Tastad, Linda Toddie; Vang, Sandy; Seligson, David; Roberts, Craig S.; Malkani, Arthur L.; Sanders, Laura; Gregory, Sharon Allen; Dyer, Carmen; Heinsen, Jessica; Smith, Langan; Madanagopal, Sudhakar; Coupe, Kevin J.; Tucker, Jeffrey J.; Criswell, Allen R.; Buckle, Rosemary; Rechter, Alan Jeffrey; Sheth, Dhiren Shaskikant; Urquart, Brad; Trotscher, Thea; Anders, Mark J.; Kowalski, Joseph M.; Fineberg, Marc S.; Bone, Lawrence B.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Rohrbacher, Bernard; Stegemann, Philip; Mihalko, William M.; Buyea, Cathy; Augustine, Stephen J.; Jackson, William Thomas; Solis, Gregory; Ero, Sunday U.; Segina, Daniel N.; Berrey, Hudson B.; Agnew, Samuel G.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Campbell, Lakina C.; Derting, Lynn; McAdams, June; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Teague, David C.; Davey, Joseph; Sullivan, J. Andy; Ertl, William J. J.; Puckett, Timothy A.; Pasque, Charles B.; Tompkins, John F.; Gruel, Curtis R.; Kammerlocher, Paul; Lehman, Thomas P.; Puffinbarger, William R.; Carl, Kathy L.; Weber, Donald W.; Jomha, Nadr M.; Goplen, Gordon R.; Masson, Edward; Beaupre, Lauren A.; Greaves, Karen E.; Schaump, Lori N.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Goetz, David R.; Westberry, Davd E.; Broderick, J. Scott; Moon, Bryan S.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Powell, James N.; Buckley, Richard E.; Elves, Leslie; Connolly, Stephen; Abraham, Edward P.; Eastwood, Donna; Steele, Trudy; Ellis, Thomas; Herzberg, Alex; Brown, George A.; Crawford, Dennis E.; Hart, Robert; Hayden, James; Orfaly, Robert M.; Vigland, Theodore; Vivekaraj, Maharani; Bundy, Gina L.; Miclau, Theodore; Matityahu, Amir; Coughlin, R. Richard; Kandemir, Utku; McClellan, R. Trigg; Lin, Cindy Hsin-Hua; Karges, David; Cramer, Kathryn; Watson, J. Tracy; Moed, Berton; Scott, Barbara; Beck, Dennis J.; Orth, Carolyn; Puskas, David; Clark, Russell; Jones, Jennifer; Egol, Kenneth A.; Paksima, Nader; France, Monet; Wai, Eugene K.; Johnson, Garth; Wilkinson, Ross; Gruszczynski, Adam T.; Vexler, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate sample size and power in randomized trials can result in misleading findings. This study demonstrates the effect of sample size in a large clinical trial by evaluating the results of the Study to Prospectively evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial fractures (SPRINT)

  3. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Aleksander; Kalinina, Olga; Levina, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  4. Two-stage categorization in brand extension evaluation: electrophysiological time course evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available A brand name can be considered a mental category. Similarity-based categorization theory has been used to explain how consumers judge a new product as a member of a known brand, a process called brand extension evaluation. This study was an event-related potential study conducted in two experiments. The study found a two-stage categorization process reflected by the P2 and N400 components in brand extension evaluation. In experiment 1, a prime-probe paradigm was presented in a pair consisting of a brand name and a product name in three conditions, i.e., in-category extension, similar-category extension, and out-of-category extension. Although the task was unrelated to brand extension evaluation, P2 distinguished out-of-category extensions from similar-category and in-category ones, and N400 distinguished similar-category extensions from in-category ones. In experiment 2, a prime-probe paradigm with a related task was used, in which product names included subcategory and major-category product names. The N400 elicited by subcategory products was more significantly negative than that elicited by major-category products, with no salient difference in P2. We speculated that P2 could reflect the early low-level and similarity-based processing in the first stage, whereas N400 could reflect the late analytic and category-based processing in the second stage.

  5. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  6. Evaluation of the Fluid Model Approach for the Sizing of Energy Storage in Wave-Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Domínguez-Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy storage in offshore renewable generation systems allows managing the intrinsic uncertainty of the resources and improving the utilization factor of the electrical network. Optimal storage design algorithms generally have to evaluate the behavior of the whole system thousands times before converging to the optimal solution and the reliability of the results obviously depends on the quality of input data. On the other hand, the utilization of simplified storage models in the design stage can reduce the simulation time drastically, while still providing useful information. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the applicability of a methodology for sizing the energy storage system in a hybrid wind and wave farm, which is based on fluid models. The description and performance of this modeling approach will be introduced and compared to standard design procedures based on extensive simulations. Advantages and limitations of each approach will be underlined and the impact of input data quality will be discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  8. Cortical adaptation staging system: a new and simple staging for result evaluation of functioning free-muscle transplantation for facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Chen, Hsin-Yu Sirena

    2014-07-01

    Movement-associated cortical reorganization occurs in patients after functioning free-muscle transplantation (FFMT), which is reinnervated by different neurotizers. Aiming to evaluate the process of recovery of the reinnervated muscle, we defined the cortical reorganization into 5 stages. This staging system has been applied during the past 25 years at our center with great convenience and accessibility. A standardized evaluation method for assessing the recovery after FFMT to reanimate the paralyzed face with at least a 1-year follow-up was applied. The evaluation included the following 5 stages: no movement, dependent movement, independent movement, and spontaneous movement with and without involuntary movement. Reliability of this technique was assessed by 3 examiners, who each evaluated the smiles of 30 unilateral facial paralysis patients 4 times, creating 360 sets of measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and intrarater reliability exceeded 0.929, which is considered excellent and reliable. Chuang's Cortical Adaptation Staging System is simple, quick,and accurate in evaluating patients after FFMT reanimation of the paralyzed face with no additional tools.

  9. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de; Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  11. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  12. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  13. Formative evaluation of a mobile liquid portion size estimation interface for people with varying literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Beenish Moalla; Connelly, Kay; Siek, Katie A; Welch, Janet L

    2013-12-01

    Chronically ill people, especially those with low literacy skills, often have difficulty estimating portion sizes of liquids to help them stay within their recommended fluid limits. There is a plethora of mobile applications that can help people monitor their nutritional intake but unfortunately these applications require the user to have high literacy and numeracy skills for portion size recording. In this paper, we present two studies in which the low- and the high-fidelity versions of a portion size estimation interface, designed using the cognitive strategies adults employ for portion size estimation during diet recall studies, was evaluated by a chronically ill population with varying literacy skills. The low fidelity interface was evaluated by ten patients who were all able to accurately estimate portion sizes of various liquids with the interface. Eighteen participants did an in situ evaluation of the high-fidelity version incorporated in a diet and fluid monitoring mobile application for 6 weeks. Although the accuracy of the estimation cannot be confirmed in the second study but the participants who actively interacted with the interface showed better health outcomes by the end of the study. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for designing the next iteration of an accurate and low literacy-accessible liquid portion size estimation mobile interface.

  14. Evaluation of nondestructive evaluation size measurement for integrity assessment of axial outside diameter stress corrosion cracking in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Kyung Mun; Hong, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the initiation of outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) at the tube support plate region of domestic steam generators (SG) with Alloy 600 HTMA tubes has been increasing. As a result, SGs with Alloy 600 HTMA tubes must be replaced early or are scheduled to be replaced prior to their designed lifetime. ODSCC is one of the biggest threats to the integrity of SG tubes. Therefore, the accurate evaluation of tube integrity to determine ODSCC is needed. Eddy current testing (ECT) is conducted periodically, and its results could be input as parameters for evaluating the integrity of SG tubes. The reliability of an ECT inspection system depends on the performance of the inspection technique and ability of the analyst. The detection probability and ECT sizing error of degradation are considered to be the performance indices of a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. This paper introduces an optimized evaluation method for ECT, as well as the sizing error, including the analyst performance. This study was based on the results of a round robin program in which 10 inspection analysts from 5 different companies participated. The analysis of ECT sizing results was performed using a linear regression model relating the true defect size data to the measured ECT size data.

  15. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts.

  16. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

  17. Evaluation of a new data staging framework for the ARC middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D; Konstantinov, A; Filipčič, A

    2012-01-01

    Staging data to and from remote storage services on the Grid for users’ jobs is a vital component of the ARC computing element. A new data staging framework for the computing element has recently been developed to address issues with the present framework, which has essentially remained unchanged since its original implementation 10 years ago. This new framework consists of an intelligent data transfer scheduler which handles priorities and fair-share, a rapid caching system, and the ability to delegate data transfer over multiple nodes to increase network throughput. This paper uses data from real user jobs running on production ARC sites to present an evaluation of the new framework. It is shown to make more efficient use of the available resources, reduce the overall time to run jobs, and avoid the problems seen with the previous simplistic scheduling system. In addition, its simple design coupled with intelligent logic provides greatly increased flexibility for site administrators, end users and future development.

  18. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis. PMID:28107385

  19. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachar, Gideon, E-mail: gidybahar@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Buda, Inon, E-mail: inonbuda@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Maya, E-mail: mayac@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hadar, Tuvia, E-mail: hadartuv@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hilly, Ohad, E-mail: ohadhilly@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwartz, Nofrat, E-mail: nofrat@gmail.com [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Otolaryngology, Meir Hospital, Kefar Sabah, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shpitzer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-s@013net.net [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segal, Karl, E-mail: segalk@clalit.org.il [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules.

  20. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  1. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignan, Michel; Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel; Casasnovas, Rene Olivier; Luminari, Stefano; Fioroni, Federica; Coriani, Chiara; Masset, Helene; Gobbi, Paolo G.; Merli, Francesco; Versari, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on 18 F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with 18 F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm 3 with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV 41 ) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV var ). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV 41 measurement was substantial (ρ c = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm 3 for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm 3 for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV var . There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV 41 and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P 41 , but high TMTV 41 could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation. It should be evaluated in prospective studies. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of performance and microbial community in a two-stage UASB reactor pretreating acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Jun; Luan, Zhaokun; Deng, Yanqin; Chen, Lin

    2011-05-01

    A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to pretreat acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. Mesophilic operation (35 ± 0.5°C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 h. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L. The results showed COD and sulfate removal could be kept at 51% and 75%, respectively, when the HRT was no less than 38 h. Sulfate reduction mainly occurred in the acidification-stage reactor while methane production mainly occurred in the methane-stage reactor. The size of granule formed in the acidification-stage reactor ranged between 1 and 5mm while the largest size of granule in the methane-stage reactor ranged from 0.5 to 2mm. Compared to microbial populations in the acidification-stage reactor, the microbial diversity in methane-stage reactor was more abundant. In the acidification-stage reactor, the Syntrophobacter sulfatireducens devoted to both sulfate reduction and acetate production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  4. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  5. Quantitative evaluation in tumor SPECT and the effect of tumor size. Fundamental study with phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Yanagisawa, Masamichi

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study with phantoms was performed in order to evaluate the effect of the tumor volume on the quantitative estimation in tumor SPECT. The ratio of mean count/pixel in the phantom to that of the background (T/N ratio) was well correlated with the size of the phantom; even when the concentration of the Tc-99m O 4 - solution of globular phantoms with diameters of 29, 37 and 46 mm was constant, the greater the size of the phantom, the higher was the T/N ratio. This study showed that we should understand that the T/N ratio was certainly affected by the reduction of the tumor size itself whenever we evaluate treatment response or assess tumor viability after treatment by reference to the T/N ratio. (author)

  6. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Thinova, L.; Brandejsova, E.; Zdimal, V.; Fronka, A.; Milka, D.

    2004-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  7. Effect of obstacle size and spacing on the initial stage of flame acceleration in a rough tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Fowler, C. J.; Bardon, M.

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to study flame acceleration in an orifice plate laden detonation tube. Orifice plate area blockage and spacing were varied to determine their affect on flame acceleration. The tube used in the study was 3.05 m long with an inner diameter of 14.0 cm. Experiments were primarily carried out with stoichiometric propane-air, however the affect of mixture reactivity was also investigated by varying the mixture equivalence ratio. The distance required for the flame to achieve a velocity equal to the speed of sound in the unburned gas mixture was measured. This run-up distance is used to characterize the early stage of the flame acceleration process. It was found that in all cases, the flame run-up distance decreased with increased blockage ratio and with increased mixture reactivity. It was found that for higher blockage ratios plates flame acceleration was greatest for a plate spacing of one tube diameter, but for lower blockage ratio plates the results obtained for one-half, one, and one and one-half tube diameter plate spacing were very similar. The most rapid flame acceleration was observed when the ratio of the orifice plate spacing and the orifice plate height (half of the difference between the tube and orifice plate diameter) is on the order of 5. It is proposed that this optimum acceleration corresponds to the condition where the plate spacing is roughly equal to the length of the unburned gas re-circulation zone downstream from the orifice plate.

  8. Tamaño del tumor y supervivencia en carcinoma de pulmón, estadio IA Tumor size and survival in lung cancer, stage IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lyons

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El estadio determinado por el sistema TNM (tumor, ganglios, metástasis sigue siendo el factor predictor de supervivencia más importante en el carcinoma de pulmón. Sin embargo, varios estudios demostraron que el tamaño del tumor tenía valor pronóstico en sí mismo, aunque la relación entre tamaño tumoral y supervivencia dentro del grupo de tumores T1 todavía no es clara. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el valor del tamaño del tumor como factor pronóstico para la supervivencia en pacientes con carcinoma de pulmón de estadio IA, resecado quirúrgicamente. Se revisaron 79 pacientes con carcinoma de pulmón de células no pequeñas. En 34.4% de los pacientes (n = 28 el tamaño fue igual o menor a 1.5 cm. La mortalidad operatoria fue de 1.3%. Hubo recurrencia de la enfermedad en el 19%. Los pacientes con tumores de hasta 15 mm tuvieron una supervivencia a los 5 años de 95% (IC: 0.05 y con más de 15 mm, de 77%. (IC: 0.07, siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (log-rank test: 0.035. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue de 95% en los tumores de hasta 15 mm y de 72% (IC: 0.09 en los de más de 15 mm. El análisis multivariado (Cox mostró que el mayor determinante del riesgo de mortalidad fue el tamaño mayor de 15 mm (riesgo relativo 25.9, IC: 2.3-292, p = 0.004. Este estudio demuestra la influencia del tamaño del tumor en estadio IA, lo cual puede tener importancia práctica en función de las recientes propuestas de investigación sistemática de pacientes con alto riesgo de cáncer pulmonar.TNM staging is an important long-term predictor for survival of lung cancer patients. Some studies have shown, however, that tumor size may have intrinsic prognostic value independent of TNM stage. The relationship between tumor size and survival is particularly unclear in T1 tumors. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of tumor size in surgically resected stage I of non-small cell lung cancer

  9. A two-stage value chain model for vegetable marketing chain efficiency evaluation: A transaction cost approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Hualiang

    2006-01-01

    We applied a two-stage value chain model to investigate the effects of input application and occasional transaction costs on vegetable marketing chain efficiencies with a farm household-level data set. In the first stage, the production efficiencies with the combination of resource endowments, capital and managerial inputs, and production techniques were evaluated; then at the second stage, the marketing technical efficiencies were determined under the marketing value of the vegetables for th...

  10. Consecutive Short-Scan CT for Geological Structure Analog Models with Large Size on In-Situ Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    Full Text Available For the analysis of interior geometry and property changes of a large-sized analog model during a loading or other medium (water or oil injection process with a non-destructive way, a consecutive X-ray computed tomography (XCT short-scan method is developed to realize an in-situ tomography imaging. With this method, the X-ray tube and detector rotate 270° around the center of the guide rail synchronously by switching positive and negative directions alternately on the way of translation until all the needed cross-sectional slices are obtained. Compared with traditional industrial XCTs, this method well solves the winding problems of high voltage cables and oil cooling service pipes during the course of rotation, also promotes the convenience of the installation of high voltage generator and cooling system. Furthermore, hardware costs are also significantly decreased. This kind of scanner has higher spatial resolution and penetrating ability than medical XCTs. To obtain an effective sinogram which matches rotation angles accurately, a structural similarity based method is applied to elimination of invalid projection data which do not contribute to the image reconstruction. Finally, on the basis of geometrical symmetry property of fan-beam CT scanning, a whole sinogram filling a full 360° range is produced and a standard filtered back-projection (FBP algorithm is performed to reconstruct artifacts-free images.

  11. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meignan, Michel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Paris-Est University, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, EAC CNRS 7054, Hopital Henri Mondor AP-HP, Creteil (France); Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Casasnovas, Rene Olivier [CHU Le Bocage, Department of Hematology, Dijon (France); Luminari, Stefano [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, Modena (Italy); Fioroni, Federica [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Medical Physics, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Coriani, Chiara [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Masset, Helene [Henri Mondor Hospital, Department of Radiophysics, Creteil (France); Gobbi, Paolo G. [University of Pavia, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Hematology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Versari, Annibale [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with {sup 18}F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm{sup 3} with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub 41}) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub var}). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV{sub 41} measurement was substantial (ρ {sub c} = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm{sup 3} for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm{sup 3} for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV{sub var}. There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV{sub 41} and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P <0.001). Higher disease stages and bulky tumour were associated with higher TMTV{sub 41}, but high TMTV{sub 41} could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation

  12. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  13. Vaccine Pipeline Has Grown During The Past Two Decades With More Early-Stage Trials From Small And Medium-Size Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Thomas J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    Many serious diseases lack safe and effective vaccines. Using a large commercial database, we examined trends in global vaccine research and development and found that the proportion of new vaccine candidates entering all stages of clinical development increased by 3-5 percentage points over the past two decades. Small and medium-size companies accounted for nearly twice as many new Phase I vaccine trials compared to large companies, but late-stage (Phase III) vaccine trials were dominated by large companies. There were no significant differences between vaccines and drugs in the probability of success in clinical trials or in profitability. Small and medium-size companies, including spin-outs from academic research centers, play an important role in innovative research and discovery. Our findings suggest that policy making targeted at smaller companies, such as prizes or opportunities for public-private partnerships, could support the development of new vaccines, particularly those targeting unmet medical needs and emerging public health threats. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of Pachymetric Measurements with Scheimpflug Photography-Based System and Optical Coherence Tomography Pachymetry at Different Stages of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül İlkay Sezgin Akçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the central and peripheral pachymetric measurements determined with Sirius system and Visante OCT and evaluate the agreement between them at different stages of keratoconus. Measurements were not significantly different in all patients and subgroups and showed high correlation for the corneal thicknesses of the entire cornea in different stages of keratoconus.

  15. Influence Factors of Sports Bra Evaluation and Design Based on Large Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find the main influence factors of sports bra evaluation by the subjective assessment of different styles commercial sports bra, and to summarize the design elements of sports bra for large size. 10 women in large size (>C80 were chosen to evaluate 9 different sports bras. The main influence factors were extracted by factor analysis and all the product samples were classified by Q-cluster analysis. The conclusions show that breast stability, wearing comfort and bust modelling are the three key factors for sports bra evaluation. And a classification-positioning model of sports bra products was established. The findings can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the research and design of sports bras both for academic and sports or underwear enterprises, and also provide reference value for women customers.

  16. Effect of particle size on oral absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Pan, Hao; He, Fengwei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinyu; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the particle size reduction effect of carvedilol on dissolution and absorption. Three suspensions containing different sized particles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation method or in combination with an ultrasonication process. The suspensions were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, and crystalline state. The crystalline form of carvedilol was changed into amorphous form after antisolvent precipitation. The dissolution rate of carvedilol was significantly accelerated by a reduction in particle size. The intestinal absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions was greatly improved in comparison with microsuspensions and solution in the in situ single-pass perfusion experiment. The in vivo evaluation demonstrated that carvedilol nanosuspensions and microsuspensions exhibited markedly increased C(max) (2.09- and 1.48-fold) and AUC(0-t) (2.11- and 1.51-fold), and decreased T(max) (0.34- and 0.48-fold) in contrast with carvedilol coarse suspensions. Moreover, carvedilol nanosuspensions showed good biocompatibility with the rat gastric mucosa in in vivo gastrointestinal irritation test. The entire results implicated that the dissolution rate and the oral absorption of carvedilol were significantly affected by the particle size. Particle size reduction to form nanosized particles was found to be an efficient method for improving the oral bioavailability of carvedilol.

  17. Testicular and Related Size Evaluations in Nigerian Sahel Goats with Optimal Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Y; Igbokwe, I O

    2015-01-01

    Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18-30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12-25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 10(9) sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40-86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00-4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00-21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population.

  18. Perceived size of friends and weight evaluation among low-income adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from social comparison theory, we examine how perceptions of friends’ body sizes may influence adolescents’ subjective evaluations of their own body (e.g., how accurate they are in judging their weight, how much body dissatisfaction they feel), particularly for adolescent females. Participants were low-income, minority adolescents (Study 1: N = 194 females, Mean age = 15.4; Study 2: N = 409 males and females; Mean age = 14.9). Adolescents used figure rating scales to indicate their perceived size and that of four of their closest friends and completed several measures of subjective weight evaluation (e.g., weight classification, body dissatisfaction, internalized weight bias). In both studies, how adolescents perceived their body size and the body sizes of their thinnest and heaviest friends were positively correlated. In Study 1, overweight females based on measured BMI were less likely to accurately judge themselves as overweight if they had a close friend they perceived as heavy. In addition, females who viewed themselves as having a larger figure reported more internalized weight bias when they had friends they viewed as relatively thin. Findings from Study 2 suggest that how friends’ bodies are perceived is predictive of subjective weight evaluation measures only for adolescent females. Programs that address negative aspects of social comparison may be important in preventing both obesity and eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females. PMID:26403505

  19. Improving Genetic Evaluation of Litter Size Using a Single-step Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Ostersen, Tage

    A recently developed single-step method allows genetic evaluation based on information from phenotypes, pedigree and markers simultaneously. This paper compared reliabilities of predicted breeding values obtained from single-step method and the traditional pedigree-based method for two litter size...... traits, total number of piglets born (TNB), and litter size at five days after birth (Ls 5) in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire pigs. The results showed that the single-step method combining phenotypic and genotypic information provided more accurate predictions than the pedigree-based method, not only...

  20. The Evaluation Market in Germany: Estimating Market Size for Evaluation of Political Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenbein, Oded

    2008-01-01

    The United States has a long tradition in evaluation of political programs. In the 1930s and 1940s, programs were initiated to reduce unemployment and improve social security as part of the "New Deal." In the late 1960s, somewhat comparable to the U. S. at that time, Germany's new government started its own "New Deal."…

  1. Significance of tumor size and radiation dose to local control in stage I-III diffuse large cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-Bleo and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Lillian M.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Velasquez, William S.; Allen, Pamela K.; McLaughlin, Peter; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Swan, Forrest; Cabanillas, Fernando; Palmer, Judy L.; Cox, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of adjunctive involved field (IF) radiotherapy on long-term local control for patients with Ann Arbor Stage I-III diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) who achieved a complete remission on a combined modality program which included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and Bleomycin (CHOP-Bleo). Methods and Materials: One hundred and ninety patients with Ann Arbor Stage I-III DLCL were treated with CHOP-Bleo and radiotherapy. Analyses were undertaken to determine (a) response to treatment according to stage, extent of maximum local disease, and irradiation dose either < 40 Gy or ≥ 40 Gy and (b) relapse patterns. Results: A complete remission (CR) was achieved in 162 patients. Among patients who achieved a CR, local control was better for those who received tumor doses of ≥ 40 Gy (97%) than for those who received < 40 Gy (83%) (p = 0.002.) Among those with extensive local disease, the corresponding control rates were 88% and 71%, respectively. A study of distant relapse patterns following a CR showed that the first relapse usually involved an extranodal site. Conclusion: Radiotherapy was an effective adjunctive treatment to CHOP-Bleo for patients with stage I-III DLCL who achieved a CR. Patterns of relapse suggested that total nodal irradiation (TNI) possibly could have benefited a small subset of patients

  2. Development and evaluation of the Stages of Change in Oral Health instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Armfield, Jason M; Parker, Eleanor J; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Broughton, John; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2014-10-01

    Oral health personnel are limited in their ability to assess the readiness of patients to make changes to improve oral health. We aimed to develop and test the Stages of Change in Oral Health (SOCOH) model, a scaled index of the stages of change - pre-contemplative, contemplative or active - with particular emphasis on pregnancy. Items were collected in a self-report questionnaire conducted among a convenience sample of 446 mothers (age range: 14-43 years) pregnant with Aboriginal children in South Australia, Australia. Scales representing openness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.73), value (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), inconvenience (six items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and permissiveness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.66) were developed. Participants were categorised according to the Stages of Change model and were evaluated against key self-reported oral health outcomes. Some 11.9% of participants were classified as pre-contemplators, 46.4% as contemplators and 41.7% as active. A higher proportion of active participants had a higher education, last visited a dentist less than a year previously, had no dental fear, owned a toothbrush, brushed the previous day, used toothpaste, had no difficulties paying a $100 dental bill, self-reported their dental health as 'excellent' and in the previous 12 months did not experience dental pain, embarrassment related to their dental appearance or difficulties eating food. The SOCOH model offers an internally consistent and valid instrument for detailed assessment of the readiness for change in regarding oral health behaviours in pregnancy and has potential benefits for clinical decision making and research. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Evaluation on Sixty-eight Rice Germplasms in Cold Tolerance at Germination Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-eight rice germplasms were used for cold tolerance evaluation at the germination stage in laboratory. Seeds of rice germplasms germinated at three different temperatures containing low temperature (constant 13°C for 28 days, alternative temperature (a temperature cycle of 12 h at 20°C and 12 h at 23°C for 14 days and control (constant 26°C for 7 days. Analysis of variance revealed that temperature had a significant effect on germination rate, coleoptile length and radicle length. Germination rate was strongly affected by the low temperature and alternative treatments. Stress of low temperature at the germination stage on the tested rice germplasms caused a reduction in final germination rate and the lengths of coleoptile and radicle. The normal and healthy seeds began to germinate within 36 h after imbibition and germination were completed on the 7th day in the control, but delayed under the low and alternative temperature treatments. The low and alternative temperature treatments delayed the growth of coleoptile and radicle compared to the control, and the average lengths of coleoptile and radicule were strongly inhibited with the decreasing temperature in all of the tested germplasms. Taichung, a semi-dwarf, low amylose content and early maturing rice variety, showed a significantly higher germination rate at the three temperature treatments and its coleoptile length was significantly higher than other germplasms.

  4. [Evaluation of the quality of life in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages after standardized treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Huang, Yuan; Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P stage breast cancer is better than those at late stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL of breast cancer patients. Chinese version of EQ-5D can well detect the differences of QOL among patients with different TNM stages, which can be used for evaluating QOL in Chinese

  5. Evaluation of imaging characteristics in CTDI phantom size on contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Seong-Su; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there have been several physics and clinical studies on the use of lower tube potentials in CT imaging, with the purpose of improving image quality or further reducing radiation dose. We investigated an experimental study using a series of different sized, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms, demonstrating the potential strategy for dose reduction and to distinguish component of plaque by imaging their energy responses using CT. We investigated the relationship between different sizes of cylinderic PMMA-equivalent phantoms with diameter of 12, 16, 20, 24, and 32 cm and used contrast at various tube voltages (80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp) using a 16-detector row CT scanner. The contrast represented CT numbers as different materials for the water, calcium chloride, and iodine. Phantom insertions also allow quantitative measures of image noise, contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM). When evaluating FOM, it was found that the lower kVp provided the better CNR. An experimental study was performed to demonstrate reduced dose for both dose efficient and practical feasibility for different patient sizes and diagnostic tasks by relating achievable CNR and the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). The use of spectra optimized to the specific application could provide further improvements of distinguishing iodine, calcium and plaque component for patient size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations in image noise and contrast using different tube potentials in a CTDI phantom on contrast imaging.

  6. Evaluation of 2-stage Treatment for Cervical Dorsal Rami Entrapment Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Wang, Jing-Wu; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Cai, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-stage nonoperative treatment for patients with cervical dorsal rami entrapment syndrome. The study included 66 patients diagnosed with cervical dorsal rami entrapment syndrome randomized to an experimental group (n=33) and control group (n=33). The experimental group was treated with additional diagnostic block if regular 2 weeks medication was not effective. The control group only received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 2 weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) and pain treatment satisfaction scale (PTSS) were used to assess pain. Muscle power in the upper limbs was also assessed. The registration number of this study is ChiCTR-IIR-15007565. The VAS scores of the experimental group were significantly lower at 2, 4, and 6 months after treatment compared with baseline and the VAS scores of the control group (all Prami entrapment syndrome.

  7. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  8. Evaluating Post-Radiotherapy Laryngeal Function with Laryngeal Videostroboscopy in Early Stage Glottic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marciscano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDysphonia is common among patients with early stage glottic cancer. Laryngeal videostroboscopy (LVS has not been routinely used to assess post-radiotherapy (RT voice changes. We hypothesized that LVS would demonstrate improvement in laryngeal function after definitive RT for early-stage glottic cancer.Study designBlinded retrospective review of perceptual voice and stroboscopic parameters for patients with early glottic cancer and controls.SettingHigh-volume, single-institution academic medical center.Subjects and methodsFifteen patients underwent RT for Tis-T2N0M0 glottic cancer and were evaluated with serial LVS exams pre- and post-RT. Stroboscopic assessment included six parameters: vocal fold (VF vibration, VF mobility, erythema/edema, supraglottic compression, glottic closure, and secretions. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS voice perceptual scale was graded in tandem with LVS score. Assessments were grouped by time interval from RT: pre-RT, 0–4, 4–12, and >12 months post-RT.Results60 LVS exams and corresponding GRBAS assessments were reviewed. There were significant improvements in ipsilateral VF motion (P = 0.03 and vibration (P = 0.001 and significant worsening in contralateral VF motion (P < 0.001 and vibration (P = 0.008 at >12 months post-RT. Glottic closure significantly worsened, most prominent >12 months post-RT (P = 0.01. Composite GRBAS scores were significantly improved across all post-RT intervals.ConclusionLVS proved to be a robust tool for assessing pre- and post-RT laryngeal function. We observed post-RT improvement in ipsilateral VF function, a decline in contralateral VF function, and decreased glottic closure. These results demonstrate that LVS can detect meaningful changes in VF and glottic function and support its use for post-RT evaluation of glottic cancer patients.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Young's Moduli of Full-Size wood Laminated Composite Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shube; Chung Y. Hse; R.C. Tang

    2004-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the Young's moduli of wood laminated composite poles (LCP) by using a free transverse vibration method. Full-size LCP, 6.1 m long and 10.2 cm in diameter, were lab-fabricated with 9 and/or 12 southern yellow pine [SYP] strips of thickness, 1.9 cm, 2.9 cm and 3.8 cm. The frequency of free transverse vibration in a LCP...

  10. A Computational Scheme To Evaluate Hamaker Constants of Molecules with Practical Size and Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo

    2017-11-14

    We propose a computational scheme to evaluate Hamaker constants, A, of molecules with practical sizes and anisotropies. Upon the increasing feasibility of diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods to evaluate binding curves for such molecules to extract the constants, we discussed how to treat the averaging over anisotropy and how to correct the bias due to the nonadditivity. We have developed a computational procedure for dealing with the anisotropy and reducing statistical errors and biases in DMC evaluations, based on possible validations on predicted A. We applied the scheme to cyclohexasilane molecule, Si 6 H 12 , used in "printed electronics" fabrications, getting A ≈ 105 ± 2 zJ, being in plausible range supported even by other possible extrapolations. The scheme provided here would open a way to use handy ab initio evaluations to predict wettabilities as in the form of materials informatics over broader molecules.

  11. Evaluation of carcinoma cervix using magnetic resonance imaging: correlation with clinical FIGO staging and impact on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhoot, Nilu Malpani; Bhuyan, Utpal; Kumar, Vinay; Shinagare, Atul; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Barmon, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate carcinoma of the cervix using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), correlate with clinical approach of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system and to study the impact of MRI findings on patient management. Pathologically confirmed, 75 cases of carcinoma cervix referred to our institute from April 2007 to March 2008 were prospectively studied. Clinical FIGO stage was assigned to each patient by gynaecologists blinded to MRI findings. MRI stage (based on FIGO and TNM) was allotted by radiologists blinded to clinicopathological details. For patients who were operated, histopathological stage was taken as gold standard. For patients who were not operated, gynaecologists decided on a gold standard stage based on all available clinical and imaging data. MR staging was correlated with FIGO staging, with focus on significant alterations in treatment strategy caused due to MRI findings. MRI staging had an accuracy of 89.3% (67/75), while clinical FIGO staging had 61.3% (46/75) accuracy. MRI staging and FIGO staging concurred in 65.6% of the patients and differed in 34.4% of the patients. In about 30.6% (23/75) of the patients, there were relevant additional MRI findings not suspected clinically. The common significant MRI findings were detection of pelvic lymphadenopathy and clinically unsuspected bowel/bladder invasion. The management protocol was significantly altered in 86.9% (20/23) of the patients with additional MRI findings constituting 26.6% (20/75) of the total population. MRI is highly accurate in evaluating carcinoma of the cervix. MRI findings significantly altered therapeutic decisions in 26.6% of the patients. MRI should be considered prior to treatment planning in every patient.

  12. Evaluation of Effect by Internal Flow on Ultrasonic Testing Flaw Sizing in Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Yoon, Byung Sik; Kim, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the ultrasonic amplitude difference between air filled and water filled piping in nuclear power plant is compared by modeling approach. In this study, ultrasonic amplitude differences between air and water filled pipe are evaluated by modeling approach. Consequently, we propose the following results. The ultrasonic amplitude difference between air and water filled condition is measured by lower than 1 dB in modeling calculation. The flaw length sizing error between air and water filled condition shows same results based on 12 dB drop method even thought the amplitude difference is 1 dB. Most of the piping welds in nuclear power plants are inspected periodically using ultrasonic techniques to detect service-induced flaws such as IGSCC cracking. The inspection results provide information such as location, maximum amplitude response, ultrasonic length, height and finally the nature or flaw pattern. The founded flaw in ultrasonic inspection is accepted or rejected based on these information. Specially, the amplitude of flaw response is very important to estimate the flaw size. Currently the ultrasonic inspections in nuclear power plant components are performed by specific inspection procedure which describing inspection technique include inspection system, calibration methodology and flaw characterizing methodology. To perform ultrasonic inspection during in-service inspection, reference gain should be established before starting ultrasonic inspection by requirement of ASME code. This reference gain used as basic criteria to evaluate flaw sizing. Sometimes, a little difference in establishing reference gain between calibration and field condition can lead to deviation in flaw sizing. Due to this difference, the inspection result may cause flaw sizing error

  13. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  14. The validity of using juvenile stages for evaluation of salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triticum durum) on the basis of their salt stress tolerance. The effect of this abiotic constraint was investigated at tillering stage using hydroponic culture. Some growth and development parameters were measured between three and six leaves stages ...

  15. Evaluation of rice germplasm under salt stress at the seedling stage through SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Amin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight rice germplasms were used for identification of salt tolerant rice genotypes at the seedling stage at the experimental farm and Biotechnology laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh during February 2009 to October 2009. Phenotyping for salinity screening of the rice genotypes was done using salinized (EC level 12 dS m-1 nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance on 1-9 scale based on seedling growth parameters following modified Standard Evaluation Scoring (SES of IRRI. Phenotypically, on the basis of SES and % total dry matter (TDM reduction of the genotypes viz. PBSAL-614, PBSAL-613, PBSAL-730, Horkuch, S-478/3 Pokkali and PBSAL (STL-15 were found to be salt tolerant; on the other hand Iratom-24, S-653/32, S-612/32, S-604/32, S-633/32, Charnock (DA6, BINA Dhan-6 and S-608/32 were identified as salt susceptible. For genotyping, ten SSR markers were used for polymorphism, where 3 primers (RM127, RM443 and RM140 were selected for evaluation of salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM127, 7 lines were found salt tolerant and 11 lines were moderately tolerant and 10 lines were susceptible. Nine tolerant, 9 moderately tolerant and 10 susceptible lines were found when the primer RM140 was used and primer RM443 identified 8 lines as tolerant, 9 lines as moderately tolerant and 11 lines as susceptible. Thus, the salt tolerant lines can be used in further evaluation for salinity tolerance and the SSR markers used in this study are proving valuable for identifying salt tolerant genes in marker assisted breeding.

  16. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerant genotypes were tested in young seedling stage in hydroponic system and then reproductive stage in 2010. Results show that vegetative growth was less affected by salt stress comparison to reproductive stage. Na and Na-K ratio in tolerant genotypes were lower than suspectible genotypes in salt condition in ...

  17. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE PASSIVE TREATMENT APPROACH FOR MINING INFLUENCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-stage passive treatment approach was assessed at bench-scale using two Colorado Mining Influenced Waters (MIWs). The first-stage was a limestone drain with the purpose of removing iron and aluminum and mitigating the potential effects of mineral acidity. The second stage w...

  18. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of diuron in a rat mammary two-stage carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the herbicide Diuron in a two-stage rat medium-term mammary carcinogenesis model initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Female seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to six groups: groups G1 to G4 received intragastrically (i.g.) a single 50 mg/kg dose of DMBA; groups G5 and G6 received single administration of canola oil (vehicle of DMBA). Groups G1 and G5 received a basal diet, and groups G2, G3, G4, and G6 were fed the basal diet with the addition of Diuron at 250, 1250, 2500, and 2500 ppm, respectively. After twenty-five weeks, the animals were euthanized and mammary tumors were histologically confirmed and quantified. Tumor samples were also processed for immunohistochemical evaluation of the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), p63, bcl-2, and bak. Diuron treatment did not increase the incidence or multiplicity of mammary tumors (groups G2 to G4 versus Group G1). Also, exposure to Diuron did not alter tumor growth (cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes) or immunoreactivity to ER-α, p63 (myoephitelial marker), or bcl-2 and bak (apoptosis regulatory proteins). These findings indicate that Diuron does not have a promoting potential on mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats initiated with DMBA.

  19. Evaluation and management of diabetic and non-diabetic hypoglycemia in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) regardless of diabetes status are at increased risk of hypoglycemia with a resultant array of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, hypoglycemia should be thoroughly evaluated in ESRD patients. In diabetic dialysis patients, hypoglycemic agents and nutritional alterations can trigger hypoglycemia in the background of diminished gluconeogenesis, reduced insulin clearance by the kidney and improved insulin sensitivity following initiation of renal replacement therapy. Detailed evaluation of antidiabetic regimen and nutritional patterns, patient education on self-monitoring of blood glucose and/or referral to a diabetes specialist may reduce risk of subsequent hypoglycemia. In certain situations, it is important to recognize the possibility of non-diabetic causes of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes and to avoid treating pseudo-hyperglycemia caused by glucose- non-specific glucometers in patients utilizing icodextrin-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis. Adrenal insufficiency, certain medications, malnutrition and/or infection are among the most common causes of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic ESRD patients, and they should be suspected after exclusion of inadvertent use of hypoglycemic agents. The goal of this review article is to summarize approaches and recommendations for the work up and treatment of hypoglycemia in ESRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle evaluated by cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshi

    1990-01-01

    CSF pulsation suggests variation in the size of the cerebral ventricle during the cardiac cycle. CINE MRI, which is a useful technique for observation of the pulsatile CSF flow, demonstrates a dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle. CINE MRI was performed on a 0.5 tesla MR imaging system (SMT-50, SHIMADZU). Sixteen different phased images during cardiac cycle were made by a gradient acho technique (STAGE: Short Tip Angle Gradient Echo, TE=14 msec, Flip Angle=30deg). From the measurement of the lateral ventricular areas of two different phases of CINE MRI during cadiac cycle, variation rate of cerebral ventricular area (VRCVA) was calculated. Twenty-five normal volunteers (14 younger adults aged 27-44 years, 11 older adults aged 56-73 years) and six cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy were studied. The results included: The mean VRCVA of younger adults was 14.4% (at right body of lateral ventricle) ∼ 30.0% (at left anterior horn of lateral ventricle). The mean VRCVA of younger adults is higher than the mean VRCVA of older adults. In the cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy, the mean VRCVA was very lower than the mean VRCVA of older adults. VRCVA of lateral ventricle calculated from CINE MRI seemed to have a good relationship to the brain elasticity. This noninvasive method would be used as an indication of the elastic response of the ventricles and the surrounding brain. (J.P.N.)

  1. Evaluation of single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under conscious sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and stability of ocular alignment after single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS performed under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients of concomitant exodeviations were randomized into three groups of 15 cases each and were operated with three different techniques: Group I - conventional surgery, Group II - two-stage adjustable suture technique with suture adjustment performed 6h postoperatively and Group III- SSASS under topical anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Intraoperative suture adjustment was done by giving a cross target to the patient on the ceiling at the end of the procedure. Surgical results were compared among the three groups at three months follow-up. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters and patients′ experience of the surgery (by questionnaire were also compared. Results: Mean preoperative deviation for distance in Groups I, II, III was -41.67 prism diopter (pd ±9.0, -38.93 pd ±11.05 and -41.87 pd ±8.91 ( P =0.6 respectively. At three months, mean correction achieved for distance was +31.87 pd ±11.71, +35.47 pd ±10.86 and +42.80 pd ±10.71 respectively which was significantly different between Group III and Group I ( P =0.03. Intraoperatively all hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable ( P =0. 5 in all groups. Intraoperative pain ( P < 0.001 and time taken for surgery ( P < 0.001 was more in the SSASS group. Amount of exodrift was 10-12 pd, comparable in all three groups ( P = 0.5. Conclusions: SSASS, performed under topical anesthesia, is safe and has better outcomes than conventional recession-resection surgery for concomitant exodeviation. An overcorrection of about 10-12 pd is recommended to check the exodrift and achieve stable alignment.

  2. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  3. Optimal production lot size and reorder point of a two-stage supply chain while random demand is sensitive with sales teams' initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Sana, Shib

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a production-inventory model of a two-stage supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer to study production lot size/order quantity, reorder point sales teams' initiatives where demand of the end customers is dependent on random variable and sales teams' initiatives simultaneously. The manufacturer produces the order quantity of the retailer at one lot in which the procurement cost per unit quantity follows a realistic convex function of production lot size. In the chain, the cost of sales team's initiatives/promotion efforts and wholesale price of the manufacturer are negotiated at the points such that their optimum profits reached nearer to their target profits. This study suggests to the management of firms to determine the optimal order quantity/production quantity, reorder point and sales teams' initiatives/promotional effort in order to achieve their maximum profits. An analytical method is applied to determine the optimal values of the decision variables. Finally, numerical examples with its graphical presentation and sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to illustrate more insights of the model.

  4. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  5. Evaluation of capillary pore size characteristics in high-strength concrete at early ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Akio; Kawamura, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative scanning electron microscope-backscattered electron (SEM-BSE) image analysis was used to evaluate capillary porosity and pore size distributions in high-strength concretes at early ages. The Powers model for the hydration of cement was applied to the interpretation of the results of image analysis. The image analysis revealed that pore size distributions in concretes with an extremely low water/binder ratio of 0.25 at early ages were discontinuous in the range of finer capillary pores. However, silica-fume-containing concretes with a water/binder ratio of 0.25 had larger amounts of fine pores than did concretes without silica fume. The presence of larger amounts of fine capillary pores in the concretes with silica fume may be responsible for greater autogenous shrinkage in the silica-fume-containing concretes at early ages

  6. Hierarchical evaluation of electrical stimulation protocols for chronic wound healing: An effect size meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Charles; Kotzki, Sylvain; Roustit, Matthieu; Blaise, Sophie; Gueyffier, Francois; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been tested for decades to improve chronic wound healing. However, uncertainty remains on the magnitude of the efficacy and on the best applicable protocol. We conducted an effect size meta-analysis to assess the overall efficacy of ES on wound healing, to compare the efficacy of the different modalities of electrical stimulation, and to determine whether efficacy differs depending on the wound etiology, size, and age of the chronic wound. Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials with 1,510 patients and 1,753 ulcers were selected. Overall efficacy of ES on would healing was a 0.72 SMD (95% CI: 0.48, 1) corresponding to a moderate to large effect size. We found that unidirectional high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) with the active electrode over the wound was the best evidence-based protocol to improve wound healing with a 0.8 SMD (95% CI: 0.38, 1.21), while evaluation of the efficacy of direct current was limited by the small number of studies. ES was more effective on pressure ulcers compared to venous and diabetic ulcers, and efficacy trended to be inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This study confirms the overall efficacy of ES to enhance healing of chronic wounds and highlights the superiority of HVPC over other type of currents, which is more effective on pressure ulcers, and inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This will enable to standardize future ES practices. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  7. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emlyn J.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Graham, George W.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial information can be gained from digital in-line holography of marine particles, eliminating depth-of-field and focusing errors associated with standard lens-based imaging methods. However, for the technique to reach its full potential in oceanographic research, fully unsupervised (automated) methods are required for focusing, segmentation, sizing and classification of particles. These computational challenges are the subject of this paper, in which we draw upon data collected using a variety of holographic systems developed at Plymouth University, UK, from a significant range of particle types, sizes and shapes. A new method for noise reduction in reconstructed planes is found to be successful in aiding particle segmentation and sizing. The performance of an automated routine for deriving particle characteristics (and subsequent size distributions) is evaluated against equivalent size metrics obtained by a trained operative measuring grain axes on screen. The unsupervised method is found to be reliable, despite some errors resulting from over-segmentation of particles. A simple unsupervised particle classification system is developed, and is capable of successfully differentiating sand grains, bubbles and diatoms from within the surf-zone. Avoiding miscounting bubbles and biological particles as sand grains enables more accurate estimates of sand concentrations, and is especially important in deployments of particle monitoring instrumentation in aerated water. Perhaps the greatest potential for further development in the computational aspects of particle holography is in the area of unsupervised particle classification. The simple method proposed here provides a foundation upon which further development could lead to reliable identification of more complex particle populations, such as those containing phytoplankton, zooplankton, flocculated cohesive sediments and oil droplets.

  8. Evaluation of Eight Different Clinical Staging Systems Associated with Overall Survival of Chinese Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer in China, an area of high hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Although several staging systems are available, there is no consensus on the best classification to use because multiple factors, such as etiology, clinical treatment and populations could affect the survival of HCC patients. Methods: This study analyzed 743 HBV-related Chinese HCC patients who received surgery first and evaluated the predictive values of eight different commonly used staging systems in the clinic. Results: The overall 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates and a median survival were 91.5%, 70.3%, 55.3% and 72 months respectively. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging systems had the best stratification ability and showed the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC values (2896.577, followed by tumor-node-metastasis 7 th (TNM 7 th (AIC = 2899.980, TNM 6 th (AIC = 2902.17, Japan integrated staging score (AIC = 2918.085, Tokyo (AIC = 2938.822, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (AIC = 2941.950, Chinese University Prognostic Index grade (AIC = 2962.027, and Okuda (AIC = 2979.389. Conclusions: BCLC staging system is a better staging model for HBV infection patients with HCC in Chinese population among the eight currently used staging systems. These identifications afford a large group of Chinese HCC patients with HBV infection and could be helpful to design a new staging system for a certain population.

  9. TRANSITION PREDICTORS OF X-RAY 0 STAGE FOR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS INTO THE 1ST STAGE (BASED ON THE COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE KNEE JOINT BY MRI WORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common disease among all rheumatological diseases. Approximately 70-80% of all OA cases of are gonarthritis. Routine X-ray examination is not informative to assess non-bone structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI allows visualizing all the structural elements of a joint, such as articular soft tissue structures and subcortical parts. To achieve objective data, the researcher needs to adhere a protocol allowing to assess of all joint parts, the so-called method of evaluation of the whole body (Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score –WORMS. Aim. to determine predictors of OA progression for X-ray 0 stage on the basis of the knee MRI procedure byWORMS.Methods. A cohort study. The sample consisted of patients with gonarthritis in all hospitals inArkhangelsk,Northwest Russia. The main inclusion criterion was clinically confirmed with knee OA by Altman 1991 without X-ray pathological changes. X-ray examinations of the knee joints were performed during the initial diagnosis and after one year. After the first X-ray examination patients underwent an MRI provided by machines with a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla. The study included 76 patients, 22 patients were lost to follow up. Altogether, 54 (71.1% patients completed the study. MRI evaluation of the data was carried out byWORMS protocol.Results. The progression of X-ray 0 stage into the first stage by Kellgren-Lawrence after one year has occurred in 45 (8.3% patients of the 54 patients. Clinically significant predictors of progression of OA of the knee based on MRI were: degeneration of the medial meniscus (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 1.1-22.5, and synovitis (OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 1.5-33.1, degeneration of the medial meniscus and synovitis were included Regression model. Regression model revealed the most significant predictor of progression of knee OA was synovitis (OR = 5.49, 95% CI: 1.13-26.72. The sensitivity of model was 95,1% (95% CI: 85

  10. Correlation of automorphism group size and topological properties with program-size complexity evaluations of graphs and complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenil, Hector; Soler-Toscano, Fernando; Dingle, Kamaludin; Louis, Ard A.

    2014-06-01

    We show that numerical approximations of Kolmogorov complexity (K) of graphs and networks capture some group-theoretic and topological properties of empirical networks, ranging from metabolic to social networks, and of small synthetic networks that we have produced. That K and the size of the group of automorphisms of a graph are correlated opens up interesting connections to problems in computational geometry, and thus connects several measures and concepts from complexity science. We derive these results via two different Kolmogorov complexity approximation methods applied to the adjacency matrices of the graphs and networks. The methods used are the traditional lossless compression approach to Kolmogorov complexity, and a normalised version of a Block Decomposition Method (BDM) based on algorithmic probability theory.

  11. Second molar calcification stages to evaluate skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Vijayashree

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: A highly positive correlation exists between DI of mandibular second molars and CVMI. Stage F of Demirjian index, with the root length equal to or greater than the crown height corresponds to stage 3 of CVMI indicating the start of peak in mandibular growth which would be appropriate time to plan for functional appliances. Therefore, mandibular second molar calcification stages are reliable skeletal maturity indicator, which can be used to predict the growth status in determining the optimal treatment timing.

  12. [The first stage of toxicology evaluation and analysis of 1502 pesticide samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Li, Xianjun; Xie, Jing; Ling, Jianan; Shi, Nian

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the results of the first-stage toxicological evaluation of 1 502 pesticide samples. The classification of the 1 502 pesticide samples was analyzed, and the experimental results of the samples in different years were compared. Most of the 1 502 pesticide samples were insecticides, accounting for 52.5% of all, followed by bactericides and herbicides. In the 5 years, the proportion of biogenic insecticides showed a significant rising trend (χ² = 11.426, P pesticides was 65.8%; mixed pesticides accounted for 32.7%; original pesticides accounted for only 1.5%. From 2008 to 2012, most pesticides had low toxicity, regardless of the exposure route (via the mouth, skin, or respiratory tract). Acute oral and dermal toxicity tests showed that pesticides with moderate toxicity declined year by year (oral exposure χ² = 18.036, P pesticides with high toxicity. We did not detect any pesticide with extreme toxicity. Acute skin irritation and eye irritation test showed an upward trend in proportion of non-irritating pesticides (χ² = 77.110, P pesticides decreased significantly (χ² = 18.941, P pesticides was insecticide. Most samples were single pesticides, and there was a certain proportion of mixed pesticides. Novel pesticides such as bio-pesticides are the development tendency. The tested pesticides were mainly low-toxicity pesticides, with a certain proportion of medium- and high-toxicity pesticides. Personal protection should be strengthened during production and use of pesticides.

  13. NASAwide electronic publishing system: Prototype STI electronic document distribution, stage-4 evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual frame work, functional description, and technical report server of the STI Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware, and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices, which arc contained in Part 2 of this document, consist of (1) STI EDD Project Plan, (2) Team members, (3) Phasing Schedules, (4) Accessing On-line Reports, and (5) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desktop publishing systems, and technical report servers to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  14. Evaluation of late vegetative and reproductive stage soybeans for resistance to soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T J; Pierson, L M; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Heng-Moss, T M; Reese, J C

    2013-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the most significant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] insect pest in the north central soybean production region of North America. The objectives of this research were to measure selected genotypes for resistance to the soybean aphid in the later vegetative and reproductive stages under field conditions, and confirm the presence of tolerance in KS4202. The results from 2007 to 2011 indicate that KS4202 can support aphid populations with minimal yield loss at levels where significant yield loss would be expected in most other genotypes. The common Nebraska cultivar, 'Asgrow 2703', appears to show signs of tolerance as well. None of the yield parameters were significantly different between the aphid infested and noninfested treatments. Based on our results, genotypes may compensate for aphid feeding in different ways. Asgrow 2703 appears to produce a similar number of seeds as its noninfested counterpart, although the seeds produced are slightly smaller. Field evaluation of tolerance in KS4202 indicated a yield loss of only 13% at 34,585-53,508 cumulative aphid-days, when 24-36% yield loss would have been expected.

  15. Evaluation of the TSI aerosol impactor 3306/3321 system using a redesigned impactor stage with solution and suspension metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie A; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2006-03-10

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a redesigned impactor stage for the TSI Model 3306 Impactor Inlet with nozzles adjusted to obtain a target cut-point of 4.7 microm. It has been determined that the previous cut-point used in the Model 3306 was nominally closer to 4.14 microm, thus potentially impacting the characterization of aerosol mass. The reassessment of the Model 3306 was performed on 4 solution and 2 suspension metered-dose inhaler (MDI) formulations. The redesigned impactor stage resulted in a 5% to 6% increase in aerosol mass when compared with the previous impactor stage for the products Ventolin-HFA, Proventil-HFA, and 2 cyclosporin solution formulations with high ethanol concentrations (15% wt/wt). For the formulations with low ethanol concentrations (3% wt/wt), minimal differences were observed between the 2 cut-points. In addition, this study reevaluated the requirement of a vertical inlet extension length when using the TSI 3306/3321 system with the redesigned cut-point. It was shown that the use of a 20-cm extension provides mass and aerosol size distributions that are comparable to the Andersen 8-stage Cascade Impactor, for both solution and suspension MDIs. This work indicates that the TSI 3306/3321 system is suitable for preformulation studies of both suspension and solution MDI systems.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  17. MRI evaluation of residual tumor size after neoadjuvant endocrine therapy vs. neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazuna [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kanao, Shotaro, E-mail: kanaos@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ueno, Takayuki; Toi, Masakazu [Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ishiguro, Hiroshi [Outpatient Oncology Unit, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tanaka, Shiro [Translational Research Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Aim: To investigate if there is any difference in evaluation of residual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NAE). Methods: Seventy-eight tumors in 57 patients were prospectively enrolled. Residual tumor sizes in contrast-enhanced MRI after NAC and NAE were compared with those measured on surgical specimen by using linear regression analyses. The line slope values >1 indicates overestimation by MRI. Differences in types of shrinkage patterns: concentric shrinkage (CS) and dendritic shrinkage (DS) were also investigated. Results: Fifty lesions were treated with NAC and 28 lesions were treated with NAE. Shrinkage patterns were CS in 33 lesions and in 45 lesions. The slopes values were 0.75 (R = 0.92) and 0.70 (R = 0.90) for NAC and NAE, respectively, and no significant difference was observed (p = 0.46). However, they were 1.02 (R = 0.92) and 0.68 (R = 0.92), respectively for CS and DS with significant difference (p < 0.01). The difference between CS and DS was found only in a subgroup with size by MRI >20 mm. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced MRI enabled fairly accurate measurement in NAE as well as in NAC.

  18. L-DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression is associated with tumor stage and size in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geomela Panagiota-Aikaterini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC represents one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. The DDC gene encodes L-DOPA decarboxylase, an enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine. We have recently shown that DDC mRNA is a significant predictor of patients’ prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to analyze the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC patients. Methods 53 malignant tumors were resected from the larynx, pharynx, tongue, buccal mucosa, parotid glands, and nasal cavity, as well as from 34 adjacent non-cancerous tissues of HNSCC patients, and were homogenized. Total RNA was isolated and converted into first-strand cDNA. An ultrasensitive real-time PCR method based on the SYBR Green chemistry was used for DDC mRNA quantification in head and neck tissue specimens. Relative quantification was performed using the comparative Ct (2-ddCt method. Results DDC mRNA levels were lower in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the larynx and tongue than in adjacent non-cancerous tissue specimens. Furthermore, low DDC mRNA expression was noticed in laryngeal and tongue tumors of advanced TNM stage or bigger size, compared to early-stage or smaller tumors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between SCCs resected from pharynx, buccal mucosa, or nasal cavity, and their normal counterparts. Conclusion This is the first study examining the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC. According to our results, DDC mRNA expression may constitute a potential prognostic biomarker in tongue and/or larynx SCCs, which principally represent the overwhelming majority of HNSCC cases.

  19. Evaluation of UV Curing Properties of Mixture Systems with Differently Sized Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Won Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV curing is a photopolymerization technique resulting in a three-dimensional polymer network from monomers and oligomers after exposure to UV light, which is often used for fusion industry. However, shrinkage is an issue that needs to be resolved. Studies of single substances have been extensively conducted, but studies of mixture systems have not sufficiently been undertaken. In this study, we evaluate the shrinkage phenomenon by studying a monomer/monomer binary system and monomer/macromer composite systems. Shrinkage tends to increase when compounds varying in size are used. Similar to the shrinkage phenomenon, the curing rate is also relatively higher in such systems. These synergistic effects are evaluated to be due to the nano-porous effect, and vary with the composition ratio and material structure.

  20. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids. IV. Number versus size of crosses and importance of parental selection in two-stage selection for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegenast, Thilo; Longin, C Friedrich H; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen C

    2008-07-01

    Parental selection influences the gain from selection and the optimum allocation of test resources in breeding programs. We compared two hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) breeding schemes with evaluation of testcross progenies: (a) doubled haploid (DH) lines in both stages (DHTC) and (b) S(1) families in the first stage and DH lines within S(1) families in the second stage (S(1)TC-DHTC). Our objectives were to (1) determine the optimum allocation regarding the number of crosses, S(1) families, DH lines, and test locations, (2) investigate the impact of parental selection on the optimum allocation and selection gain (DeltaG), and (3) compare the maximum DeltaG achievable with each breeding scheme. Selection gain was calculated by numerical integration. Different assumptions were made regarding the budget, variance components, correlation between the mean phenotypic performance of the parents and the mean genotypic value of the testcross performance of their progenies (rho( P )), and the composition of the finally selected test candidates. In comparison with randomly chosen crosses, maximum DeltaG was largely increased with parental selection in both breeding schemes. With an increasing correlation rho( P ), this superiority increased strongly, while the optimum number of crosses decreased in favor of an increased number of test candidates within crosses. Thus, concentration on few crosses among the best parental lines might be a promising approach for short-term success in advanced cycle breeding. Breeding scheme S(1)TC-DHTC led to a larger DeltaG but had a longer cycle length than DHTC. However, with further improvements in the DH technique and the realization of more than two generations per year, early testing of S(1) families prior to production of DH lines would become very attractive in hybrid maize breeding.

  1. Evaluation of Mid-Size Male Hybrid III Models for use in Spaceflight Occupant Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, J.; Somers, J.; Wells, J.; Newby, N.; Currie-Gregg, N.; Lawrence, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to improve occupant safety during dynamic phases of spaceflight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked to develop occupant protection standards for future crewed spacecraft. One key aspect of these standards is the identification of injury mechanisms through anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Within this analysis, both physical and computational ATD evaluations are required to reasonably encompass the vast range of loading conditions any spaceflight crew may encounter. In this study the accuracy of publically available mid-size male HIII ATD finite element (FE) models are evaluated within applicable loading conditions against extensive sled testing performed on their physical counterparts. Methods: A series of sled tests were performed at the Wright Patterson Air force Base (WPAFB) employing variations of magnitude, duration, and impact direction to encompass the dynamic loading range for expected spaceflight. FE simulations were developed to the specifications of the test setup and driven using measured acceleration profiles. Both fast and detailed FE models of the mid-size male HIII were ran to quantify differences in their accuracy and thus assess the applicability of each within this field. Results: Preliminary results identify the dependence of model accuracy on loading direction, magnitude, and rate. Additionally the accuracy of individual response metrics are shown to vary across each model within evaluated test conditions. Causes for model inaccuracy are identified based on the observed relationships. Discussion: Computational modeling provides an essential component to ATD injury metric evaluation used to ensure the safety of future spaceflight occupants. The assessment of current ATD models lays the groundwork for how these models can be used appropriately in the future. Identification of limitations and possible paths for improvement aid in the development of these effective analysis tools.

  2. The statistical and practical significance and "effect size" coefficients for the evaluation of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2012-01-01

    the result. CONCLUSIONS: The presented information about formulating the practical significance and introduction of effect size coefficients should contribute to the improvement of statistical evaluation of data and its consequent correct interpretation of the results.

  3. Evaluation of Approaches to Analyzing Continuous Correlated Eye Data When Sample Size Is Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Huang, Jiayan; Chen, Yong; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of commonly used statistical methods for analyzing continuous correlated eye data when sample size is small. We simulated correlated continuous data from two designs: (1) two eyes of a subject in two comparison groups; (2) two eyes of a subject in the same comparison group, under various sample size (5-50), inter-eye correlation (0-0.75) and effect size (0-0.8). Simulated data were analyzed using paired t-test, two sample t-test, Wald test and score test using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) and F-test using linear mixed effects model (LMM). We compared type I error rates and statistical powers, and demonstrated analysis approaches through analyzing two real datasets. In design 1, paired t-test and LMM perform better than GEE, with nominal type 1 error rate and higher statistical power. In design 2, no test performs uniformly well: two sample t-test (average of two eyes or a random eye) achieves better control of type I error but yields lower statistical power. In both designs, the GEE Wald test inflates type I error rate and GEE score test has lower power. When sample size is small, some commonly used statistical methods do not perform well. Paired t-test and LMM perform best when two eyes of a subject are in two different comparison groups, and t-test using the average of two eyes performs best when the two eyes are in the same comparison group. When selecting the appropriate analysis approach the study design should be considered.

  4. Evaluation of occlusal forces in different stages of children - An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: There was a difference in the occlusal bite force at different dentition stages. It was significantly higher in males and in the permanent dentition stage. Height and weight can be considered as predictors of occlusal bite force in older children with permanent dentition.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Hierarchical Testlets in Two-Stage Tests Using Integer Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tit-Loong; Foong, Yoke-Yeen

    This simulation study involved the design of two two-stage tests in which the routing tests and the second-stage measurement testlets took the form of a multidimensional knapsack problem with prespecified target informations and constraints to be enumerated using the algorithm of E. Balas. Two conventional tests of similar length to the two-stage…

  6. Evaluation of sampling frequency, window size and sensor position for classification of sheep behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily; Casey, Christy; Mitsch, Jurgen; Vázquez-Diosdado, Jorge A.; Yan, Juan; Dottorini, Tania; Ellis, Keith A.; Winterlich, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Automated behavioural classification and identification through sensors has the potential to improve health and welfare of the animals. Position of a sensor, sampling frequency and window size of segmented signal data has a major impact on classification accuracy in activity recognition and energy needs for the sensor, yet, there are no studies in precision livestock farming that have evaluated the effect of all these factors simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of position (ear and collar), sampling frequency (8, 16 and 32 Hz) of a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope sensor and window size (3, 5 and 7 s) on the classification of important behaviours in sheep such as lying, standing and walking. Behaviours were classified using a random forest approach with 44 feature characteristics. The best performance for walking, standing and lying classification in sheep (accuracy 95%, F-score 91%–97%) was obtained using combination of 32 Hz, 7 s and 32 Hz, 5 s for both ear and collar sensors, although, results obtained with 16 Hz and 7 s window were comparable with accuracy of 91%–93% and F-score 88%–95%. Energy efficiency was best at a 7 s window. This suggests that sampling at 16 Hz with 7 s window will offer benefits in a real-time behavioural monitoring system for sheep due to reduced energy needs. PMID:29515862

  7. Evaluation of a Fast Protocol for Staging Lymphoma Patients with Integrated PET/MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Grueneisen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of a fast MR-protocol for whole-body staging of lymphoma patients using an integrated PET/MR system.A total of 48 consecutive lymphoma patients underwent 52 clinically indicated PET/CT and subsequent PET/MRI examinations with the use of 18F-FDG. For PET/MR imaging, a fast whole-body MR-protocol was implemented. A radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician interpreted MRI and PET/MRI datasets in consensus and were instructed to identify manifestations of lymphoma on a site-specific analysis. The accuracy for the identification of active lymphoma disease was calculated and the tumor stage for each examination was determined. Furthermore, radiation doses derived from administered tracer activities and CT protocol parameters were estimated and the mean scan duration of PET/CT and PET/MR imaging was determined. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI and MRI alone. The results of PET/CT imaging, all available histopathological samples as well as results of prior examinations and follow-up imaging were used for the determination of the reference standard.Active lymphoma disease was present in 28/52 examinations. PET/MRI revealed higher values of diagnostic accuracy for the identification of active lymphoma disease in those 52 examinations in comparison to MRI, however, results of the two ratings did not differ significantly. On a site specific analysis, PET/MRI showed a significantly higher accuracy for the identification of nodal manifestation of lymphoma (p<0.05 if compared to MRI, whereas ratings for extranodal regions did not reveal a significant difference. In addition, PET/MRI enabled correct identification of lymphoma stage in a higher percentage of patients than MRI (94% vs. 83%. Furthermore, SUVs derived from PET/MRI were significantly higher than in PET/CT, however, there was a strong positive correlation between SUVmax and SUVmean of the two

  8. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  9. Evaluation of perforated demineralized dentin scaffold on bone regeneration in critical-size sheep iliac defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Arafat; Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Kusano, Kaoru; Yamada, Katsuhisa; Ito, Manabu

    2017-11-01

    Regenerating critical-size bone injury is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new graft materials. Therefore, tissue engineering has become a novel approach for targeting bone regeneration applications. Human teeth are a rich source of stem cells, matrix, trace metal ions, and growth factors. A vital tooth-derived demineralized dentin matrix is acid-insoluble and composed of cross-linked collagen with growth factors. In this study, we recycled human non-functional tooth into a unique geometric dentin scaffold, entitled perforated root-demineralized dentin matrix (PR-DDM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of PR-DDM as the scaffold for regenerating bone in critical-size iliac defects. Artificial macro-pores (1 mm in diameter) were added to human vital wisdom tooth after removing the enamel and pulp portions. The modified tooth was demineralized in 0.34 N HNO 3 for 30 min and is referred to as PR-DDM scaffold. Critical-size defect (10 mm × 15 mm × 9 mm Ø) was created in the iliac crest of six adult sheep. The in vivo bone regeneration by the scaffold was evaluated by micro-CT, 3D micro-CT, and histological examination at 2 and 4 months post-implantation. PR-DDM exhibited better bone ingrowth, especially in the artificial macro-pores. The results of micro-CT and 3D micro-CT revealed good union between scaffold and native bone. New bone formation was observed in almost all portions of PR-DDM. Higher bone volume inside the scaffold was detected at 4 months compared with 2 months. New bone ingrowth was ankylosed with PR-DDM, and both osteoinduction and osteoconduction capability of PR-DDM were confirmed histologically. The ratio of new bone formation was higher at 4 months compared with 2 months by histomorphometric analysis. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the human tooth-derived graft material with a unique geometric structure, PR-DDM, contributed to active bone ingrowth in critical-size bone

  10. Evaluating Changes In Fertility Status Of An Alfisol Under Different Growth Stages Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osundare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluating changes in soil nutrient status under different growth stages of cassava makes possible determination of the most critical stage in its vegetative growth phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. Determining the most critical stage in cassava vegetative growth phase when its nutrient demand is highest will enhance properly timed fertilizer application in such a way the application will coincide with the most critical stage in cassava vegetative phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. In view of this a two year field experiment was designed to assess changes in nutrient status of an Alfisol under different growth stages of cassava during 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti Ekiti State Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different growth stages of cassava when changes in nutrient status of Alfisol were evaluated included 3 6 9 and 12 months after planting MAP. The results indicated existence of significant P 0.05 differences among the different growth stages of cassava as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.88 0.80 0.72 and0.64 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Similarly during 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.80 0.73 0.66 and0.58 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.57 0.50 0.43 and0.35 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1

  11. The validity of using juvenile stages for evaluation of salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Triticum durum) on the basis of their salt ... the plant either in yield components or eco physiological quality. ... ANOVA analysis: fisher test signification for variables measured at tiller stage and at harvest for some wheat genotypes.

  12. The Evaluation Life Cycle: A Retrospective Assessment of Stages and Phases of the Circles of Care Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Gary; Allen, James; Deters, Pamela B.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle metaphor characterizes the evolving relationship between the evaluator and program staff. This framework suggests that common developmental dynamics occur in roughly the same order across groups and settings. There are stage-specific dynamics that begin with Pre-History, which characterize the relationship between the grantees and…

  13. Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Batoqui França Biondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot leaves (Beta vulgaris L. are commonly cut off and discarded before using its bulb due to lack of knowledge of how to use them. Aiming at using these leaves, in the present study, in natura and dehydrated beetroot leaves were chemically characterized in terms of fatty acid composition, proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds (TPC, and antioxidant activity by DPPH• in different stages (60, 80, and 100 days of development. The beetroot leaves showed significant levels of protein and lipids in all developmental stages, and all proximate composition nutrients decreased during these maturation stages; the highest content was observed at 60 days. The Fe content decreased during the developmental stages (from 342.75 to 246.30 mg.kg-1, while the content of K increased (from 13,367.64 to 20,784.90 mg.kg-1. With regard to to fatty acid composition, linolenic acid was present in the greatest quantity, and it increase up to 2.58 mg.g-1 (in natura and 40.11 mg.g-1 (dehydrated at 100 days of development. The n-6/n-3 ratios were low in all stages. The TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH• changed during the developmental stages. The TPC was highest in the 100-day dehydrated leaves (15.27±0.12 mg GAE.g-1 FW, and the 50% inhibition of DPPH• (IC50 89.52 µg.mL-1 were better in the 60-day in natura leaves. This study shows that all developmental stages produced satisfactory results, and therefore, these leaves can be reused as food. The antioxidant activity and the chemical constituents, mainly the ω-3fatty acid, increased during the stages of development.

  14. Prediction and evaluation method of wind environment in the early design stage using BIM-based CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sumi; Song, Doosam

    2010-01-01

    Drastic urbanization and manhattanization are causing various problems in wind environment. This study suggests a CFD simulation method to evaluate wind environment in the early design stage of high-rise buildings. The CFD simulation of this study is not a traditional in-depth simulation, but a method to immediately evaluate wind environment for each design alternative and provide guidelines for design modification. Thus, the CFD simulation of this study to evaluate wind environments uses BIM-based CFD tools to utilize building models in the design stage. This study examined previous criteria to evaluate wind environment for pedestrians around buildings and selected evaluation criteria applicable to the CFD simulation method of this study. Furthermore, proper mesh generation method and CPU time were reviewed to find a meaningful CFD simulation result for determining optimal design alternative from the perspective of wind environment in the design stage. In addition, this study is to suggest a wind environment evaluation method through a BIM-based CFD simulation.

  15. Experimental Laboratory Research and Evaluation of Periodic Operation Small Size Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij Kolodynskij

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation device – small size periodic operation bioreactors, which are developed for the production of biogas from different organic, vegetable waste. The device operates by maintaining optimum operating temperature and oxygen concentration required for anaerobic treatment process inside the bioreactor. Under favorable conditions, organic substance is being degradated because of anaerobic processess, colonies of microorganisms grow, and methane bacteria produce CH4 – useful flammable gases, which can be used as natural gas analogue. The gas is stored in special tanks of gas – gas holders. A study was implemented by analizing five different loads, according to the mixing ratio of vegetables (potatoes and chicken manure waste. The quality and quantity of biogas was analized as well. It was found that the highest concentration of methane (67.8% was achieved by using a load consisting only of chicken manure, but after evaluation of biogas yield, it was found that the best result (according to the quantity of biogas, a high concentration of CH4 and time of load degradation is achieved using chicken manure and potato waste mix (relatively 70 and 30%. Mesophilic process temperature during the experiment was 33–35 °C, and oxygen concentration – 0.0–0.1%. After research implementation there will be an opportunity to create small size periodic operation bioreactors, which can be used in small farms or private houses, where the small amount of organic waste and manure are formed.

  16. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L.

    2016-09-27

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  17. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  18. Modern methods of evaluation existing suppliers and suppliers selected by customer for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jurová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 em­ployers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of eva­lua­tion. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. Improving IRT Parameter Estimates with Small Sample Sizes: Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Data Augmentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Brett Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The 3PL model is a flexible and widely used tool in assessment. However, it suffers from limitations due to its need for large sample sizes. This study introduces and evaluates the efficacy of a new sample size augmentation technique called Duplicate, Erase, and Replace (DupER) Augmentation through a simulation study. Data are augmented using…

  20. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  1. Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-β-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  2. The role of PET in staging work-up and evaluation after therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoon Koo; Ryoo, Baek Yeol

    1998-12-01

    The stage of disease in patients with malignant lymphoma in important in decision of treatment modality and in prediction of prognosis. The authors evaluated the usefulness of PET with F18-FDG in initial staging, in reevaluation after radical therapy and in diagnosis of recurrence or disease progression of malignant lymphoma, compared with conventional imaging studies. The efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) was evaluated in several tumors. In malignant lymphoma. It was reported that the concentration of FDG was increased in tumor tissues, and that PET with F18-FDG was more sensitive and specific in staging evaluation compared with CT scan. The visual analysis of FDG-PET would be helpful in initial staging work-up, in reevaluation of residual disease after radical therapy and in suspicious recurrence or disease progression, determining the residual disease of lymphoma after radical therapy. But more studies with larger number of cases and longer follow-up were required. The results of this study can be bases for the direction of future studies for the usefulness of PET in malignant lymphoma

  3. Evaluation of absorption of radionuclides via roots of plants at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, Shizuko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    For the environmental risk assessment of radionuclides and toxic elements which were released by nuclear power plants and factories, the absorption of trace elements by plants has been studied by a multitracer technique. The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides. The selective absorption coefficients of some elements varied greatly in experimental runs. Therefore, the selective absorption coefficients of radionuclides by komatsuna at different growth stages were determined. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in komatsuna at different growth stages was studied. Extraction of the radionuclides from the soil was carried out in order to study the correlation between the transfer factor and the aging effect of the radionuclides in soil. The effect of soil acidity on the absorption of radionuclides in soybean and tomato was studied using the plants at different growth stages. (author)

  4. THE EVALUATION SYSTEM OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ON THE PRE-INVESTMENT STAGE THROUGH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Kostsikava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Soviet Union design solutions were evaluated according to different criteria and indicators. At the present stage of evaluation systems of design solutions stands systemengineering doctrine is allocated. It is complemented by the theory of efficiency and financial sustainability investment project in view of the general market concept. Also great attention is paid to the virtual object modeling. It is urgent to include the behavior prediction of an investment construction project model at each stage of its life cycle. The high cost of all phases of this life cycle makes it necessary to calculate the feasibility of the investment. Very urgent to do it as accurately as possible and before we start of design works on the stage of the investment plan evaluation. Belarus has legislated pre-investment stage of construction project development. To evaluate the design solution at this stage is necessary to develop an investment justification, a project management plan and a business plan. They will evaluate and will compare several options for future objects by the complex. This requires not only time, but considerable financial costs. In order to optimize the process to develop an evaluation system design solutions based on existing projects. It allows the customer (investor choose design solutions to build the object without developing of pre-design documentations for several options. This system it is advisable to try out the example of apartment house building with the assistance of the national fund of project documentation and objects-analogues data bank. The developed evaluation system of design solutions for residential real estate objects in the pre-investment stage is supposed to use the theory of neural networks and neyroprogramming. This system bases on the input parameters projects. The hidden layer neurons are trained to choose suitable projects of apartment houses with their classification. The projects will be classified

  5. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48x96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ∼1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ∼4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ∼15.6% for Tc 99m . Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m -DTPA and Tc 99m -MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals

  6. Fewer but better: Proportionate size of the group affects evaluation of transgressive leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglino, Giovanni A; Abrams, Dominic; Randsley de Moura, Georgina; Yetkili, Orkun

    2016-06-01

    A group may be badly affected if its leader transgresses important rules. Nonetheless, an emerging body of evidence suggests that in intergroup contexts, group members apply a double standard when judging ingroup leaders - They respond less punitively to transgressions by their leader than by non-leaders. In this article, two experiments investigated how proportionate ingroup size affects reactions to transgressive ingroup leaders. We demonstrate that ingroup leaders from larger, but not smaller, groups benefit from the double standard. The experiments testing the effects of two different types of transgressions (nepotistic favouritism and corruption, respectively) show that transgressive leaders from larger groups are evaluated more positively than both comparable non-leaders and leaders from smaller groups. In contrast, transgressive leaders from smaller groups are evaluated similarly to comparable transgressive non-leaders. Experiment 2 investigated a potential explanation for this phenomenon. Faced with a transgressive leader, members of a smaller group report greater embarrassment than do members of larger groups in relation to the leaders' actions. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Evaluation of occupational health service systems in small- and medium-sized industries in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Cho, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, K M; Meng, K

    2001-01-01

    To establish a system of analytical methodology that can be used to evaluate an occupational health service system, to evaluate the performance of different types of the system in small- and medium-sized industries using the evaluation model, and to identify factors which influence the performance of an occupational health service system. The input-output-outcome aspects of two different systems, capitation-based Group health services and fee-for-service-based Individual health services, were examined, based on a causal model. Each causal relationship in the model was tested for its statistical significance by the linear regression technique based on the ordinary least square method. Data from 16 enterprises in the Group-type, 17 enterprises in the Individual-type, and 32 enterprises in the Transitional Group-type were used in the analyses. In the Group model, enterprises utilized fewer resources for occupational services, their workers were provided with more services when services such as medical examinations were supplied directly by the system, and they had worse outcome measures of health and industrial injuries. The latter was the result of less input and fewer services, the supply of which was not within the direct control of the system, such as compliance with the recommendation to install machine safety devices and the proper maintenance and operation of these devices. Although study results revealed problem areas in the performance of the Group system, the study found a potential for an effective and efficient system in the Group-type with efforts geared to the better follow-up of work environment problems.

  8. Evaluating Self-Concept and Ego Status in Erikson's Last Three Psychosocial Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachek, Don

    1990-01-01

    Suggests behavioral criteria that can be used for assessing the status of self-concept and ego development in Erikson's last three psychosocial stages. Presents three tables of different behavioral expressions, each providing examples of possible behaviors and implicit attitudes related to positive and negative ego resolutions associated with last…

  9. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  10. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  11. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  12. A re-evaluation of the size of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) population off California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, George H; Bruce, Barry D; Cailliet, Gregor M; Goldman, Kenneth J; Grubbs, R Dean; Lowe, Christopher G; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mollet, Henry F; Weng, Kevin C; O'Sullivan, John B

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory and segregate by sex, age and size. Unlike marine mammals, they neither surface to breathe nor frequent haul-out sites, hindering generation of abundance data required to estimate population size. A recent tag-recapture study used photographic identifications of white sharks at two aggregation sites to estimate abundance in "central California" at 219 mature and sub-adult individuals. They concluded this represented approximately one-half of the total abundance of mature and sub-adult sharks in the entire eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENP). This low estimate generated great concern within the conservation community, prompting petitions for governmental endangered species designations. We critically examine that study and find violations of model assumptions that, when considered in total, lead to population underestimates. We also use a Bayesian mixture model to demonstrate that the inclusion of transient sharks, characteristic of white shark aggregation sites, would substantially increase abundance estimates for the adults and sub-adults in the surveyed sub-population. Using a dataset obtained from the same sampling locations and widely accepted demographic methodology, our analysis indicates a minimum all-life stages population size of >2000 individuals in the California subpopulation is required to account for the number and size range of individual sharks observed at the two sampled sites. Even accounting for methodological and conceptual biases, an extrapolation of these data to estimate the white shark population size throughout the ENP is inappropriate. The true ENP white shark population size is likely several-fold greater as both our study and the original published estimate exclude non-aggregating sharks and those that independently aggregate at other important ENP sites. Accurately estimating the central California and ENP white shark population size requires methodologies that account for biases introduced by sampling a

  13. A re-evaluation of the size of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias population off California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H Burgess

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory and segregate by sex, age and size. Unlike marine mammals, they neither surface to breathe nor frequent haul-out sites, hindering generation of abundance data required to estimate population size. A recent tag-recapture study used photographic identifications of white sharks at two aggregation sites to estimate abundance in "central California" at 219 mature and sub-adult individuals. They concluded this represented approximately one-half of the total abundance of mature and sub-adult sharks in the entire eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENP. This low estimate generated great concern within the conservation community, prompting petitions for governmental endangered species designations. We critically examine that study and find violations of model assumptions that, when considered in total, lead to population underestimates. We also use a Bayesian mixture model to demonstrate that the inclusion of transient sharks, characteristic of white shark aggregation sites, would substantially increase abundance estimates for the adults and sub-adults in the surveyed sub-population. Using a dataset obtained from the same sampling locations and widely accepted demographic methodology, our analysis indicates a minimum all-life stages population size of >2000 individuals in the California subpopulation is required to account for the number and size range of individual sharks observed at the two sampled sites. Even accounting for methodological and conceptual biases, an extrapolation of these data to estimate the white shark population size throughout the ENP is inappropriate. The true ENP white shark population size is likely several-fold greater as both our study and the original published estimate exclude non-aggregating sharks and those that independently aggregate at other important ENP sites. Accurately estimating the central California and ENP white shark population size requires methodologies that account for biases

  14. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    a projection microscope and a simple test system in fields of vision systematically selected from the whole tumor area of one routine section, five quantitative histopathologic variables were estimated: the mean nuclear volume, the mean nuclear profile area, the density of nuclear profiles, the volume fraction...... of nuclei to tissue, and the number of mitotic profiles per 10(3) nuclear profiles. For each patient, information was recorded regarding sex, age at diagnosis, and clinical stage of disease.RESULTS: Single-factor analyses showed that a favorable prognosis was associated with early clinical stages (Stages I...... and II) and young age (P stage, age, and mean nuclear...

  15. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    a projection microscope and a simple test system in fields of vision systematically selected from the whole tumor area of one routine section, five quantitative histopathologic variables were estimated: the mean nuclear volume, the mean nuclear profile area, the density of nuclear profiles, the volume fraction...... of nuclei to tissue, and the number of mitotic profiles per 10(3) nuclear profiles. For each patient, information was recorded regarding sex, age at diagnosis, and clinical stage of disease. RESULTS: Single-factor analyses showed that a favorable prognosis was associated with early clinical stages (Stages I...... and II) and young age (P stage, age, and mean nuclear...

  16. [Mortality in early-stage, surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer less than 3 cm of size: Competing risk analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordá Aragón, Carlos; Peñalver Cuesta, Juan Carlos; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; de Aguiar Quevedo, Karol; Vera Sempere, Francisco; Padilla Alarcón, José

    2015-09-07

    Survival studies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are usually based on the Kaplan-Meier method. However, other factors not covered by this method may modify the observation of the event of interest. There are models of cumulative incidence (CI), that take into account these competing risks, enabling more accurate survival estimates and evaluation of the risk of death from other causes. We aimed to evaluate these models in resected early-stage NSCLC patients. This study included 263 patients with resected NSCLC whose diameter was ≤ 3 cm without node involvement (N0). Demographic, clinical, morphopathological and surgical variables, TNM classification and long-term evolution were analysed. To analyse CI, death by another cause was considered to be competitive event. For the univariate analysis, Gray's method was used, while Fine and Gray's method was employed for the multivariate analysis. Mortality by NSCLC was 19.4% at 5 years and 14.3% by another cause. Both curves crossed at 6.3 years, and probability of death by another cause became greater from this point. In multivariate analysis, cancer mortality was conditioned by visceral pleural invasion (VPI) (P=.001) and vascular invasion (P=.020), with age>50 years (P=.034), smoking (P=.009) and the Charlson index ≥ 2 (P=.000) being by no cancer. By the method of CI, VPI and vascular invasion conditioned cancer death in NSCLC >3 cm, while non-tumor causes of long-term death were determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-guided surgery in the evaluation of patients with early stage breast cancer for breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jacqueline E.; Orel, Susan G.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Mammography is the primary imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer and the evaluation of patients with early stage breast cancer for breast conserving therapy (BCT). MRI may be more sensitive than mammography for detecting breast cancer and may have an adjunctive role in assessing patients with early stage disease for BCT. Our experience with 83 patients undergoing breast MRI during consideration for breast conserving therapy is analyzed. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 83 consecutive cases of patients undergoing breast MRI during standard work-up and evaluation for BCT from 1993 to 1996. Analysis of cases was limited to women who were AJCC clinical Stage 0, I, or II and who received definitive therapy at our institution. All patients signed informed consent. MRI of the breast was performed at 1.5 Tesla. Sagittal T1 and T2 and 3-D gradient pre- and post-contrast images were obtained. All MRI studies were reviewed by two radiologists. All patients were evaluated by one radiation oncologist. The records of these 83 patients were reviewed for patient age, tumor size, AJCC stage, histology, physical examination findings, mammographic findings, ultrasound findings, MRI findings, timing of first MRI study with respect to excisional surgery, findings from MRI-guided surgery (when done), and whether the patient underwent BCT. Results: The median age at the time of presentation was 51.5 years (range 26-77 years). Of the 83 patients, 16% were AJCC clinical stage 0, 65% were stage I, and 19% were stage II. No patient presented with synchronous bilateral carcinoma. Two patients had a history of prior contralateral breast carcinoma; both received BCT for their initial disease. Sixteen percent of patients had intraductal carcinoma, 39% had intraductal and infiltrating carcinoma, 28% had infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 7% had infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 4% had tubular carcinoma, 2% had adenoid cystic carcinoma, 2% had medullary carcinoma, 1% had colloid

  18. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  19. Use of positron emission tomography for staging, preoperative response assessment and posttherapeutic evaluation in children with Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misch, Daniel; Steffen, Ingo G.; Furth, Christian; Stoever, Brigitte; Amthauer, Holger; Denecke, Timm; Schoenberger, Stefan; Voelker, Thomas; Henze, Guenter; Hautzel, Hubertus

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate FDG-PET for staging, grading, preoperative response assessment and posttherapeutic evaluation in children with Wilms tumour (WT). In this study, 23 FDG-PET examinations in 12 paediatric patients (female, n=5; male, n=7; age, 1-19 years) with WT (primary, n=9; relapsed, n=3) were analysed. All patients were examined with conventional imaging methods (CIM) according to the SIOP2001/GPOH trial protocol. Additionally, FDG-PET/PET-CT was performed for staging (n = 12), preoperative response assessment (n=6) and posttherapeutic evaluation (n=5). Imaging results of FDG-PET and CIM were analysed regarding the accuracy in tumour visualisation, impact on therapeutic management and preoperative response assessment, with clinical follow-up and histopathology as the standard of reference. FDG-PET and CIM showed concordant results for staging of primary WT, whereas FDG-PET was superior in 1/3 cases with recurrent WT. Concerning histological differentiation, one case with anaplastic WT had an standard uptake value (SUV) of 12.3, which was remarkably higher than the average SUV in the eight cases with intermediate risk histology. No parameter analysed for PET or CIM was reliably predictive for histological regression or clinical outcome. After completion of therapy, FDG-PET was superior to CIM in 2/5 cases in detecting residual disease with therapeutic relevance. FDG-PET does not provide additional information to the traditional imaging work-up for staging WT patients, preoperative response assessment and clinical outcome. FDG-PET was advantageous in ruling out residual disease after completion of first line treatment and in pretherapeutic staging of relapse patients. Furthermore, there seems to be a good correlation of initial SUV and histological differentiation. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating the CONAMA 04/94 resolution to classify successional stages of rainforest fragments in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Andreacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic Forest, land use and land-use change are partly determined based on a classification of the successional stages of forests. Different regeneration stages are limited to different amounts and types of use. The parameters used to define the successional stages of forests are described in specific resolutions for each of the states. CONAMA 04/94 is the resolution for the forests of Santa Catarina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative parameters in CONAMA 04/94 for classifying successional stages of forests in the northern coastal plains of the state. Six forest fragments with different soil types were evaluated using average DBH and average height of individuals, as well as basal area and indicator species. The results show that CONAMA 04/94 disregards certain phytophysiognomic characteristics of the northern coastal plains of the state. They also show that the CONAMA 04/94 text is incoherent regarding structural parameters and indicator species. The results suggest the urgent need to review the CONAMA 04/94 resolution because forest fragments could qualify for incorrect land uses according to what is defined in the current policy.

  1. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid

    2013-01-01

    Research on the barriers for building renovation in Denmark has revealed that an important obstacle is a lack of simple and holistic tools that can assist stakeholders in decision-making during the early stages of projects (pre-project phases). The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary...... research results and ideas for the development of a tool, which can be used as decision support for renovation projects in early stages. The research is part of the Eracobuild project ACES – “A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early stages” with participants from Denmark....... The target group for the tool is the professional sector. Some of the main requirements are that the tool shall be a basis for dialogue among building professionals and building users and support formulation of objectives for renovation projects. It should also be usable for comparing alternative project...

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SN-38 nanocrystals with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Min Chen,1,2 Wanqing Li,3 Xun Zhang,1 Ye Dong,1 Yabing Hua,1 Hui Zhang,1 Jing Gao,1 Liang Zhao,2 Ying Li,1 Aiping Zheng1 1State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2School of Pharmacy, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 3School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38 is a potent broad-spectrum antitumor drug derived from irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11. Due to its poor solubility and instability of the active lactone ring, its clinical use is significantly limited. As one of the most promising formulations for poorly water-soluble drugs, nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention. In order to solve these problems and evaluate the antitumor effect of SN-38 in vitro and in vivo, two nanocrystals with markedly different particle sizes were prepared. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the two nanocrystals. The particle sizes of SN-38 nanocrystals A (SN-38/NCs-A and SN-38 nanocrystals B (SN-38/NCs-B were 229.5±1.99 and 799.2±14.44 nm, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the crystalline state of SN-38 did not change in the size reduction process. An accelerated dissolution velocity of SN-38 was achieved by nanocrystals, and release rate of SN-38/NCs-A was significantly faster than that of SN-38/NCs-B. Cellular uptake, cellular cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, animal antitumor efficacy, and tissue distribution were subsequently examined. As a result, enhanced intracellular accumulation in HT1080 cells and cytotoxicity on different tumor cells were observed for SN-38/NCs-A compared to that for SN-38/NCs-B and solution. Besides, compared to the SN-38 solution, SN-38/NCs-A had a higher bioavailability after intravenous injection; while the bioavailability of SN-38/NCs-B was even lower than

  3. Evaluating the Various Cropping Systems on Cd Concentrations of Different Growth Stages of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaz Payandeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination with heavy metals would accumulate these elements in plant tissues and decrease qualitaty and quantity of agricultural producs and thus endanger human and animal healths. Previous crop residues and rates of fertilizers applications (especially phosphorus fertilizer are the most important effective factors on accumulation of cadmium in crop tissues. Another influential factor affecting soil shrinkage is crop rotation which induces the solubility of cadmium. This research was aimed to assess the effects of conventional cropping system on cadmium concentrations in wheat at its different growth stages by using a split plot in time experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications in the 2014-2015 growing season in Shavoor Agricultural Research Station (Khuzestan province. Main plot consisted of cropping system (rice-wheat, fallow-wheat and sub plot of growth stages at three levels (tillering, flowering and ripening. Different wheat seed cadmium concentrations due to two cropping systems were different significantly at 1% probability level. Cadmium concentration in the seeds at rice-wheat cropping system (0.31 mg.kg-1 was higher than fallow-wheat system (0.27 mg.kg-1 which is higher than World Health Organization standards. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cropping systems and different growth stages of wheat on root and stem cadmium concentrations were significant at 1% probability level. Rice-wheat cropping system resulted in higher cadmium concentration in root (1.09 mg.kg-1 and stem (0.73 mg.kg-1 compared to that of the fallow-wheat cropping system. Accumulation of cadmium in stem or root at different growth stages of wheat were not significant but it was totally additive, because range of variation of cadmium concentration from planting to harvest was low.

  4. An empirical evaluation of two-stage species tree inference strategies using a multilocus dataset from North American pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse sets of taxa, species trees are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior of many methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, whereas others rely on criteria that, although appropriate for many parameter values, have peculiar zones of the parameter space in which they fail to converge on the correct estimate as data sets increase in size. Results Here, using North American pines, we empirically evaluate the behavior of 24 strategies for species tree inference using three alternative outgroups (72 strategies total). The data consist of 120 individuals sampled in eight ingroup species from subsection Strobus and three outgroup species from subsection Gerardianae, spanning ∼47 kilobases of sequence at 121 loci. Each “strategy” for inferring species trees consists of three features: a species tree construction method, a gene tree inference method, and a choice of outgroup. We use multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering to identify tree characteristics that are robustly observed across strategies, as well as to identify groups of strategies that produce trees with similar features. We find that strategies that construct species trees using only topological information cluster together and that strategies that use additional non-topological information (e.g., branch lengths) also cluster together. Strategies that utilize more than one individual within a species to infer gene trees tend to produce estimates of species trees that contain clades present in trees estimated by other strategies. Strategies that use the minimize-deep-coalescences criterion to construct species trees tend to produce species tree estimates that contain clades that are not present in trees

  5. Evaluation of high step-up power electronics stages in thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    To develop practical thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems, especially radioisotope thermoelectric power supplies for deep-space exploration, a power conditioning stage with high step-up gain is indispensable. This stage is used to step up the low output voltage of thermoelectric generators to t...... efficiency and input current ripples. The interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer is found to be the most suitable topology for TEG applications, which is verified by experiments....... to the required high level. Furthermore, maximum power point tracking control for TEG modules needs to be implemented into the power electronics stages. In this paper, the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of a thermoelectric generator are analyzed in depth. Three typical high step-up power...... converters suitable for TEG applications are discussed: an interleaved boost converter, a boost converter with a coupled inductor and an interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer. A general comparison of the three high step-up converters is conducted to study the step-up gain, conversion...

  6. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi

    1993-01-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  7. Evaluation of bacteriology of middle ear in early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bhandari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether any organism does exist in middle ear cavity during the early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media and to isolate their types. Materials and methods Forty-seven patients of age 13 years and above with diagnosis of chronic otitis media mucosal type in early quiescent stage were included. Swab was collected from middle ear cavity for culture and sensitivity in operation theatre prior to middle ear surgery and brought to microbiology laboratory within half an hour to inoculate in Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac Conkey agar. The isolates were identified with the use of standard bacteriological technique. Results Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 15 cases (31.9%. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 12(80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2(13.3% and E. coli in 1(6.7%. Conclusion Aerobic bacteria were isolated from middle ear cavity in quiescent stage of chronic otitis media in 15(32% cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 22-26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8696

  8. Performance Evaluation of Staged Bosch Process for CO2 Reduction to Produce Life Support Consumables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney. Morgan B.; Mansell, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing carbon dioxide to produce water and hence oxygen is critical for sustained manned missions in space, and to support both NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) concepts. For long term missions beyond low Earth orbit, where resupply is significantly more difficult and costly, open loop ARS, like Sabatier, consume inputs such as hydrogen. The Bosch process, on the other hand, has the potential to achieve complete loop closure and is hence a preferred choice. However, current single stage Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. Developmental efforts are seeking to improve upon the efficiency (hence reducing the recycle penalty) of current single stage Bosch reactors which employ traditional steel wool catalysts. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has investigated the potential for utilizing catalysts supported over short-contact time Microlith substrates for the Bosch reaction to achieve faster reaction rates, higher conversions, and a reduced recycle flows. Proof-of-concept testing was accomplished for a staged Bosch process by splitting the chemistry in two separate reactors, first being the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) and the second being the carbon formation reactor (CFR) via hydrogenation and/or Boudouard. This paper presents the results from this feasibility study at various operating conditions. Additionally, results from two 70 hour durability tests for the RWGS reactor are discussed.

  9. Classroom Performance Evaluation: Stages and Perspectives for Professional Development of Secondary Teachers in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huy Q.; Roberts, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom performance evaluation of secondary teachers in Vietnam. Specially, it sought to determine the possibility of applying supervision into the evaluation for teaching development. Data were collected from interviews with 34 (n=34) participants: ten evaluators and 24 teachers in different school contexts: rural areas,…

  10. Evaluating Light Rain Drop Size Estimates from Multiwavelength Micropulse Lidar Network Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates multiwavelength retrievals of median equivolumetric drop diameter D(sub 0) suitable for drizzle and light rain, through collocated 355-/527-nm Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) observations collected during precipitation occurring 9 May 2012 at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project site. By applying a previously developed retrieval technique for infrared bands, the method exploits the differential backscatter by liquid water at 355 and 527 nm for water drops larger than approximately 50 micrometers. In the absence of molecular and aerosol scattering and neglecting any transmission losses, the ratio of the backscattering profiles at the two wavelengths (355 and 527 nm), measured from light rain below the cloud melting layer, can be described as a color ratio, which is directly related to D(sub 0). The uncertainty associated with this method is related to the unknown shape of the drop size spectrum and to the measurement error. Molecular and aerosol scattering contributions and relative transmission losses due to the various atmospheric constituents should be evaluated to derive D(sub 0) from the observed color ratio profiles. This process is responsible for increasing the uncertainty in the retrieval. Multiple scattering, especially for UV lidar, is another source of error, but it exhibits lower overall uncertainty with respect to other identified error sources. It is found that the total error upper limit on D(sub 0) approaches 50%. The impact of this retrieval for long-term MPLNET monitoring and its global data archive is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of borate bioactive glass scaffolds with different pore sizes in a rat subcutaneous implantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliormanli, Aylin M; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Borate bioactive glass has been shown to convert faster and more completely to hydroxyapatite and enhance new bone formation in vivo when compared to silicate bioactive glass (such as 45S5 and 13-93 bioactive glass). In this work, the effects of the borate glass microstructure on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and its ability to support tissue ingrowth in a rat subcutaneous implantation model were investigated. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds, designated 13-93B3, with a grid-like microstructure and pore widths of 300, 600, and 900 µm were prepared by a robocasting technique. The scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats. Silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds with the same microstructure were used as the control. The conversion of the scaffolds to HA was studied as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. Histology and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate conversion of the bioactive glass implants to hydroxyapatite, as well as tissue ingrowth and blood vessel formation in the implants. The pore size of the scaffolds was found to have little effect on tissue infiltration and angiogenesis after the 4-week implantation.

  12. Evaluation of cavity size, kind, and filling technique of composite shrinkage by finite element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Toloo; Alaghehmad, Homayoon; Moodi, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Cavity preparation reduces the rigidity of tooth and its resistance to deformation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional changes of the repaired teeth using two types of light cure composite and two methods of incremental and bulk filling by the use of finite element method. In this computerized in vitro experimental study, an intact maxillary premolar was scanned using cone beam computed tomography instrument (SCANORA, Switzerland), then each section of tooth image was transmitted to Ansys software using AUTOCAD. Then, eight sizes of cavity preparations and two methods of restoration (bulk and incremental) using two different types of composite resin materials (Heliomolar, Brilliant) were proposed on software and analysis was completed with Ansys software. Dimensional change increased by widening and deepening of the cavities. It was also increased using Brilliant composite resin and incremental filling technique. Increase in depth and type of filling technique has the greatest role of dimensional change after curing, but the type of composite resin does not have a significant role.

  13. Evaluation of detectable defect size for inner defect of pressure vessel using laser speckle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeoung Suk; Seon, Sang Woo; Choi, Tae Ho; Kang, Chan Geun; Na, Man Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chul [Chsoun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Pressure vessels are used in various industrial fields. If a defect occurs on the inner or outer surface of a pressure vessel, it may cause a massive accident. A defect on the outer surface can be detected by visual inspection. However, a defect on the inner surface is generally impossible to detect with visual inspection. Nondestructive testing can be used to detect this type of defect. Laser speckle shearing interferometry is one nondestructive testing method that can optically detect a defect; its advantages include noncontact, full field, and real time inspection. This study evaluated the detectable size for an internal defect of a pressure vessel. The material of the pressure vessel was ASTM A53 Gr.B. The internal defect was detected when the pressure vessel was loaded by internal pressure controlled by a pneumatic system. The internal pressure was controlled from 0.2 MPa to 0.6 MPa in increments of 0.2 MPa. The results confirmed that an internal defect with a 25 % defect depth could be detected even at 0.2 MPa pressure variation.

  14. In Vivo Evaluation of Two-Piece Implants Placed Following One-Stage and Two-Stage Surgical Protocol in Posterior Mandibular Region. Assessment of Alterations in Crestal Bone Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Minkle; Govila, Vivek; Verma, Sunil; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan; Anand, Vishal; Aggarwal, Anuj; Jain, Nikil

    2015-10-01

    Endosseous implants can be placed following either two-stage technique requiring second-stage surgery or one-stage technique, which does not involve a second surgical intervention. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the changes in crestal bone level when two-piece implants were placed in posterior mandibular region following one-stage and two-stage surgical protocol. A parallel group randomized prospective study was designed in which 20 two-piece implants were placed in the posterior mandibular region of 16 partially edentulous healthy patients following either one-stage (Group I) or a two-stage surgical protocol (Group II). Alterations in crestal bone level were assessed with the help of DentaScan at baseline, that is, at the time of implant placement, third month and sixth month. Nonsignificant differences were seen in both groups in terms of changes in crestal bone level at the final evaluation. Hence, it could be concluded that two-piece implants can be placed following one-stage surgical protocol as predictably as when two-stage surgical technique is followed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  16. MR evaluation of vessel size imaging of human gliomas: Validation by histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elias; Breyer, Tobias; Gall, Peter; Müller, Klaus; Trippel, Michael; Staszewski, Ori; Stein, Florian; Saborowski, Olaf; Dyakova, Olga; Urbach, Horst; Kiselev, Valerij G; Mader, Irina

    2015-10-01

    To compare the vessel size and the cerebral blood volume in human gliomas with histopathology. Vessel size imaging (VSI) is a dynamic susceptibility contrast method for the assessment of the vessel size in normal and pathological tissue. Previous publications in rodents showed a satisfactory conformity with the vessel size derived from histopathology. To assess the clinical value, further, the progression-free interval was determined and correlated. Twenty-five gliomas (WHO grade °II [n = 10], °III [n = 3], °IV [n = 12]) were prospectively included and received a stereotaxic biopsy after VSI. The vessel size and the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were calculated in regions of interest at the tumor edge and correlated with the vessel size measured by histopathology. Both VSI and CBV showed a good correlation with the vessel size in histopathology (up to r = 0.84, P histopathology is in good accordance with the animal studies. The overestimation of small capillary sizes is also known from the animal trials. Vessel size and CBV showed similar results, both for the correlation with the histopathological vessel size and the progression-free interval. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  18. Method of evaluating the success of the small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Peprný

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time of increasing globalization and homogenization of the global markets, the development of information infrastructure technology and world market becomes accessible not only to large multinational companies but also for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. This has resulted in increasing competition in the domestic market which domestic firms have to face. Therefore the pro­cess of internationalization of business is a step that allows businesses performing their activities in the domestic market to enter foreign markets and to exploit the opportunities and potential which these markets offer. The paper is focused on the draft of the method for quantification of the factors, which determine the success of the SMEs in foreign markets. In the proposed method the multidimensional assessment of indicators of success of SMEs in foreign markets are used, ie. not only the proportion of sales from exports is observed, but also the profitability of international activities in an absolute and in a relative rate. Other indicators of success are the satisfaction of the company management with international activities and the success of achieving defined targets for business activities in foreign markets. Evaluation is made up of both the objective and the subjective indicators of success. Among the objective indicators of success is included the intensity of international activities of SMEs, which is detected as the sum of revenues generated from international activities in relation to total sales company, the profitability of international activities, (ie. whether the foreign activities are profitable or not, and the relative profitability of international activities, where it is ascertained whether the foreign activities generate higher profit than the activities at the domestic market. The next subjective indicator of success is the success of objectives - it was found how many objectives related to operations in foreign markets has been

  19. Numerical Evaluation of Size Effect on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Geotextile-Reinforced Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpour, I.; Mirmoradi, S.H.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    , the confining pressure and the type of geotextile. Modeling was performed on samples with five different diameters: 38, 100, 200, 500 and 600 mm. The elastic-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model was used to simulate sand behavior. Results showed that small-sized samples show higher values of peak strength and higher......This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers...... axial strain at failure in comparison with large-sized samples. The size effect on the behavior of samples became further apparent when the number of geotextile layers was increased or the confining pressure was decreased. In addition, the results indicated that the magnitude of the size effect...

  20. Evaluation of the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease in Ethiopia: association between clinical stages and laboratory markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassa, E.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Hailu, E.; Girma, M.; Messele, T.; Mariam, H. G.; Yohannes, S.; Jurriaans, S.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; Fontanet, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the clinical axis of the World Health Organization (WHO) staging system of HIV infection and disease and laboratory markers in HIV-infected Ethiopians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical manifestations and stage of HIV-positive individuals

  1. Orthopantomographic evaluation of canine and first premolar using Demirjian's stages in central India: new approach to forensic age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh V; Dixit, Pradeep; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Bardale, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Teeth development is widely used for age estimation in forensic science. The aims of this study were as follows: first, to establish Indian data on canine and first premolar development for age estimation and second, to investigate population differences in teeth development. Orthopantomograms of 340 Indian children aged between 5 and 14 years were analyzed. Demirjian's stages were recorded for the developmental evaluation of canine and first premolar and for further descriptive statistical analysis. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test the significance of difference in teeth development by sex and stage. A one-way ANOVA was performed to investigate population differences in teeth development. Results showed statistically significant differences in teeth development by sex and stage. Accordingly, teeth development was earlier in girls. No statistically significant differences were observed in timings of Demirjian's stages among different populations. In conclusion, the findings of this study could be used for age estimation of Indian children. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Evaluation of Oral Hygiene in Patients with Generalized Periodontitis of II Degree and Stage II Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vivcharenko

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. The level of oral hygiene in patients of both groups was low due to incorrect selection of personal hygiene products or their untimely replacement. In patients with generalized periodontitis of II degree and stage II hypertension, the level of oral hygiene was lower than in somatically healthy persons: the worse status of oral cavity hygiene – the more pronounced changes in the periodontal tissues. We can suppose that high blood pressure affects the status of the oral cavity, creates a higher risk and exacerbates the periodontal diseases.

  3. Large birth size does not reduce the negative latent effects of harsh environmental conditions across life stages in two coral species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.C.; Marhaver, K.L.; Chamberland, V.F.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful

  4. Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Brusabhanu; Dogra, Prem Nath; Naswa, Niraj; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used with limited success in the past in primary diagnosis and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer, mainly because of the pharmacokinetics of renal excretion of 18 F-FDG. In the present prospective study, we have evaluated the potential application of diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT in improving detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder tumours. Twenty-five patients suspected of having primary carcinoma of the urinary bladder were evaluated prospectively for diagnosis and staging. All of these 25 patients underwent conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen/pelvis and whole-body diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT. In addition, pelvic PET/CT images were obtained using the special technique of forced diuresis using intravenous furosemide (20-40 mg). Of the 25 patients, 10 underwent radical cystectomy and 15 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). Results of CECT and diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT were compared considering histopathology as a reference standard. Of the 25 patients, CECT detected a primary tumour in 23 (sensitivity 92 %), while 18 F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 24 patients (sensitivity 96 %). Mean size and maximum standardized uptake value of the bladder tumours were 3.33 cm (range 1.6-6.2) and 5.3 (range 1.3-11.7), respectively. Of the 25 patients, only 10 patients underwent radical cystectomy based on disease status on TURBT. Among those ten patients, nine had locoregional metastases. Among the nine patients who had positive lymph nodes for metastasis on histopathology, CECT and PET/CT scan had a sensitivity of 44 and 78 %, respectively. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was found to be superior to CECT in the detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging (p 18 F-FDG PET/CT is highly sensitive and specific and plays an important role in improving detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging of

  5. Diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Brusabhanu; Dogra, Prem Nath [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Urology, New Delhi (India); Naswa, Niraj [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); New Delhi (India)

    2013-03-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used with limited success in the past in primary diagnosis and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer, mainly because of the pharmacokinetics of renal excretion of {sup 18}F-FDG. In the present prospective study, we have evaluated the potential application of diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in improving detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder tumours. Twenty-five patients suspected of having primary carcinoma of the urinary bladder were evaluated prospectively for diagnosis and staging. All of these 25 patients underwent conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen/pelvis and whole-body diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. In addition, pelvic PET/CT images were obtained using the special technique of forced diuresis using intravenous furosemide (20-40 mg). Of the 25 patients, 10 underwent radical cystectomy and 15 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). Results of CECT and diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were compared considering histopathology as a reference standard. Of the 25 patients, CECT detected a primary tumour in 23 (sensitivity 92 %), while {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 24 patients (sensitivity 96 %). Mean size and maximum standardized uptake value of the bladder tumours were 3.33 cm (range 1.6-6.2) and 5.3 (range 1.3-11.7), respectively. Of the 25 patients, only 10 patients underwent radical cystectomy based on disease status on TURBT. Among those ten patients, nine had locoregional metastases. Among the nine patients who had positive lymph nodes for metastasis on histopathology, CECT and PET/CT scan had a sensitivity of 44 and 78 %, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was found to be superior to CECT in the detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging (p < 0.05). Diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is highly sensitive and specific and plays an important role in improving

  6. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604) that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices. PMID:29346314

  7. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  8. Technology Evaluation and Selection of 3DIC Integration Using a Three-Stage Fuzzy MCDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the sustainable development in the global semiconductor industry, emerging three-dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC integration technologies have demonstrated their importance as potential candidates for extending the lifespan of Moore’s Law. This study aimed to explore a technology selection process involving a three-stage fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (MCDM approach to facilitate the effective assessment of emerging 3DIC integration technologies. The fuzzy Delphi method was first used to determine the important criteria. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP was then adopted to derive the weights of the criteria. The fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS was finally deployed to rate the alternatives. Empirical results indicate that market potential, time-to-market, and heterogeneous integration are the top three decision criteria for the selection of 3DIC integration technologies. Furthermore, 2.5D through-silicon interposer (TSI is of primary interest to the Taiwanese semiconductor industry, followed by 3DIC through-silicon via (TSV, 3D packaging, and 3D silicon TSV (Si TSV. The proposed three-stage fuzzy decision model may potentially assist industry practitioners and government policy-makers in directing research and development investments and allocating resources more strategically.

  9. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM, which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604 that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices.

  10. Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L

    2018-01-18

    Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604) that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices.

  11. Evaluation of the Company Size Effect on Latin American Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the existence of the size effect on the most important stock markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru for the period between 2002 and 2012, using the cross-section contrast methodology of the size effect in the CAPM context. Results show that there is reversed effect in some of the Latin American markets.

  12. The Significance of Farm Size in the Evaluation of Labour Productivity in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Novotná

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with the analysis of difference in labour productivity of farms categorised according to their size, to determine if the set subsidy system influences labour productivity in the size groups of the farms. The source of data for enterprises analysis was the firms database, which contains accounting data of 926 farms with at least one employee. The observed data were from the 6 year period (2007–2012. The farms were divided, according to their size into four categories defined by the European Commission: micro, small, medium and large enterprises. The analysis of the labour productivity I based on the added value and labour costs revealed that there are big differences of the labour productivity levels in particular size groups of farms. The further analysis revealed that an adjustment of the farm approach of the labour productivity, when the paid operation subsidies are added (labour productivity II, changes this conclusion and the differences between particular size groups of farms decreased. Using σ-convergence, it was proved that the relative variability of the labour productivity II values decreased significantly in the case of the medium-sized farms. We can say that subsidies significantly influence the labour productivity in farms. On one hand, there is decrease of differences between the level values of particular size groups of farms; on the other hand, there is no significant decrease its variability (except the medium-sized farms.

  13. Montessori-based activities among persons with late-stage dementia: Evaluation of mental and behavioral health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Boyd, P August; Bates, Samantha M; Cain, Daphne S; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Literature regarding Montessori-based activities with older adults with dementia is fairly common with early stages of dementia. Conversely, research on said activities with individuals experiencing late-stage dementia is limited because of logistical difficulties in sampling and data collection. Given the need to understand risks and benefits of treatments for individuals with late-stage dementia, specifically regarding their mental and behavioral health, this study sought to evaluate the effects of a Montessori-based activity program implemented in a long-term care facility. Method Utilizing an interrupted time series design, trained staff completed observation-based measures for 43 residents with late-stage dementia at three intervals over six months. Empirical measures assessed mental health (anxiety, psychological well-being, quality of life) and behavioral health (problem behaviors, social engagement, capacity for activities of daily living). Results Group differences were observed via repeated measures ANOVA and paired-samples t-tests. The aggregate, longitudinal results-from baseline to final data interval-for the psychological and behavioral health measures were as follows: problem behaviors diminished though not significantly; social engagement decreased significantly; capacities for activities of daily living decreased significantly; quality of life increased slightly but not significantly; anxiety decreased slightly but not significantly; and psychological well-being significantly decreased. Conclusion Improvements observed for quality of life and problem behaviors may yield promise for Montessori-based activities and related health care practices. The rapid physiological and cognitive deterioration from late-stage dementia should be considered when interpreting these results.

  14. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: a multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, H J F; Gertsen, E C; Vegt, E; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Gisbertz, S S; Luyer, M D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P; van Lanschot, J J B; Lagarde, S M; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Stoot, J H M B; Hulsewe, K W E; Spillenaar Bilgen, E J; van Det, M J; Kouwenhoven, E A; van der Peet, D L; Daams, F; van Sandick, J W; van Grieken, N C T; Heisterkamp, J; van Etten, B; Haveman, J W; Pierie, J P; Jonker, F; Thijssen, A Y; Belt, E J T; van Duijvendijk, P; Wassenaar, E; van Laarhoven, H W M; Wessels, F J; Haj Mohammad, N; van Stel, H F; Frederix, G W J; Siersema, P D; Ruurda, J P

    2018-04-20

    Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but evidence is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of PET and SL in addition to initial staging in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. This prospective observational cohort study will include all patients with a surgically resectable, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (cT3-4b, N0-3, M0), that are scheduled for treatment with curative intent after initial staging with gastroscopy and CT. The modalities to be investigated in this study is the addition of PET and SL. The primary outcome of this study is the proportion of patients in whom the PET or SL lead to a change in treatment strategy. Secondary outcome parameters are: diagnostic performance, morbidity and mortality, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of these additional diagnostic modalities. The study recently started in August 2017 with a duration of 36 months. At least 239 patients need to be included in this study to demonstrate that the diagnostic modalities are break-even. Based on the annual number of gastrectomies in the participating centers, it is estimated that approximately 543 patients are included in this study. In this study, it is hypothesized that performing PET and SL for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinomas results in a change of treatment strategy in 27% of patients and an annual cost-reduction in the Netherlands of €916.438 in this patient group by reducing futile treatment. The results of this study may be applicable to all countries with comparable treatment algorithms and health care systems. NCT03208621 . This trial was registered prospectively on June 30, 2017.

  15. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  16. Evaluation Methods and Techniques for ELearning Software for School Students in Primary Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Odeh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is concerned with the evaluationof an e-learning program developed as an educational tool for theprimary grades in real factors in mathematics. The objectives ofsuch a mathematical program designed for school students inprimary stages are to encourage them to study mathematicsthrough introducing a lot of examples and exercises that aid themto understand the basic operations on real fraction, as well as topresent and explain the subject matter in a clear and userorientedmanner through visual illustrations and alternations.The paper will highlight the advantages of introducing e-learningin schools and describe its later impact on the students' learningprocess in the Palestinian National Authority schools, throughusability tests aimed at investigating the effect of usingcomputerized methods on the achievement of primary gradestudents in mathematics, in comparison with traditional noncomputerizedsystems of education.

  17. NASA wide electronic publishing system: Electronic printing and duplicating. Stage 3 evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Moore, Fred W.; Ryan, Christine A.

    1995-01-01

    The report is presented in four sections: The Introduction describes the duplicating configuration under evaluation and the Background contains a chronological description of the evaluation segmented by phases 1 and 2. This section includes the evaluation schedule, printing and duplicating requirements, storage and communication requirements, electronic publishing system configuration, existing processes and proposed processes, billing rates, costs and productivity analysis, and the return on investment based upon the data gathered to date. The third section contains the phase 1 comparative cost and productivity analysis. This analysis demonstrated that LaRC should proceed with a 90-day evaluation of the DocuTech and follow with a phase 2 cycle to actually demonstrate that the proposed system would meet the needs of LaRC's printing and duplicating requirements, benchmark results, cost comparisons, benchmark observations, and recommendations. These are documented after the recommendations.

  18. Evaluation of Pure Aluminium Inoculated with Varying Grain Sizes of an Agro-waste based Inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi I. Olabisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure Aluminium and its alloy are widely utilized in Engineering and Industrial applications due to certain significant properties such as softness, ductility, corrosion resistance, and high electrical conductivity which it possesses. Addition of an agro-waste based grain refiner to the melt can alter the characteristics positively or negatively. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the inoculating capability of an agro-waste based inoculant and the effect of adding varying sizes of its grains on some of the properties of pure aluminium after solidification. The beneficial outcome of this investigation would enhance the economic value of the selected agro-waste and also broaden the applications of aluminium in Engineering. The assessed properties include; microstructure, micro hardness, ductility, and tensile strength. The agro-waste used as the grain refiner is pulverised cocoa bean shells (CBS. Three sets of test samples were produced using dry sand moulding process, with each melt having a specified grain size of the inoculant added to it (150, 225 and 300microns respectively. Ladle inoculation method was adopted. The cast samples after solidification were machined to obtain various shapes/sizes for the different analysis. The microstructural examination showed that the mechanical properties are dependent on the matrix as the aluminium grains became more refined with increasing grain size of the inoculant. I.e. Due to increasing grain size of the inoculant, the micro hardness increased (56, 61, 72HB as the aluminium crystal size became finer. Meanwhile, the tensile strength (284, 251, 223N/mm2 and ductility (1.82, 0.91, 0.45%E decreased as grain size of the inoculant increased. The overall results showed that the used agro-waste based inoculant has the capability of refining the crystal size of pure aluminium as its grain size increases. This will make the resulting aluminium alloy applicable in areas where hardness is of

  19. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  20. Efficacy and safety of two ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide fixed-dose combination formulations in adults with stage 1 or stage 2 arterial hypertension evaluated by using ABPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oigman, Wille; Gomes, Marco Antônio Mota; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos; Póvoa, Rui; Kohlmann, Osvaldo; Rocha, João Carlos; Nobre, Fernando

    2013-05-01

    Fixed-dose combinations of antihypertensive agents demonstrate advantages in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and treatment adherence. This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) fixed-dose combinations in patients with hypertension stage 1 or 2. Patients' blood pressure (BP) profiles were evaluated by using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority trial of adult patients (age ≥18 years) with hypertension stage 1 or 2 and systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 140 to 179 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90 to 109 mm Hg. After a 2-week washout period, eligible patients were randomized to receive 1 of 2 ramipril/HCTZ fixed-dose combination formulations (5/25 mg/d) for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the difference in 24-hour ABPM SBP/DBP mean reductions between groups after 8 weeks of treatment. The secondary end points were the changes in daytime and nighttime ABPM and in office BP. Safety profile and tolerability assessments included monitoring of adverse events. A total of 102 patients with hypertension (54 in group A [test formulation] and 48 in group B [reference formulation]), aged 27 to 85 years, completed the 8-week treatment period. The decreases in SBP and DBP according to 24-hour ABPM from baseline to week 8 were significant and similar in both groups. SBP decreased from 149.1 to 133.0 mm Hg (-16.1 mm Hg) in group A and from 146.2 to 130.6 mm Hg in group B (-15.6 mm Hg) (P = 0.8537); DBP was reduced by 8.8 mm Hg in group A and by 8.5 mm Hg in group B (P = 0.8748). Because the lower 95% CI limit for the difference between groups A and B of 3.96 mm Hg in SBP and 3.54 mm Hg in DBP was lower than that preestablished by the trial protocol (4 mm Hg), noninferiority of the test formulation was demonstrated compared with the reference formulation. For the secondary end points, there was no significant

  1. Possibility of use small size specimens for toughness evaluation of pressure vessel steels in surveillance programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.; Soulat, P.

    1979-01-01

    In order to caracterize fracture toughness evolution of pressure vessel steels under irradiation, two types of small size specimens able to be introduced in surveillance capsules were studied: small (12.5 mm thick) CT specimens and precracked Charpy. Size effects on determination of J1C on irradiated and unirradiated steel are studied using 12.5 and 25 mm thick CT specimens. Kid is measured using precracked Charpy specimens on several pressure vessels irradiated and unirradiated

  2. Evaluating a flash size and energy dissipation relationship through various modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, V.; Brothers, M.; Bruning, E. C.; Mansell, E.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the influence of the electrostatic and kinematic environments of thunderstorms on lightning flash size. Recent work has demonstrated a coupling of turbulent kinematic properties to flash size distribution in different regions of a storm. Additional work has also theorized a relationship of flash size and energy to the TKE spectrum. However, the physical basis for using flash size alone in these estimates remains absent. This study used the National Severe Storms Laboratory's Collaborative Model for Multiscale Atmospheric Simulation model (N-COMMAS) to simulate an observed multicellular thunderstorm to investigate the relationship between flash size and energy. Model output included the total energy dissipated for each flash, and the charge, electric potential, electric field where it propagated. These flashes were then modeled in two simplified ways. First, each flash was assumed to be convex hull volumes of charge. A 3D Poisson solver was then used on each charge volume for charge density retrieval and computation of the electric potential, using a theoretical electric field breakeven threshold and charge conservation. Second, a capacitor model was used to estimate the energy dissipated using flash area, charge, and plate spacing obtained from the COMMAS model. These two calculations of flash energy were compared to the COMMAS energy. The results suggested that flash size alone was insufficient in characterizing the energetic properties.

  3. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  4. Evaluation of 99Tcm-trodat-1 SPECT/CT imaging in the diagnosis of parkinson's disease in early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohua; Tai Jian; Zhang Fuhai; Xiao Qian; Jia Qiang; Dong Feng

    2004-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum with age. At present, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is mainly remained in clinical standard. According to the clinical symptoms and the response to DOPA treatment, it is not difficult to diagnose typical PD. But it is difficult to diagnose early stage PD, which lacks the typical clinical symptoms and signs. A 99Tcm -labeled tropane derivative that binds to dopamine transporter with high selectivity is [2- [ [2- [ [ [3- (4-chlorophenyl)- 8-methyl- 8-azabicyclo [3,2,1 ] oct-2-yl]methyl] (2-mercaptoethyl)amino] eth yl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2',S2,S2'] oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)] (TRODAT-1). Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical application of 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT/CT imaging in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage. Methods: Twenty-four patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease were recruited. For all patients, the severity was assessed by the Hoehnand Yahrscale. Twenty-four early stage PD patients (15 Hoehn Yahr stage I and 9 Hoehn Yahr stage II), eight advanced PD patients and ten healthy volunteers (five men, five women) were studied by 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT/CT imaging. 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 was prepared from a lyophilized kit. Brain SPECT imaging was performed 2 hours after injection, using GE Discovery VH equipped with FanBeam collimators. Data were obtained using energy window of 20% centered on 140 KEV for 99Tcm. The brain SPECT data were acquired after Hawkeye CT acquisition. Regions of interest were delineated over the striata and the cerebella, and the ratios of striatum-to-cerebellum (ST/CB) were calculated. Specific uptake in the striatum and its subregions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus, was calculated and compared with that of the other side as well as that of healthy volunteers. Results: Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging of the 10 healthy volunteers showed

  5. Evaluation of Histopathological Changes in Control Biopsies Which Taken 48 Sessions after NBUVB Phototherapy for Early-Stage Mycosis Fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Zemheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are not many studies investigating histomorphological changes in 48 sessions in patients with early-stage MF after narrowband UVB (NBUVB treatment. Our purpose is to evaluate histological features of phototherapy after 48 sessions and determine which parameters are more reliable for controlling skin biopsies. Methods. Biopsies of 32 patients with early stage of MF, who were treated with NBUVB phototherapy, were histologically evaluated before and after the treatments, including epidermotropism, stratum corneum, epidermal thickness, dermal infiltration, papillary dermal fibrosis, vascular alterations, and other dermal changes. We discuss the histomorphological effects of NBUVB phototherapy on skin biopsies by comparing the responders with nonresponders, with before and after the treatment. Results. 9 patients (28% did not give any response to treatment. Alleviation in epidermotropism, increases in parakeratosis and normal keratosis, perivascular infiltration, and melanophages, decrease in the lichenoid/patchy lichenoid infiltration pattern after the treatment was statistically significant. Comparing by response, normalization of stratum corneum and epidermis, orthohyperkeratosis, decrease in linearly arranged cells, the lichenoid/patchy lichenoid infiltration, the loss of inflammation were statistically significant in responders group. Conclusion. We detected a significant decrease in linearly arranged cells after phototherapy, indicating that it is an “important diagnostic parameter" in evaluation of therapeutic response.

  6. Using marketing research methods to evaluate a stage-specific intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscente, Neila; Rothstein, Marsha; Irvine, M Jane

    2002-01-01

    To show how marketing methods can be used to distribute and evaluate a health promotion intervention. Mass media promotion was used to communicate a physical activity resource. Brief telephone interviews were used to screen callers and recruit participants into a controlled trial. Follow-up was conducted 3 months later. Information was gained about the attitudes and motivation of callers. The majority of participants (study and control) made significant changes in their activity levels. The study demonstrated that even when mass media channels are used, market segmentation can be achieved and program evaluation conducted.

  7. Performance evaluation of multi-stage filtration with use of granular activated carbon and synthetic non-woven fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerino, Edson Pereira; Rosa Araujo, Laryssa Melo [UNESP; Borges, Rivea Medri [UNESP; Sanchez Ortiz, Ivan Andres [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The multi stage filtration (MSF) is an alternative that permits to enlarge the spectrum of application of the slow sand filtration as for the effluent quality and run duration. In this research the use of MSF technology associated to a granular activated carbon (GAC) column as polishing mechanism of the final effluent was evaluated; in the slow sand filters GAC was used as an intermediate layer and non-woven synthetic fabrics were utilized as a first layer of the filter media. Five different ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of sea-urchin larval stage sensitivity to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, M C; Cesar, A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the marine carbonate system may affect various calcifying organisms. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of embryo-larval development of two species of sea urchins (Paracentrutos lividus and Lytechinus variegatus) collected and exposed to samples from different coastal zone (Spain and Brazil) to ocean acidification. The results showed that the larval stages are very sensitive to small changes in the seawater's pH. The larvae from P. lividus species showed to be more sensitive to acidified elutriate sediments than larvae from L. variegatus sea urchin. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that the CO 2 enrichment in aquatic ecosystems cause changes on the mobility of the metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Al and As, which was presented different behavior among them. Although an increase on the mobility of metals was found, the results using the principal component analysis showed that the pH reduction show the highest correlations with the toxicity and is the main cause of embryo-larval development inhibition. In this comparative study it is demonstrated that both species are able to assess potential effects of the ocean acidification related to CO 2 enrichment by both near future scenarios and the risk associated with CO 2 leakages in the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process, and the importance of comparative studies in different zones to improve the understanding of the impacts caused by ocean acidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating use stage exposure to food contact materials in a LCA framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to reduce computing time and complexity, a double exponential curve was fit (R2≈1) to an exposure model which otherwise requires numeric solutions. The model is modified to evaluate the product intake fraction, PiF, which is a new metric that accounts for exposure to mass of chemicals embodied in a product...

  10. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  11. Evaluation of ion binding to DNA duplexes using a size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Vincent B; Bai, Yu; Lipfert, Jan; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian

    2007-11-01

    Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory is among the most widely applied electrostatic theories in biological and chemical science. Despite its reasonable success in explaining a wide variety of phenomena, it fails to incorporate two basic physical effects, ion size and ion-ion correlations, into its theoretical treatment. Recent experimental work has shown significant deviations from PB theory in competitive monovalent and divalent ion binding to a DNA duplex. The experimental data for monovalent binding are consistent with a hypothesis that attributes these deviations to counterion size. To model the observed differences, we have generalized an existing size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann (SMPB) theory and developed a new numerical implementation that solves the generalized theory around complex, atomistic representations of biological molecules. The results of our analysis show that good agreement to data at monovalent ion concentrations up to approximately 150 mM can be attained by adjusting the ion-size parameters in the new size-modified theory. SMPB calculations employing calibrated ion-size parameters predict experimental observations for other nucleic acid structures and salt conditions, demonstrating that the theory is predictive. We are, however, unable to model the observed deviations in the divalent competition data with a theory that only accounts for size but neglects ion-ion correlations, highlighting the need for theoretical descriptions that further incorporate ion-ion correlations. The accompanying numerical solver has been released publicly, providing the general scientific community the ability to compute SMPB solutions around a variety of different biological structures with only modest computational resources.

  12. Two-stage Bayesian model to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases using drug prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangiardo, Marta; Finazzi, Francesco; Cameletti, Michela

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollutant concentration is known to be associated with respiratory problems which can translate into higher morbidity and mortality rates. The link between air pollution and population health has mainly been assessed considering air quality and hospitalisation or mortality data. However, this approach limits the analysis to individuals characterised by severe conditions. In this paper we evaluate the link between air pollution and respiratory diseases using general practice drug prescriptions for chronic respiratory diseases, which allow to draw conclusions based on the general population. We propose a two-stage statistical approach: in the first stage we specify a space-time model to estimate the monthly NO2 concentration integrating several data sources characterised by different spatio-temporal resolution; in the second stage we link the concentration to the β2-agonists prescribed monthly by general practices in England and we model the prescription rates through a small area approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proportional evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament footprint size and knee bony morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the correlation in size between the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint and the femoral intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau, and to calculate the proportion in size between the ACL footprint and knee bony morphology. Twenty-six non-paired human cadaver knees were used. All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ACL. The ACL was cut in the middle, and the femoral bone was cut at the most proximal point of the femoral notch. The ACL was carefully dissected, and the periphery of the ACL insertion site was outlined on both the femoral and tibial sides. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle and an axial view of the tibial plateau were photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The size of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints and the area of the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau were measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The sizes of the native femoral and tibial ACL footprints were 69.8 ± 25 and 133.8 ± 31.3 mm(2), respectively. The areas of the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch and the tibia plateau were 390.5 ± 70.5 and 2,281.7 ± 377.3 mm(2), respectively. The femoral ACL footprint area and the area of the lateral wall of the femoral intercondylar notch (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.603, p = 0.001), and the tibial ACL footprint area and the area of the tibia plateau (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.452, p = 0.02) both showed significant correlation. The femoral ACL footprint was 17.8 ± 4.9 %, the size of the lateral wall of the femoral intercondylar notch, and the tibial ACL footprint was 5.9 ± 1.3 %, the size of the tibia plateau. For clinical relevance, the femoral ACL footprint is approximately 18 %, the size of the intercondylar notch, and the tibial ACL footprint is approximately 6 %, the size of the tibia plateau. It might be possible to predict the

  14. Technology and staging effects on two-stage-to-orbit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff and landing two-stage systems with an airbreathing first stage and rocket second stage are evaluated for staging Mach numbers that range from 5 to 14. All systems are evaluated with advanced technologies being developed in the NASP Program and sized to the same mission requirements. With these advanced technologies, the two-stage systems are heavier than the single stage. The weights of the two-stage systems are closely related to staging. Using a rocket on the first stage to accelerate from the turboramjet limit of Mach 6 to Mach 10 signiificantly decreases dry weight as compared to the Mach 6-staged system. The optimum dry weight staging Mach number for the scramjet two-stage system is Mach 12. At a 40 percent weight growth (current technology level), the scramjet two-stage systems are half the weight and less sensitive to weight changes than the single stage, but still require substantial technology development in the areas of inlets, nozzles, ramjet propulsion, active cooling, and high-temperature structures.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Potassium-deficiency Stress of Switchgrass at Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the effects of potassium-deficiency stress on biomass, agronomic traits and physiological indexes of switchgrass, a sort of bioenergy crop, and to obtain the cultivar with best tolerance, 13 switchgrasses were treated under potassium-deficiency in hydroponic ar-tificial climatic chamber. The comprehensive evaluation was made through the analysis of evaluation indexes using standard deviation coeffi-cient allocation weighed method. The results indicated that: the potassium-deficiency stress had exerted significantly inhibitory effects on the aboveground and belowground growth of switchgrass, including the reduction of growth rate, decrease of chlorophyll content, reduction of ef-festive photosynthetic area, decrease of photosynthetic rate, which led to the lower biomass production. The tolerance of 13 switchgrasses from strong to weak was as follows: Cave-In-Rock, Trailblazer, BJ-5, Forestburg, BJ-4, Pathfinder, BJ-3, BJ-2, Blackwell, Alamo, BJ一1, BJ-6 and Kanlnw

  16. Evaluation of crop development stages with TerraSAR-X backscatter signatures (2010-12) by using Growing Degree Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Atif; Pasternak, René; Wessollek, Christine

    2017-10-01

    TerraSAR-X images have been tested for agricultural fields of corn and wheat. The main purpose was to evaluate the impact of daily temperatures in crop development to optimize climate induced factors on the plant growth anomalies. The results are completed by utilizing Geographic Information Science, e.g. tools of ArcMap 10.3.1 and databases of ground truth and meteorological information. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from German Aerospace Center (DLR) are acquired and the field survey datasets are sampled, each per month for three years (2010-2012) but only for the crop seasons (April-October). Correlation between SAR images and farmland anomalies is investigated in accordance with daily heat accumulations and a comparison of the three years' SAR backscatter signatures is explained for corn and wheat. Finding the influence of daily temperatures on crops and hence on the TerraSAR-X backscatter is developed by Growing Degree Days (GDD) which appears to be the most suitable parameter for this purpose. Observation of GDD permits that the coolest year was 2010, either rest of the years were warmer and GDD accumulated in 2011 was higher as compared to that of 2012 in the first half of the year, however 2012 had rather more heat accumulation in the second half of the year. SAR backscatter from farmland depicts the crop development stages which depend upon the time when satellite captures data during the crop season. It varies with different development stages of crop plants. Backscatter of each development stage changes as the roughness and the moisture content (dielectric property) of the plants changes and local temperature directly impacts crop growth and hence the development stages.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant properties and mineral composition of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ali, Md Eaqub; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC(50)) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC(50) and FRAP assays (r(2) > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  18. Neck keloids: evaluation of risk factors and recommendation for keloid staging system [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tirgan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Health care providers have long struggled with recurrent and hard to treat keloids. Advancing our understanding of natural history and risk factors for development of large, very large and massive neck keloids can lead to improved treatment outcomes. Clinical staging system for the categorization of keloid lesions, as well as grouping of keloid patients according to the extent of skin involvement is both fundamental for design and delivery of proper plan of care and an absolute necessity for methodical trial design and interpretation of the results thereof. Objective: To review clinical presentation and natural history of neck keloids; to explore risk factors for development of large, very large and massive neck keloids; and to propose a clinical staging system that allows for categorization of keloid lesions by their size and grouping of keloid patients by the extent of their skin involvement.  Setting: This is a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive patients with neck keloids who were seen by the author in his keloid specialty medical practice.    Intervention: Non-surgical treatment was offered to all patients.  Results: Neck-area keloids were found to have several unique characteristics. All 65 African Americans in this study had keloidal lesions elsewhere on their skin. Very large and massive neck keloids appear to be race-specific and almost exclusively seen among African Americans. Submandibular and submental skin was the most commonly involved area of the neck. Keloid removal surgery was found to be the main risk factor for development of very large and massive neck keloids.  Conclusions and relevance: Surgical removal of neck keloids results in wounding of the skin and triggering a pathological wound-healing response that often leads to formation of a much larger keloid.  Given the potential for greater harm from surgery, the author proposes non-surgical approach for treatment of all primary neck keloids. Author

  19. Patients' evaluation of shape, size and colour of solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A.B.A.; Møller-Sonnergaard, J.; Christrup, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    visually assessed. They were asked to indicate their preferences. Results: Gelatine capsules were found easier to swallow than tablets and coated tablets were found easier than uncoated normal tablets. The preferred colour was white both for tables and capsules, and the most disliked colours were purple...... tablets and brown capsules. The preferred shape was strongly arched circular for small tablets, oval for medium sized and big tablets. The difficulty to swallow tablets increased with increasing size. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the ideal tablet is small and white, strongly arched...

  20. Aerodynamic sizing of metered dose inhalers: an evaluation of the Andersen and Next Generation pharmaceutical impactors and their USP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Akihiko; Sakagami, Masahiro; Hindle, Michael; Byron, Peter R

    2004-07-01

    The particle sizing performance of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI) was compared to that of an Andersen cascade impactor (ACI). A single lot of Vanceril MDIs containing beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) was used throughout. MDIs were sampled into NGI and ACI in accordance with USP recommendations, at 30.0 and 28.3 L/min, respectively, following 1, 2, 6, and 30 actuations with or without a silicone cup or stage coating, to determine the apparent particle size distributions (PSD) of BDP. The mass balance and the statistical comparability of drug deposits were assured on a "per actuation basis" across all experiments, demonstrating "good cascade impactor practices." Interstage deposition or "wall losses" in NGI were found to be lower than those in ACI, although their determination was laborious in NGI. The PSD profiles for Vanceril from a single actuation were distinguishable between NGI and ACI, when uncoated collection surfaces were used, most specifically for drug mass coating of collection surfaces and an increased number of actuations were shown to result in PSD profile shifts for both NGI and ACI. Such effects were most pronounced for NGI, although coating the collection surfaces and/or increasing the number of actuations improved drug retention significantly on the upper stages of NGI, and thereby, minimized the effects of particle bounce of BDP from Vanceril MDIs. PSD profiles from a single actuation could be determined reliably in either of these impactors, provided that coated collection surfaces were employed; also, cumulative % mass undersize profiles were similar between instruments. However, small differences in PSD profiles still existed to support NGI's design claims for reduced "overlap" in its stage collection efficiency curves. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1828-1837, 2004

  1. Urban Stage 2014: Navigating Relationships during a Collaboration between Local Businesses, Nonprofits, a Large University, and a Mid-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Driskill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Stage was constructed as a temporary urbanism project to demonstrate environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability in an urban environment. One block of Avenue J in downtown Lubbock, Texas was constructed and activated between October 30 and November 7, 2014. This paper will focus on the collaboration and decision making processes between the City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University, and community organizations that enabled this project to take place. The collaborative process between these diverse entities was inherently complex by virtue of the existing organizational structures and complicated further by bureaucratic inertia, the bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility. Leadership actions at various levels of organizational structure were required in order to overcome this bureaucratic inertia and install the Urban Stage.

  2. Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margui, E.; Salvado, V.; Queralt, I.; Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Abandoned mining sites contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals. The form in which a metal exists strongly influences its mobility and, thus, the effects on the environment. Operational methods of speciation analysis, such as the use of sequential extraction procedures, are commonly applied. In this work, the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR (now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in mining wastes from old Pb-Zn mining areas located in the Val d'Aran (NE Spain) and Cartagena (SE Spain). Analyses of the extracts were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material, BCR-701. The results of the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilised forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, particularly in the sample from Cartagena. In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions. On the other hand, the applicability of lixiviation tests commonly used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from landfill disposal (US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and DIN 38414-S4) to mining wastes was also investigated and the obtained results compared with the information on metal mobility derivable from the application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure

  3. Positron emission tomography with f18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the staging and preoperative evaluation of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D B; Clary-Macy, C; Challa, S; Sasse, K C; Merrick, S H; Hawkins, R; Caputo, G; Jablons, D

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of positron emission tomography with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the preoperative evaluation and staging of malignant mesothelioma in patients who were candidates for aggressive combined modality therapy. Eighteen consecutive patients with biopsy-proven malignant mesothelioma underwent positron emission tomographic scanning. The results of positron emission tomographic imaging were compared with results obtained by computed tomography, mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and pathologic examination of surgical specimens. All patients fasted and received an average of 14.5 +/- 2.7 mCi of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomographic scanning. Attenuation-corrected whole-body and regional emission images of the chest and upper abdomen were acquired and formatted into transaxial, coronal, and sagittal images. All primary malignant mesotheliomas accumulated F18-fluorodeoxyglucose, and the mean standardized uptake value was 7. 6 (range, 3.33-14.85; n = 9). There were no false-negative results of positron emission tomography. Identification of occult extrathoracic metastases by positron emission tomography was the basis for excluding two patients from surgical therapy. There were two false-positive results of positron emission tomography: increased F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the contralateral chest that was negative by thoracoscopic biopsy (n = 1) and increased abdominal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake after partial colectomy for diverticular disease (n = 1). Positron emission tomography can identify malignant pleural mesothelioma and appears to be a useful noninvasive staging modality for patients being considered for aggressive combined modality therapy.

  4. Evaluation of the Radar Stage Sensor manufactured by Forest Technology Systems—Results of laboratory and field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2018-01-31

    Two identical Radar Stage Sensors from Forest Technology Systems were evaluated to determine if they are suitable for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic data collection. The sensors were evaluated in laboratory conditions to evaluate the distance accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperatures and distance to water ranges. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification of ±0.007 foot (ft) and the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water-level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 ft or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Both of the sensors tested were within the OSW policy requirement in both laboratory tests and within the manufacturer’s specification in the distance to water test over tested distances from 3 to 15 ft. In the temperature chamber test, both sensors were within the manufacturer’s specification for more than 90 percent of the data points collected over a temperature range of –40 to +60 degrees Celsius at a fixed distance of 8 ft. One sensor was subjected to an SDI-12 communication test, which it passed. A field test was conducted on one sensor at a USGS field site near Landon, Mississippi, from February 5 to March 29, 2016. Water-level measurements made by the radar during the field test were in agreement with those made by the Sutron Accubar Constant Flow Bubble Gauge.Upon the manufacturer’s release of updated firmware version 1.09, additional SDI-12 and temperature testing was performed to evaluate added SDI-12 functions and verify that performance was unaffected by the update. At this time, an Axiom data logger is required to perform a firmware update on this sensor. The data confirmed the results of the original test. Based on the test results, the Radar Stage Sensor is a suitable choice for USGS hydrologic data collection.

  5. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental

  6. On-farm evaluation of the performance of new yam minisett sizes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean adoption level and adoption index of the use of 25g minisett size for seed yam production are low (1.81 and 0.36, respectively) because it produces small seed yams which would not ultimately yield very fat yams. And so it could not meet most farmers' objectives in yam production. In order to expand the seed yam ...

  7. Evolution of lymphoma staging and response evaluation: current limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joel; Iyengar, Sunil; Sharma, Bhupinder

    2017-10-01

    The accurate detection and precise assessment of therapeutic responses is critical to the optimal management of patients with lymphoma. Over the past 50 years, dramatic advances in technology have established imaging as the cornerstone of disease evaluation. However, the appropriate application of current techniques requires acknowledgement of their strengths and weaknesses, and appreciation of the full diversity of lymphoid neoplasms. The role of anatomical and functional imaging in detection, treatment escalation/de-escalation and prognostication of patients with lymphoma can be misinterpreted. The development of disease assessment criteria, without an appreciation of the limitations of current imaging technologies, reflects a potential overreach of imaging science. Furthermore, the introduction of various novel therapies adds to the complexity of disease monitoring. In this Perspectives, the authors evaluate the available evidence in this rapidly evolving field and propose a reporting framework, named 'Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Imaging Reporting' (SIHMIR), with a goal of providing a robust and adaptable system for lymphoma assessment. We predict a future model of multimodal disease assessment using novel molecular and imaging techniques, and highlight the key outstanding research questions in this field.

  8. The Evaluation Stage of the Specific Tourism Infrastructure and Tourist Flows- Chances to Revitalize Galati City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian SORCARU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism potential (natural or anthropic and the evolution of tourist flows are amplified or restricted by the quality of specific tourism infrastructure. Certain urban settlements have a hidden tourism potential which can contribute, especially when local economic contraction occurs, to economic revitalization of the region. The main objective of this study is to evaluate objectively and comprehensively, the specific tourism infrastructure in Galati City according to the methodology described in national legislation, and establish the annual evolution tourist flows during 2001-2014 and monthly from 2010 to 2014. Another goal was to highlight the national and international determinants of the tourist flows in Galati City during the period mentioned above.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mauro Piratelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney failure undergoing dialysis have high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition. There is still no uniform method for assessing these patients' nutritional status. It is recommended that a set of subjective and objective methods should be applied so that an adequate nutritional diagnosis can be reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of patients undergoing hemodialysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the Dialysis Treatment Unit, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008. METHODS: Anthropometric and biochemical indicators were characterized for 48 patients who also gave responses to the modified Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire (SGAm, and possible correlations between these indicators were investigated. RESULTS: The frequency of moderate or severe malnutrition ranged from 22% to 54%, according to the parameter used. Regarding the patients' conformity with the ideal weight, 29% of them weighed less than 75% of the ideal, and thus were classified as having moderate or severe malnutrition. The most significant correlations were observed between body mass index (BMI and the idealness of triceps skinfold (TSF, upper arm circumference (UAC and upper arm muscle circumference (UAMC; and between SGAm and the idealness of UAC and UAMC. CONCLUSION: The frequency of malnutrition showed great variability among the patients, according to the evaluation criterion chosen. Routine nutritional monitoring and validation of methods for assessing body composition among such patients are extremely important for diagnosing malnutrition early on, thus preventing complications and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates in this population.

  10. Local staging of malignant esophageal cancer in the computed tomography: testing an evaluation protocol; Estadiamento local das neoplasias malignas esofagicas na tomografia computadorizada: testando um protocolo de avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: brunorgs@pop.com.br; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Antunes, Paulo Sergio Pase; Moraes, Everton [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Gazzoni, Fernando [Hospital das Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Cirurgia; Andrade, Rubens Gabriel Feijo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas. Radiologia; Cardoso, Vinicius [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Ragagnin, Vivian [Hospital da Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra) de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2007-04-15

    Objective: This study tests an evaluation model with the computed tomography in the local staging of esophageal cancer. Material and Method: This study is longitudinal and retrospective, that it was analyzed three parameters of the interpretation in the computed tomography (linfonodal involvement, border involvement and tumor size) comparing with the pathologic examination after surgery. Results: Thirty-two patients were men (82.05%) and seven were women (17.95%). Computed tomography classified correctly the linfonodal dissemination in 35 cases (89.74%), obtaining 92.0% of sensitivity, 84.61% of specificity and 89.74% of accuracy. When computed tomography analyzed the border involvement, classified correctly 28 of 35 cases, a sensitivity of 78.26% and specificity of 62.5%. The mean measure of neoplasic extension was 4.72 cm ({+-} 2.72 cm) and in the pathology was 5.00 cm ({+-} 2.10 cm). Conclusion: The method used in the evaluation of linfonodal dissemination and in the border involvement obtained a better result compared with the literature. (author)

  11. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR CONDITIONING OF HANFORD TANK WASTE USING SOLIDS SEGREGATION AND SIZE REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M.; Stone, M.; Herman, D.; Lambert, D.; Duignan, M.; SMITH, G.; WELLS, B.; LUMETTA, G.; ENDRELIN, C.; ADKINS, H.

    2014-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application.

  12. Technology Evaluation for Conditioning of Hanford Tank Waste Using Solids Segregation and Size Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, Michael L.; Stone, M. E.; Herman, D. T.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Duignan, Mark R.; Smith, Gary L.; Wells, Beric E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-24

    The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm. The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application. Any technology selected would require testing to verify the ability to meet the High-Level Waste Feed Waste Acceptance Criteria to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility.

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL TOOL TO EVALUATE THE SAMPLE SIZE IN MAP POSITIONAL ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio Nero

    Full Text Available Abstract: In many countries, the positional accuracy control by points in Cartography or Spatial data corresponds to the comparison between sets of coordinates of well-defined points in relation to the same set of points from a more accurate source. Usually, each country determines a maximum number of points which could present error values above a pre-established threshold. In many cases, the standards define the sample size as 20 points, with no more consideration, and fix this threshold in 10% of the sample. However, the sampling dimension (n, considering the statistical risk, especially when the percentages of outliers are around 10%, can lead to a producer risk (to reject a good map and a user risk (to accept a bad map. This article analyzes this issue and allows defining the sampling dimension considering the risk of the producer and of the user. As a tool, a program developed by us allows defining the sample size according to the risk that the producer / user can or wants to assume. This analysis uses 600 control points, each of them with a known error. We performed the simulations with a sample size of 20 points (n and calculate the associated risk. Then we changed the value of (n, using smaller and larger sizes, calculating for each situation the associated risk both for the user and for the producer. The computer program developed draws the operational curves or risk curves, which considers three parameters: the number of control points; the number of iterations to create the curves; and the percentage of control points above the threshold, that can be the Brazilian standard or other parameters from different countries. Several graphs and tables are presented which were created with different parameters, leading to a better decision both for the user and for the producer, as well as to open possibilities for other simulations and researches in the future.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of sonophoresis efficiency and its dependence on sonication parameters and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Loong; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery makes a critical contribution to medical practice and some advantages over conventional oral administration and hypodermic injection. Enhancement of percutaneous absorption or penetration of therapeutic agents (ie, drugs and macromolecules) by ultrasound, termed sonophoresis, has been applied and studied for decades. In this study, the penetration percentage through porcine ear skin specimens was determined quantitatively by measuring the fluorescence from nanoparticles of 60, 220, and 840 nm in size in a receptor chamber at different sonication parameters (ie, duty cycle, 20%-100%; acoustic intensity, 0.3-1.0 W/cm(2); duration, 7-30 minutes; and frequency, 1 MHz). In general, the sonophoresis efficiency increased with the acoustic intensity, duty cycle, and sonication duration but decreased with the particle size (mean ± SD, 62.6% ± 5.4% for 60-nm versus 11.9% ± 1.1% for 840-nm polystyrene nanospheres after 30 minutes of sonication at 0.5 W/cm(2) and a 100% duty cycle; P sonophoresis efficiency is dependent on the ultrasound parameters and particle size. Sufficient sonication would lead to satisfactory penetration of even submicrometer objects through the pores. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Analysis of size effect applicable to evaluation of fracture toughness of base metal for PWR vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, C.; Joly, P.; Andrieu, A.; Parrot, A.; Vidard, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the specimen size effect (also called crack front length effect) on Fracture Toughness of PWR Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel base metal. The analysis of the reality and amplitude of this effect is conducted in a first step on a database (the so-called GKSS database) including fracture toughness test results on a single representative material using specimens of different thicknesses, tested in the same temperature range. A realistic analytical form for describing the size effect observed in this data set is thus derived from statistical analyses and proposed for engineering application. In a second step, this size effect formulation is then applied to a large number of fracture toughness data, obtained in Irradiation Surveillance Programs, and also to the numerous data used for the definition of the ASME (and RCC-M) fracture toughness reference curves. This analysis allows normalizing all the available fracture toughness data with a single specimen width of 100 mm and defining the fracture toughness reference curve as the lower bound of this normalized set of data points. It is thus demonstrated that the fracture toughness reference curve is associated with a reference crack length of 100 mm, and can be used in RPV integrity analyses for other crack front length in association with the crack front length correction formula defined in the first step. (authors)

  16. A sensitive and reproducible in vivo imaging mouse model for evaluation of drugs against late-stage human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Croft, Simon L; Ward, Theresa H

    2015-02-01

    To optimize the Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR35 VSL-2 bioluminescent strain as an innovative drug evaluation model for late-stage human African trypanosomiasis. An IVIS® Lumina II imaging system was used to detect bioluminescent T. b. brucei GVR35 parasites in mice to evaluate parasite localization and disease progression. Drug treatment was assessed using qualitative bioluminescence imaging and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We have shown that drug dose-response can be evaluated using bioluminescence imaging and confirmed quantification of tissue parasite load using qPCR. The model was also able to detect drug relapse earlier than the traditional blood film detection and even in the absence of any detectable peripheral parasites. We have developed and optimized a new, efficient method to evaluate novel anti-trypanosomal drugs in vivo and reduce the current 180 day drug relapse experiment to a 90 day model. The non-invasive in vivo imaging model reduces the time required to assess preclinical efficacy of new anti-trypanosomal drugs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evaluation of hydroponic oats (Arrenatherium elatius in the feeding of rabbits in the fattening stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez-Torres Oscar Patricio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out in the sector of La Concepción, belonging to the Atahualpa parish, Ambato canton, province of Tungurahua, to evaluate the production of green oat hydroponic forage, its cost and its influence on the improvement of the weight. For this work, 21 male New Zealand breed animals with an average weight of 1179 g, of 8 weeks of age were composed of three treatments T1 (hydroponic green forage of oats without nutritive solution, T2 (green forage hydroponic of oats with solution nutrient and T0, each treatment consists of 7 replicates, the experimental unit was an animal under study. The hydroponic green forage of oats was elaborated inside an 18 m2 greenhouse covered internally with black shade cloth at 65 % And carrying out a series of procedures such as: selection, washing, pre-germination, germination, planting of the seed in the plastic trays and irrigation of the sowing with nutritive solution and water, to finish with the harvest making at day 12 to be The results were analyzed by variance and Tukey 5% test, obtaining the best results with T2 with a daily weight gain of 35.09 g; Improvement in feed conversion rate with 5.5, Average weight of the animal to the market 3136.6 g, 0% mortality, good profitability with a cost benefit of USD1.34.

  18. Quantitative susceptibility mapping to evaluate the early stage of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyug-Gi Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate susceptibility changes caused by iron accumulation in cognitive normal (CN elderly, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and those with early state AD, and to compare the findings with gray matter volume (GMV changes caused by neuronal loss. The participants included 19 elderly CN, 19 aMCI, and 19 AD subjects. The voxel-based quantitative susceptibility map (QSM and GMV in the brain were calculated and the differences of those insides were compared among the three groups. The differences of the QSM data and GMVs among the three groups were investigated by voxel-based and region of interest (ROI-based comparisons using a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA test with the gender and age as covariates. Finally, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed. The voxel-based results showed that QSM demonstrated more areas with significant difference between the CN and AD groups compared to GMV. GMVs were decreased, but QSM values were increased in aMCI and AD groups compared with the CN group. QSM better differentiated aMCI from CN than GMV in the precuneus and allocortex regions. In the accumulation regions of iron and amyloid β, QSM can be used to differentiate between CN and aMCI groups, indicating a useful an auxiliary imaging for early diagnosis of AD.

  19. The use of the Rietveld method as an evaluation tool in the stages of production of nanostructured hard metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.C.; Perpetuo, G.J.; Oliveira, H.C.P. de; Silva, T.R.G. da

    2014-01-01

    The processing of the composite WC-10% Co, with nanometric grain size was analyzed aiming at identifying changes undergone by the material during mixing and compaction steps. Use the X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method to obtain accurate data on the behavior of powders before these steps. This paper describes the use of the Rietveld method as an evaluation tool to obtain information about the behavior of powders of WC and Co steps during mixing and compaction prior to sintering of the composite. (author)

  20. The use of the Rietveld method as an evaluation tool in the stages of production of nanostructured hard metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, A.C.; Perpetuo, G.J., E-mail: adrianocorrea77@gmail.com [Rede Tematica de Engenharia de Materiais (REDEMAT), Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, H.C.P. de [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa (Portugal). Departamento de Materiais; Silva, T.R.G. da [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The processing of the composite WC-10% Co, with nanometric grain size was analyzed aiming at identifying changes undergone by the material during mixing and compaction steps. Use the X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method to obtain accurate data on the behavior of powders before these steps. This paper describes the use of the Rietveld method as an evaluation tool to obtain information about the behavior of powders of WC and Co steps during mixing and compaction prior to sintering of the composite. (author)

  1. A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

  2. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to measure disease self-management of the early stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Li-Min; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours. Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours is needed. A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n=252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients. Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60.51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha from 0.77-0.92. The test-retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0.72. The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument's construct validity is recommended. The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Bone radioisotope scanning: usefulness in the evaluation and observation of patients with breast cancer in clinical stage II, III, IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano P, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical records of 420 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer well documented by the pathological anatomy in clinical stage II, III and IV were reviewed. In each one of them has been done at least a bone scanning during the diagnosis. In 52 cases carried out sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 and in some cases it was necessary to administer Samarium-153 EDTMP as palliative therapy of bone pain. The presence of secondary gamma-graphic focuses was 0/84 cases (0%) in clinical stage II, 54/265 cases (20%) in III and 41/91 cases (45%) in IV. The one focus appeared in 6.7% of the cases. In 7 of the 52 cases that received sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 were detected secondary osseous lesions, and 5 of them presented a marker elevation. The bone scanning has shown in many cases the presence of getters focuses in singular places of skeleton, urinary excretory system or mammary tissue. The gamma rays from Sm-153 allowed us to get some appropriate basal views post-therapy of the secondary lesions. The results show that the great incidence of secondary lesions in the skeleton occurred in cases of stages III and IV unlike other countries. The serial repetition of the radioisotope scanning. The presence of one focus in the skeleton of a patient with a well-known neoplasia makes us to do a careful evaluation of the focus nature. The presence of tracer accumulation in the kidney, ureter and bladder allows us to infer the pathology of excretory system that is the first evidence of its presence in many cases. (author). 71 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  6. The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R. Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)—the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings. PMID:25296159

  7. The N-pact factor: evaluating the quality of empirical journals with respect to sample size and statistical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)-the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings.

  8. PET in lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R. E. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation.

  9. Mapping the extent of disease by multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sentinel node evaluation in stage I and II cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To map the extent of disease in women with stage I and II carcinoma cervix by multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sentinel nodes. (2 To assess accuracy of each modality individually and in conjunction with FIGO clinical staging. Design and Setting: Prospective, single-blind study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiodiagnosis, and Pathology, UCMS and GTBH and Division of Radiological Imaging and Bioinformatics, INMAS, Delhi. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 25 women with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II. Each woman underwent clinical staging, multislice spiral CT and MRI which was compared to the gold-standard histopathology/cytology. The overall accuracy of each modality and improvement of clinical staging by CT/MRI were noted. Sentinel nodes were evaluated by intracervical Patent Blue V dye injection. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by 2Χ2 contingency tables. Results: The accuracy of staging by FIGO, CT and MRI was 68%, 52% and 80%, respectively. MRI and CT improved the overall accuracy of FIGO staging to 96% and 80%, respectively. Sentinel nodes were identified in 89% of patients with 91% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI emerges as the most valuable stand-alone modality improving accuracy of FIGO staging to 96%. Sentinel lymph-node evaluation appears promising in evaluating spread beyond cervix.

  10. Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae group sizes in line transect ship surveys: An evaluation of observer errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Bortolotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Accurate estimates of group sizes through line transect sampling methods are important to correctly ascertain the abundance of animals that occur in groups. Since the average observed group size is a component of the distance sampling formula, bias in these data leads to biased abundance estimates. This study aimed to evaluate the potential errors in group size estimation during line transect ship surveys to estimate abundances of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski 1781. In a research cruise along the Brazilian coast, an experiment to collect group size information was conducted from two different sighting platforms on the same vessel. Group sizes were recorded by primary observers at first sighting (PO1 and, in some cases, after some time (PO2. A tracker (T was located on a higher platform to estimate the sizes of groups detected by the primary observers, but tracked one group at a time until it passed abeam. Thus, the dedicated effort to obtain multiple group counts (i.e. higher platform, more time and no responsibility for detecting new groups was expected to provide more accurate numbers. PO2 estimates were compared with PO1 estimates, and T estimates were compared with both PO1 and PO2. Additionally, ratios between T and both PO2 (R1 and PO1 (R2, and between PO2 and PO1 (R3 were calculated. To investigate a possible improvement in abundance estimates, a correction factor (CF was computed from the ratio of T and PO2 means. Primary observer self-correction (= 1.60, CV% = 70.3 was statistically similar to the correction for the tracker (= 1.62, CV% = 84.1. CF resulted in 1 and would not improve abundance estimates. This study supports that observers conducting line transect surveys on large whales have the potential to provide group size information that is as adequate as the correction procedure adopted.

  11. WC-Co COATINGS AND SINTERS MODIFIED WITH NANO-SIZED TiC MICROSTRUCTURE – QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Myalska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The different concepts of WC-Co thermally sprayed coatings improvement may be considered and the application of nanoparticles, as the mechanical strengthening addition, is one of them. Nanostructured WC-Co coatings are characterized by higher hardness than the coatings formed from micrometric WC grains; whereas coatings with bimodal distribution of particles reveal greater wear resistance than the coatings obtained exclusively from nano-sized powders. Mixed effect of the matrix reinforcement by nanoparticles and strong fix of the micron-sized WC grains was proposed as a possible reason for enhanced wear resistance of bimodal coatings. In order to obtain a bimodal distribution of particles in the material standard WC-Co (83-17 powder was mixed with nanometric TiC powder (40-100 nm. The amount of TiC in powder mixtures was in the range from 1 to 7 wt.%. The mixtures were deposited on steel substrate using HVAF method and also hot pressed in vacuum. The microstructure of obtained coatings and sinters was quantitatively evaluated. Sinters revealed more homogenous distribution of the nano-sized TiC particles than the coatings. The addition of nano-sized TiC in the case of coatings has led to the decrease of its porosity. The agglomeration of nano-sized TiC particles in the coatings results in the decrease of material’s hardness.

  12. Evaluation of the relationship between crown size and root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Maryam; Mollashahi, Narges Farhad; Salarpour, Mohammad; Mousavi, Elnaz; Kazemian, Kaveh; Moudi, Ehsan; Arab, Sepideh

    2017-08-01

    The main reason for the failure of endodontic therapy is the incomplete knowledge about the anatomical variation of root canals. One of the most important factors that leads to the failure of root canal treatment, is missed and untreated major root canals. with respect to the complexity of mandibular incisors treatment and high prevalence of the second canal, and the possibility of the relationship between the crown size and the extra canal in these teeth, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between crown size and root canal morphology in mandibular incisors with CBCT. In this cross-sectional study, mandibular permanent incisors were randomly collected in Qazvin City, Iran, and were mounted in eight ternary groups on a plastic slot, using putty molding material. After preparation of Scot view, the samples were scanned by CBCT NewTom 5G. Afterward, the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions were measured by the software's measurement tool with a precision within tenths of a millimeter. In the next stage, a multi-planar option and 400% magnification tool of the software were utilized to study axial and cross sectional views of each tooth to determine canal type. Data were analyzed employing one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene, independent- samples t-test and Roc curve by SPSS version 20. The majority of mandibular incisors have a single canal (63.9% of them had type I canal system). In addition, 36.1% of the roots had two canals, among which, type III was the most common. The mean of maximum mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters in type III was significantly bigger than that in type I (p<0.05), but the means of crown size in the two canal types were not significantly different. Despite increase in mesiodistal and buccolingual dimension in two canal mandibular incisors with type III canal system, their crown sizes (M-D/F-L index) were not significantly different, in comparison to single canal incisors.

  13. THE EVALUATION OF THE CHARACTER RICCARDO FONTANA IN THE MOVIE AMEN. IN TERMS OF KOHLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sariaslan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze Riccardo Fontana, one of the main characters of the movie “Amen.” directed by Constantin Costa-Gavras in 2002, in terms of Kohlberg’s moral development stages. At the center of the movie lies the efforts of the SS officer Kurt Gerstein, posted in the army, and Ricardo Fontana, in the service of the church, to announce the holocaust policy of Hitler to the world. The movie gives a conspicuous voice to how the two main characters inexhaustibly struggled to resist the holocaust policy and what they did to announce this fact to the world and also how they strove to prioritize their faith of ethics over the drive to self protection. An SS officer, Kurt Gerstein constantly condemns the crimes, warns the allies, the Pope and the church of Germany but at the same time provides the Zyklon B gas used in camps. Ricardo Fontana, a Jesuit in the service of the church, is a reverend who aims to break the silence in the Vatican, which has kept its silence against the entire holocaust. And here in this article will the reader find an evaluation of the character named Ricardo Fontana in terms of Kohlberg’s moral development stages.

  14. Determination of the size of X-ray tube focal spots: direct digitalization vs optical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furquim, Tania A.C.; Yanikian, Denise; Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study between standard techniques for evaluation of X-ray tubes focal spots and a newer one which uses digital resources for image acquisition is presented. Results from measurements by using both methods are presented

  15. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed......In a previous study, three crosstalk cancellation techniques were evaluated and compared under different conditions. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain were evaluated along with a method based on minimum-phase approximation and a frequency independent delay. In general......, the least square methods outperformed the method based on minimum-phase approximation. However, the evaluation was only done for the best-case scenario, where the transfer functions used to design the filters correspond to the listener's transfer functions and his/her location and orientation relative...

  16. Manufacture and evaluation of 3-dimensional printed sizing tools for use during intraoperative breast brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Walker, MD, PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has emerged as a promising modality for the production of medical devices. Here we describe the design, production, and implementation of a series of sizing tools for use in an intraoperative breast brachytherapy program. These devices were produced using a commercially available low-cost 3D printer and software, and their implementation resulted in an immediate decrease in consumable costs without affecting the quality of care or the speed of delivery. This work illustrates the potential of 3D printing to revolutionize the field of medical devices, enabling physicians to rapidly develop and prototype novel tools.

  17. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hortal, Joaquín; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara

    2006-01-01

    and several recent estimators [proposed by Rosenzweig et al. (Conservation Biology, 2003, 17, 864-874), and Ugland et al. (Journal of Animal Ecology, 2003, 72, 888-897)] performed poorly. 3.  Estimations developed using the smaller grain sizes (pair of traps, traps, records and individuals) presented similar....... Data obtained with standardized sampling of 78 transects in natural forest remnants of five islands were aggregated in seven different grains (i.e. ways of defining a single sample): islands, natural areas, transects, pairs of traps, traps, database records and individuals to assess the effect of using...

  18. EXPERIMENTS TOWARDS DETERMINING BEST TRAINING SAMPLE SIZE FOR AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS THROUGH SEQUENTIAL MINIMAL OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With number of students growing each year there is a strong need to automate systems capable of evaluating descriptive answers. Unfortunately, there aren’t many systems capable of performing this task. In this paper, we use a machine learning tool called LightSIDE to accomplish auto evaluation and scoring of descriptive answers. Our experiments are designed to cater to our primary goal of identifying the optimum training sample size so as to get optimum auto scoring. Besides the technical overview and the experiments design, the paper also covers challenges, benefits of the system. We also discussed interdisciplinary areas for future research on this topic.

  19. Evaluation of olfactory bulb size on MR imaging in normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Ho; Lee, Yul; Yoon, In Sook; Lee, Kyung Won; Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Kyung Hun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the size of the olfactory bulb using MRI in normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal diseases. MRI performed in 20 normal volunteers with a normal sense of smell, and in 15 anosmic or hyposmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease but with abnormality in the olfactory function test. Coronal T1-weighted MRI was performed, with a section thickness of 3 mm. The cross sectional area, width and height of the olfactory bulb were measured in multiple sequential images and the largest values of these were analysed. The difference in the size of the olfactory bulb between normal volunteers and anosmic or hyposmic patients was evaluated and student''s test was used for statistical analysis. The size of the olfactory bulb is significantly less in anosmic or hyposmic patients without nasal disease than in normal volunteers; in such patients, olfactory MRI could be a useful evaluative modality. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Using the theory of planned behavior and a stage model of persuasion to evaluate a safety message for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer; Booth-Butterfield, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) health and safety message targeted at firefighters and to examine predictors of safety intentions among this group. This project examined: (a) the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict behavioral intentions for firefighters receiving a NIOSH occupational safety and health message; and (b) the use of a persuasion output matrix to assess message impact. A message about firefighting safety was nationally distributed to 36,000 fire chiefs, from which 781 were randomly selected to complete a survey assessing message impact and behavioral intentions. Results indicate message impact was weakest at the exposure, recall, and action stages of persuasion output. The TPB variables were found to significantly predict safety intentions.

  1. A new internet tool to report peritoneal malignancy extent. PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, L; Thivolet, A; Bakrin, N; Mohamed, F; Isaac, S; Valette, P-J; Glehen, O; Rousset, P

    2016-06-01

    Based on the importance of assessing the true extent of peritoneal disease, PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) internet application (www.e-promise.org) has been developed to facilitate tabulation and automatically calculate surgically validated peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and other surgically validated scores as Gilly score, simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI), Fagotti and Fagotti-modified scores. This application offers computer-assistance to produce simple, quick but precise and standardized pre, intra and postoperative reports of the extent of peritoneal metastases and may help specialized and non-specialized institutions in their current practice but also facilitate research and multicentre studies on peritoneal surface malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the impact of public subsidies on a firm’s performance: a two-stage quasi-experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mediavilla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of regional R&D public programs in Catalonia (Spain with a two-stage procedure. Firstly, we compare the performance of publicly subsidised companies (treated with that of similar, but unsubsidised companies (non-treated. We use the Propensity Score Matching (PSM methodology to construct a control group which, with regard to its observable characteristics, is as similar as possible to the treated group, and that allows us to identify firms which maintain the same propensity to receive public subsidies. Secondly, and once a valid comparison group has been established, we compare the respective performance of each firm using regression techniques. As a result, we find that recipient firms, on average, seem to increase their value added as a direct result of public subsidy programs.

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of two plating configurations for critical-sized defects of the mandible in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, Boaz; Stover, Susan M; Garcia, Tanya C; Leale, Dustin M; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the biomechanical behavior of mandibular critical-sized defects stabilized with 2 plating configurations under in vitro conditions resembling clinical situations. SAMPLE 24 mandibles harvested from 12 adult canine cadavers. PROCEDURES 8 mandibles were kept intact as control samples. A critical-sized defect was created in 16 mandibles; these mandibles were stabilized by use of a single locking plate (LP [n = 8]) or an LP combined with an alveolar miniplate (LMP [8]). Mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test with simultaneous recording of load and actuator displacement. Stiffness, yield, and failure properties were compared among groups. Mode of failure was recorded. Radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was quantified and compared between groups. RESULTS Stiffness and yield loads of single LP and LMP constructs were < 30% of values for intact mandibles, and failure loads were < 45% of values for intact mandibles. There were no consistent biomechanical differences at failure between single LP and LMP constructs, but the LMP construct had greater stiffness and strength prior to yield. Frequency of screw penetration of teeth and the mandibular canal was significantly greater for LMP than for single LP constructs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both fixation methods were mechanically inferior to an intact mandible. The LMP construct was mechanically stronger than the LP construct but may not be clinically justifiable. Addition of an alveolar miniplate provided additional strength to the construct but resulted in more frequent penetration of tooth roots and the mandibular canal.

  4. A two-staged approach to developing and evaluating an ontology for delivering personalized education to diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Susan; Bond, Raymond; Nugent, Chris

    2017-10-16

    Ontologies are often used in biomedical and health domains to provide a concise and consistent means of attributing meaning to medical terminology. While they are novices in terms of ontology engineering, the evaluation of an ontology by domain specialists provides an opportunity to enhance its objectivity, accuracy, and coverage of the domain itself. This paper provides an evaluation of the viability of using ontology engineering novices to evaluate and enrich an ontology that can be used for personalized diabetic patient education. We describe a methodology for engaging healthcare and information technology specialists with a range of ontology engineering tasks. We used 87.8% of the data collected to validate the accuracy of our ontological model. The contributions also enabled a 16% increase in the class size and an 18% increase in object properties. Furthermore, we propose that ontology engineering novices can make valuable contributions to ontology development. Application-specific evaluation of the ontology using a semantic-web-based architecture is also discussed.

  5. Effect of particle size on oral absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu DD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dandan Liu,1 Hao Pan,2 Fengwei He,1 Xiaoyu Wang,3 Jinyu Li,3 Xinggang Yang,3 Weisan Pan31Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Institute of Science and Technology, Benxi, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this work was to explore the particle size reduction effect of carvedilol on dissolution and absorption. Three suspensions containing different sized particles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation method or in combination with an ultrasonication process. The suspensions were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, and crystalline state. The crystalline form of carvedilol was changed into amorphous form after antisolvent precipitation. The dissolution rate of carvedilol was significantly accelerated by a reduction in particle size. The intestinal absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions was greatly improved in comparison with microsuspensions and solution in the in situ single-pass perfusion experiment. The in vivo evaluation demonstrated that carvedilol nanosuspensions and microsuspensions exhibited markedly increased Cmax (2.09- and 1.48-fold and AUC0–t (2.11- and 1.51-fold, and decreased Tmax (0.34- and 0.48-fold in contrast with carvedilol coarse suspensions. Moreover, carvedilol nanosuspensions showed good biocompatibility with the rat gastric mucosa in in vivo gastrointestinal irritation test. The entire results implicated that the dissolution rate and the oral absorption of carvedilol were significantly affected by the particle size. Particle size reduction to form nanosized particles was found to be an efficient method for improving the oral bioavailability of carvedilol. Keywords: carvedilol, nanosuspensions, intestinal absorption

  6. On the representative elementary size concept to evaluate the compatibilisation of a plasticised biopolymer blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Justin; Belhabib, Sofiane; Guessasma, Sofiane; Decaen, Paul; Reguerre, Anne Laure; Lourdin, Denis; Leroy, Eric

    2017-09-15

    This study combines experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of non-miscible plasticised starch/zein blends. The concept of Representative Elementary Size (RES) is used to rank the effect of five different plasticisers (cholinium acetate, glycerol, butyl methyl imidazolium chloride, glycerol-choline chloride, urea-choline chloride) inducing microstructural and mechanical changes in the blends. Microstructural and mechanical RESs are derived from microscopy image analysis and Finite Element Modelling of elasticity behaviour of studied blends. Compared to the usual consideration of ultimate mechanical properties (elongation and stress at break), the RES-based approach allows detecting the presence of perfect or imperfect interface between starch and zein particles depending on the nature of plasticiser. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure

  8. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dong, Lu; Lin, Liu; Feng, Limin; Yan, Fan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Luo, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er) carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe) carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure their natural

  9. An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectives on their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Gemma P; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Spence, Michelle; Dean, Moira; O'Brien, Sinead; Gibney, Eileen R; Wallace, Julie M W; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Kerr, Maeve A

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA. Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach. The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. General population, males (n = 17) and females (n = 15) aged 18-64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups. The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup (household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for "visual" PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than 'quantities and measures' such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a "one size fits all" approach. This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of "visual" PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Investment in different sized SMRs: Economic evaluation of stochastic scenarios by INCAS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, S.; Boarin, S.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Small Modular LWR concepts are being developed and proposed to investors worldwide. They capitalize on operating track record of GEN II LWR, while introducing innovative design enhancements allowed by smaller size and additional benefits from the higher degree of modularization and from deployment of multiple units on the same site. (i.e. 'Economy of Multiple' paradigm) Nevertheless Small Modular Reactors pay for a dis-economy of scale that represents a relevant penalty on a capital intensive investment. Investors in the nuclear power generation industry face a very high financial risk, due to high capital commitment and exceptionally long pay-back time. Investment risk arise from uncertainty that affects scenario conditions over such a long time horizon. Risk aversion is increased by current adverse conditions of financial markets and general economic downturn, as is the case nowadays. This work investigates both the investment profitability and risk of alternative investments in a single Large Reactor or in multiple SMR of different sizes drawing information from project's Internal Rate of Return stochastic distribution. multiple SMR deployment on a single site with total power installed, equivalent to a single LR. Uncertain scenario conditions and stochastic input assumptions are included in the analysis, representing investment uncertainty and risk. Results show that, despite the combination of much larger number of stochastic variables in SMR fleets, uncertainty of project profitability is not increased, as compared to LR: SMR have features able to smooth IRR variance and control investment risk. Despite dis-economy of scale, SMR represent a limited capital commitment and a scalable investment option that meet investors' interest, even in developed and mature markets, that are traditional marketplace for LR. (authors)

  11. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB) in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1) were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05) . When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p cervical stages (p cervical stages (p cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and dentoalveolar structures. The favorable mandibular growth occurs during any of the cervical vertebral maturation stages, with more pronounced effect during CS-3 stage.

  12. Objective evaluation of the sweet spot size in spatial sound reproduction using elevated loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. This paper presents a follow-up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when the above mentioned conditions are relaxed. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeaker arrangements is described. The sweet spot was measured for 21 different loudspeaker...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Ji, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    , an extensive measurement campaign was carried out in the paper. Two realistic LTE mockups were designed and their performance were evaluated under standard spatial channel models with and without the presence of user phantom. The measurement results have shown that the nearby user phantom can significantly...

  15. Evaluation of microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 abutments with Straumann (ITI) implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Hatami, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Khalighinejad, Navid; Goroohi, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    A microgap between implant and abutment can lead to mechanical and biological problems such as abutment screw fracture and peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 different abutments to ITI implants. In this experimental study, 36 abutments in 4 groups (including Cast On, Castable, Solid, and Synocta abutments) connected to Straumann fixtures (with their inner part inoculated with bacterial suspension) and microbial leakage were assessed at different times. The size of the microgap in 4 randomized locations was then measured by scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and by 1-way variance statistical test, Kruskal-Wallis, and their supplementary tests (Mann-Whitney HSD and Tukey's; α = .05) at the next step. The effect of using different types of abutments was significant on the mean microgap size (P < .001) and on the mean number of leaked colonies (CFU/mL) through the connection area of the implant and abutment within the first 5 hours of the experiment (P = .012); however, it did not significantly influence microleakage at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 14 days (P = .145). Using Synocta abutments compared with Solid abutments will not provide us with more accommodation, and vice versa. Using Solid and Synocta abutments can significantly decrease the microgap size; however, Cast On abutments do not show a significant difference in terms of microgap compared with Castable abutments. Microleakage in the connection area is comparable for these 4 abutments.

  16. The severity of late rectal and recto-sigmoid complications related to fraction size in irradiation treatment of carcinoma cervix stage III B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deore, S.M.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Viswanathan, P.S.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of late rectal and recto-sigmoid complications was carried out of the 203 patients with stage III B carcinoma of uterine cervix, treated using radiation therapy alone during January 1979 to December 1983. The patients were treated with a combination of external irradiation and single intracavitary insertion. External irradiation was randomised to one of the four different fractionation regimes having dose per fraction of 2 Gy, 3 Gy, 4 Gy and 5.4 Gy, delivering with five fractions/week, three fractions/week, two fractions/week and one fraction/week, respectively. The total doses in four different regimens were adjusted using the TDF model. There were 39 cases of late radiation induced rectal and recto-sigmoid complications. The complication rate was correlated with the dose per fraction and TDFs delivered in each regimen. The complication rate of 8.2% for 2 Gy per fraction was increased to 33.33% for 5.4 Gy per fraction. It was found that there is strong correlation (P [de

  17. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters was evaluated in 55 consecutively treated patients with operable lung carcinoma of squamous (N = 39) and mixed, adenosquamous (N = 16) cell type. Patients alive were followed for at least 12 years. METHODS: Using a projec...

  18. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy...... detergent fibre (NDF) intake was 5% higher (P ... but there was no effect of maturity. Daily rumination time was not affected by treatments, whereas rumination and chewing times per kg NDF intake were 15% and 13% higher (P

  19. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: A multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.F. Brenkman (Hylke J.F.); Gertsen, E.C. (E. C.); E. Vegt (Erik); R. van Hillegersberg (Richard); M.I. van Berge Henegouwen; S.S. Gisbertz (Suzanne S.); M. Luyer (Misha); G.A.P. Nieuwenhuijzen (Gerard); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); S.M. Lagarde (Sjoerd); W.O. de Steur (Wobbe O.); H.H. Hartgrink (H.); J.H.M.B. Stoot (Jan); K.W.E. Hulsewé (Karel W.E.); E.J. Spillenaar Bilgen (Ernst Jan); M.J. van Det (Marc J.); E.A. Kouwenhoven (Ewout); D.L. van der Peet (Donald); F. Daams (Freek); J.W. van Sandick (J.); N.C.T. Grieken (Nicole); J. Heisterkamp (Joos); B. van Etten (Boudewijn); J.W. Haveman; J.-P.E.N. Pierie (Jean-Pierre); Jonker, F. (F.); Thijssen, A.Y. (A. Y.); E.J.T. Belt (Eric); P. van Duijvendijk (Peter); Wassenaar, E. (E.); H.W.M. van Laarhoven (Hanneke); Wessels, F.J. (F. J.); N. Haj Mohammad; H.F. van Stel (Henk); G.W.J. Frederix (Geert); P.D. Siersema (Peter); J.P. Ruurda (Jelle)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but

  20. Optimal Sizing and Performance Evaluation of a Renewable Energy Based Microgrid in Future Seaports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baizura Binti Ahamad, Nor; Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal design and specifies the dimension, energy planning and evaluates the performance of a microgrid to supply the electricity to the load by using integrated microgrid. The integrated system consists of PV, wind turbine and a battery for grid-connected. This paper also...... that the implementation of microgrid technologies would be a convenient solution to supply the electricity to the load application (shipboard)...

  1. Sizing personnel: evaluation of nursing in obstetric and mixed pediatric intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rodrigo Nonato Coelho; Carmo, Amanda de Figueirôa Silva; Salum, Rosana Dourado Loula; Gusmão-Filho, Fernando Antônio Ribeiro de; Vidal, Suely Arruda; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Perreira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the adequacy of nursing staff and understand how these professionals perceive this issue. Methods: evaluative, exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study, developed in Obstetric and Mixed Pediatric ICUs for the Hospital Don Malan / IMIP in Petrolina-PE. Was calculated the scaling nursing and 13 semistructured interviews were conducted, analyzed according to Bardin. Results: Mixed Pediatric ICU has correct number of staff and Obstetric decrea...

  2. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Ran, Yunmeng; Liu, Bin; Yang, Jinsong; Guan, Xuefei

    2017-09-13

    This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S₀ mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  3. Evaluation of shape and size effects on optical properties of ZnO pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiomarsipour, Narges; Shoja Razavi, Reza; Ghani, Kamal; Kioumarsipour, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The pigment with optimized morphology would attain maximum diffuse solar reflectance at a lower film thickness and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. This factor would contribute to a reduction in overall weight and possibly extend the durability of the system to longer time scales, specially in space assets. In the present work, five different morphologies of ZnO pigment were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The ZnO pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and N 2 adsorption (BET). The optical property of the ZnO pigments was investigated by UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the optical properties of ZnO powders were strongly affected by the particle size and morphology. The nanorods and microrods ZnO structures showed the minimum spectral reflectance in visible and near infrared regions, whereas the novel nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment revealed the maximum spectral reflectance in the same regions. The reflectance spectra of scale-like and submicrorods ZnO were in the middle of the others. The higher surface roughness led to higher light scattering in nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment and multiple-scattering in them. These results proved that a significant improvement in the scattering efficiency of ZnO pigment can be realized by utilizing an optimized nanoparticle-decorated pigment.

  4. Significance of size in occurrence, distribution, morphological characteristics, abundance, and resource evaluation of polymetallic nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rebello, J.M.S.

    .40   *= Out of 249 stations 19    Table 4.   Nodule size (cm)/ group Area <1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 P1 r g s- 40% r g s- 3% r g r g r g r g r g r s-5% r g r r g r g - r g R b p (3) R ep b f el t tr j... i p (10) R ep b p bi f el t tr j i (11) R ep b bl f el t j p bi (10) R ep ds b bl f el t tr j p i bi (13) R ep bl f el tr j p i bi (10) p ep bl el t j I (7) R b bl p j f el tr i bi (10) R b bl f el t j p I bi (10) b bl...

  5. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  6. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Canola Harvesting Losses in Different Maturity Stages Using Three Different Combine Harverster Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed cultivation in Iran is growing rapidly while this product has been facing specific problems. Every year a significant portion of edible oil is imported to the country from other countries. Despite this deficit, a great amount of canola is being lost every year. Therefore, in compliance with technical points, adding a suitable platform to the exisiting machineries may reduce the losses. A field study was conducted in Moghan Agricultural Research Centre to study the technical and economical characteristics of harvesting machineries and evaluate Canola harvesting losses in different maturity stages, using three different combine harvester heads. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized\tsplit split plot design with four replications. The main plot included seed maturity stage at three levels: A 60%, B 70% and C 80%, and the subplot was the harvester’s ground speed at three levels: A 1.5, B 2.5 and C 3.5 km h-1. The sub-subplot was combine head type with three forms: A Mechanical, B Hydraulically Joybar and C Hydraulically Biso's Head. The results of ANOVA showed that maximum cutter bar losses occurred with Mechanical Head (5.36% while the loss of Hydraulically Joybar's and Biso's head were 4.28 and 4.13 %, respectively. The results also showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred when 80% of seeds were matured and adequate time for canola harvesting was 70% of seeds maturity. The results of analysing the effects of harvesting ground speeds showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred with the speed of 3.5 km h-1. Finally, the results showed that the minimum cutter bar loss was obtained with Hydraulically Joybar's head considering the benefit per cost ratio. The cost for Mechanical head and Hydraulically Biso's head were 13500 and 262500 Rial ha-1, respectively.

  7. Sample size determination for the current strategy in oncology Phase 3 trials that tests progression-free survival and overall survival in a two-stage design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shogo; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Hamada, Chikuma

    2017-09-08

    The selection of progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) as the most suitable primary endpoint (PE) in oncology Phase 3 trials is currently under intense debate. Because of substantial limitations in the single use of PFS (or OS) as the PE, trial designs that include PFS and OS as co-primary endpoints are attracting increasing interest. In this article, we report on the formulation of determining the sample size for a trial that sequentially tests PFS and OS by treating them as co-PEs. Using a three-component model of OS, the proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of an existing method that requires unreasonable assumption of the exponential distribution for OS, although the hazard function is nonconstant because effective subsequent therapy has prolonged postprogression survival in recent oncology trials. Alternative estimation method of hazard ratio for OS under a three-component mode is also discussed by checking the appropriateness of assuming proportionality of hazards for OS. In order to examine the performance of our proposed method, we performed three numerical studies using both simulated and actual data of cancer Phase 3 trials. We find that the proposed method preserves a prespecified target value of power with a feasible increment of trial scale.

  8. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  9. Development of a Multiple-Stage Differential Mobility Analyzer (MDMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da-Ren [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A new DMA column has been designed with the capability of simultaneously extracting monodisperse particles of different sizes in multiple stages. We call this design a multistage DMA, or MDMA. A prototype MDMA has been constructed and experimentally evaluated in this study. The new column enables the fast measurement of particles in a wide size range, while preserving the powerful particle classification function of a DMA. The prototype MDMA has three sampling stages, capable of classifying monodisperse particles of three different sizes simultaneously. The scanning voltage operation of a DMA can be applied to this new column. Each stage of MDMA column covers a fraction of the entire particle size range to be measured. The covered size fractions of two adjacent stages of the MDMA are designed somewhat overlapped. The arrangement leads to the reduction of scanning voltage range and thus the cycling time of the measurement. The modular sampling stage design of the MDMA allows the flexible configuration of desired particle classification lengths and variable number of stages in the MDMA. The design of our MDMA also permits operation at high sheath flow, enabling high-resolution particle size measurement and/or reduction of the lower sizing limit. Using the tandem DMA technique, the performance of the MDMA, i.e., sizing accuracy, resolution, and transmission efficiency, was evaluated at different ratios of aerosol and sheath flowrates. Two aerosol sampling schemes were investigated. One was to extract aerosol flows at an evenly partitioned flowrate at each stage, and the other was to extract aerosol at a rate the same as the polydisperse aerosol flowrate at each stage. We detail the prototype design of the MDMA and the evaluation result on the transfer functions of the MDMA at different particle sizes and operational conditions.

  10. Adaptive support ventilation: a translational study evaluating the size of delivered tidal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P; Dongelmans, Dave A; Binnekade, Jan M; Paulus, Frederique; Schultz, Marcus J

    2010-05-01

    Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a microprocessor-controlled, closed-loop mode of mechanical ventilation that adapts respiratory rates and tidal volumes (V(T)s) based on the Otis least work of breathing formula. We studied calculated V(T)s in a computer simulation model, and V(T)s delivered in a test lung setting as well as in clinical practice. In a computer simulation model using the Otis formula, V(T)s were calculated for increasing predicted body weights (from 50 to 80 kg) and increasing minute volumes (from 0.7 to 1.5 ml/kg). Different compliance-resistance combinations were chosen to mimic "acute lung injury (ALI)" (compliance 27 ml/cmH(2)O, resistance 20 cmH(2)0 l/s), "ALI using an open lung approach" (compliance 50 ml/cmH(2)O, resistance 20 cmH(2)0 l/s), "healthy lungs" (compliance 65 ml/cmH(2)O, resistance 20 cmH(2)0 l/s) and "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)" (compliance 80 ml/cmH(2)O, resistance 50 cmH(2)O l/s). In a test setting using a human ventilator connected to a test lung set to mimic similar pulmonary conditions, V(T)s delivered by the ASV were studied. In a series of stable intensive care unit patients after cardiothoracic surgery, the delivered V(T)s were collected and analyzed. V(T)s with the Otis formula resembled those in the test setting. With ALI, the ventilator delivered V(T)s between 6 and 8 ml/kg. With ALI using an open lung approach and with healthy lungs, the ventilator delivered V(T)s between 8 and 10 ml/kg. With COPD, all V(T)s were above 10 ml/kg. In patients after coronary artery bypass surgery ASV delivered V(T)s between 7 and 9 ml/kg and V(T)s never exceeded 10 ml/kg. The ASV performed as intended, bearing in mind that the ASV algorithm was originally designed to provide V(T)s between 8 and 12 ml/kg. However, the V(T)s that were calculated and delivered were frequently higher than those presently recommended in the guidelines. Considering the size of V(T) delivered in the setting of ALI using an open lung

  11. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  12. Chlamydia sequelae cost estimates used in current economic evaluations: does one-size-fit-all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Koh Jun; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Dunbar, J Kevin; Woodhall, Sarah C

    2017-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that chlamydia screening programmes can be cost-effective, conditional on assumptions within mathematical models. We explored differences in cost estimates used in published economic evaluations of chlamydia screening from seven countries (four papers each from UK and the Netherlands, two each from Sweden and Australia, and one each from Ireland, Canada and Denmark). From these studies, we extracted management cost estimates for seven major chlamydia sequelae. In order to compare the influence of different sequelae considered in each paper and their corresponding management costs on the total cost per case of untreated chlamydia, we applied reported unit sequelae management costs considered in each paper to a set of untreated infection to sequela progression probabilities. All costs were adjusted to 2013/2014 Great British Pound (GBP) values. Sequelae management costs ranged from £171 to £3635 (pelvic inflammatory disease); £953 to £3615 (ectopic pregnancy); £546 to £6752 (tubal factor infertility); £159 to £3341 (chronic pelvic pain); £22 to £1008 (epididymitis); £11 to £1459 (neonatal conjunctivitis) and £433 to £3992 (neonatal pneumonia). Total cost of sequelae per case of untreated chlamydia ranged from £37 to £412. There was substantial variation in cost per case of chlamydia sequelae used in published chlamydia screening economic evaluations, which likely arose from different assumptions about disease management pathways and the country perspectives taken. In light of this, when interpreting these studies, the reader should be satisfied that the cost estimates used sufficiently reflect the perspective taken and current disease management for their respective context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Fourier and granulometry methods on 3D images of soil surfaces for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Green, O.; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to present and compare two methods for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution based on high resolution 3D images of the soil surface. The methods for analyzing the images are discrete Fourier transform and granulometry. The results of these methods correlate...... with a measured weight distribution of the soil aggregates. The results have shown that it is possible to distinguish between the cultivated and the uncultivated soil surface. A sensor system suitable for capturing in-situ high resolution 3D images of the soil surface is also described. This sensor system...

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of diabetic nephropathy stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy with sulodexide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kadzharyan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus (DM - takes the main place in the structure of endocrine diseases, and the third after cardiovascular and cancer pathology. In Ukraine 1.2 million of people suffer from diabetes and type 2 diabetes occurs in 85-90% of them. In 2004, 3.4 million of people died from diabetes complications. Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious chronic complication of diabetes that leads to the formation of nodular or diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is the most frequent cause of terminal chronic renal failure (CRF in the world, accounting for over 25% of all cases of CRF. The generally accepted classification is Moggensen`s classification (1983, WHO, according to which five stages of diabetic nephropathy are identified, the first two stages of them are preclinical. Leading role in the pathogenesis of DN takes hyperglycemia, which is implemented by the phenomenon of glucosetoxicity. A lot of facts underscore the importance of inflammatory mechanisms triggered by cytokines. There's immune and non-immune theory of DN. The basis of non-immune theory is a violation of the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs that are a major component of the glomerular basement membrane (GMB. GAGs create its negative charge, which prevents the passage through the renal filter small negatively charged molecules, including albumin. In hemodynamic regulation leading role belongs to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. The blockade of the RAAS system with ACE inhibitors is the basis of a treatment strategy of DN. All mentioned above became a reason for study of the possibility of a new direction in the treatment of DN using the drug sulodexid, which is a natural mixture of GAGs. Objective of the research. Evaluating the effectiveness of sulodexide therapy of DN stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of 24 patients aged 40 to 68 years. 5 of them were women and 19

  15. A High Performance Pocket-Size System for Evaluations in Acoustic Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeger Gerhard H

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom-made hardware is attractive for sophisticated signal processing in wearable electroacoustic devices, but has a high initial cost overhead. Thus, signal processing algorithms should be tested thoroughly in real application environments by potential end users prior to the hardware implementation. In addition, the algorithms should be easily alterable during this test phase. A wearable system which meets these requirements has been developed and built. The system is based on the high performance signal processor Motorola DSP56309. This device also includes high quality stereo analog-to-digital-(ADC- and digital-to-analog-(DAC-converters with 20 bit word length each. The available dynamic range exceeds 88 dB. The input and output gains can be adjusted by digitally controlled potentiometers. The housing of the unit is small enough to carry it in a pocket (dimensions 150 × 80 × 25 mm. Software tools have been developed to ease the development of new algorithms. A set of configurable Assembler code modules implements all hardware dependent software routines and gives easy access to the peripherals and interfaces. A comfortable fitting interface allows easy control of the signal processing unit from a PC, even by assistant personnel. The device has proven to be a helpful means for development and field evaluations of advanced new hearing aid algorithms, within interdisciplinary research projects. Now it is offered to the scientific community.

  16. The accuracy of examination under anesthesia and transvaginal sonography in evaluating ovarian size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Fred R; Depriest, Paul D; Desimone, Christopher P; Pavlik, Edward J; Lele, Subodh M; Kryscio, Richard J; van Nagell, J R

    2005-11-01

    To compare pelvic examination under anesthesia to transvaginal sonography (TVS) as a method for ovarian detection and measurement. Two hundred and eighty-nine ovaries from 151 women were evaluated. After induction of anesthesia, a complete pelvic examination and TVS were performed, and the ovaries were removed surgically. Ovarian dimensions generated sonographically and estimated on clinical examination were compared to those obtained from the measured surgical specimen. Forty-four percent of ovaries were palpable clinically whereas 85% were visualized sonographically (P or = 55 years of age versus 51% of women or = 200 lb versus 55% of women weighing or = 200 g versus 51% of women with a uterine weight examination in detecting ovaries in women with these high risk characteristics. TVS is significantly more accurate than clinical examination in detecting ovaries and in defining their dimensions. Ovaries frequently are not palpable in women > or = 55 years of age, women who weigh > or = 200 lb, or women with an enlarged uterus (> 200 g). The addition of TVS to annual pelvic examination may be beneficial in women > or = 55 years of age who are overweight and therefore at high risk to develop ovarian cancer.

  17. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 μm, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from α-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous β-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into α-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous β-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to α-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  19. Modeling of correlated data with informative cluster sizes: An evaluation of joint modeling and within-cluster resampling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qu, Yanping; Chen, Zhen; Albert, Paul S

    2017-08-01

    Joint modeling and within-cluster resampling are two approaches that are used for analyzing correlated data with informative cluster sizes. Motivated by a developmental toxicity study, we examined the performances and validity of these two approaches in testing covariate effects in generalized linear mixed-effects models. We show that the joint modeling approach is robust to the misspecification of cluster size models in terms of Type I and Type II errors when the corresponding covariates are not included in the random effects structure; otherwise, statistical tests may be affected. We also evaluate the performance of the within-cluster resampling procedure and thoroughly investigate the validity of it in modeling correlated data with informative cluster sizes. We show that within-cluster resampling is a valid alternative to joint modeling for cluster-specific covariates, but it is invalid for time-dependent covariates. The two methods are applied to a developmental toxicity study that investigated the effect of exposure to diethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

  20. A Review of the Proposed KIsi Offset-Secant Method for Size-Insensitive Linear-Elastic Fracture Toughness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Wells, Doug; Allen, Phillip; Wallin, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Recently proposed modifications to ASTM E399 would provide a new size-insensitive approach to analyzing the force-displacement test record. The proposed size-insensitive linear-elastic fracture toughness, KIsi, targets a consistent 0.5mm crack extension for all specimen sizes by using an offset secant that is a function of the specimen ligament length. The KIsi evaluation also removes the Pmax/PQ criterion and increases the allowable specimen deformation. These latter two changes allow more plasticity at the crack tip, prompting the review undertaken in this work to ensure the validity of this new interpretation of the force-displacement curve. This paper provides a brief review of the proposed KIsi methodology and summarizes a finite element study into the effects of increased crack tip plasticity on the method given the allowance for additional specimen deformation. The study has two primary points of investigation: the effect of crack tip plasticity on compliance change in the force-displacement record and the continued validity of linear-elastic fracture mechanics to describe the crack front conditions. The analytical study illustrates that linear-elastic fracture mechanics assumptions remain valid at the increased deformation limit; however, the influence of plasticity on the compliance change in the test record is problematic. A proposed revision to the validity criteria for the KIsi test method is briefly discussed.

  1. A Performance Evaluation of Diagnostic X-ray Unit Depends on the Hospitals Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Hun; Im, In Chul; Dong, Kyung Rae; Kang, Se Sik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose of diagnostic X-ray unit in each doctor offices, hospitals and general hospitals for evaluating the performance of such device, to learn the method and technology of its measurement and to suggest its importance. Research subjects were total 30 X-ray units and divided into groups of 10 X-ray units each. The tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose were measured using percentage average error, and then reproducibility of exposure dose was measured through calculating coefficient of variation. The results are like followings; The tube voltage correctness examination showed that incongruent devices among total 30 X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%). The tube current correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 3 devices (10.0%). The tube current volume correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 4 devices (13.3%). Finally, according to exposure time correctness examination, incongruent X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%) and according to reproducibility examination of exposure dose, incongruent X-ray units were 7 devices (23.3%). Above results showed serious problem in performance management based on management regulation of diagnostic X-ray unit; it means that regular checkout and safety management are required, and as doing so, patients will be able to receive good quality of medical service by the reduction of radiation exposure time, image quality administration, unnecessary retake and etc. Therefore, this study suggests that the performance of diagnostic X-ray units should be checked regularly

  2. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. NASAwide electronic publishing system-prototype STI electronic document distribution: Stage-4 evaluation report. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual framework, functional description, and technical report server of the Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware. and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices consist of (A) the STI EDD Project Plan, (B) Team members, (C) Phasing Schedules, (D) Accessing On-line Reports, and (E) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desk top publishing systems, and technical report servers, to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users, the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  4. Characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis—Evaluation of the hepatocyte specific contrast agent gadoxetate disodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringe, Kristina I.; Ringe, Bastian P.; Bektas, Hüseyin; Opherk, Jan P.; Reichelt, Angela; Lotz, Joachim; Wacker, Frank; Meyer, Bernhard C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of gadoxetate disodium for characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis (CBDS). Materials and methods: This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. 14 patients (8 male, 6 female; 36–80 years) with clinical suspicion of CBDS underwent preoperative MRI. To estimate the value of hepatocyte phase images (10, 20, 120 min p.i.), only T2w images (T2), only post-contrast images (CM), or both image datasets were assessed in three reading sessions by 3 readers. Agreement of each reading session with the intraoperative findings in terms of CBDS etiology and tumor extension (weighted kappa statistic) was calculated. Results: CBDS was caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma (n = 9), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 4) and pancreatic carcinoma (n = 1). Characterization of CBDS etiology was correct by use of: T2w images in 57%, 64%, 50%; CM images in 64%, 57%, 50%; both in 71%, 64%, 64%. Agreement comparing reading sessions and intraoperative findings regarding tumor extension was fair up to moderate (κ-range = 0.21–0.54) as a result of common underestimation. Interobserver agreement for tumor extension was fair (κ-range = 0.31–0.33). Conclusions: By means of combined evaluation of T2 and CM images a more reliable characterization of CBDS was possible. Even though CBDS tended to be underestimated assessment of exact tumor extension was improved by contrast administration.

  5. Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi and a nematode against the soil-dwelling stages of the crane fly Tipula paludosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of the crane fly Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) are economically important pests of grasslands, nurseries and organically grown crops. This study was conducted to evaluate several entomopathogenic fungal strains, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the organophosphate insecticide Dursban WG (75% chlorpyrifos) against larval stages of T. paludosa under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Metarhizium robertsii strain V1005 was the most virulent, causing 100% larval mortality 4 weeks post-inoculation. Eight other M. robertsii strains and M. brunneum (ARSEF 3297) caused mortality ranging between 0 and 60%, whereas strains of Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum were non-pathogenic to T. paludosa. In greenhouse tests, medium (2 × 10(14) conidia ha(-1) ) and high (2 × 10(16) conidia ha(-1) ) concentrations of V1005 gave higher larval mortalities (90 and 100%) than lower (2 × 10(13) conidia ha(-1) ) concentrations (52 and 78%) at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment respectively. Dursban WG gave 100% larval mortality 4 weeks after treatment; H. bacteriophora UWS1 caused 28 and 65% mortality 4 and 8 weeks after treatment respectively. This study shows that M. robertsii V1005 has considerable potential for the control of T. paludosa, thereby reducing the use of chemical insecticides. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Yan; Yan, Jian; Ingle, Taylor; Jones, Margie Yvonne; Mei, Nan; Boudreau, Mary D; Cunningham, Candice K; Abbas, Mazhar; Paredes, Angel M; Zhou, Tong; Moore, Martha M; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.

  7. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1 ± 0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180 ± 30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n = 20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SU-E-J-07: IGRT Gently: Evaluating Imaging Dose in Phantoms of Different Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, B; Duggar, W; Stanford, J; Yang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: IGRT imaging procedures have emerged as a common method of patient position verification in radiotherapy, though imaging dose is generally neglected in the treatment plan. Consequently, evaluating and optimizing the dose from these procedures is worthwhile. This process is especially important for children, who are more radiosensitive than adults. The aim of this work was to gain some understanding of the relative doses involved with various XVI-preset parameters for an “adult” and “child” phantom set, with the hopes that imaging dose for a child can be reduced. Methods: 32 and 16cm CTDI-phantoms were used as surrogates for adult and child torsos, respectively. Dose was measured in the central and peripheral chamber positions of the phantoms. CBCT scans were made for both phantoms using Elekta’s Chest-preset to establish a dose baseline. The child-phantom was then scanned using the Elekta Head and Neck (HN) preset. A modified HN-preset (named Peds Abd-pelvis) was also created with a doubled mAs to maintain a reduction in dose to the child-phantom (relative to the baseline), while providing clinically-usable image quality. Results: The baseline dose to the child-phantom from the Chest-preset was 310% that of the adult-phantom for the center chamber position and 150% at the periphery. An average dose reduction of 97% was obtained in the childphantom by switching from the Chest-preset to the HN-preset, while the Peds Abd-pelvis-preset similarly reduced the dose by an average of 92%. Conclusion: XVI-preset parameters significantly affect dose, and should be optimized to reduce dose, while ensuring clinically-usable image quality. Using a modified imaging preset (Peds Abd-pelvis-preset) greatly reduced the dose to the child-phantom compared to the dose for the Chest-preset for both the child and adult-phantoms. This outcome provides support for the development of child-specific protocols for IGRT imaging in pediatric patients

  9. Optimal design of disc-type magneto-rheological brake for mid-sized motorcycle: experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake is designed for a mid-sized motorcycle and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The proposed MR brake consists of an outer housing, a rotating disc immersed in MR fluid, and a copper wire coiled around a bobbin to generate a magnetic field. The structural configuration of the MR brake is first presented with consideration of the installation space for the conventional hydraulic brake of a mid-sized motorcycle. The design parameters of the proposed MR brake are optimized to satisfy design requirements such as the braking torque, total mass of the MR brake, and cruising temperature caused by the magnetic-field friction of the MR fluid. In the optimization procedure, the braking torque is calculated based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, which predicts MR fluid behavior well at high shear rate. An optimization tool based on finite element analysis is used to obtain the optimized dimensions of the MR brake. After manufacturing the MR brake, mechanical performances regarding the response time, braking torque and cruising temperature are experimentally evaluated.

  10. Evaluation of Argos Telemetry Accuracy in the High-Arctic and Implications for the Estimation of Home-Range Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christin

    Full Text Available Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove "bad" locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada, with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2, while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements, the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location

  11. Evaluation of Argos Telemetry Accuracy in the High-Arctic and Implications for the Estimation of Home-Range Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Sylvain; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Berteaux, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove "bad" locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada), with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2), while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements), the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location error needs

  12. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of relationship between sexual functions, depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Bennur; Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Ozgen, Gulten; Okumus, Muhammed Masuk; Seyahi, Nurhan; Sit, Dede; Kadioglu, Pınar

    2015-03-01

    The relation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with metabolic, psychiatric and endocrinologic disorder is well-known. Depressive mood and sexual dysfunction are frequently observed as renal functions deteriorate. We aimed to analyze the relationship of sexual dysfunction, depressive mood and life quality in patients with CKD at predialysis stage. Fifty-three patients; 27 female and 26 male with CKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 90 mL/min and followed up in the Nephrology Department, Bursa Sevket Yılmaz Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched 20 female and 20 male healthy control subjects were assigned to the control group. Detailed medical and sexual history was obtained by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Erectile Function International Evaluation Form (IEFF), Short form (SF) 36 Form and Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI). Biochemical and hormonal parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, total testosterone, DHEA-S, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol and prolactin were analyzed. Depression was observed in 12 male (46%) and 14 female (51%) patients. The frequency of depression among male patients and control subjects was similar, however, significantly higher in female patients than female controls (p=0.036). Physical function score, physical role score and pain score in SF 36 of entire patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001, respectively). The frequency of depression was similar between patients and controls (p>0.05). When SF 36 tests of male and female patients were compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status were significantly better in male patients (p=0.005, 0.016, 0.035, respectively). SF 36 scores of female patients were significantly lower than female controls (p=0.0001). The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was similar between male patients (84%) and controls (75%) (p=0.62). On the

  14. Incorporating a Drug Information Consult into a Pharmacy Practice Course to Build Literature Search and Evaluation Skills Through a 3-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Deborah; Kovera, Craig; Sullivan, Maureen; Rumore, Martha M

    2017-06-01

    Pharmacy students need to be equipped with skills to research and evaluate literature to effectively apply evidence-based medicine (EBM) in practice. To prepare them, a 3-stage approach to writing a drug information consult (3sDIC) was incorporated into a pharmacy course. The primary objective was to assess students' abilities to retrieve and analyze literature pursuant to a drug information consult. Secondary objectives were to examine feasibility of faculty participation and continuation of the assignment. Ninety students were given a clinical scenario about a patient. The assignment consisted of 3 stages incorporating use of the Population, Intervention, Comparison intervention, Outcome (PICO) method and modified systematic approach (MSA) for stage 1, evaluation of primary literature to write a draft for stage 2, and stage 3, the final consult. All 3 stages were reviewed and graded by faculty. All students completed the 3sDIC, with no grade failures. The rubric employed by faculty was effective, providing students the opportunity to improve the consult. The 3sDIC was found to be feasible with adequate faculty support. The 3sDIC, although not a substitute for a complete drug information course, demonstrated a streamlined approach for Pharmacy year 2 (P2) students to acquire and develop drug information skills.

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette González-Palma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, metal ions chelating activity, reducing power assay and scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals in aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from mycelium, primordium and fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus in both fresh as dry, were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of dried samples was higher in aqueous extracts obtained both in room temperature and boiling. The total polyphenol content of the fresh samples obtained at room temperature and boiling was higher in aqueous extract of mycelium and in the methanolic extract of the fruiting body. In general, flavonoids represented a very small percentage of the total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP method of extracts from fresh samples were higher with respect to the dried samples. The results of the metal ion chelating activity indicate that all extracts tested had acted. Reducing the power of all samples was concentration dependent. In general, the extracts of dried samples showed higher reducing power than the extracts of fresh samples and tend to show greater reducing power by aqueous than methanolic extracts. It was observed that the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated to the concentration of the extract. The results suggested that antioxidant activity could be due to polyphenols, but mainly by different molecules or substances present in the extracts. Overall, the fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus showed the best results and the possibility of continuing to investigate its functional properties of this fungus is opened. This is the first report where the antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus in different growth stage was reported.

  16. Radiographic evaluation in clinical practice of the types and stage of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T J; Puchalski, S M; Arzi, B; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2017-07-01

    There are several reports of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses but, to date, studies have been limited in case numbers and to advanced lesions. Tooth resorption in other species is a radiographic diagnosis of types of resorption that are often identified before clinical signs. Our goal was to evaluate radiographically incisor tooth resorption in a large population of horses, utilising interpretation criteria from canine and human dentistry. To document and classify incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis. Retrospective descriptive case series. Horses presented for routine dental care >5 years old were included only if owners were unaware of incisor pathology. Radiographs (three views) were obtained of the incisor teeth and incisor teeth resorption was classified according to the radiographic criteria described for man and dogs. Hypercementosis and its location were recorded. Tooth resorption was detected in 149 of 169 (88.2%) horses and 951 of 1952 (48.7%) of incisor teeth. The classification system used was applicable in 926 (97.2%) of 951 affected teeth. Hypercementosis was detected in 34 (20.1%) horses and 148 (7.6%) teeth. As horses increased in age, resorption and hypercementosis was more frequent; no significant differences were found among sex or breed categories. All horses with hypercementosis had resorption, but only 23.4% of horses with resorption had hypercementosis. Advanced (stage ≥3) resorption was detected in 159 (8.1%) teeth and 54 (32.0%) horses in an otherwise clinically healthy population. Certain horses' anatomy precluded isolation of the mandibular third incisor teeth from the canine teeth due to superimposition. Incisor tooth resorption, in particular external replacement resorption and external inflammatory resorption, is common in horses. Hypercementosis is consistently associated with resorption, but the inverse association is inconsistent. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Defining and evaluating a novel outcome measure representing end-stage knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Lynch, John; Nevitt, Michael; Lo, Grace H; Eaton, Charles B; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-10-01

    We described a definition of end-stage knee osteoarthritis (esKOA) and evaluated its association with health outcomes and osteoarthritis risk factors. We included Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis who had complete baseline data. We defined esKOA by adapting a validated appropriateness algorithm for total knee replacement based on data from baseline and the first four follow-up visits. We performed person-based analyses, including both knees from all participants. Participants met the definition of esKOA at the visit at which ≥1 knee reached the esKOA criteria. We assessed differences in individual characteristics between groups at baseline and over time and tested if incident esKOA (outcome) was associated with osteoarthritis risk factors (e.g., age, maximum adult weight, and quadriceps strength). The cohort consisted of 3916 participants with mean age of 61 (SD = 9) years and mean body mass index of 28.4 (4.7) kg/m(2); 59 % were female and 9.7 % developed incident esKOA. Those with incident esKOA had poorer health outcomes at baseline and greater declines in health outcomes, with the exception of SF-12 mental health score. Five out of nine tested risk factors were associated with incident esKOA in unadjusted analyses, with older age (≥65 years; odds ratio = 1.44, 95 % confidence interval = 1.19 to 1.83) and quadriceps weakness (odds ratio = 0.78, 95 % confidence interval = 0.71 to 0.86) remaining significant in adjusted models. Older age and quadriceps weakness predicted esKOA. esKOA is also characterized by poor health-related outcomes. This definition of esKOA could be a new clinically relevant outcome measure for osteoarthritis research.

  18. CT mucosal window settings: a novel approach to evaluating early T-stage head and neck carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Glastonbury, Christine M; Chen, Luke F; Salvatore, Jaime K; Eastwood, James D

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the CT densities of small head and neck mucosal cancers as a means of deriving a CT mucosal window display of narrower window width and higher window level to better detect and delineate head and neck carcinomas. We retrospectively studied 19 subjects with T1-2 head and neck carcinomas. The density of tumor and adjacent normal mucosa on CT were measured. CT scans for the 19 patients with tumors and 35 subjects without mucosal tumors were anonymized and interpreted by two readers using standard soft-tissue windows and were reviewed again 1 week later with the addition of mucosal windows. The mean (± SD) attenuation of 17 visible tumors was 85.5 ± 18.3 Hounsfield units (HU) and that of the surrounding normal mucosa was 55.3 ± 15.2 HU (p < 0.0001). From our data, we derived guideline mucosal window settings-a window width of 120 HU and a window level of 60 HU. On blinded review, reader A detected 12 tumors with the addition of mucosal windows (sensitivity, 63%; specificity, 82%) and nine tumors on soft-tissue windows alone (sensitivity, 47%; specificity, 94%). Reader B detected nine tumors with use of mucosal windows (sensitivity, 47%; specificity, 71%) and eight tumors on soft-tissue windows alone (sensitivity, 42%; specificity, 74%). Early T-stage tumors have higher CT density than normal mucosa. Their conspicuity can be amplified using display windows with narrower window width and higher window level. The potential clinical applications are for the improved detection of unknown primary tumors and delineation of a known mucosal tumor.

  19. Attached and Unattached Activity Size Distribution of Short-Lived Radon Progeny (214Pb) and Evaluation of Deposition Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Ahmed, A.A.; Ali, A.E.; Yuness, M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of 2 '2 2 Rn progeny in the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of radon progeny. The current study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of radon progeny in indoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222 Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of this mode for 21 4 P b was determined to be 401 nm with relative mean geometric standard deviation of 2.96. The mean value of specific air activity concentration of 214 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 4.74 %0.44 Bq m -3 . The relative mean geometric standard deviations of unattached 214 Pb was determined to be 1.21 with the mean activity thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of 1.2 nm. The mean unattached activity concentration of 214 Pb was found to be 0.44%0.14 Bq m-3. Based on the obtained results of radon progeny size distributions (unattached and attached), the deposition fractions in each airway generation of the human lung were evaluated by using a lung deposition model

  20. Laboratory evaluation of a two-stage treatment system for TCE cometabolism by a methane-oxidizing mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L H; McCarty, P L

    1997-08-20

    The objective of this research was to evaluate several factors affecting the performance of a two-stage treatment system employing methane-oxidizing bacteria for trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation. The system consists of a completely mixed growth reactor and a plug-flow transformation reactor in which the TCE is cometabolized. Laboratory studies were conducted with continuous growth reactors and batch experiments simulating transformation reactor conditions. Performance was characterized in terms of TCE transformation capacity (T(C), g TCE/g cells), transformation yield (T(Y), g TCE/g CH(4)), and the rate coefficient ratio k(TCE)/K(S,TCE) (L/mg-d). The growth reactor variables studied were solids retention time (SRT) and nutrient nitrogen (N) concentration. Formate and methane were evaluated as potential transformation reactor amendments. Comparison of cultures from 2- and 8-day SRT (nitrogen-limited) growth reactors indicated that there was no significant effect of growth reactor SRT or nitrogen availability on T(C) or T(Y), but N-limited conditions yielded higher k(TCE)/K(S,TCE). The TCE cometabolic activity of the 8-day SRT, N-limited growth reactor culture varied significantly during a 7-year period of operation. The T(C) and T(Y) of the resting cells increased gradually to levels a factor of 2 higher than the initial values. The reasons for this increase are unknown. Formate addition to the transformation reactor gave higher T(C) and T(Y) for 2-day SRT growth reactor conditions and significantly lower T(C), T(Y), and k(TCE)/K(S,TCE) for 8-day SRT N-limited conditions. Methane addition to the transformation reactor inhibited TCE cometabolism at low TCE concentrations and enhanced TCE cometabolism at high TCE concentrations, indicating that the TCE cometabolism in the presence of methane does not follow simple competitive inhibition kinetics. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 650-659, 1997.

  1. Characteristics of low back pain in adolescent patients with early-stage spondylolysis evaluated using a detailed visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyooka, Takeshi; Shiga, Tetsuo; Otsuki, Kazumi; Aikawa, Emi; Oyama, Takato; Kitoh, Kazuhisa; Chikako, Sakaida; Takata, Yuka; Ishizaki, Tohru; Omori, Yasutaka; Kiguchi, Yasumi; Takata, Akito; Kote, Ayako; Nakanishi, Yasuko; Matsushita, Yukio; Suzuki, Takane; Mori, Chisato; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nishikawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective comparative cohort study. To elucidate the characteristics of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent patients with early-stage spondylolysis (ESS). ESS is a common cause of acute LBP in adolescents. When treating patients with ESS, early diagnosis is important; however, early diagnosis is difficult without magnetic resonance imaging. Adolescent patients (n = 77) with acute LBP showing no pathological findings on plain radiography were included (<1 m after onset). Patients were divided into ESS and nonspecific LBP (NS-LBP) groups by conducting magnetic resonance imaging; patients showing no pathological findings that explain the cause of LBP were classified as NS-LBP. LBP was evaluated using a traditional visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-10 cm), Oswestry Disability Index, and a detailed VAS scoring system in which pain is independently evaluated in 3 different postural situations (in motion, standing, and sitting); the values were compared between the 2 groups. Of 77 patients, 41 (mean age: 14.6 yr; 33 adolescent boys/8 adolescent girls) had ESS and 36 (mean age: 14.3 yr; 20 adolescent boys/16 adolescent girls) were considered to have NS-LBP. Respective traditional VAS and Oswestry Disability Index scores were 4.9, 16.1 in the ESS group, and 6.2, 26.3 in the NS-LBP group. Both scores were significantly higher in the NS-LBP group. The results of the detailed VAS revealed that the ESS group showed significantly greater pain intensity while in motion than while standing or sitting (4.2, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively), whereas the NS-LBP group showed similar pain intensities in all 3 postural situations (5.3, 4.0, and 4.9, respectively). This study revealed that LBP characteristics may provide important information for distinguishing ESS from other low back disorders. Because early diagnosis is essential for the treatment of ESS, MRI examination is recommended for patients showing severe pain in motion, but less pain when standing or sitting.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of nano-sized colloidal silver in experiments on mice. behavioral reactions, morphology of internals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of toxicity studies of nano-sized colloidal silver (NCC, the most widely used in medicine, food and life, are given. When evaluating safe doses of silver NP (using commercially available NCC solution stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, with the size of silver NP at the range of 5-80 nm when orally administered to male mice, BALB/c mice at doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight per silver different effects from the motor and orienting-exploratory activity were revealed, for the part of them the dependence on the dose of the NCC was typical. The following peculiarities were found: reduction in motor activity to reduce the frequency of activities requiring physical effort, reduction of the execution time of these actions; increasing anxiety in terms of frequency and duration of attacks of orienting-investigative activity and animals washing. Morphological examination revealed a series of tissue changes of internal organs (especially liver and spleen, to a lesser extent – kidney, heart and colon with increase of the spectrum and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of the NCC. From the combination of the data the conclusion was made that maximal ineffective dose (NOAEL of this nanomaterial at subacute oral administration is no more than 0.1 mg/kg body weight.

  3. Cobra-IE Evaluation by Simulation of the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C. J.; Aumiler, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    The COBRA-IE computer code is a thermal-hydraulic subchannel analysis program capable of simulating phenomena present in both PWRs and BWRs. As part of ongoing COBRA-IE assessment efforts, the code has been evaluated against experimental data from the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT). The BFBT experiments utilized an 8 x 8 rod bundle to simulate BWR operating conditions and power profiles, providing an excellent database for investigation of the capabilities of the code. Benchmarks performed included steady-state and transient void distribution, single-phase and two-phase pressure drop, and steady-state and transient critical power measurements. COBRA-IE effectively captured the trends seen in the experimental data with acceptable prediction error. Future sensitivity studies are planned to investigate the effects of enabling and/or modifying optional code models dealing with void drift, turbulent mixing, rewetting, and CHF

  4. How size evaluation of lymph node is protocol dependent in MRI when using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Sarkar, Saeed; Darki, Fahimeh; Beitollahi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the volume of susceptibility artifact was evaluated in T1 and T2-weighted spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) images at various parameters using registration and subtraction methods. In order to state an important misinterpretation problem in lymphography, it was demonstrated that a lymph node size may be enlarged approximately 10 times when a T2*-weighted GRE protocol is used. To overcome this problem a technical consideration using multisequence (GRE and SE) paradigm was suggested to ensure both lymph node detection and metastasis identification in lymphatic system. The paradigm was also extended by post-processing manipulation of the SE images using a registration and subtraction approach for detection of lymphatic lesions.

  5. Adult loggerhead turtle size, age, stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 313 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US coast...

  6. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  7. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Pittman

    Full Text Available Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  8. A critical evaluation of deterministic methods in size optimisation of reliable and cost effective standalone hybrid renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    cost-effective system cannot be quantified without employing probabilistic methods of analysis. It is also shown that deterministic cost analysis yields inaccurate results for all of the investigated configurations. - Graphical abstract: Deterministic size optimisation methods are unreliable in design of reliable and cost effective wind–PV–battery hybrid renewable systems irrespective of selected worst-case-scenarios and safety factors. - Highlights: • Deterministic design optimisation methods do not predict the cost of standalone HRES accurately. • Deterministic methods do not evaluate power reliability of standalone HRES directly. • Deterministic methods of design of HRES lead to solutions with unpredictable power reliability. • New robust design methods are required to be developed for standalone HRES

  9. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.

  10. Evaluation of social-cognitive versus stage-matched, self-help physical activity interventions at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; DeJoy, David M

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of stage-matched vs. social-cognitive physical activity interventions in a work setting. Both interventions were designed as minimal-contact, self-help programs suitable for large-scale application. Randomized trial. Participants were randomized into one of the two intervention groups at baseline; the follow-up assessment was conducted 1 month later. A large, public university in the southeastern region of the United States. Employees from two academic colleges within the participating institution were eligible to participate: 366 employees completed the baseline assessment; 208 of these completed both assessments (baseline and follow-up) and met the compliance criteria. Printed, self-help exercise booklets (12 to 16 pages in length) either (1) matched to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption at baseline or (2) derived from social-cognitive theory but not matched by stage. Standard questionnaires were administered to assess stage of motivational readiness for physical activity; physical activity participation; and exercise-related processes of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and goal satisfaction. The two interventions were equally effective in moving participants to higher levels of motivational readiness for regular physical activity. Among participants not already in maintenance at baseline, 34.9% in the stage-matched condition progressed, while 33.9% in the social-cognitive group did so (chi2 = not significant). Analyses of variance showed that the two treatment groups did not differ in terms of physical activity participation, cognitive and behavioral process use, decisional balance, or the other psychological constructs. For both treatment groups, cognitive process use remained high across all stages, while behavioral process use increased at the higher stages. The pros component of decisional balance did not vary across stage, whereas cons decreased significantly

  11. Evaluation of the WHO 2010 grading and AJCC/UICC staging systems in prognostic behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. METHODS: We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were performed. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4-213 months. WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1, 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001. Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p = 0.003 and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p = 0.017. AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p = 0.004 and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p = 0.005 measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease.

  12. Inflow hemodynamics evaluated by using four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging and the size ratio of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, Kazuya [Matto-Ishikawa Central Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Hakusan, Ishikawa (Japan); Nambu, Iku; Kitabayashi, Tomohiro; Sano, Hiroki; Misaki, Kouichi; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi [Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Prediction of the rupture risk is critical for the identification of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) eligible for invasive treatments. The size ratio (SR) is a strong morphological predictor for rupture. We investigated the relationship between the inflow hemodynamics evaluated on four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the SR to identify specific characteristics related to UCA rupture. We evaluated the inflow jet patterns and inflow hemodynamic parameters of 70 UCAs on 4D flow MR imaging and compared them among 23 aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1 and 47 aneurysms with an SR ≤2.0. Based on the shape of inflow streamline bundles with a velocity ≥75% of the maximum flow velocity in the parent artery, the inflow jet patterns were classified as concentrated (C), diffuse (D), neck-limited (N), and unvisualized (U). The incidence of patterns C and N was significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1. The rate of pattern U was significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≤2.0. The maximum inflow rate and the inflow rate ratio were significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1. The SR affected the inflow jet pattern, the maximum inflow rate, and the inflow rate ratio of UCAs. In conjunction with the SR, inflow hemodynamic analysis using 4D flow MR imaging may contribute to the risk stratification for aneurysmal rupture. (orig.)

  13. Inflow hemodynamics evaluated by using four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging and the size ratio of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Kazuya; Nambu, Iku; Kitabayashi, Tomohiro; Sano, Hiroki; Misaki, Kouichi; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the rupture risk is critical for the identification of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) eligible for invasive treatments. The size ratio (SR) is a strong morphological predictor for rupture. We investigated the relationship between the inflow hemodynamics evaluated on four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the SR to identify specific characteristics related to UCA rupture. We evaluated the inflow jet patterns and inflow hemodynamic parameters of 70 UCAs on 4D flow MR imaging and compared them among 23 aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1 and 47 aneurysms with an SR ≤2.0. Based on the shape of inflow streamline bundles with a velocity ≥75% of the maximum flow velocity in the parent artery, the inflow jet patterns were classified as concentrated (C), diffuse (D), neck-limited (N), and unvisualized (U). The incidence of patterns C and N was significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1. The rate of pattern U was significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≤2.0. The maximum inflow rate and the inflow rate ratio were significantly higher in aneurysms with an SR ≥2.1. The SR affected the inflow jet pattern, the maximum inflow rate, and the inflow rate ratio of UCAs. In conjunction with the SR, inflow hemodynamic analysis using 4D flow MR imaging may contribute to the risk stratification for aneurysmal rupture. (orig.)

  14. [Preparation of a gel-forming ointment base applicable to the recovery stage of bedsore and clinical evaluation of a treatment method with different ointment bases suitable to each stage of bedsore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyama, Masato

    2004-02-01

    An ointment base for better treatment of bedsores was developed to improve the release rate of minocycline hydrochloride (MH) and the water absorption capacity using various types of hydrophobic to hydrophilic ointment bases. The effect of purified lanolin (PL) on the release behavior of MH from a hydrophilic ointment (HO) base was the primary focus. It was found that the drug release rate from the ointment base was modified according to the method of preparation of the ointment base and the type of cyclodextrins admixed. The physicochemical properties, such as viscosity, elution volume, and water absorption, of the ointment base were also modified by those factors. To develop an ointment formulation suitable for the recovery stages of bedsores, including the proliferation period of granulation and the formative period of epidermis, the physicochemical properties of Macrogol ointment containing various hydrophilic polymers, which have gel-forming ability, were tested. A novel ointment base suitable for the treatment in the recovery stage of bedsores was developed using hydrophobically modified hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HM-HPMC). Considerably sustained release of MH (T50 of 170 at a min) was attained with a macrogol ointment mixed with HM-HPMC and Carbopol formulation ratio of 3:7. We clinically evaluated the effectiveness of bedsore treatment by applying different ointment bases to patients with different stages of bedsores.

  15. Prognostic significance of tumor size of small lung adenocarcinomas evaluated with mediastinal window settings on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Yukinori; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to clarify that the size of the lung adenocarcinoma evaluated using mediastinal window on computed tomography is an important and useful modality for predicting invasiveness, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in small adenocarcinoma. We evaluated 176 patients with small lung adenocarcinomas (diameter, 1-3 cm) who underwent standard surgical resection. Tumours were examined using computed tomography with thin section conditions (1.25 mm thick on high-resolution computed tomography) with tumour dimensions evaluated under two settings: lung window and mediastinal window. We also determined the patient age, gender, preoperative nodal status, tumour size, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and pathological status (lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion). Recurrence-free survival was used for prognosis. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for recurrence-free survival in univariate analyses. Areas under the receiver operator curves for recurrence were 0.76, 0.73 and 0.65 for mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and lung window, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.61, 0.76, 0.72 and 0.66, for lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant factors for lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.60, 0.81, 0.81 and 0.65 for lung window

  16. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security.

  17. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  18. Evaluation and Selection for Drought Tolerance in Iranian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Landraces at Germination and Seedling Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sadeghzadeh Ahari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foneum-graecum L. has been cultivated in vegetable farms at the most parts of Iran. It is an annual crop belonging to the Leguminosae family. It originated from west Asia and Iran and cultivated at mostly in European, Asian and African countries, presently. With distinguished of feeding and medicinal values, low needs to soil conditions and its width adaptability to cultivation in different regions, the range of fenugreek cultivation areas have been extended from America to India. In most parts of Iran there is limiting possibilities for cultivation of horticultural and agricultural crops for the reason of limiting water harvesting and unsuitable rainfall distributions. There is no doubt that introduction of new crops for such conditions could increase variation of crops production and stability of farming systems. Plants landraces have been created in thousands of cultivation years under different climatologically and local cropping systems. They are evolved by natural and artificial selection under environmental conditions where they were grown and there have accumulative adaptive genes for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and are the most precious materials in starting of breeding programs. Germination phase is the most important period that guaranties the growth and establishments of crops. One of the basic activators of germination starters is water and limiting of it (drought is the most important retardant of seed growth during germination period under field condition. Fast germination and emergence of seedling from soil and high preliminary growth rate has been known for one of the drought escape mechanisms for most crops such as chickpea, lentil and bean. In breeding programs of crops, using in vitro method is one of the most used methods in germplasm selection for drought tolerance. This study carried out under laboratory condition in order to evaluate some Iranian fenugreek landraces

  19. Evaluation of growth, cell size and biomass of Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO with two LED regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Victor Cordoba-Matson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to crops, there are fewer studies using LED-based light with green microalgae and none cultivating the microalga Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO even though of its importance in marine aquaculture. The objective was to evaluate of white and red LEDs as an alternative source of light to cultivate I. aff. galbana (T-ISO. In order to carry this out white and red LEDs were used with a laboratory built Erlenmeyer-type photobioreactor to determine productivity, cell number and size and biomass composition. Results were compared with standard fluorescent lights of the same light intensity. The culture system consisted of 3 flasks for applying red LEDs and three for white LEDs and 3 control group flasks illuminated with the normal fluorescent lighting at the similar light intensity of ~60 mM m–2 s–1. It was found that the population cell density did not significantly increase with either red LEDs or white LEDs (p > 0.05, if at all. Standard fluorescent lighting (control group showed significant increases in population cell number (p < 0.05. Through microscopic observation cell size was found to be smaller for white LEDS and even smaller for red LEDs compared to fluorescent lighting. Biochemical composition of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids was similar for all light regimes. The authors suggest that the unexpected non-growth I. aff. galbana (T-ISO, a haptophyte microalga, with white and red LEDs is possibly due to fact that to initiate cell growth this microalgae requires other wavelengths (possibly green besides red and blue, to allow other pigments, probably fucoxanthin, to capture light

  20. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  1. Use of S-100B to Evaluate Therapy Effects during Bevacizumab Induction Treatment in AJCC Stage III Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, S.; Bastiaannet, E.; Brouwers, A. H.; Nagengast, W. B.; Speijers, M. J.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Hospers, G. A.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    To investigate the feasibility of using bevacizumab to improve the survival of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III melanoma patients, we investigated how a single bevacizumab treatment affected nodal disease and a panel of biomarkers in clinically fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission

  2. L1CAM in Early-Stage Type I Endometrial Cancer: Results of a Large Multicenter Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeimet, A.G.; Reimer, D.; Huszar, M.; Winterhoff, B.; Puistola, U.; Azim, S.A.; Muller-Holzner, E.; Ben-Arie, A.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Petru, E.; Jahn, S.; Geels, Y.P.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Amant, F.; Polterauer, S.; Lappi-Blanco, E.; Bulten, J.; Meuter, A.; Tanouye, S.; Oppelt, P.; Stroh-Weigert, M.; Reinthaller, A.; Mariani, A.; Hackl, W.; Netzer, M.; Schirmer, U.; Vergote, I.; Altevogt, P.; Marth, C.; Fogel, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the excellent prognosis of Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to

  3. 75 FR 32748 - Availability of Testing and Evaluation Report and Intent To Proceed With the Final Stages of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... of Domain Name System Security Extensions Implementation in the Authoritative Root Zone AGENCY... report and NTIA's intent to proceed with the final stages of DNSSEC deployment in the authoritative root... (ICANN) and VeriSign to deploy DNSSEC at the authoritative root zone of the Internet.\\3\\ Subsequently...

  4. Evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Endorem®) as a photoacoustic contrast agent for intra-operative nodal staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Jose, Jithin; Fratila, Raluca M.; Visscher, Martijn; Velders, Aldrik H.; ten Haken, Bennie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of malignancies. Commercially available superparagmagnetic nanoparticles (SPIOs) accumulate in normal lymph tissue after injection at a tumor site, whereas less or no accumulation takes place in metastatic nodes,

  5. Evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Endorem) as a photoacoustic contrast agent for intra-operative nodal staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Jose, J.; Fratila, R.M.; Visscher, M.; Velders, Aldrik; ten Haken, Bernard; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of malignancies. Commercially available superparagmagnetic nanoparticles (SPIOs) accumulate in normal lymph tissue after injection at a tumor site, whereas less or no accumulation takes place in metastatic nodes,

  6. Evaluation of the safety and tolerability of rasagiline in the treatment of the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallet, François; Pitel, Séverine; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Blin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Rasagiline is a second-generation, irreversible MAO-B inhibitor (MAOB-I) previously shown to be efficacious and well-tolerated compared to placebo in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease (PD). ACTOR (ACceptabilité TOlérance Rasagiline) was a 15-week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of rasagiline compared to the dopaminergic agonist pramipexole in the treatment of early PD. Patients with early, untreated idiopathic PD were randomized to receive 1 mg rasagiline (n = 53) or 1.5 mg pramipexole (n = 56) daily. The primary outcome was the number of patients experiencing a 'clinically important adverse event' (classified as a serious adverse event, an event leading to withdrawal or severe according to the patient). Safety outcomes were evaluated by the investigator and the patient. Analysis of the primary criterion was a comparative analysis using the chi-squared test. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was conducted to test the severity of patient-reported adverse events. Other tests performed include a covariance analysis and Student's t-tests. Mean disease duration was 3.4 months, and mean age was 62.6 years. Of patients taking pramipexole, 44.6% reported at least one 'clinically important' adverse event compared to 32.1% of patients taking rasagiline; non-inferiority of rasagiline was reached, with a difference in proportions of -12.6% [confidence interval of -27.8%; 2.6%]. There were no significant differences in clinical effectiveness between the treatments, measured by clinical and patient global impression of improvement (CGI-I, PGI-I) and PDQ-8 scales. A significant decrease in the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (p = 0.015) and sleep disorders (p = 0.027) was reported by physicians in the rasagiline group compared to the pramipexole group; the propensity to sleepiness improved significantly in the rasagiline group (p = 0.020), and worsened in the pramipexole group (p

  7. Efficient evaluation of small failure probability in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling via a two-stage Monte Carlo method: FAILURE PROBABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lin, Guang [Department of Mathematics and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2017-03-01

    In decision-making for groundwater management and contamination remediation, it is important to accurately evaluate the probability of the occurrence of a failure event. For small failure probability analysis, a large number of model evaluations are needed in the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which is impractical for CPU-demanding models. One approach to alleviate the computational cost caused by the model evaluations is to construct a computationally inexpensive surrogate model instead. However, using a surrogate approximation can cause an extra error in the failure probability analysis. Moreover, constructing accurate surrogates is challenging for high-dimensional models, i.e., models containing many uncertain input parameters. To address these issues, we propose an efficient two-stage MC approach for small failure probability analysis in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling. In the first stage, a low-dimensional representation of the original high-dimensional model is sought with Karhunen–Loève expansion and sliced inverse regression jointly, which allows for the easy construction of a surrogate with polynomial chaos expansion. Then a surrogate-based MC simulation is implemented. In the second stage, the small number of samples that are close to the failure boundary are re-evaluated with the original model, which corrects the bias introduced by the surrogate approximation. The proposed approach is tested with a numerical case study and is shown to be 100 times faster than the traditional MC approach in achieving the same level of estimation accuracy.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    robust estimates of the intensity of large fractures and features, e.g. as characterised by the k parameter in the power-law distribution and further efforts should be spent on providing good support for the possible range of this parameter. Considering the high and uncertain stress levels that have been observed, further reduction of the uncertainties in stress and rock mechanics properties is needed. Also, the issue of spalling due to the thermal load originating from the waste may require additional analyses and lead to additional data demands. Even though the thermal requirements and preferences are met, further reduction of uncertainties in the spatial variability and scaling of thermal conductivity would allow for a more efficient (compact) design. Issues worth considering include assessing the potential anisotropy of the thermal data and the size distribution of the subordinate rock types within RFM029. The current model indicates very low hydraulic conductivities at potential repository depth, but additional site data are needed in order to confirm the extent of the low permeability volumes. The uncertainties in the spatial variation and upscaling of the hydraulic properties warrant further studies. Furthermore, reducing the uncertainty in hydraulics of the fracture network would allow for much less pessimistic handling of the transport resistance in the rock mass. The groundwater composition meets all requirements and preferences, but further reduction of uncertainties would improve the basis for assessing the future evolution of the groundwater composition. For example, a more definite explanation of the high uranium content found at depth is needed. In order to have a full evaluation of the redox buffering capacity of the geosphere, more mineralogical data, Fe(II) and sulphide content of the rock and amount of fracture minerals in contact with the flowing water would be needed. There is a need, if possible, to reduce the uncertainty in characterising the

  9. Dose-volume histogram parameters of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4cm) arising from a small-sized uterus treated with a point A dose-reduced plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Akiko; Noda, Shin-ei; Kubo, Nobuteru; Kuwako, Keiko; Nakano, Takashi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the rectal dose-sparing effect and tumor control of a point A dose-reduced plan in patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) arising from a small-sized uterus. Between October 2008 and August 2011, 19 patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the pelvis and CT-guided brachytherapy. Seven patients were treated with brachytherapy with standard loading of source-dwell positions and a fraction dose of 6 Gy at point A (conventional brachy-plan). The other 12 patients with a small uterus close to the rectum or small intestine were treated with brachytherapy with a point A dose-reduction to match D2cc of the rectum and <6 Gy as the dose constraint ('point A dose-reduced plan') instead of the 6-Gy plan at point A ('tentative 6-Gy plan'). The total doses from EBRT and brachytherapy were added up and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 in the conventional brachy-plan, tentative 6-Gy plan and point A dose-reduced plan were 62 GyEQD2, 80 GyEQD2 and 64 GyEQD2, respectively. The median doses of rectal D2cc in the corresponding three plans were 42 GyEQD2, 62 GyEQD2 and 51 GyEQD2, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 35 months, three patients developed Grade-1 late rectal complications and no patients developed local recurrence. Our preliminary results suggested that CT-guided brachytherapy using an individualized point A dose-reduced plan might be useful for reducing late rectal complications while maintaining primary tumor control. (author)

  10. Evaluation of size exclusion chromatography columns packed with sub-3μm particles for the analysis of biopharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, Alexandre; Beck, Alain; Colas, Olivier; Sandra, Koen; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-05-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the practical possibilities and limitations of several recently introduced size exclusion chromatographic (SEC) columns of 150×4.6mm, sub-3μm (Agilent AdvanceBioSEC 2.7μm, Tosoh TSKgel UP-SW3000 2.0μm, Phenomenex Yarra SEC X-150 1.8μm and Waters Acquity BEH200 1.7μm) for the separation of biopharmaceutical proteins. For this purpose, some model proteins were tested, as well as several commercial therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody-drug-conjugates (ADCs). Calibration curves were drawn to highlight the applicability of these new SEC columns for the separation of mAbs, ADCs and their aggregates, despite some differences in their nominal pore diameter (vary from 150 to 300Å). The kinetic performance (van Deemter curves and kinetic pots) was evaluated. Columns packed with 1.7-2.0μm particles improved the plate count by a factor of 1.5-2 compared to 2.7μm particles, which is in agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, possible secondary hydrophobic and/or electrostatic interactions between the SEC stationary phases and biopharmaceutical proteins were systematically studied. Significant differences in nonspecific interactions were observed, with hydrophobic interactions generally exerting more influence than electrostatic interactions. The use of a novel bond chemistry with the AdvanceBioSEC column was found highly effective to limit non-specific interactions and pave the way to further improvements for column provider. At the end, the average resolutions achieved on the four sub-3μm SEC columns between monomer and dimer structures were comparable for ten approved mAbs products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Source attribution of aerosol size distributions and model evaluation using Whistler Mountain measurements and GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Ng, J. Y.; Kodros, J. K.; Atwood, S. A.; Wheeler, M. J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and free-tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada (2182 m a.s.l., hereafter referred to as Whistler Peak). We evaluate the model for predictions of aerosol number, size, and composition during periods of free-tropospheric (FT) and boundary-layer (BL) influence at "coarse" 4° × 5° and "nested" 0.5° × 0.667° resolutions by developing simple FT/BL filtering techniques. We find that using temperature as a proxy for upslope flow (BL influence) improved the model-measurement comparisons. The best threshold temperature was around 2 °C for the coarse simulations and around 6 °C for the nested simulations, with temperatures warmer than the threshold indicating boundary-layer air. Additionally, the site was increasingly likely to be in cloud when the measured relative humidity (RH) was above 90 %, so we do not compare the modeled and measured size distributions during these periods. With the inclusion of these temperature and RH filtering techniques, the model-measurement comparisons improved significantly. The slope of the regression for N80 (the total number of particles with particle diameter, Dp, > 80 nm) in the nested simulations increased from 0.09 to 0.65, R2 increased from 0.04 to 0.46, and log-mean bias improved from 0.95 to 0.07. We also perform simulations at the nested resolution without Asian anthropogenic emissions and without biomass-burning emissions to quantify the contribution of these sources to aerosols at Whistler Peak (through comparison with simulations with these emissions on). The long-range transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosol was found to be significant throughout all particle

  12. Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

    About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

  13. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of sub-size improved DPC-C conductor by calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshinobu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Miura, Yuushi; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    1996-08-01

    The improved DPC-U conductor consisting of 648 chrome plated NbTi strands was fabricated and its stability has been investigated using 1/24 sub-size conductor. In the stability experiment, the inductive heating method was applied to originate initial normal zone. Since it is difficult to calculate the inductive heating energy deposited on the conductor because of complicate geometry of the twisted multi-strand cable, inductive heating energy had to be experimentally evaluated using calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to integration of square of an applied sinusoidal wave pulsed current over the heating period. The experimental result shows the proportional constants for the conductor and conduit are 2.062 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] and 0.771 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The coupling between the eddy currents in the strands and conduit might take effect on the heating energy put in the strands. It was shown this effect was however small in this experiment. Consequently, the inductive heating energy applied in the strands was estimated to be the proportional constant of 1.291 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] from the difference of the heat energies in the conductor and conduit. (author)

  14. The effect of pupil size on stimulation of the melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells, as evaluated by monochromatic pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Claus Jeppe; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    or contracted, the entire sequence of red and blue light exposure repeated. After at least 3¿days, when the effect of the eye drop had subsided, the entire experiment was repeated, this time employing the other substance. Results: Prior dilatation of the left pupil augmented the post light contraction to blue...... (660¿nm) and in a following session, blue (470¿nm) light. The consensual pupillary diameter in the right eye was continuously measured before, during, and after light exposure. Subsequently, Tropicamide 1% or Pilocarpine 2% was instilled into the left eye and when the pupil was either maximally dilated......Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the size of the light exposed pupil in one eye on the pupillary light reflex of the other eye. Method: Using a monochromatic pupillometer, the left eye in each of 10 healthy subjects was exposed to 20¿s of monochromatic light of luminance 300¿cd/m(2), first red...

  15. MCDA-C Methodology Based Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses at the City of Lages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When employed in a focused manner, corporate performance evaluation has proven to be instrumental for entrepreneurs as an important tool that contributes with performance improvements at their organizations. The descriptive study herein, prepared as of a questionnaire comprising 46 queries, poses to analyse the performance of micro and small companies (MSEs by employing the multicriteria methodology for constructive decision aiding (MCDA-C. As of respondent replies, MCDA-C descriptors were formed, shaping six prime groups so as to identify relevant factors that drive or hinder MSE success. The questionnaire was applied to managers in charge administering 25 small and medium-sized companies of Lages, a city within the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Study findings provide evidence as to the fact that (i 24% of surveyed companies, tend to go bankrupt; (ii managerial functions at the MSEs are the prime source of influence on negative outcomes; (iii from a financial control standpoint, surveyed companies fall far shorter than the minimum level deemed necessary to qualify as satisfactory; (iv those that present the best results, operate both within the domestic and international markets; (v the study placed under the spotlight the group “Evolution Stage”, evidencing the trend of ever increasing MSE expansion. This study revealed that corporate failure contributing factors are intensely interconnected and largely depend on the entrepreneur´s own performance, the prime contribution of findings residing in demonstrating that MCDA-C can be employed to analyse the performance of micro and small businesses.

  16. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khoja

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1 were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05 . Results: When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001, which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001, and in SNA (p < 0.001 and SNB (p = 0.016 angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007 and CS-4 (p = 0.024, and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001, protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005, increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006 and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016, reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013 and CS-3 (p = 0.002 groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . Conclusions: The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and

  17. Evaluation of the pollution and the transport of heavy metals in the Lerma river, through nuclear analytical techniques (Second stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    2004-12-01

    In this stage of the investigation work, the water quality indexes, the heavy metals concentration in the dissolved phase and in the sediments of the four samplings were determined, it was determined too the texture of the one sediment and the analyses of the suspended matter of the water and the relative abundance relative of particles by scanning electron microscopy and the determination of the crystalline structures of the sediment by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  18. [Evaluation of the clinical curative effect of applying vacuum sealing drainage therapy in treating deep partial-thickness burn wound at the initial stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiong; Zhou, Jian-jun; Su, Guo-liang; Shi, Jian-wu; Su, Shi-jie

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical curative effect of applying vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) therapy in treating deep partial-thickness burn wound at the initial stage prospectively, and to provide the basis for its clinical application. Twenty-two patients with about 10% TBSA burn of the lower limbs, and in which partial-thickness wound exceeded 1% TBSA in each limb, were admitted to our hospital within 3 hours after burn from May 2009 to March 2010. Wounds in each patient were divided into VSD treatment group (treated with VSD therapy) and control group (treated with 10 g/L silver sulfadiazine cream) based on the principles of symmetry of location, identical deepness, and similarity in size etc. The amount of water evaporation, the swelling intensity, the status of bacterial colonization, the degree of pain, the healing time, and the quality of healing of wounds in 2 groups were observed and compared. Data were processed with t test and rank-sum test. The observation was completed in 21 patients. All of the wounds were treated within 4 hours post burn (PBH). The amount of water evaporation of the normal skin and burn wounds before dressing coverage in VSD treatment group was respectively close to that in control group (with t value respectively 1.310, -0.911, P values all above 0.05); the amount of water evaporation on the surface of dressing in VSD treatment group [(44.3+/-3.9) mLxh(-1)xm(-2)] was less than that in control group [(66.1+/-6.4) mLxh(-1)xm(-2), t=-11.39, P0.05). The healing quality of wounds in VSD treatment group (100.00%, 100.00%) 2 or 3 months after burn was better than that in control group (19.05%, 85.71%) (with Z value respectively -11.638, -3.870, P values all below 0.01). Early application of VSD therapy cannot expedite the healing process of deep partial-thickness burn wounds, but it can improve the healing quality. It is one of the effective methods to deal with deep partial-thickness burn wounds, which is worthy of clinical attention and further

  19. [Sujective evaluation of the duration of sleep periods: role of actual time and the representation rate of different EEG stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, V P; Latash, L P

    1979-01-01

    Subjective estimations of the duration of night sleep periods and their actual duration were compared in 29 healthy men 21--36 years of age, awoken from the night sleep. The comparisons concerned the duration of consecutive sleep cycles, long (almost whole sleep cycles) and short ("parts of the cycles") periods, short periods ("parts of the cycle") without REM and with it. It has been found that long and short sleep periods are correspondingly reflected in the subjective estimation of their duration. The comparison of the estimation rates of various stages revealed that the highest subjective estimation, reduced to an hour of real time (subjective "hour estimation") in the first three sleep cycles characterises the cycle parts, including REM, whereas the lowest one--cycle parts, represented only by slow sleep stages, including delta-sleep. Subjective estimation of the sleep cycle duration regularly lowers throughout night sleep from evening till morning. Thus, subjective estimation of the duration of sleep periods is determined by two factors: their actual duration and manifestation rate of different sleep stages. The course of subjective time count in the sleep cycle seems to be uneven: it is slowed down in delta-sleep and accelerated in REM sleep following delta-sleep.

  20. Anatomical evaluation of the cervical vertebrae of Wistar rats by means of digital radiographs and its correlation with the maturation stages of human cervical vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hiroshi Matsui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological age is an important parameter for growth and development assessment. It can be evaluated through the observation of radiographic changes in skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to: a verify if there is correlation between growth curve and the stages of bone age of animals used in laboratories, by evaluating radiographs of the cervical vertebrae; b correlate these stages with their correspondents in humans. METHODS: 35 Wistar rats were evaluated for a period of 160 days, starting at day 22nd (weaning, with cross sections for periodic weighing, length measurement and digital radiography. Radiographs of the cervical vertebrae (C2 and C3 were measured by means of a computer program (Radio IMP. Data were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Pearson correlation. RESULTS: Growth spurt was characterized by fast increasing in weight and length. Through ANOVA, differences were observed in the cervical measurements between days 22, 97, 127, 157, 187 and 217 (p <0.001. A high correlation was found between increasing in body length and weight, as well as in cervical vertebrae height (r = 0.86. Increments in concavities of vertebrae were also observed, similar to humans. CONCLUSIONS: There is correlation between body growth and maturation of cervical vertebrae in rats. Despite the continuous development of concavities, it was not possible to clearly identify the 5/6 stages as in studies of cervical vertebrae maturation in humans.

  1. Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Taylor, Megan E; Abulseoud, Osama A; Woodward, Thomas H; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-08-01

    Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6.9% [~50.4 mg] THC) cannabis administration. Significant effects following inhaled doses were not observed due to delayed tasks administration 1.5 and 3.5 h post-dose, but significant impairment was observed after oral dosing (blood THC concentrations peaked 1.5-3.5 h post-dose). Occasional smokers' odds of exhibiting ≥2 clues on the OLS or WAT following oral dosing were 6.4 (95% CI 2.3-18.4) times higher than after placebo, with THC and 11-hydroxy-THC blood concentrations individually producing odds ratios of 1.3 (1.1-1.5) and 1.5 (1.3-1.8) for impairment in these tasks, respectively. Pupil sizes after oral dosing under the direct lighting condition were significantly larger than after placebo by mean (SE, 95% CI) 0.4 (0.1, 0.2-0.6) mm at 1.5 h and 0.5 (0.2, 0.2-0.8) mm at 3.5 h among all participants. Oral cannabis administration impaired occasional cannabis users' performance on the OLS and WAT tasks compared to placebo, supporting other reports showing these tasks are sensitive to cannabis-related impairment. Occasional smokers' impairment was related to blood THC and 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations. These are important public health policy findings as consumption of edible cannabis products increases. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality; Avaliacao radiografica da adenoide em criancas: metodos de mensuracao e parametros da normalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de [Centro de Assistencia Integral a Saude da Mulher (CAISM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de [Tomovale, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Pediatria; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  3. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules

  5. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  6. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao; Wang, Fan; Sui, Yue; She, Zhennan; Zhai, Wenjun; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Yihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm) were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold. PMID:23166438

  7. Theoretical evaluation of accuracy in position and size of brain activity obtained by near-infrared topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Toshinori; Okada, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) topography can obtain a topographical distribution of the activated region in the brain cortex. Near-infrared light is strongly scattered in the head, and the volume of tissue sampled by a source-detector pair on the head surface is broadly distributed in the brain. This scattering effect results in poor resolution and contrast in the topographic image of the brain activity. In this study, a one-dimensional distribution of absorption change in a head model is calculated by mapping and reconstruction methods to evaluate the effect of the image reconstruction algorithm and the interval of measurement points for topographic imaging on the accuracy of the topographic image. The light propagation in the head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the spatial sensitivity profile for a source-detector pair. The measurement points are one-dimensionally arranged on the surface of the model, and the distance between adjacent measurement points is varied from 4 mm to 28 mm. Small intervals of the measurement points improve the topographic image calculated by both the mapping and reconstruction methods. In the conventional mapping method, the limit of the spatial resolution depends upon the interval of the measurement points and spatial sensitivity profile for source-detector pairs. The reconstruction method has advantages over the mapping method which improve the results of one-dimensional analysis when the interval of measurement points is less than 12 mm. The effect of overlapping of spatial sensitivity profiles indicates that the reconstruction method may be effective to improve the spatial resolution of a two-dimensional reconstruction of topographic image obtained with larger interval of measurement points. Near-infrared topography with the reconstruction method potentially obtains an accurate distribution of absorption change in the brain even if the size of absorption change is less than 10 mm

  8. Evaluation of clinical and histologic factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: 30 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Antony S; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Frimberger, Angela E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine histologic and clinical factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and a chemotherapy protocol in which an anthracycline was alternated with lomustine. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma. PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 facilities were reviewed to identify dogs treated for stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma between June 2011 and October 2014. Information collected included signalment, disease staging data, whether anemia was present, date of splenectomy, chemotherapy protocol, adverse effects, and date of death or last follow-up. Histologic slides were reviewed and scored by pathologists. Associations between variables of interest and survival data were evaluated statistically. RESULTS Median survival time for all dogs was 158 days (range, 55 to 560 days), and the 1-year survival rate was 16%. On multivariate analysis, only the histologically determined mitotic score was significantly associated with survival time. The median survival time of 292 days for dogs with a mitotic score of 0 (hemangiosarcoma.

  9. Evaluation of the recombination in somatic cells induced by radiation in different stages of Drosophila larval development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruces, M.P.; Morales R, P.

    1997-01-01

    The mitotic recombination can happen spontaneously and its frequency is very low, however the recombination rate of a cell can be increased by the exposure to agents which cause damage to DNA. This type of agents are knew commonly as recombinogens. The ionizing radiation and a numerous chemical agents can be mentioned (Vogel, 1992). The objective of this work is to determine if the mutation/recombination rate induced by gamma rays varies with the development stage. In order to realize this investigation it was used the mutation and somatic recombination test of Drosophila wing (Graf and col. 1984). The mwh/ mwh and flr 3 /TM3, Ser stocks were used. (Author)

  10. The evaluation of the association between the metabolic syndrome and tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha N

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nan Sha,1,2,* Hao Xu,1,2,* Tao Chen,1,2,* Da-wei Tian,1,2 Wan-qin Xie,3 Lin-Guo Xie,1,2 Yu Zhang,1,2 Chen Xing,1,2 Xiao-teng Liu,1,2 Zhong-Hua Shen,1,2 Zhou-Liang Wu,1,2 Hai-Long Hu1,2 Chang-Li Wu1,2 1Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, 2Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urology, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin, 3Key Laboratory of Genetics and Birth Health of Hunan province, Family Planning Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this article was to summarize the relationship between some components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the histopathologic findings in bladder cancer in a Chinese population. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 323 patients from the Department of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University between January 2012 and January 2014. All the patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer for the first time. Age, height, weight, histologic stage, grade, the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index were evaluated. The 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system was used, with Ta and T1 tumors accepted as lower stage and T2, T3, and T4 tumors as higher stage bladder cancers. Also, pathologists assigned tumor grade according to the 1973 World Health Organization grading system. Noninvasive papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential were regarded as low grade. Analyses were completed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 323 patients, 164 had hypertension, 151 had diabetes mellitus, and 213 had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. MetS was significantly associated with histologic grade (P<0.001 and stage (P=0.006 of bladder cancer. Adjusted for age in binary logistic regression analysis, the presence of MetS predicts the risk of higher T stage (odds ratio =4.029, P<0.001 and

  11. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kravchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinomas (ACs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003 were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC. When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri, the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes. Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype

  12. Evaluating the number of stages in development of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas across cancer sites using human population-based cancer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas (ACs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) differ by clinical and molecular characteristics. We evaluated the characteristics of carcinogenesis by modeling the age patterns of incidence rates of ACs and SCCs of various organs to test whether these characteristics differed between cancer subtypes. Histotype-specific incidence rates of 14 ACs and 12 SCCs from the SEER Registry (1973-2003) were analyzed by fitting several biologically motivated models to observed age patterns. A frailty model with the Weibull baseline was applied to each age pattern to provide the best fit for the majority of cancers. For each cancer, model parameters describing the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis including the number of stages occurring during an individual's life and leading to cancer (m-stages) were estimated. For sensitivity analysis, the age-period-cohort model was incorporated into the carcinogenesis model to test the stability of the estimates. For the majority of studied cancers, the numbers of m-stages were similar within each group (i.e., AC and SCC). When cancers of the same organs were compared (i.e., lung, esophagus, and cervix uteri), the number of m-stages were more strongly associated with the AC/SCC subtype than with the organ: 9.79±0.09, 9.93±0.19 and 8.80±0.10 for lung, esophagus, and cervical ACs, compared to 11.41±0.10, 12.86±0.34 and 12.01±0.51 for SCCs of the respective organs (p<0.05 between subtypes). Most SCCs had more than ten m-stages while ACs had fewer than ten m-stages. The sensitivity analyses of the model parameters demonstrated the stability of the obtained estimates. A model containing parameters capable of representing the number of stages of cancer development occurring during individual's life was applied to the large population data on incidence of ACs and SCCs. The model revealed that the number of m-stages differed by cancer subtype being more strongly associated with ACs/SCCs histotype than with organ/site.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of insulin like growth factor-1 (If-1) in children with different stages of chronicle renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakshan, A.; Karamifar, H.; Razavi, N.S.M.; Fallahzadeh, M.H.; Hashemi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is multifactorial that include inadequate protein and calorie intake, persistent metabolic acidosis, calcitriol deficiency, renal osteodystrophy, drug toxicity, uremic toxins and growth factor abnormalities such as insulin- like growth factor (IGF) and IGF binding proteins. In this study, we compare the IGF-1 levels in normal and growth retarded CKD children. Serum IGF-1 levels were determined in 22 children with end-stage renal disease, 26 children, with CKD at different stages, 23 children with normal height and weight for age, and 23 children with constitutionally short stature. Mean serum levels of IGF-1 were 209+- ng/m1 in the ESRD group (group1), 159+-163 ng/m1 in the CKD group (group2), 420+-182 ng/ml in normal children (group3), and 360+-183 ng/ml in children with constitutional short stature (group4). The differences in the levels of IGF-1 in groups 1 and 2 were statistically significant when compared to groups 3 and 4(p<0.0001 and p< 0.02, respectively), while the levels of IGF-1 were not statistically different between groups 1 and 2. No correlation was found between IGF-1levels and glomerular filtrations are height or weight in groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, serum levels of IGF-1 in children with CKD are significantly lower than healthy children. (author)

  15. Dose-volume histogram parameters of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4cm) arising from a small-sized uterus treated with a point A dose-reduced plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Akiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kubo, Nobuteru; Kuwako, Keiko; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the rectal dose-sparing effect and tumor control of a point A dose-reduced plan in patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) arising from a small-sized uterus. Between October 2008 and August 2011, 19 patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the pelvis and CT-guided brachytherapy. Seven patients were treated with brachytherapy with standard loading of source-dwell positions and a fraction dose of 6 Gy at point A (conventional brachy-plan). The other 12 patients with a small uterus close to the rectum or small intestine were treated with brachytherapy with a point A dose-reduction to match D2cc of the rectum and <6 Gy as the dose constraint ('point A dose-reduced plan') instead of the 6-Gy plan at point A ('tentative 6-Gy plan'). The total doses from EBRT and brachytherapy were added up and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 in the conventional brachy-plan, tentative 6-Gy plan and point A dose-reduced plan were 62 GyEQD2, 80 GyEQD2 and 64 GyEQD2, respectively. The median doses of rectal D2cc in the corresponding three plans were 42 GyEQD2, 62 GyEQD2 and 51 GyEQD2, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 35 months, three patients developed Grade-1 late rectal complications and no patients developed local recurrence. Our preliminary results suggested that CT-guided brachytherapy using an individualized point A dose-reduced plan might be useful for reducing late rectal complications while maintaining primary tumor control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. Validity, reliability and minimal detectable change of the balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Cristina; Flores, Inês; Martins, Filipa; Castro, Conceição; McPhee, Charlotte C; Shepherd, Ellen; Demain, Sara; Figueiredo, Daniela; Marques, Alda

    2017-09-08

    This study determined the validity, test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-balance evaluation systems test (Mini-BESTest) and brief-balance evaluation systems test (Brief-BESTest) in patients with end-stage renal disease. A cross-sectional study with 74 patients with end-stage renal disease (male 66.2%; 63.9 ± 15.1 years old) was conducted. Participants were asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the activity-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. The BESTest was administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Validity was assessed by correlating balance tests with each other and with the ABC scale. Test-retest relative reliability and agreement were explored with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) equation (2,1) and the Bland and Altman method. Minimal detectable changes at the 95% confidence level were established. Balance test scores were significantly correlated with each other (spearman's correlation = 0.89-0.92) and with the ABC scale (spearman's correlation = 0.49-0.59). Balance tests presented high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.84-0.94), with no evidence of bias. Minimal detectable change values were 10.8 (expressed as a percentage 13.5%), 5.3 (23.7%) and 5.6 (34%) points for the BESTest, Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest, respectively. All tests are valid and reliable to assess balance in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nevertheless, based on the minimal detectable changes found, BESTest and Mini-BESTest may be the most recommended tests for this specific population. Implications for Rehabilitation Balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-balance evaluation systems test (Mini-BESTest) and brief-balance evaluation systems test (Brief-BESTest) are reliable and valid in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The minimal detectable

  17. Bilateral primary renal lymphoma in a pediatric patient: staging and response evaluation with ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, V S; Mukherjee, A; Karunanithi, S; Durgapal, P; Bal, C; Kumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare disease. We here present the case of an 8-year-old child who presented with bilateral renal masses. On biopsy, it was confirmed to be B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging demonstrated (18)F-FDG avid bilateral renal masses, with no other abnormal focus. Follow up (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed complete resolution of the disease after six cycles of chemotherapy. Here we have highlighted the potential role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in staging and response evaluation of a patient with PRL and presented a brief review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear techniques to evaluate the water use of field crops irrigated in different stages of their cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, P.L.; Moraes, S.O.; Saad, M.A.; Jong Van Lier, Q.; Vieira, O.; Luis Tuon, R.

    1995-01-01

    The search for soil - water management systems that rationalize the water use of field crops should always be emphasized. The present coordinated research programme of the joint division FAO/ AEA has the objective to contribute to a better understanding of this subject by improving the use efficiency of water resources in irrigated agriculture. This project is a contribution to this programme and consisted in the identification of specified development stages of bean ( phaseolus vulgaris, L ) and corn (Zea mays, L ) crops in which plants are less sensitive to water deficit. Experiments were carried out in a tropical soil of agricultural importance in a traditional irrigation field site of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Neutron probe tensiometers were used to determine the soil water balance in different treatments. 3 tabs, 16 refs, (Author)

  19. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich ePöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to the demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public.The advantages of open access, public peer review and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmo¬sphe¬ric Chemistry and Physics (ACP and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU and the open access publisher Copernicus.The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the life sciences and economics. Multi-stage open peer review can be flexibly adjusted to the needs and peculiarities of different scientific communities. Due to the flexibility and compatibility with traditional structures of scientific publishing and peer review, the multi-stage open peer review concept enables efficient evolution in scientific communication and quality assurance. It has the potential for swift replacement of hidden peer review as the standard of scientific quality assurance, and it provides a basis for open evaluation in

  20. L1CAM in early-stage type I endometrial cancer: results of a large multicenter evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Huszar, Monica; Winterhoff, Boris; Puistola, Ulla; Azim, Samira Abdel; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Ben-Arie, Alon; van Kempen, Léon C; Petru, Edgar; Jahn, Stephan; Geels, Yvette P; Massuger, Leon F; Amant, Frédéric; Polterauer, Stephan; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bulten, Johan; Meuter, Alexandra; Tanouye, Staci; Oppelt, Peter; Stroh-Weigert, Monika; Reinthaller, Alexander; Mariani, Andrea; Hackl, Werner; Netzer, Michael; Schirmer, Uwe; Vergote, Ignace; Altevogt, Peter; Marth, Christian; Fogel, Mina

    2013-08-07

    Despite the excellent prognosis of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) stage I, type I endometrial cancers, a substantial number of patients experience recurrence and die from this disease. We analyzed the value of immunohistochemical L1CAM determination to predict clinical outcome. We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study to determine expression of L1CAM by immunohistochemistry in 1021 endometrial cancer specimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied for survival and multivariable analyses. A machine-learning approach was used to validate variables for predicting recurrence and death. Of 1021 included cancers, 17.7% were rated L1CAM-positive. Of these L1CAM-positive cancers, 51.4% recurred during follow-up compared with 2.9% L1CAM-negative cancers. Patients bearing L1CAM-positive cancers had poorer disease-free and overall survival (two-sided Log-rank P relevance of these parameters was related strictly to L1CAM positivity. A classification and regression decision tree (CRT)identified L1CAM as the best variable for predicting recurrence (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.91) and death (sensitivity = 0.77; specificity = 0.89). To our knowledge, L1CAM has been shown to be the best-ever published prognostic factor in FIGO stage I, type I endometrial cancers and shows clear superiority over the standardly used multifactor risk score. L1CAM expression in type I cancers indicates the need for adjuvant treatment. This adhesion molecule might serve as a treatment target for the fully humanized anti-L1CAM antibody currently under development for clinical use.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1 and on encysted larvae (G3 of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30 and a control group (G2-10; G4-10 with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals. The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  2. Evaluation of osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G S; Moulson, A M; Petrie, A; James, I T

    1998-06-01

    Osteocalcin (Oc) and the collagen cross-links pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (dPyr) are used as markers of bone turnover in metabolic bone diseases. The aims of this study were: 1) to establish if Oc, Pyr and dPyr can be detected in GCF and 2) using the orthodontic tooth movement model of alveolar bone resorption to evaluate GCF levels of osteocalcin and these collagen cross-links as markers of bone breakdown. Plaque, colour and bleeding indices, probing measurements and GCF samples were collected at two sites in each of 20 adolescents, during 4 stages of fixed appliance therapy: (1) prior to appliance fit, (2) post appliance fit, (3) during active retraction of the maxillary canines, (4) during retention. GCF was collected onto filter paper strips and the volume determined by weighing. An ELISA kit was used for the detection of osteocalcin, whereas Pyr and dPyr were assayed using high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC). Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Bonferroni correction revealed statistically significant increases in plaque (p= 0.012), GCF volume (p=0.024) and osteocalcin concentration (p=0.012), between stages 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences between the other variables at this stage or between any of the variables at stages 2 and 3, or between stages 3 and 4. All but 3 of the GCF samples yielded detectable osteocalcin, with large site and subject variation. The median values of osteocalcin and osteocalcin concentration of all the samples were 87.5 pg and 66 pg/microl, with a range of 0-1,248 pg, 0-1,572 pg/microl. The detection of osteocalcin in GCF during every stage, the wide variation between subjects, and the lack of a consistent pattern related to stages of orthodontic treatment, suggests that osteocalcin may merely be a constituent of GCF associated with the developing dentition, which would reduce its potential as a marker of bone turnover in this group. None of the 16 GCF samples analysed for Pyr and d

  3. Development of guidance on the timeliness in response to acute kidney injury warning stage test results for adults in primary care: an appropriateness ratings evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Tom; Griffith, Kathryn; Lasserson, Dan; Lopez, Berenice; Tsang, Jung Y; Campbell, Stephen; Tomson, Charles

    2016-10-11

    Tackling the harm associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global priority. In England, a national computerised AKI algorithm is being introduced across the National Health Service (NHS) to drive this change. The study sought to maximise its clinical utility and minimise the potential for burden on clinicians and patients in primary care. An appropriateness ratings evaluation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Clinical scenarios were developed to test the timeliness in (1) communication of AKI warning stage test results from clinical pathology services to primary care, and (2) primary care clinician response to an AKI warning stage test result. A 10-person panel was purposively sampled with representation from clinical biochemistry, acute and emergency medicine and general practice. General practitioners (GPs) represented typical practice in relation to rural and urban practice, out of hours care, GP commissioning and those interested in reducing the impact of medicalisation and 'overdiagnosis'. There was agreement that delivery of AKI warning stage test results through interruptive methods of communication (ie, telephone) from laboratories to primary care was the appropriate next step for patients with an AKI warning stage 3 test result. In the context of acute illness, waiting up to 72 hours to respond to an AKI warning stage test result was deemed an inappropriate action in 62 out of the 65 (94.5%) cases. There was agreement that a clinician response was required within 6 hours, or less, in 39 out of 40 (97.5%) clinical cases relating AKI warning stage test results in the presence of moderate hyperkalaemia. The study has informed national guidance to support a timely and calibrated response to AKI warning stage test results for adults in primary care. Further research is needed to support effective implementation, with a view to examine the effect on health outcomes and costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  4. Challenges in sleep stage R scoring in patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and oculomotor abnormalities: a whole night polysomnographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Doniparthi Venkata; Sasidharan, Arun; Kumar, Gulshan; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M; Yadav, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients. All patients underwent neurological examination with special focus on oculomotor function (optokinetic nystagmus-OKN and extraocular movement restriction-EOM). The sleep quality was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Disease severity was assessed with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). All the patients underwent over-night video-polysomnography (VPSG). Out of 36 patients studied, the data of 34 patients [SCA1 (n = 12), SCA2 (n = 13), SCA3 (n = 9)] were used for final analysis. Patients from SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 category did not show significant differences in age and diseases severity (ICARS). All patients had vertical OKN impairment. Oculomotor impairment was higher in SCA2 patients. Sleep macro-architecture analysis showed absent stage R sleep, predominantly in SCA2 (69%) followed by SCA3 (44%) and SCA1 (8%). Patients showed a strong negative correlation of stage R sleep percentage with disease severity and oculomotor dysfunction. Voluntary saccadic eye movement velocity and rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are strongly correlated. The more severe the saccadic velocity impairment, the less likely was it to generate REMs (rapid eye movements) during stage R. Accordingly 69% of SCA2 patients with severe occulomotor impairments showed absent stage R as per the AASM sleep scoring. We presume that the impaired REMs generation in sleep could be due to oculomotor abnormality and has

  5. Visual acuity evaluated by pattern-reversal visual-evoked potential is affected by check size/visual angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiping; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Xiaoqin; Yang, Li; Xia, Wentao; Tao, Luyang

    2012-12-01

    To systemically explore the range of visual angles that affect visual acuity, and to establish the relationship between the P1 component (peak latency ~100 ms) of the pattern-reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP) and the visual acuity at particular visual angles. Two hundred and ten volunteers were divided into seven groups, according to visual acuity as assessed by the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart (SLD-ii). For each group, the PRVEP components were elicited in response to visual angle presentations at 8°, 4°, 2°, 1°/60', 30', 15', and 7.5', in the whiteblack chess-board reversal mode with a contrast level of 100% at a frequency of 2 Hz. Visual stimuli were presented monocularly, and 200 presentations were averaged for each block of trials. The early and stable component P1 was recorded at the mid-line of the occipital region (oz) and analyzed with SPSS 13.00. (1) oz had the maximum P1 amplitude; there was no significant difference between genders or for interocular comparison in normal controls and subjects with optic myopia. (2) The P1 latency decreased slowly below 30', then increased rapidly. The P1 amplitude initially increased with check size, and was maximal at ~1° and ~30'. (3) The P1 latency in the group with visual acuity ≤0.2 was significantly different at 8°, 15' and 7.5', while the amplitude differed at all visual angles, compared with the group with normal vision. Differences in P1 for the groups with 0.5 and 0.6 acuity were only present at visual angles <1°. (4) Regression analysis showed that the P1 latency and amplitude were associated with visual acuity over the full range of visual angles. There was a moderate correlation at visual angles <30'. Regression equations were calculated for the P1 components and visual acuity, based on visual angle. (1) Visual angle should be taken into consideration when exploring the function of the visual pathway, especially visual acuity. A visual angle ~60' might be appropriate when using

  6. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People' s Republic of China (China); Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina [Department of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin

  7. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  8. Quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of intravenous regional blockade treatment in patients with stage-I reflex sympathetic dystrophy of upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Emel; Möhür, Haydar; Arslan, Nuri; Entok, Emre; Tan, Kenan; Ozgüven, Mehmet Ali

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the role of quantitative three phase bone scintigraphy (QTPBS) in the evaluation of efficacy of intravenous regional blockade treatment in patients having reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) of the upper extremity. Twenty-six patients with stage-I RSD were focused on in this study. Patients were treated with physical therapy and intravenous (I.V.) regional blockade therapy consisting of dexamethasone and lidocaine. All patients were clinically evaluated before and 1 month after the completion of the therapy protocol. QTPBS was applied to patients before therapy and 1 month after the therapy. As a control group, 11 healthy subjects also underwent QTPBS. Perfusion, hyperemic and fixation indices were calculated from three-phase bone scintigraphy. All patients showed statistically significant clinical improvement after the therapy (p < 0.01). Pre-treatment, perfusion (1.67 +/- 0.63), hyperemic (1.44 +/- 0.48) and fixation (1.69 +/- 0.48) indices of patients were higher than those of healthy subjects (PI: 0.95 +/- 0.05, HI: 0.94 +/- 0.06, FI: 1.01 +/- 0.2) (p < 0.01) and all indices significantly decreased after the treatment (PI: 1.33 +/- 0.46, HI: 1.18 +/- 0.23, FI: 1.42 +/- 0.26) (p < 0.01). I.V. regional blockade therapy combined with corticosteroids is a simple, safe and effective method for the treatment of patients with stage-I RSD in the upper extremity. QTPBS is a valuable and objective method to evaluate the response to therapy and may be useful for staging of patients and predicting the response to therapy.

  9. Evaluation of a method to measure HHV-6B infection in vitro based on cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Artiles, Aniuska; Santoro, Tessa; Stern, Lawrence J

    2018-01-05

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged. To overcome these issues, we explored a method to monitor HHV-6B infections based on the systematic and objective measurement of the size of cells using an imaging-based automated cell counter. The size of cells in non-infected and HHV-6B-infected cultures was measured at different times post-infection. The relatively narrow size distribution observed for non-infected cultures contrasted with the broader distributions observed in infected cultures. The average size of cultures shifted towards higher values after infection, and the differences were significant for cultures infected with relatively high doses of virus and/or screened at longer times post-infection. Correlation analysis showed that the trend observed for average size was similar to the trend observed for two other methods to measure infection: amount of virus DNA in supernatant and the percentage of cells expressing a viral antigen. In order to determine the performance of the size-based method in differentiating non-infected and infected cells, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the data. Analysis using size of individual cells showed a moderate performance in detecting infected cells (area under the curve (AUC) ~ 0.80-0.87), while analysis using the average size of cells showed a very good performance in detecting infected cultures (AUC ~ 0.99). The size

  10. Relationship Between Uterine and Ovarian Arterial Blood Flow Measured by Doppler Sonography at Different Stages of Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golestani

    2008-03-01

    Conclusion: Uterine and ovarian arterial blood flow, measured by Doppler sonography, was not useful for the evaluation of pubertal stages. However, it should be investigated with a greater sample size.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through Operations for Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements to be cont......With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements......-connected single-stage single-phase PV systems in the case of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT/ZVRT) operation. A comparative analysis of the two LVRT/ZVRT control methods for PV systems is presented. Simulation results are presented, which verifies that the LVRT/ZVRT methods can help the PV systems...... to temporarily ride-through the grid low-/zero-voltage faults. The power phase-angle control method has a better dynamic response....

  12. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with hummus. To control your portion sizes when eating out, try these tips: Order the small size. Instead of a medium or large, ask for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you ...

  13. Finite-Time and -Size Scalings in the Evaluation of Large Deviation Functions. Numerical Analysis in Continuous Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provide a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to a selection rule that favors the rare trajectories of interest. However, such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time- and finite population size- effects that can render their use delicate. Using the continuous-time cloning algorithm, we analyze the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of the rare trajectories. We use these scalings in order to propose a numerical approach which allows to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators.

  14. Evaluating targets and trade-offs among fisheries and conservation objectives using a multispecies size spectrum model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, J.L.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Scott, F.

    2014-01-01

    Marine environmental management policies seek to ensure that fishing impacts on fished populations and other components of the ecosystem are sustainable, to simultaneously meet objectives for fisheries and conservation. For example, in Europe, targets for (i) biodiversity, (ii) food web structure...... by knowledge on the consequences of alternate management actions. We develop, calibrate and apply a multispecies size spectrum model of the North Sea fish community to assess the response of populations and the community to fishing. The model predicts species' size distributions, abundance, productivity...... populations at FMSY than if status quo (2010) fishing rates are maintained. The probability of achieving a food web target was 60% under both scenarios in spite of major community restructuring revealed by other indicators of community size structure. Synthesis and applications. Our model can be applied...

  15. Cephalometric Evaluation of Dental and Skeletal Changes in the Vertical Dimension During the First Stage of Treatment using Preadjusted Brackets and the MBT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. A. Akhoundi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Some vertical changes might be observed during the first stage of orthodontic treatment, aligning and leveling.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and/or skeletal vertical changes occurring in the first stage of preadjusted orthodontic treatment.Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with an average age of 14.1 years were selected for this study. Preadjusted appliances were used and a lateral cephalogram was taken, subsequently. All patients were treated with four first premolar extractions. After 8 weeks of aligning and leveling, a second cephalogram was obtained.Results: No statistically significant changes including extrusion of all teeth except maxillary incisors were observed during this phase. Skeletal vertical changes also showed a slight non-significant decrease.Conclusion: The results of this study showed minimal vertical changes during the first stage of fixed orthodontic treatment with preadjusted appliances; therefore use of such appliances in patients with a tendency towards increased vertical dimensions could bejustified.

  16. Factorial design for the evaluation of the interaction effect between particle size and heating rate in the kinetic energy of coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ivonete; Silva, Eugenio A.G.; Mortari, Daniela A.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Milioli, Fernando E. [University of Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Engineering School. Group of Thermal and Fluids Engineering], Emails: iavila@sc.usp.br, eugenio.silva@usp.br, paulam@sc.usp.br, milioli@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the behavior of kinetic energy for different heating rates ({alpha}) and particle sizes of the material in the study of the coal combustion process. It aims to obtain a response surface in a large range of particle size, using heating rates between the minimum and maximum values allowed by the equipment. Therefore it searches for a model to evaluate the interaction effect between particle size and the heating rate and to predict the activation energy of the process studied. The activation energy of the process was determined using the isoconversional model Model Free Kinetics. In this model, the activation energy (E{sub {alpha}}) is obtained as a function of the reaction extent ({alpha}). The subscript in E{sub {alpha}} designates the values related to a given value of conversion ({alpha}). All experiments were conducted in thermogravimetric balance using samples of a Brazilian coal (EC4500) witch average particle size between 163 to 650 {mu}m and heating rates between 10 and 40 deg C min{sup -1} in dynamic atmosphere of air. A central rotatable composite design was applied for the 2{sup 2} factorial design including 4 tests under the axial conditions and 3 repetitions in the central point. As expected, the results show that both the particle size and the heating rate affected significantly the values of activation energy of the coal combustion process obtained by the model used. (author)

  17. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Core Thickness and Fabrication Stages on the Marginal Accuracy of an All-Ceramic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mostafavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of core thickness and fabrication stages on the marginal accuracy of IPS e.max Press crowns.Materials and Methods: Twenty IPS e.max Press crowns, 1.5mm thick, were fabricated on metal dies. The crowns had two different core thicknesses, 0.8mm for group A and 1mm for group B, ten for each group. Marginal gap was measured after each stage of core fabrication, veneering and glaze firing. The specimens were not cemented and the measurements were made at four points on metal dies using a stereomicroscope (×120. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and independent t-test.Results: Mean marginal gaps measured after each stage for group A were 13.5 (±1.4 µm, 33.9 (±2.3 µm and 40.5(±1.7 µm, and for group B these figures were 14.9(±2.0 µm, 35.5(±2.2 µm and 41.3(±2.0 µm. There were no statistically significant differences in marginal gap values between the two groups (p>0.1. Significant increase in gap was observed after the veneering stage in both groups (p<0.05. After glazing, no significant increase in gap was detected.Conclusion: IPS e.max Press crowns have an acceptable marginal fit. Increasing thickness of core does not increase marginal fitness.Key Words: Marginal Fitness; Marginal Gap; IPS e.max Press

  19. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria. Evaluation of Drug Action against Normal and Resistant Strains including Exo-Erythrocytic Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    quinoline-methanols and allied compounds Quinine and a variety of drugs with comparable structures retain their activity against malaria parasites that...E. E., Warhurst, D. C. and Peters, W. (1975). The chemotherapy of rodent malaria , XXI. Action of quinine and WR 122,455 (a 9-phenanthrene methanol) on...AD-RI35 058 CHEMOTHERAPY’OF RODENT MALARIA EVALUATION OF DRUG I/i ACTION AGAINST NORMAL R-.(U) LIVERPOQL SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE ENGLAND) DEPT OF

  20. Evaluation of Yield and Drought Using Active and Passive Spectral Sensing Systems at the Reproductive Stage in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Elisabeth; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Active and passive sensors are available for ground-based, high-throughput phenotyping in the field. However, these sensor systems have seldom been compared with respect to their determination of plant water status and water use efficiency related parameters under drought conditions. In this study, five passive and active reflectance sensors, including a hyperspectral passive sensor, an active flash sensor (AFS), the Crop Circle, and the GreenSeeker, were evaluated to assess drought-related d...

  1. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a Lagrangian Soot Tracking Method for the prediction of primary soot particle size under engine-like conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai Ong, Jiun; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore

    2018-01-01

    particles when the mass of incipient soot exceeds a designated threshold value. Their trajectories are then computed using the particle momentum equation. The change of primary soot particle size is dependent on the modified Lagrangian surface growth and soot oxidation models. Performance of the LST model...

  3. Grain size distribution of soils within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: An indicator of basic mechanical properties for slope stability evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, J.; Klimeš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 563-577 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moraines * grain size distribution * shear strength * hydraulic conductivity * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  4. Biophysical properties of the normal-sized aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome: evaluation with MR flow mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; de Roos, A.; Mulder, B. J.; Verbeeten, B.; Timmermans, J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Spaan, J. A.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping in the assessment of aortic biophysical properties in patients with Marfan syndrome and to detect differences in biophysical properties in the normal-sized aorta distal to the aortic root between these patients and

  5. Scaling-Up Effective Language and Literacy Instruction: Evaluating the Importance of Scripting and Group Size Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Højen, Anders; Dale, Philip

    2018-01-01

    -class and small groups, respectively. In LEAP-OPEN, educators followed the scope and sequence but were allowed to determine the instructional activities for each of 40 lessons (i.e., they received no scripted lessons). A business-as-usual (BAU) condition served as the control. Overall, the largest effect sizes...

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  8. An evaluation on time status of functional orthopedic treatment in class II skeletal patients with cervical vertebrae maturation stage (CVMS index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalili Z.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considerable response to functional orthopedic appliances treatment in class II skeletal patients occurs during pubertal growth spurt. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate indices indicating mandibular growth pattern. It has been proved that analyzing cervical vertebral maturation stage is a more valid index than that of hand wrist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time status of functional orthopedic treatment in class II skeletal patients using CVMS index. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-inferential study, lateral cephalometric radiographs of 153 class II skeletal patients with mandibular deficiency, before treatment, were studied by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist using the index of cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS and were categorized in three phases: CVMS I (desirable phase of treatment, CVMS II (ideal phase, and CVMS III (undesirable phase of treatment. Results: Statistical analysis ranked the prevalence of treatment phases as: 41.8% in desirable phase (CVMS I, 28.1% in ideal phase (CVMA II and 30% in undesirable phase (CVMS III. No significant differences were found between the three phases using Chi-square analysis. Time status of functional orthopedic treatment was also evaluated based on age and sex. The results showed significant differences between two sexes (P=0.032. Conclusion: The present study suggests the analysis of CVMS index, along with clinical criteria, in the determination of an ideal time for functional orthopedic treatment to prevent patients’ exhaustion during treatment Period.

  9. Development and optimization of a HPLC-RI method for the determination of major sugars in apple juice and evaluation of the effect of the ripening stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugars in apple juice prove its authenticity and its sensory and nutritional properties. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI to determinate and quantify the sugars sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-sorbitol polyol in apple juices, as well as to analyze the juices from the Fuji suprema and Lis Gala cultivars at three ripening stages. The analytical performance parameters evaluated indicated that the method was specific for the compounds analyzed, and the linearity of the calibration curves of sugars showed high correlation coefficients (close to 1.0. The limits of detection and quantification are consistent with recommendations available in the literature for this type of matrix. Sample preparation is simple and generates small amount of residues. Over 70% of the sugars were determined in the juices of apples at the pre-ripe stage, with an increase during senescence. This method is applicable for the determination of sugars in juices and evaluation of apple ripening.

  10. Predicting Outcomes After Chemo-Embolization in Patients with Advanced-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Evaluation of Different Radiologic Response Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Andrew J., E-mail: agunn@uabmc.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Sheth, Rahul A. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Luber, Brandon [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, Divison of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics (United States); Huynh, Minh-Huy [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Rachamreddy, Niranjan R. [Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology (United States); Kalva, Sanjeeva P. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeThe purpse of this study was to