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Sample records for stage kidney disease

  1. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000500.htm End-stage kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term ( ...

  2. Stage effect of chronic kidney disease in erectile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Ponciano, Viviane Campos; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Gomes, Caio Pereira; de Oliveira, Enio Chaves

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to assess the influence of the stage of chronic kidney disease and glomerular filtration rate on prevalence and degree of erectile dysfunction. This transversal study, conducted from May 2013 to December 2015, included patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, stages III/IV/V. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function. Data classically associated with erectile dysfunction were obtained by medical record review. Erectile dysfunction, degree of erectile dysfunction, and other main variables associated with erectile dysfunction were compared between patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment stages III versus IV/V using the Chi-square test. The relationship between score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction and glomerular filtration rate was established by Pearson correlation coefficient. Two hundred and forty five patients with chronic kidney disease in con-servative treatment participated of the study. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease in stages IV/V was greater than in stage III. Glomerular filtration rate positively correlated with score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction. The study suggests that chronic kidney disease progression (glomerular filtration rate decrease and advance in chronic kidney disease stages) worsen erectile function. Hypothetically, diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction may be anticipated with the analysis of chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Stage effect of chronic kidney disease in erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rodrigues Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The study aims to assess the influence of the stage of chronic kidney disease and glomerular filtration rate on prevalence and degree of erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods This transversal study, conducted from May 2013 to December 2015, included patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, stages III/IV/V. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function. Data classically associated with erectile dysfunction were obtained by medical record review. Erectile dysfunction, degree of erectile dysfunction, and other main variables associated with erectile dysfunction were compared between patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment stages III versus IV/V using the Chi-square test. The relationship between score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction and glomerular filtration rate was established by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Two hundred and forty five patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment participated of the study. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease in stages IV/V was greater than in stage III. Glomerular filtration rate positively correlated with score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction. Conclusions The study suggests that chronic kidney disease progression (glomerular filtration rate decrease and advance in chronic kidney disease stages worsen erectile function. Hypothetically, diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction may be anticipated with the analysis of chronic kidney disease progression.

  4. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... kidneys may be needed. Treatments for end-stage kidney disease may include dialysis or a kidney transplant .

  5. Natural History of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often continue to progress spontaneously towards end stage renal disease (ESRD). In this report we studied the natural history of progression of CKD in a cohort of patients with stage 4 and 5 CKD. Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients in stage 4 ...

  6. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  7. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  8. Progression of autosomal dominant kidney disease: measurement of the stage transitions of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a progressive genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous kidney cysts that result in kidney failure. Little is known regarding the key patient characteristics and utilization of healthcare resources for ADPKD patients along the continuum of disease progression. This observational study was designed to describe the characteristics of ADPKD patients and compare them with those of patients with other chronic kidney diseases. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved patients with a claim for ADPKD or PKD unspecified from 1/1/2000–2/28/2013 and ≥6 months of previous continuous enrollment (baseline within a large database of administrative claims in the USA. A random sample of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients served as comparators. For a subset of ADPKD patients who had only a diagnosis code of unspecified PKD, abstraction of medical records was undertaken to estimate the proportion of patients who had medical chart-confirmed ADPKD. In patients with linked electronic laboratory data, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated via serum creatinine values to determine CKD stage at baseline and during follow-up. Proportions of patients transitioning to another stage and the mean age at transition were calculated. Results: ADPKD patients were, in general, younger and had fewer physician visits, but had more specific comorbidities at observation start compared with CKD patients. ADPKD patients had a longer time in the milder stages and longer duration before recorded transition to a more severe stage compared with CKD patients. Patients with ADPKD at risk of rapid progression had a shorter time-to-end-stage renal disease than patients with CKD and ADPKD patients not at risk, but stage duration was similar between ADPKD patients at risk and those not at risk. Conclusions: These results suggest that distribution of patients by age at transition

  9. Nutritional management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasticci, Franca; Fantuzzi, Anna Laura; Pegoraro, Marisa; McCann, Margaret; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition is a critical issue in the management of patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Malnutrition is common among these patients and affects their survival and quality of life. A basic knowledge of the nutritional management of stage 5 CKD is essential for all members of the nephrology team to improve patient care. This paper demonstrates that the needs of haemodialysis patients are more complex than those receiving peritoneal dialysis. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  10. Intermittent hemodialysis in dogs with chronic kidney disease stage III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Melchert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD is a form of renal replacement that is used in veterinary medicine for cases involving drug removal, electrolyte imbalance, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease (CKD. The aim of the present study was to verify the efficacy of IHD in dogs with CKD staged at grade III and to evaluate the effect of IHD on quality of life. Twelve dogs with CKD at stage III met the inclusion criteria and were divided equally into two groups. The control group (n=6 received only clinical treatment and intravenous fluid therapy, and the hemodialysis group (n=6 received clinical and IHD treatments. Blood samples were collected before and after treatments in both groups. We evaluated complications and clinical parameters of IHD every 30 minutes. Hemodialysis decreased serum urea, creatinine, and phosphorus. Despite the evident removal of nitrogen compounds, dialysis treatment did not increase survival time in these patients. The results of this study do not support the early use of dialysis in dogs with chronic kidney disease stage III.

  11. New Targets for End-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoura Niki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of chronic kidney disease can lead to a critical, end-stage condition, requiring renal replacement therapy, which may involve a form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Identification and characterization of novel markers and/or targets of therapy that could be applied in these critically ill patients remains the focus of the current research in the field of critical care medicine and has been the objective of our studies for some years past. To this end, we used models of renal vascular disease, Ang II, L-NAME or mice overexpressing renin, treated with AT1 antagonists at different stages of progression, to create cohorts of animals during progression, reversal or escape from therapy. Transcriptomic analysis and comparisons were performed and genes were selected according to the following criteria: a not previously described in the kidney, b highly upregulated during progression and returning to the normal levels during reversal, and c producing proteins that are either circulating or membrane receptors.

  12. History of Childhood Kidney Disease and Risk of Adult End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Golan, Eliezer; Twig, Gilad; Leiba, Adi; Tzur, Dorit; Afek, Arnon; Skorecki, Karl; Vivante, Asaf

    2018-02-01

    The long-term risk associated with childhood kidney disease that had not progressed to chronic kidney disease in childhood is unclear. We aimed to estimate the risk of future end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among adolescents who had normal renal function and a history of childhood kidney disease. We conducted a nationwide, population-based, historical cohort study of 1,521,501 Israeli adolescents who were examined before compulsory military service in 1967 through 1997; data were linked to the Israeli ESRD registry. Kidney diseases in childhood included congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease; all participants included in the primary analysis had normal renal function and no hypertension in adolescence. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for ESRD associated with a history of childhood kidney disease. During 30 years of follow-up, ESRD developed in 2490 persons. A history of any childhood kidney disease was associated with a hazard ratio for ESRD of 4.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52 to 4.99). The associations between each diagnosis of kidney disease in childhood (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease) and the risk of ESRD in adulthood were similar in magnitude (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 5.19 [95% CI, 3.41 to 7.90], 4.03 [95% CI, 3.16 to 5.14], and 3.85 [95% CI, 2.77 to 5.36], respectively). A history of kidney disease in childhood was associated with younger age at the onset of ESRD (hazard ratio for ESRD among adults kidney disease in childhood, even if renal function was apparently normal in adolescence, was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESRD, which suggests that kidney injury or structural abnormality in childhood has long-term consequences.

  13. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... that you do not have symptoms until your kidneys have almost ... end-stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage, the kidneys are ...

  14. Epidemiological Transition of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ismaili, Faisal; Al Salmi, Issa; Al Maimani, Yaqoub; Metry, Abdul Massiah; Al Marhoobi, Humood; Hola, Alan; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2017-01-01

    The number of persons receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) is estimated at more than 2.5 million worldwide, and is growing by 8% annually. Registries in the developing world are not up to standards compared to the United States Renal Data System (USRDS). Herein we examine the causes, progression, and magnitude of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) over 3 decades in Oman. We examined ESKD data from 1983 to 2013. Data from 1998 to 2013 were obtained through an Information Management System. Data before 2008 were collected from patients' files. A questionnaire based on USRDS form 2728 was completed by nephrologists once a citizen reached ESKD. A total of 4066 forms were completed, with a response rate of 90% (52% male). The mean (SD) age was 50.1 (14.0) years. By 31 December 2013, there were 2386 patients alive on RRT, of whom 1206 were on hemodialysis (50.5%), 1080 were living with a functioning kidney transplant (45.3%), and 100 were receiving peritoneal dialysis (4.2%). The incidence of ESKD on RRT was 21, 75, and 120 per million population in 1983, 2001, and 2013, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of ESKD was 49, 916, and 2386 in 1983, 2001, and 2013 respectively. Among patients with ESKD on RRT, a progressive rise was seen in diabetic nephropathy, with 5.8%, 32.1%, and 46% in 1983, 2001, and 2013 respectively. The incidence and prevalence of ESKD has increased progressively over last 30 years. This is anticipated to continue at an even higher rate in view of the progressive rise in noncommunicable diseases. Continuous improvement in registries is required to improve capturing of ESKD patients for providing accurate data to health authorities, and enhancing public awareness of the magnitude, future trends, treatments, and outcomes regarding ESKD.

  15. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  16. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  17. Cochlear sensitivity in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime; Renda, Levent; Selçuk, Ömer Tarık; Eyigör, Hülya; Yılmaz, Mustafa Deniz; Osma, Üstün

    2015-12-01

    Auditory system abnormalities commonly occur in patients with chronic renal disease and end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cochlear sensitivity and hemodialysis in dialytic and non-dialytic chronic kidney disease patients. The study included children aged 6-18 years that were divided into 3 groups: 36 non-dialytic patients with chronic kidney disease, 16 end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis, and 30 healthy controls. Blood urea nitrogen, serum cystatin C levels, duration of chronic kidney disease, and the duration of hemodialysis were compared between the chronic kidney disease patients and end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Hearing health was measured via tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions testing. Distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios were significantly lower at all frequencies tested in the non-dialytic and dialytic groups than in the control group (pchronic renal disease-both dialytic and non-dialytic-should be monitored to prevent any further deterioration by avoiding potential ototoxic agents, even if their hearing thresholds are within normal limits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Whilst several antiretroviral drugs have been associated with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), their contribution to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unknown.......Whilst several antiretroviral drugs have been associated with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), their contribution to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unknown....

  19. Childhood Albuminuria and Chronic Kidney Disease is Associated with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Yuang Lin; Shiuh-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We do not yet fully grasp the significance of childhood albuminuria. Based on mass urinary screening (MUS) using albumin-specific dipsticks in school children, we studied the independent association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A prospective cohort of 5351 children with albuminuria detected by school MSU during the period 1992–1996, followed up to 2009...

  20. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  1. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pontillo

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: In conclusion, while accounting for baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and covariables, CKD273 adds to the prediction of stage 3 chronic kidney disease, at which point intervention remains an achievable therapeutic target.

  2. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess...... stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. CONCLUSIONS: Later stages...... HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland...

  3. Optimal management of bone mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Andrew L; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-03-01

    The review summarizes recent studies on chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders, with a focus on new developments in disease management. The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has come to describe an increasingly complex network of alterations in minerals and skeletal disorders that contribute to the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Clinical studies continue to suggest associations with clinical outcomes, yet current clinical trials have failed to support causality. Variability in practice exists as current guidelines for management of mineral bone disorders are often based on weak evidence. Recent studies implicate novel pathways for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. Mineral bone disorders in chronic kidney disease arise from alterations in a number of molecules in an increasingly complex physiological network interconnecting bone and the cardiovascular system. Despite extensive associations with improved outcomes in a number of molecules, clinical trials have yet to prove causality and there is an absence of new therapies available to improve patient outcomes. Additional clinical trials that can incorporate the complexity of mineral bone disorders, and with the ability to intervene on more than one pathway, are needed to advance patient care.

  4. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease:Associations with Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRusso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephro pathological changes are commonly observed in the non tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy. In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with radical nephrectomy. Despite emerging evidence that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent local tumor control to radical nephrectomy while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  5. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  6. [End stage of chronic kidney disease and metabolic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaboch, J; Opatrná, S; Matoušovic, K; Schück, O

    2012-01-01

    Renal function disorder is inevitably associated with metabolic acidosis. An adult produces approximately 1 mmol of acids/kg of body weight every day (3 mmol/kg in children), derived from metabolization of proteins from food. Development of metabolic acidosis in patients with kidney disease is based on accumulation of acids and insufficient production of bicarbonates; alkaline loss represents a marginal issue here limited to patients with type II renal tubular acidosis only. The prevalence of this disorder increases with declining glomerular filtration (GFR) from 2% in patients with GFR 1.0-1.5 ml/s/1.73 m2 to 39% in patients with GFR ammoniac production in residual nephrons. This is an adaptive mechanism aimed at maintaining sufficient elimination of acids despite reduced volume of functional tissue. However, an increased ammoniac production simultaneously becomes a stimulus for activation of the complement via an alternative route and is thus one of the factors contributing, through this induced inflammation, to progression of tubular interstitial fibrosis that subsequently leads to further GFR reduction. Metabolic acidosis has a number of severe adverse effects on the organism, e.g. deterioration of kidney bone disease through stimulation of bone resorption and inhibition of bone formation, inhibition of vitamin D formation, increased muscle catabolism, reduced albumin production, glucose metabolism disorder, increased insulin resistance, reduced production of thyroid hormones, increased accumulation of β2-microglobulin etc. Non-interventional studies suggest that alkali supplementation may slow down progression of chronic nephropathies. However, this approach, safe and inexpensive, has not been widely implemented in clinical practice yet. With respect to dialyzed patients, abnormal levels of bicarbonates are associated with increased mortality. Both metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, rather regularly seen in a considerable number of patients, have a negative

  7. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontillo, Claudia; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Schanstra, Joost P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CKD273 is a urinary biomarker, which in advanced chronic kidney disease predicts further deterioration. We investigated whether CKD273 can also predict a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to ... threshold (P = 0.086). Discussion: In conclusion, while accounting for baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and covariables, CKD273 adds to the prediction of stage 3 chronic kidney disease, at which point intervention remains an achievable therapeutic target....

  8. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were enrolled into four mutually exclusive stages of the disease: CKD stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and dialysis patients. Overall HRQoL was generally highest in patients with CKD stages 1-3, followed by transplant recipients, patients with CKD stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. Later stages of ADPKD are associated with reduced physical health. The value of early treatment interventions that can delay progression of the disease should be considered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  9. Technology insight: Innovative options for end-stage renal disease--from kidney refurbishment to artificial kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Branko; Verhaar, Marianne C; Blankestijn, Peter; Boer, Walther H; Joles, Jaap A

    2007-10-01

    The steadily growing number of patients with chronic kidney disease who will eventually develop end-stage renal disease, together with the qualitative limitations of currently available renal replacement therapies, have triggered the exploration of innovative strategies for renal replacement therapy and for salvage of renal function. Currently, new hemodialysis modalities and membranes are being used with the aim of increasing clearance of uremic toxins to afford better metabolic control. In addition to these conventional approaches, there are four innovative potential solutions to the problem of replacing renal function when kidneys fail. The first is a small, implantable device with the potential to be supplemented with human cells ('artificial kidney'). The second involves restoration of the damaged kidney by harnessing recent advances in stem-cell technology and knowledge of developmental programing ('refurbished kidney'). The third is (partially) growing a kidney in vitro with the use of therapeutic cloning ('cultured kidney'). The fourth innovative solution involves the use of other organs to replace various renal functions ('distributed kidney'). In this article we review the efforts that have been made to improve renal replacement therapies, and explore innovative approaches. We will not cover all potential solutions in detail. Rather, we aim to indicate directions of future endeavor and arouse enthusiasm in clinicians and scientists for exploration of these exciting avenues.

  10. Dialysis modality choice in diabetic patients with end-stage kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchoud, Cecile; Bolignano, Davide; Nistor, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Because of conflicting results in observational studies, it is still subject to debate whether in diabetic patients the dialysis modality selected as first treatment (haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) may have a major...... on diabetes, end-stage kidney disease and dialysis modality. Selection of relevant studies, data extraction and analysis were performed by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-five observational studies (23 on incident and 2 on prevalent cohorts) were included in this review. Mortality was the only main...

  11. [Etiological analysis of 264 cases with chronic kidney disease stage 2 to 5 in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qianfan; Shen, Qian; Xu, Hong; Sun, Li; Tang, Xiaoshan; Fang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Haimei; Zhai, Yihui; Bi, Yunli; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-09-01

    To study and summarize the etiology of children patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 to 5 seen in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013. By complying with the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines, we collected data of 264 cases of children patients with CKD stage 2-5 from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 in the medical record system of Children's Hospital of Fudan University. And we retrospectively analyzed their age and CKD stage at first diagnosis, primary diseases, complications, etc. In the collected 264 cases, 52 cases (19.7%) were diagnosed at stage 2, 67 (25.4%) at stage 3, 52 (19.7%) at stage 4 and 93 (35.2%) at stage 5. For disease causes, 116 cases (43.9%) had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), 61 cases (23.1%) had glomerular disease, 15 (5.7%) had hereditary kidney disease, 14 (5.3%) had other diseases and in 58 cases (22.0%) the causes of disease were unknown. In the group with age between 0 and 3.0 and 3.1 and 6.0 years, 57.1% (24 cases) and 60.0% (30 cases) had primary disease with CAKUT. In the group with age older than 10 years, 49.2% (30 cases) had primary disease with glomerular disease and 32.0% (32 cases) with unknown causes. The major cause of CKD stage 2-5 in children in our hospital during the last ten years was CAKUT (43.9%), followed by glomerular disease (23.1%). The primary diseases of CKD were significantly different between the 2 age groups. CAKUT was more common in infants and preschool children while for adolescents, glomerular disease was the major cause.

  12. What is the impact of chronic kidney disease stage and cardiovascular disease on the annual cost of hospital care in moderate-to-severe kidney disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Seamus; Schlackow, Iryna; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of the impacts of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, with and without cardiovascular disease, on hospital costs are needed to inform health policy. METHODS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized trial prospectively collected information on kidney...... disease progression, serious adverse events and hospital care use in a cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. In a secondary analysis of SHARP data, the impact of participants' CKD stage, non-fatal cardiovascular events and deaths on annual hospital costs (i.e. all hospital admissions, routine...... or vascular disease incurred annual hospital care costs ranging from £403 (95% confidence interval: 345-462) in CKD stages 1-3B to £525 (449-602) in CKD stage 5 (not on dialysis). Patients in receipt of maintenance dialysis incurred annual hospital costs of £18,986 (18,620-19,352) in the year of initiation...

  13. Platelet thromboxane B2-formation in end-stage kidney disease and after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Lecic, N.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse TxB 2 formation by platelets in endstage kidney disease patients and in kidney graft recipients. Four groups of patients were studied: 12 preterminal chronic renal failure patients, 42 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, 8 patients on CAPD and 11 grafted patients. TxB 2 production by platelets was determined in serum following spontaneous blood clotting for 1/2 h at 37 0 C. Hemodialysis patients generated 80.7 ± 9.6 ng/ml (mean ± S.E.M.) of TxB 2 which was significantly (p 2 formation in hemodialysis patients had no relationship with the residual kidney function. Patients on CAPD produced 65.0 ± 12.7 ng/ml of TxB 2 . Very low TxB 2 generation was obtained also in preterminal chronic renal failure patients (57.0 ± 11.8 ng/ml). Kidney graft recipients had a mean TxB 2 production of 81.6 ± 24.2 ng/ml with a range from 12.5-200 ng/ml. Very low TxB 2 was formed in grafted patients with renal failure. (orig.) [de

  14. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    /non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS: In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year or until the need for renal replacement therapy. For each BP recording patients...

  15. Psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to measure disease self-management of the early stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Li-Min; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours. Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours is needed. A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n=252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients. Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60.51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha from 0.77-0.92. The test-retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0.72. The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument's construct validity is recommended. The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Renal function trajectory is more important than chronic kidney disease stage for managing patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) emphasizes a current level of function as calculated from the modification of diet in renal disease glomerulofiltration rate equations (eGFR) and proteinuria for staging of CKD. Change in a patient's eGFR over time (renal function trajectory) is an additional and potentially more important consideration in deciding which patients will progress to the point where they will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Many patients with CKD 3-5 have stable renal function for years. Proteinuria/albuminuria is a primary determinant of renal trajectory which may be slowed by medications that decrease proteinuria and/or aggressively lower blood pressure. A renal trajectory of >3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year may relate to a need for closer renal follow-up and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional CKD population-based studies need to examine the relationship of renal trajectory to: baseline renal function; acute kidney injury episodes; age, race, sex and primary etiologies of renal disease; blood pressure control and therapies; dietary protein intake; blood glucose control in diabetics and the competitive risk of death versus the requirement for renal replacement therapy. In the elderly CKD 4 population with significant comorbidities and slow decline in renal function, the likelihood of death prior to the need for RRT should be considered before placing AV access for dialysis. Prediction models of renal progression must account for the competitive risk of death as well as stable or improved renal function to be clinically useful. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Epidemiological Transition of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al Ismaili

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: The incidence and prevalence of ESKD has increased progressively over last 30 years. This is anticipated to continue at an even higher rate in view of the progressive rise in noncommunicable diseases. Continuous improvement in registries is required to improve capturing of ESKD patients for providing accurate data to health authorities, and enhancing public awareness of the magnitude, future trends, treatments, and outcomes regarding ESKD.

  18. Early Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease with Renal Injury Caused by Hypertension in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yabuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old spayed female Papillon weighing 4.0 kg presented with a history of persistent hematuria and pollakiuria. Concurrent bladder calculi, a mammary gland tumor, and nonazotemic early stage of chronic kidney disease with contracted kidneys were noted in this dog. The dog underwent cystectomy, unilateral mastectomy, and intraoperative renal biopsy. On the basis of histopathological analysis of renal biopsy results, it was suspected that renal injury of the dog was caused by persistent hypertension, and a follow-up examination revealed severe hypertension. The dog was treated with a combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. The treatment produced a good outcome in the dog, and there has been no progression of the chronic kidney disease for over 2 years.

  19. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  20. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... sodium. Related Conditions & Diseases Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney Disease in Children Simple Kidney Cysts Kidney Stones Urinary Tract Infections ...

  1. Childhood Albuminuria and Chronic Kidney Disease is Associated with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yuang; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2016-08-01

    We do not yet fully grasp the significance of childhood albuminuria. Based on mass urinary screening (MUS) using albumin-specific dipsticks in school children, we studied the independent association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A prospective cohort of 5351 children with albuminuria detected by school MSU during the period 1992-1996, followed up to 2009. Cumulative mortality rate, prevalence of CKD, and ESRD were higher in children with albuminuria than those without. Albuminuria category was associated with the risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 3.4] and ESRD (HR 3.24). Lower eGFR and albuminuria predicted mortality and ESRD among children with albuminuria and CKD. We found that being below a threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was significantly associated with ESRD. The highest renal function decline, along with the steepest slope of cumulative ESRD number, occurred in Stage 3, the critical point in renal progression. Risk factors for renal progression among different age groups with albuminuria were hypercholesterolemia and low serum albumin at 7-17 years of age. Beyond 18 years of age, besides the risk factor, a higher fasting blood sugar (BS) was also noted. Childhood albuminuria is a risk factor for CKD in later life, albuminuria provides additional prognostic information, and complications of CKD should be defined in each case. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Vitamin status and needs for people with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Alison L; Kopple, Joel D

    2011-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often experience a decline in their nutrient intake starting at early stages of CKD. This reduction in intake can affect both energy-producing nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, as well as vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Knowledge of the burden and bioactivity of vitamins and their effect on the health of the patients with CKD is very incomplete. However, without sufficient data, the use of nutritional supplements to prevent inadequate intake may result in either excessive or insufficient intake of micronutrients for people with CKD. The purpose of this article is to briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding vitamin requirements for people with stages 3, 4, or 5 CKD who are not receiving dialysis. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  4. Iron deficiency across chronic kidney disease stages: Is there a reverse gender pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Aoun

    Full Text Available In non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients, looking for iron deficiency is highly variable in practice and there is a great variability regarding the cutoffs used to treat iron deficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree of iron deficiency in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. We included all non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients that applied to the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents' coverage during a 5-month period. Iron requirement was assessed based on two guidelines' target-to-treat cutoffs: 1-ferritin <100 ng/ml and/or TSAT < 20% (KDOQI 2006, 2- ferritin ≤500 ng/ml and TSAT ≤30% (KDIGO 2012. A total of 238 CKD patients were included over 5 months. All patients had a ferritin level in their record and 64% had an available TSAT. Median age was 71.0 (59.8-79.3 years and 61.8% were female. All had an eGFR<60 ml/min. The proportion of patients found to require iron therapy ranged between 48 and 78% with a trend towards higher values when using KDIGO-based criteria. Using ANCOVA test, inverse normal transformations of ferritin and TSAT showed a reverse pattern between men and women with women being more iron deficient in the early stage. Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents' therapy. These findings reflect a lack in effective iron supplementation when managing anemia in pre-dialysis patients, especially in men at advanced stages. Renal societies should spread awareness about iron deficiency screening in those patients.

  5. Caring for Migrants and Refugees With End-Stage Kidney Disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond; Ernandez, Thomas; Drewniak, Daniel; Luyckx, Valerie

    2018-05-01

    With the number of migrants and refugees increasing globally, the nephrology community is increasingly confronted with issues relating to the management of end-stage kidney disease in this population, including medical, logistical, financial, and moral-ethical questions. Beginning with data for the state of affairs regarding refugees in Europe and grounded in moral reasoning theory, this Policy Forum Perspective contends that to improve care for this specific population, there is a need for: (1) clear demarcations of responsibilities across the societal (macro), local (meso), and individual (micro) levels, such that individual providers are aware of available resources and able to provide essential medical care while societies and local communities determine the general approach to dialysis care for refugees; (2) additional data and evidence to facilitate decision making based on facts rather than emotions; and (3) better information and education in a broad sense (cultural sensitivity, legal rights and obligations, and medical knowledge) to address specific needs in this population. Although the nephrology community cannot leverage a change in the geopolitical framework, we are in a position to generate accurate data describing the dimensions of care of refugee or migrant patients with end-stage kidney disease to advocate for a holistic approach to treatment for this unique patient population. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquired cystic kidney disease: an under-recognized condition in children with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene Y H; Warady, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) is a condition that occurs predominantly in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In contrast to hereditary cystic kidney disease, ACKD is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts in bilaterally small kidneys. Limited pediatric data suggest a high incidence (21.6-45.8%) of ACKD in children on dialysis, comparable to that in adults, with an increased frequency associated with a longer duration of dialysis. Recent research has shed light on the pathogenesis of ACKD, such as activation of proto-oncogenes. Although most patients with ACKD are asymptomatic, the condition can be complicated by renal cell carcinoma. Routine surveillance should therefore be considered in at-risk populations.

  7. Compensatory Structural and Functional Adaptation after Radical Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma According to Preoperative Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Don Kyoung; Jung, Se Bin; Park, Bong Hee; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han-Yong; Jeon, Hwang Gyun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated structural hypertrophy and functional hyperfiltration as compensatory adaptations after radical nephrectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma according to the preoperative chronic kidney disease stage. We retrospectively identified 543 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma between 1997 and 2012. Patients were classified according to preoperative glomerular filtration rate as no chronic kidney disease--glomerular filtration rate 90 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) or greater (230, 42.4%), chronic kidney disease stage II--glomerular filtration rate 60 to less than 90 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) (227, 41.8%) and chronic kidney disease stage III--glomerular filtration rate 30 to less than 60 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) (86, 15.8%). Computerized tomography performed within 2 months before surgery and 1 year after surgery was used to assess functional renal volume for measuring the degree of hypertrophy of the remnant kidney, and the preoperative and postoperative glomerular filtration rate per unit volume of functional renal volume was used to calculate the degree of hyperfiltration. Among all patients (mean age 56.0 years) mean preoperative glomerular filtration rate, functional renal volume and glomerular filtration rate/functional renal volume were 83.2 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), 340.6 cm(3) and 0.25 ml/minute/1.73 m(2)/cm(3), respectively. The percent reduction in glomerular filtration rate was statistically significant according to chronic kidney disease stage (no chronic kidney disease 31.2% vs stage II 26.5% vs stage III 12.8%, p kidney was not statistically significant (no chronic kidney disease 18.5% vs stage II 17.3% vs stage III 16.5%, p=0.250). The change in glomerular filtration rate/functional renal volume was statistically significant (no chronic kidney disease 18.5% vs stage II 20.1% vs stage III 45.9%, p chronic kidney disease stage (p <0.001). Patients with a lower preoperative glomerular filtration rate had a smaller reduction in

  8. The Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Smoking on Mortality and Kidney Transplantation in End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-07

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tobacco use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and clinical impact of COPD on mortality and kidney transplantation among patients who begin dialysis therapy is unclear. Methods: We explored the clinical impact of COPD and continued tobacco use on overall mortality and kidney transplantation in a national cohort study of US dialysis patients. National data on all dialysis patients (n = 769,984), incident between May 1995 and December 2004 and followed until October 31, 2006, were analyzed from the United States Renal Data System. Prevalence and period trends were determined while multivariable Cox regression evaluated relative hazard ratios (RR) for death and kidney transplantation. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 7.5% overall and increased from 6.7 to 8.1% from 1995-2004. COPD correlated significantly with older age, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, malnutrition, poor functional status, and tobacco use. Adjusted mortality risks were significantly higher for patients with COPD (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.18-1.21), especially among current smokers (RR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32), and varied inversely with advancing age. In contrast, the adjusted risks of kidney transplantation were significantly lower for patients with COPD (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.41-0.54, for smokers and RR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.50-0.58, for non-smokers) than without COPD [RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, for smokers and RR = 1.00 for non-smokers (referent category)]. Conclusions: Patients with COPD who begin dialysis therapy in the US experience higher mortality and lower rates of kidney transplantation, outcomes that are far worse among current smokers.

  9. Ultrasensitive sensor for detection of early stage chronic kidney disease in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dignya; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Debajyoti; Datta, Manali

    2018-05-15

    A facile label free, ultrasensitive platform for a rapid detection of chronic kidney disease has been fabricated. Early intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease has the potential to delay, or even prevent, the development of end stage renal disease and complications, leading to a marked impact on life expectancy and quality of life. Thus, a potable electrochemical diagnostic biosensor has become an attractive option as electrochemical analysis is feasible to use for on-site detection of samples. In human, Cystatin C present in human body fluids is freely filtered by the glomerulus, but reabsorbed and catabolised by the renal tubules. Trace detectable amount is eliminated in urine, giving this molecular marker an edge over serum creatinine's disadvantages. A carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode was immobilized with papain (cysteine protease) where amino group of papain covalently bound carboxyl group on electrode surface by EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide) and NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. The modifications on sensor surface were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between papain and chronic kidney disease specific biomarker, Cystatin C was detected by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry within 10min. The sensor is highly specific to Cystatin C and showed negligible response to non-specific macromolecules present in urine. The sensitivity of the sensor was 1583.49µAcm -2 µg -1 and lower limit of detection of Cystatin C was found 0.58ngL -1 which presents as a promising platform for designing potable kidney disease detector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity. PMID:22520910

  11. Chronic kidney disease stages among diabetes patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Arthur, Eric; Owiredu, W K B A; Adoba, Prince; Agbodzakey, Hope; Eghan, Ben A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes patients worldwide are at a high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which affects their quality of life and increases the risk of early death. This study used the new kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines to establish the prevalence and also identify the factors associated with CKD among diabetes patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Two hundred (200) diabetes patients were randomly recruited from the diabetic clinic of the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital from January to April 2014. Blood and urine samples were collected for the estimation of serum creatinine and urine protein, respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation; the 2012 KDIGO guidelines was used to assess CKD. Based on these guidelines, 37% of our participants had CKD. Sixteen percent (16%) of the participants had Stage 1 CKD and 17% had an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Albuminuria was higher among female diabetic patients compared to males (69.2% vs. 30.8%, P = 0.017). CKD was present in participants on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) alone or both OHA and insulin. Duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, older age, and use of OHA were associated with CKD (P <0.05).

  12. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lebherz-Eichinger

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0.003, 0.8. In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.

  13. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease What is amyloidosis? Amyloidosis is a rare disease ... Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine ...

  14. Impact of end stage kidney disease on costs and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhinav; Chatterjee, Kshitij; Yadlapati, Sujani; Rangaswami, Janani

    2017-09-01

    To assess the impact of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on the outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including complications of infection, length of hospital stay, overall mortality, and healthcare burden. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database created by the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used, covering the years 2009 through 2013. Manufacturer-provided sampling weights were used to produce national estimates. All-cause unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for patients with CDI and ESKD than for patients without ESKD (11.6% vs. 7.7%, paverage cost of hospitalization for patients with CDI and ESKD was also significantly higher compared to the non-ESKD group (USD $35 588 vs. $23 505, in terms of the 2013 value of the USD, pend stage kidney disease in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection is associated with higher mortality, a longer length of stay, and a higher cost of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  16. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... kidneys to develop multiple cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease occurs in children and adults who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) — ...

  17. [Risk factors for anemia in the early stages of chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Yu S; Kozlovskaya, L V; Milovanova, L Yu; Markina, M M; Kozlov, V V; Taranova, M V; Fomin, V V

    To identify the early markers of anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and glomerulonephritis (GN) in systemic diseases. Seventy-nine patients with some male preponderance who were aged 21 to 65 years (45.3±11.1 years) and had CKD (CGN and GN) in systemic diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener's granulomatosis) in the early stages (Stages I-II) of CKD were examined. GN was diagnosed by a lifetime renal biopsy. Systemic diseases were diagnosed according to the criteria for each nosological entity. The stages of CKD were defined according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the CKD EPI equation (2012). According to the presence or absence of anemia, all the patients included in the study were divided into 2 groups: 1) 43 (54.4%) anemic patients; 2) 36 (45.6%) non-anemic patients (a control group). In addition to general clinical examination adopted for a nephrology department, special studies, such as determination of the serum levels of hepcidin, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), soluble Klotho protein (s-Klotho), as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) ratio, were performed to solve the set tasks. Forty-three anemic patients who had a hemoglobin level of 110 (100; 119) g/l and 36 control patients who had the similar values were noted to have statistically significantly (panemia were also found to have a statistically significantly (panemia, its detection rate in the presence of systemic diseases was 3.2 times higher than that in CGN patients (41.7 and 12.7%). ROC analysis revealed that in the CKD patients with CGN and GN, the serum hepcidin level ≥ 25 ng/ml, with the sensitivity and specificity being of 89.7% and 74%, respectively (p > 0.001), was associated with the development of anemia. Moreover, the hemoglobin level ofdiseases, elevated serum hepcidin levels should be regarded as a predictor

  18. Predicting 6-month mortality risk of patients commencing dialysis treatment for end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Sara E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Khandakar, Yeasmin; Kasza, Jessica; Zoungas, Sophia; Steenkamp, Retha; Roderick, Paul; Wolfe, Rory

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence that end-stage kidney disease patients who are older or with more comorbidity may have a poor trade-off between benefits of dialysis and potential harms. We aimed to develop a tool for predicting patient mortality in the early stages of receiving dialysis. In 23 658 patients aged 15+ years commencing dialysis between 2000 and 2009 in Australia and New Zealand a point score tool was developed to predict 6-month mortality based on a logistic regression analysis of factors available at dialysis initiation. Temporal validation used 2009-11 data from Australia and New Zealand. External validation used the UK Renal Registry. Within 6 months of commencing dialysis 6.1% of patients had died. A small group (4.7%) of patients had a high predicted mortality risk (>20%), as predicted by the point score tool. Predictive variables were: older age, underweight, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (particularly for patients new point score tool outperformed existing models, and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.755 on temporal validation with acceptable calibration and 0.713 on external validation with poor calibration. Our point score tool for predicting 6-month mortality in patients at dialysis commencement has sufficient prognostic accuracy to use in Australia and New Zealand for prognosis and identification of high risk patients who may be given appropriate supportive care. Use in other countries requires further study.

  19. Vitamins and Microelement Bioavailability in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2017-03-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients-specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements-in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities of micronutrient resources in CKD develop for several reasons. Dietary restrictions and anorexia lead to an insufficient micronutrient intake, while diuretics use and renal replacement therapy lead to their excessive losses. Absorption is unpredictable, and metabolism impaired. Better understanding of the micronutrient needs of CKD patients could have an impact on many complications linked to vitamin and trace element disorders, including high mortality, increased risk of atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, weakness and fragility, muscle cramps, bone disease, depression, or insomnia. Here, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on micronutrient resources in different stages of CKD, and share our experience with the assessment of micronutrient status.

  20. Progression to end-stage kidney disease in Japanese children with chronic kidney disease: results of a nationwide prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Kenji; Uemura, Osamu; Hamasaki, Yuko; Ito, Shuichi; Wada, Naohiro; Hattori, Motoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Nakanishi, Koichi; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Honda, Masataka

    2014-04-01

    The risk of progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and factors associated with progression in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear, especially in Asian children. We started a nationwide, prospective cohort study of 447 Japanese children with pre-dialysis CKD in 2010, with follow-up in 2011. Progression to ESKD was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis according to CKD stage. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for progression. Data were analyzed for 429/447 children. Five patients died, of which four died before progression to ESKD. Fifty-two patients progressed to ESKD (median follow-up 1.49 years), including 9/315 patients with stage 3 CKD, 29/107 with Stage 4 CKD and 14/25 with Stage 5 CKD. One-year renal survival rates were 98.3, 80.0 and 40.9%, for Stages 3, 4 and 5 CKD, respectively. Risk factors for progression to ESKD included CKD stage [versus Stage 3; Stage 4: hazard ratio (HR) 11.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.22-29.28, P 2.0 g/g urine creatinine; HR 7.56, 95% CI 3.22-17.77, P children with pre-dialysis CKD progressed to ESKD with a median-follow-up of 1.49 years. Children with advanced (Stage 4/5) CKD were particularly likely to progress. To our knowledge, this is the first, nationwide, prospective cohort study of children with pre-dialysis CKD in Asia.

  1. Spectrum of bone marrow changes in patients of chronic kidney disease (stage iii, iv and v)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, R.K.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, S.Q.; Arshad, U.

    2017-01-01

    To see the various hematological changes in the bone marrow of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III, IV and V. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study.Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in the department of haematology (Pathology), Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and duration was one year, from Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Material and Methods: Patients of both sexes and all age groups with CKD stage III, IV and V were included in this study. Patients' histories were recorded. Complete blood counts, bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy were done and evaluated microscopically. Mean blood counts of the patients in three groups of CKD were compared. Frequencies of various bone marrow (BM) findings in patients of CKD were calculated. Results: Out of 57 patients, 41 (71.9%) were males while 16 (28%) were females. Mean age was 60 years. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean hemoglobin, mean white cell count and mean platelets count of the patients in three groups of CKD. Reactive changes due to underlying CKD and inflammation were the most frequent findings in the BM of the patients. Conclusion: Anaemia of mild to moderate severity and reactive changes in the BM are the most frequent haematological findings encountered in patients suffering from advanced stage CKD. Since CKD is predominantly a disease of the elderly so it is not rare to find the co-morbidities including plasmacytosis, malignancies and their effects on the BM in patients of CKD. (author)

  2. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in chronic kidney disease stage 2-5. Reproducibility and relationship with pulse wave parameters and kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Thijs, Lutgarde; Elung-Jensen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Arterial stiffness contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reproducible and easily obtainable indices of arterial stiffness are needed in order to monitor therapeutic strategies. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed...... as such a marker. The present study investigated the day-to-day reproducibility of AASI in CKD stage 2-5 and its relationship with other markers of arterial stiffness as well as with kidney function....

  3. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ... Learn about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage ...

  4. Role of low protein diet in management of different stages of chronic kidney disease - practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bharat V; Patel, Zamurrud M

    2016-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and more so in India. With limited availability and high cost of therapy, barely 10 % of patients with incident end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases get treatment in India. Therefore, all possible efforts should be made to retard progression of CKD. This article reviews the role of low protein diet (LPD) in management of CKD subjects and suggests how to apply it in clinical practice. The role of LPD in retarding progression of CKD is well established in animal experimental studies. However, its role in human subjects with CKD is perceived to be controversial based on the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study. We believe that beneficial effect of LPD could not be appreciated due to shorter duration of follow-up in the MDRD study. Had the study been continued longer, it may have been possible to appreciate beneficial effect of LPD. It is our contention that in all cases of CKD that are slowly progressive, LPD can significantly retard progression of CKD and delay the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). To be able to apply LPD for a long period, it is important to prescribe LPD at earlier stages (1,2,3) of CKD and not at late stage as recommended by KDIGO guidelines. Many clinicians are concerned about worsening nutritional status and hence reluctant to prescribe LPD. This actually is true for patients with advanced CKD in whom there is spontaneous decrease in calorie and protein intake. In our experience, nutritional status of patients in early stages (1,2,3) of CKD is as good as that of healthy subjects. Prescribing LPD at an early stage is unlikely to worsen status. The role of LPD in retarding progression of CKD is well established in animal experimental studies. Even in human subjects, there is enough evidence to suggest that LPD retards progression of CKD in carefully selected subjects. It should be prescribed to those with good appetite, good nutritional status and a slowly

  5. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H K; Jain, D; Pawar, S; Yadav, R K

    2016-11-01

    Improved survival of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has led to an increased focus on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for evaluating treatment effectiveness and assessing health outcomes of these patients. To evaluate HRQoL in patients in different stages of CKD and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 200 patients from India in CKD stages 1-5 assessed for HRQoL through 36-item short-form together with biomarkers. Patients were divided into four groups according to their estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); group A with GFR range > 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group B with GFR range 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group C with GFR range 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and group D with GFR stages. A statistically significant decreasing trend in physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores was found in patients from group A to D (Plife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  7. Bardoxolone methyl in type 2 diabetes and stage 4 chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zeeuw, Dick; Akizawa, Tadao; Audhya, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease, the residual risk is high. Whether nuclear 1 factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 activators further reduce this risk is unknown....

  8. Oral Magnesium Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 and 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Hansen, Ditte; Schou, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that increases in both serum and intracellular magnesium (Mg) can slow or even prevent the development of vascular calcification seen in CKD. Serum calcification...

  9. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Łukaszyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. Methods: The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP, creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and zonulin. Results: Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Conclusion: Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency.

  10. Prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunctional markers of the first stage of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mnuskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adaptive remodeling of cardiovascular system and progressive kidney damage at chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with the development of endothelial dysfunction (ED and apoptosis. The aim of this research was to study the changes of indicators of apoptosis and ED in patients with CKD 1 stage throughout 12 months. Complex biochemical, immunoferment and tool methods were applied at patient examinations. Arterial pressure of all observed patients was resolved on target values in 12 months. However, the indicators of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV increased in 55 patients (1st group, and the peak of circulating blood volume in skin microvessels in 22 patients (2nd group wasn't changed: 134±4 % и 136±4 %, p>0.1. The level of the annexin A5 reduced from 3.5±0.47 to 1.27±0.31 ng/ml (p0.1 in 2nd group. Diurnal excretion of sodium chloride decreased from 6.8±0.57 g/d to 2.8±0.39 g/d (p<0.05 in patients of 1st group. Dynamics of these indicators was not marked in patients of 2nd group: accordingly from 7.39±0.63 g/d to 7.01±0.65 g/d. Diurnal excretion of sodium chloride reflected the salt intake in patients with CKD 1 stage is associated with disturbance of endothelial-dependent vasodilation and apoptosis.

  11. Efficacy and safety of paricalcitol in children with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas J A; Lerner, Gary; Warady, Bradley A; Dell, Katherine M; Greenbaum, Larry A; Ariceta, Gema; Hoppe, Bernd; Linde, Peter; Lee, Ho-Jin; Eldred, Ann; Dufek, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels can contribute to morbidity and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of oral paricalcitol in reducing iPTH levels in children with stages 3-5 CKD. Children aged 10-16 years with stages 3-5 CKD were enrolled in two phase 3 studies. The stage 3/4 CKD study characterized paricalcitol pharmacokinetics and compared the efficacy and safety of paricalcitol with placebo followed by an open-label period. The stage 5 CKD study evaluated the efficacy and safety of paricalcitol (no comparator) in children with stage 5 CKD undergoing dialysis. In the stage 3/4 CKD study, mean peak plasma concentration and area under the time curve from zero to infinity were 0.13 ng/mL and 2.87 ng•h/((or ng×h/))mL, respectively, for 12 children who received 3 μg paricalcitol. Thirty-six children were randomized to paricalcitol or placebo; 27.8% of the paricalcitol group achieved two consecutive iPTH reductions of ≥30% from baseline versus none of the placebo group (P = 0.045). Adverse events were higher in children who received placebo than in those administered paricalcitol during the double-blind treatment (88.9 vs. 38.9%; P = 0.005). In the stage 5 CKD study, eight children (61.5%) had two consecutive iPTH reductions of ≥30% from baseline, and five (38.5%) had two consecutive iPTH values of between 150 and 300 pg/mL. Clinically meaningful hypercalcemia occurred in 21% of children. Oral paricalcitol in children aged 10-16 years with stages 3-5 CKD reduced iPTH levels and the treatment was well tolerated. Results support an initiating dose of 1 μg paricalcitol 3 times weekly in children aged 10-16 years.

  12. Extending Metformin Use in Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Pharmacokinetic Study in Stage 4 Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Munasinghe Dissanayake

    2017-07-01

    Discussion: In our patient cohorts with diabetes and stage 4 chronic kidney disease, treatment with 4 weeks of low-dose metformin was not associated with adverse safety outcomes and revealed stable pharmacokinetics. Our study supports the liberalization of metformin use in this population and supports the use of metformin assays for more individualized dosing.

  13. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a case control study of survival in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Alexandra; Stocks, Franziska; Pommer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    It is still controversial whether the mode of dialysis or preexisting comorbidities may influence the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5. Therefore, we performed a prospective case control study to evaluate whether the mode of dialysis may influence outcome. We found 25 cases...

  14. Establishing a clinical phenotype for cachexia in end stage kidney disease - study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joanne; Noble, Helen R; Adamson, Gary; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken; Fouque, Denis; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Mallett, John; McKeaveney, C; Porter, S; Seres, David S; Shields, Joanne; Slee, Adrian; Witham, Miles D; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2018-02-13

    Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD. Individuals with ESKD often exhibit symptoms of anorexia, loss of lean muscle mass and altered energy expenditure. These symptoms are consistent with the syndrome of cachexia observed in other chronic diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. While definitions of cachexia have been developed for some diseases, such as cardiac failure and cancer, no specific cachexia definition has been established for chronic kidney disease. The importance of developing a definition of cachexia in a population with ESKD is underscored by the negative impact that symptoms of cachexia have on quality of life and the association of cachexia with a substantially increased risk of premature mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical phenotype of cachexia specific to individuals with ESKD. A longitudinal study which will recruit adult patients with ESKD receiving haemodialysis attending a Regional Nephrology Unit within the United Kingdom. Patients will be followed 2 monthly over 12 months and measurements of weight; lean muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance, mid upper arm muscle circumference and tricep skin fold thickness); muscle strength (hand held dynamometer), fatigue, anorexia and quality of life collected. We will determine if they experience (and to what degree) the known characteristics associated with cachexia. Cachexia is a debilitating condition associated with an extremely poor outcome. Definitions of cachexia in chronic illnesses are required

  15. A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY ON LIPID ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH NONDIABETIC SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, STAGE III-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibi N. S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. The adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and premature death can be prevented or delayed. Chronic renal disease is accompanied by characteristic abnormalities of lipid metabolism. High cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for progression of renal disease in humans. The pattern of lipid abnormalities in chronic renal disease patients in Kerala, India, has not been studied. The primary aim of the study is to describe the pattern of lipid profile in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients. The secondary objective is to determine the proportion of patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease who have lipid abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study is a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Internal Medicine, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, during the time period of 22-08-2014 to 22-08-2015. The study was conducted after clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. 134 nondiabetic patients who were diagnosed to have Chronic Kidney disease (CKD according to KDOQI and NKF criteria with a GFR 70 years showed significantly higher serum creatinine value and lower EGFR. Significantly, higher values of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL, Triglycerides (TG and Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL were seen in the age group >70 years and in stage V CKD compared to other groups. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia is common in nondiabetic CKD patients (67.91%. Higher stages of CKD were associated with more dyslipidaemia.

  16. Magnesium modifies the association between serum phosphate and the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Hamano, Takayuki; Tomida, Kodo; Kawabata, Hiroaki; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Shimomura, Akihiro; Matsui, Isao; Hayashi, Terumasa; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    It is known that magnesium antagonizes phosphate-induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and prevents vascular calcification. Here we tested whether magnesium can also counteract other pathological conditions where phosphate toxicity is involved, such as progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored how the link between the risk of CKD progression and hyperphosphatemia is modified by magnesium status. A post hoc analysis was run in 311 non-diabetic CKD patients who were divided into four groups according to the median values of serum magnesium and phosphate. During a median follow-up of 44 months, 135 patients developed end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). After adjustment for relevant clinical factors, patients in the lower magnesium-higher phosphate group were at a 2.07-fold (95% CI: 1.23-3.48) risk for incident ESKD and had a significantly faster decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with those in the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group. There were no significant differences in the risk of these renal outcomes among the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group and both lower phosphate groups. Incubation of tubular epithelial cells in high phosphate and low magnesium medium in vitro increased apoptosis and the expression levels of profibrotic and proinflammatory cytokine; these changes were significantly suppressed by increasing magnesium concentration. Thus, magnesium may act protectively against phosphate-induced kidney injury.

  17. Vitamins and Microelement Bioavailability in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jankowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients—specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements—in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities of micronutrient resources in CKD develop for several reasons. Dietary restrictions and anorexia lead to an insufficient micronutrient intake, while diuretics use and renal replacement therapy lead to their excessive losses. Absorption is unpredictable, and metabolism impaired. Better understanding of the micronutrient needs of CKD patients could have an impact on many complications linked to vitamin and trace element disorders, including high mortality, increased risk of atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, weakness and fragility, muscle cramps, bone disease, depression, or insomnia. Here, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on micronutrient resources in different stages of CKD, and share our experience with the assessment of micronutrient status.

  18. Automating and estimating glomerular filtration rate for dosing medications and staging chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinkley KE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Katy E Trinkley,1 S Michelle Nikels,2 Robert L Page II,1 Melanie S Joy11Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: The purpose of this paper is to serve as a review for primary care providers on the bedside methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR for dosing and chronic kidney disease (CKD staging and to discuss how automated health information technologies (HIT can enhance clinical documentation of staging and reduce medication errors in patients with CKD.Methods: A nonsystematic search of PubMed (through March 2013 was conducted to determine the optimal approach to estimate GFR for dosing and CKD staging and to identify examples of how automated HITs can improve health outcomes in patients with CKD. Papers known to the authors were included, as were scientific statements. Articles were chosen based on the judgment of the authors.Results: Drug-dosing decisions should be based on the method used in the published studies and package labeling that have been determined to be safe, which is most often the Cockcroft–Gault formula unadjusted for body weight. Although Modification of Diet in Renal Disease is more commonly used in practice for staging, the CKD–Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD–EPI equation is the most accurate formula for estimating the CKD staging, especially at higher GFR values. Automated HITs offer a solution to the complexity of determining which equation to use for a given clinical scenario. HITs can educate providers on which formula to use and how to apply the formula in a given clinical situation, ultimately improving appropriate medication and medical management in CKD patients.Conclusion: Appropriate estimation of GFR is key to optimal health outcomes. HITs assist clinicians in both choosing the most appropriate GFR estimation formula and in applying the results of the GFR estimation in practice. Key limitations of the

  19. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease Tests & Diagnosis How can I tell if I have kidney disease? Early kidney disease usually doesn’t have any ...

  20. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Diego; Rueda, Juan-David; Diaz, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35%) for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay) was three times gross domestic product (GDP) = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD) using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798). The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation compared with chronic dialysis in end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the costs and effectiveness measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis in adults suffering from end-stage renal disease from the perspective of the Colombian healthcare system, we designed a Markov model with monthly cycles over a five-year time horizon and eight transitional states, including death as an absorbing state. Transition probabilities were obtained from international registries, costs from different local sources [case studies, official tariffs (ISS 2001 + 35% for procedures and SISMED for medications]. Data were validated by an expert panel and we performed univariate, multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Effectiveness indicators were months of life gained, months of dialysis averted and deaths prevented. The annual discount rate was 3% and the cost-utility threshold (willingness to pay was three times gross domestic product (GDP = USD 20,000 per QALY. The costs were adopted in US dollars (USD using the 2012 average exchange rate (1 USD = COP$ 1798. The discounted average total cost for five years was USD 76,718 for transplantation and USD 76,891 for dialysis, with utilities 2.98 and 2.10 QALY, respectively. Additionally, renal transplantation represented 6.9 months gained, 35 months in dialysis averted per patient and one death averted for each of the five patients transplanted in five years. We conclude that renal transplantation improves the overall survival rates and quality of life and is a cost-saving alternative compared with dialysis.

  3. Psychosocial Factors in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Australia

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    Charan Bale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study seeks to review the psychosocial factors affecting patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD from a tertiary hospital in Australia. Methods. We audited patients with ESKD, referred to social work services from January 2012 to December 2014. All patients underwent psychosocial assessments by one, full-time renal social worker. Patient demographics, cumulative social issues, and subsequent interventions were recorded directly into a database. Results. Of the 244 patients referred, the majority were >60 years (58.6%, male (60.7%, born in Australia (62.3%, on haemodialysis (51.6%, and reliant on government financial assistance (88%. Adjustment issues (41%, financial concerns (38.5%, domestic assistance (35.2%, and treatment nonadherence (21.3% were the predominant reasons for social work consultation. Younger age, referral prior to start of dialysis, and unemployment were significant independent predictors of increased risk of adjustment issues (p=0.004, <0.001, and =0.018, resp.. Independent risk factors for treatment nonadherence included age and financial and employment status (p=0.041, 0.052, and 0.008, resp.. Conclusion. Psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with treatment nonadherence and adjustment difficulties. Additional social work support and counselling, in addition to financial assistance from government and nongovernment agencies, may help to improve adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment plans as patients approach ESKD.

  4. Uraemia progression in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 is not constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya; Mortensen, Leif Spange

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease leading to loss of glomerular filtration rate (ΔGFR, measured in ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year). ΔGFR is usually assumed to be constant, but the hyperfiltration theory suggests that it accelerates in severe uraemia. A retrospective analysis of estimated...... GFR (eGFR) calculated from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was performed to evaluate whether ΔGFR is constant or accelerating....

  5. Epidemiology and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury According to Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Criteria in Critically Ill Children-A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpon, Leila C; Sugo, Edward K; Consulin, Julio C; Tavares, Tabata L G; Aragon, Davi C; Carlotti, Ana P C P

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors, and short- and medium-term outcome of acute kidney injury classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria in critically ill children. Prospective observational cohort study. Two eight-bed PICUs of a tertiary-care university hospital. A heterogeneous population of critically ill children. None. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected on all patients admitted to the PICUs from August 2011 to January 2012, with at least 24 hours of PICU stay. Of the 214 consecutive admissions, 160 were analyzed. The prevalence of acute kidney injury according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria was 49.4% vs. 46.2%, respectively. A larger proportion of acute kidney injury episodes was categorized as Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 3 (50%) compared with pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease F (39.2%). Inotropic score greater than 10 was a risk factor for acute kidney injury severity. About 35% of patients with acute kidney injury who survived were discharged from the PICU with an estimated creatinine clearance less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m and one persisted with altered renal function 6 months after PICU discharge. Age 12 months old or younger was a risk factor for estimated creatinine clearance less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m at PICU discharge. Acute kidney injury and its severity were associated with increased PICU length of stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Eleven patients died; nine had acute kidney injury (p Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and may lead to long-term renal dysfunction.

  6. Self-management programmes in stages 1-4 chronic kidney disease: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Havas, Kathryn; Douglas, Clint; Thepha, Thiwawan; Bennett, Paul; Clark, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex health problem, which requires individuals to invest considerable time and energy in managing their health and adhering to multifaceted treatment regimens. To review studies delivering self-management interventions to people with CKD (Stages 1-4) and assess whether these interventions improve patient outcomes. Systematic review. Nine electronic databases (MedLine, CINAHL, EMBASE, ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, The Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database, Web of Science and PsycINFO) were searched using relevant terms for papers published between January 2003 and February 2013. The search strategy identified 2,051 papers, of which 34 were retrieved in full with only 5 studies involving 274 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomised controlled trials, a variety of methods were used to measure outcomes, and four studies included a nurse on the self-management intervention team. There was little consistency in the delivery, intensity, duration and format of the self-management programmes. There is some evidence that knowledge- and health-related quality of life improved. Generally, small effects were observed for levels of adherence and progression of CKD according to physiologic measures. The effectiveness of self-management programmes in CKD (Stages 1-4) cannot be conclusively ascertained, and further research is required. It is desirable that individuals with CKD are supported to effectively self-manage day-to-day aspects of their health. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Vitamins K and D status in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Vitamin K, vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins and vitamin D may be involved in the regulation of calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design, setting, participants and measurements: Vitamin K and D status was measured as dietary intake, plasma phylloquinone, se...

  8. Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 by CKD273, a Urinary Proteomic Biomarker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontillo, Claudia; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Schanstra, Joost P; Jacobs, Lotte; Zürbig, Petra; Thijs, Lutgarde; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Lindhardt, Morten; Klein, Ronald; Orchard, Trevor; Porta, Massimo; Bilous, Rudolf W; Charturvedi, Nishi; Rossing, Peter; Vlahou, Antonia; Schepers, Eva; Glorieux, Griet; Mullen, William; Delles, Christian; Verhamme, Peter; Vanholder, Raymond; Staessen, Jan A; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CKD273 is a urinary biomarker, which in advanced chronic kidney disease predicts further deterioration. We investigated whether CKD273 can also predict a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Methods: In analyses of 2087 individuals from 6

  9. Causes and outcome of late referral of children who develop end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean E; Bailey, Rohan; Kainer, Gad

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to characterise the timing of referral to a paediatric nephrology unit of children who develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This study also aims to determine whether late referral (LR) influences outcomes and to explore factors that may lead to LR. A retrospective case review of all incident patients with ESKD who received renal replacement therapy (RRT) at a single paediatric centre. Time between referral to a paediatric nephrologist and commencement of RRT, demographic and clinical data were collated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at referral was calculated using height and creatinine. LR was defined as having an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) when first seen by a paediatric nephrologist. RRT was initiated for 74 patients Children referred before age 1 year (41%) had a more prolonged course before ESKD. Median (interquartile range) eGFR at referral of children > 1 year was 27.2 (9.0-52.0) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Twenty-two (55%) of these children were referred late (LR) with an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . LR patients were more likely to have glomerulonephritis or haemolytic uraemic syndrome and to live in a remote or outer regional area. LR patients had higher urea, lower haemoglobin and were more likely to receive haemodialysis via a vascular catheter. A significant proportion of children who develop ESKD are referred late to nephrology units with potentially preventable complications. Aetiology of renal disease and geographic isolation contribute to LR. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Cardiovascular alterations do exist in children with stage-2 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Canpolat, Nur; Konukoğlu, Dildar; Ağbaş, Ayşe; Sevim, Meltem Dönmez; Çalışkan, Salim; Sever, Lale

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. However, it is not well known when and how cardiovascular alterations start. This cross-sectional, controlled study consisted of 25 patients and 28 healthy controls. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility coefficient and β stiffness index), and echocardiography were assessed to evaluate CVD. Routine biochemical parameters, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and high sensitive C- reactive protein were measured to determine cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension was found in 12 patients (48 %). Patients had higher FGF23 levels and aPWV-standard deviation score (SDS) as compared to the controls (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). Aortic PWV-SDS was predicted by increased daytime systolic blood pressure load (β = 0.512, p = 0.009, R 2  = 0.262). Neither cIMT nor distensibility differed between the groups; however, older age and high level of FGF23 were independent predictors of β stiffness index in patients (β = 0.507, p = 0.005, R 2  = 0.461 and β = 0.502, p = 0.005, R 2  = 0.461, respectively). As compared to controls, patients had worse left ventricular diastolic function [lower E/A ratio p = 0.006) and increased left atrial dimension (p children with stage-2 CKD. Good control of BP and decreasing the level of FGF23 may be useful to slow down the progression of cardiovascular complications.

  11. Ectopic Thoracic Kidney and End-Stage Renal Disease in a 38-Year-Old Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. E. Ekrikpo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This patient is a 38-year-old housewife who presented with a one-month history of difficulty, in breathing, chest pain and bilateral leg swelling and had a blood pressure of 260/150 mmHg, features of malignant hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. Chest CT scan revealed a chest location of the left kidney. She also had elevated serum urea and creatinine and proteinuria (++. The right kidney was normally located with loss of corticomedullary differentiation. She is on maintenance haemodialysis and is being worked up for possible left nephrectomy.

  12. Prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease seen in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureo, Juan Carlos; Arévalo, Jose Carlos; Antón, Joaquín; Adrados, Gaspar; Jiménez Morales, Jose Luis; Robles, Nicolás Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the elderly population, few data are available on the frequency of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Spanish population affected by this problem. We undertook a study on this issue in patients attending the internal medicine departments in our area. An observational, cross-sectional survey performed at internal medicine departments on 415 patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Clinical history and risk factors were collected using a standardized protocol. Serum creatinine, phosphate, calcium, intact parathormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-vitD) levels were measured in all patients. Among stage 3 patients, 62.9% had PTH levels ≥70pg/mL and 32.7% levels ≥110pg/mL. Median PTH level in stage 4 patients was 120pg/mL (p Hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease which is not associated to detectable changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels. It is therefore advisable to measure PTH levels in all patients with decreased glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Telomerase activity in patients with stage 2–5D chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kidir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular mechanisms of increased cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD associated with biological age are not well understood. Recent studies support the hypothesis that common factors responsible for this phenomenon are cellular aging and telomere dysfunction. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between telomerase activity and CKD stages. Methods: The study included 120 patients who were followed-up for CKD stage 2–5D, composed of 30 patients of each stage and 30 healthy volunteers without any known disease who were admitted to our hospital for routine check-ups. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was measured using the TRAP assay. Results: A significant difference was observed for telomerase activity in PBMC between groups. The detected levels were lowest in the healthy control group (0.15 ± 0.02, and highest in CKD stage 5D patients (0.23 ± 0.04. In CKD patients, telomerase activity in PBMC was positively correlated with the CKD stage, serum creatinine, potassium and parathormone levels, and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, body mass index (BMI, platelet count and serum calcium levels. According to the linear regression analysis, independent predictors for high telomerase activity in CKD patients were eGFR and BMI. Conclusion: Telomerase activity in PBMC increases with advancing CKD stage in CKD patients. Increased telomerase activity in PBMC is associated with eGFR and BMI. Resumen: Antecedentes: Los mecanismos moleculares responsables del aumento de la mortalidad cardiovascular en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC asociada a la edad biológica no se conocen bien. Los estudios recientes apoyan la hipótesis de que los factores comunes responsables de este fenómeno son el envejecimiento celular y la disfunción telomérica. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar

  14. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pinterval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (pinterval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Potential Role of Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-07-01

    Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of chronic and end-stage renal disease and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Hypertension is present in the vast majority of these patients and plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of renal function and the high rate of cardiovascular events in this patient cohort. Augmentation of renin release, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renal vascular resistance are direct consequences of efferent renal sympathetic nerve stimulation and the major components of neural regulation of renal function. Renal afferent nerve activity directly influences sympathetic outflow to the kidneys and other highly innervated organs involved in blood pressure control via hypothalamic integration. Renal denervation of the kidney has been shown to reduce blood pressure in many experimental models of hypertension. Targeting the renal nerves directly may therefore be specifically useful in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with impaired kidney function and also reflect on the potential impact on other cardiovascular conditions commonly associated with chronic kidney disease such as heart failure and arrhythmias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Increased arterial inflammation in individuals with stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); MacNabb, Megan H.; Emami, Hamed; Abdelbaky, Amr; Lavender, Zachary R. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Singh, Parmanand [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Division of Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Di Carli, Marcelo; Taqueti, Viviany; Foster, Courtney [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Mann, Jessica; Comley, Robert A.; Weber, Chek Ing Kiu [F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel (Switzerland); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiology Division, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    While it is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, it is not known whether arterial inflammation is increased in mild CKD. The aim of this study was to compare arterial inflammation using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with CKD and in matched controls. This retrospective study included 128 patients undergoing FDG PET/CT imaging for clinical indications, comprising 64 patients with stage 3 CKD and 64 control patients matched by age, gender, and cancer history. CKD was defined according to guidelines using a calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Arterial inflammation was measured in the ascending aorta as FDG uptake on PET. Background FDG uptake (venous, subcutaneous fat and muscle) were recorded. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed using the CT images. The impact of CKD on arterial inflammation and CAC was then assessed. Arterial inflammation was higher in patients with CKD than in matched controls (standardized uptake value, SUV: 2.41 ± 0.49 vs. 2.16 ± 0.43; p = 0.002). Arterial SUV correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.299, p = 0.001). Venous SUV was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD, while subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue SUVs did not differ between groups. Moreover, arterial SUV remained significantly elevated in patients with CKD compared to controls after correcting for muscle and fat background, and also remained significant after adjusting for clinical risk factors. Further, CKD was associated with arterial inflammation (SUV) independent of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC). Moderate CKD is associated with increased arterial inflammation beyond that of controls. Further, the increased arterial inflammation is independent of presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Current risk stratification tools may underestimate the presence of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD and thereby the risk of

  17. Cumulative ionizing radiation exposure in patients with end stage kidney disease: a 6-year retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coyle, Joe

    2011-08-13

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). To investigate factors which may be independently associated with risk of high cumulative effective dose (CED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had local institutional review board ethical approval. We conducted a retrospective study of 394 period prevalent ESKD patients attending a single tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics were obtained from case records. Details of radiological investigations were obtained from the institutional radiology computerized database. CED was calculated using standard procedure specific radiation levels. High exposure was defined as CED > 50 mSv, an exposure which has been reported to increase cancer mortality by 5%. Data were compared using Pearson χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 394 patients were followed for a median of 4 years (1518 patient years follow-up). Of these 63% were male. Seventeen percent of patients had a CED of >50 mSv. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 9% of total radiological studies\\/procedures while contributing 61.4% of total study dose. Median cumulative dose and median dose per patient year were significantly higher in the hemodialysis (HD) group (15.13 and 5.79 mSv, respectively) compared to the post-transplant group (2.9 and 0.52 mSv, respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ESKD patients are at risk of cumulative exposure to significant levels of diagnostic radiation. The majority of this exposure is imparted as a result of CT examinations to patients in the HD group.

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  19. Bardoxolone Methyl Improves Kidney Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4 and Type 2 Diabetes: Post-Hoc Analyses from Bardoxolone Methyl Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Melanie P.; Bakris, George L.; Block, Geoffrey A.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Goldsberry, Angie; Inker, Lesley A.; Heerspink, Hiddo J.L.; O'Grady, Megan; Pergola, Pablo E.; Wanner, Christoph; Warnock, David G.; Meyer, Colin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Increases in measured inulin clearance, measured creatinine clearance, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been observed with bardoxolone methyl in 7 studies enrolling approximately 2,600 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The largest of these studies was Bardoxolone Methyl Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes (BEACON), a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial which enrolled patients with T2D and CKD stage 4. The BEACON trial was terminated after preliminary analyses showed that patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl experienced significantly higher rates of heart failure events. We performed post-hoc analyses to characterize changes in kidney function induced by bardoxolone methyl. Methods Patients in ­BEACON (n = 2,185) were randomized 1: 1 to receive once-daily bardoxolone methyl (20 mg) or placebo. We compared the effects of bardoxolone methyl and placebo on a post-hoc composite renal endpoint consisting of ≥30% decline from baseline in eGFR, eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) events (provision of dialysis or kidney transplantation). Results Consistent with prior studies, patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl experienced mean increases in eGFR that were sustained through study week 48. Moreover, increases in eGFR from baseline were sustained 4 weeks after cessation of treatment. Patients randomized to bardoxolone methyl were significantly less likely to experience the composite renal endpoint (hazards ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.36–0.64]; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Bardoxolone methyl preserves kidney function and may delay the onset of ESRD in patients with T2D and stage 4 CKD. PMID:29402767

  20. [Changes in mineral metabolism in stage 3, 4, and 5 chronic kidney disease (not on dialysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Sellares, V; Torregrosa, V

    2008-01-01

    With progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), disorders of mineral metabolism appear. The classic sequence of events begins with a deficit of calcitriol synthesis and retention of phosphorus. As a result of this, serum calcium decreases and parathyroid hormone (PTH) is stimulated, producing in the bone the high turnover (HT) bone disease known as osteitis fibrosa while on the other extreme we find the forms of low turnover (LT) bone disease. Described later and initially associated with aluminum intoxication, these diseases are now seen primarily in older and/or diabetic patients, who in a uremic setting have relatively low levels of PTH to maintain normal bone turnover. Osteomalacia is also included in this group, which after the disappearance of aluminum intoxication is rarely observed. LT forms of hyperparathyroidism facilitate the exit of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) from bone, whereas the adynamic bone limits the incorporation of Ca and P into bone tissue. Therefore, both forms facilitate the availability of Ca and P, which ends up being deposited in soft tissues such as arteries. The link between bone disease and vascular calcifications in CKD is now a well-established phenomenon. 2. Diagnostic strategies Calcium, Phosphorus They have little capacity to predict underlying bone disease, but their regular measurement is decisive for therapeutic management of the patient, especially in the dose titration stages of intestinal phosphorus binders, vitamin D analogs or calcimimetics. Ideally, Ca++ should be used, but total Ca is routinely used. It is recommended to adjust albumin levels in the event of hypoalbuminemia (for each g/dL of decrease in albumin, total serum Ca decreases 0.9 mg/dL). The following formula facilitates rapid calculation of corrected total calcium: Corrected total Ca (mg/dL) = total Ca (mg/dL) + 0.8 [4-albumina (g/dL)]. Parathyroid hormone "Intact" PTH is the biochemical parameter that best correlates with bone histology (levels

  1. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  2. Hepcidin-25 in diabetic chronic kidney disease is predictive for mortality and progression to end stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagner

    Full Text Available Anemia is common and is associated with impaired clinical outcomes in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD. It may be explained by reduced erythropoietin (EPO synthesis, but recent data suggest that EPO-resistance and diminished iron availability due to inflammation contribute significantly. In this cohort study, we evaluated the impact of hepcidin-25--the key hormone of iron-metabolism--on clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with CKD along with endogenous EPO levels.249 diabetic patients with CKD of any stage, excluding end-stage renal disease (ESRD, were enrolled (2003-2005, if they were not on EPO-stimulating agent and iron therapy. Hepcidin-25 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The association of hepcidin-25 at baseline with clinical variables was investigated using linear regression models. All-cause mortality and a composite endpoint of CKD progression (ESRD or doubling of serum creatinine were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models.Patients (age 67 yrs, 53% male, GFR 51 ml/min, hemoglobin 131 g/L, EPO 13.5 U/L, hepcidin-25 62.0 ng/ml were followed for a median time of 4.2 yrs. Forty-nine patients died (19.7% and forty (16.1% patients reached the composite endpoint. Elevated hepcidin levels were independently associated with higher ferritin-levels, lower EPO-levels and impaired kidney function (all p<0.05. Hepcidin was related to mortality, along with its interaction with EPO, older age, greater proteinuria and elevated CRP (all p<0.05. Hepcidin was also predictive for progression of CKD, aside from baseline GFR, proteinuria, low albumin- and hemoglobin-levels and a history of CVD (all p<0.05.We found hepcidin-25 to be associated with EPO and impaired kidney function in diabetic CKD. Elevated hepcidin-25 and EPO-levels were independent predictors of mortality, while hepcidin-25 was also predictive for progression of CKD. Both hepcidin-25 and EPO may represent important prognostic factors of clinical outcome and have the

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  4. Arterial hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and plasma level of osteopontin in patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vizir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Large population-based studies acknowledge that patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of cardiovascular diseases regardless of etiology, especially in its late stages. The aim of this study was to investigate the features of arterial hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and plasma level of osteopontin in dynamics of candesartan therapy, as well as to identify the relationships between studied parameters in patients with chronic kidney disease treated by hemodialysis. Methods and results. 50 patients were performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the plasma level of osteopontin was determined by ELISA method, standard echocardiography and ultrasonography of common carotid after treatment of candesartan during 12 weeks. Conclusion. The results indicate that the use of candesartan cilexetil in hemodialysis populations promotes regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and vascular remodeling indices, has antihypertensive effect.

  5. Advanced chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and renal death among HIV-positive individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, L; Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jd

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Knowledge about advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-positive persons is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for advanced CKD/ESRD and renal death. METHODS: Advanced CKD was defined as confirmed...... (two consecutive measurements ≥ 3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using Cockcroft-Gault, and ESRD as haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for ≥ 1 month or renal transplant. Renal death was death with renal disease as the underlying cause, using Coding...... Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. Follow-up was from 1 January 2004 until last eGFR measurement, advanced CKD, ESRD or renal death, whichever occurred first. Poisson regression was used to identify predictors. RESULTS: Of 9044 individuals included in the study, 58 (0.64%) experienced advanced...

  6. Relative risks of Chronic Kidney Disease for mortality and End Stage Renal Disease across races is similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Pang; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Islam, Muhammad; Katz, Ronit; McClellan, William; Peralta, Carmen A; Wang, HaiYan; de Zeeuw, Dick; Astor, Brad C; Gansevoort, Ron T; Levey, Andrew S; Levin, Adeera

    2014-01-01

    Some suggest race-specific cutpoints for kidney measures to define and stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence for race-specific clinical impact is limited. To address this issue, we compared hazard ratios of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and albuminuria across races using meta-regression in 1.1 million adults (75% Asians, 21% whites, and 4% blacks) from 45 cohorts. Results came mainly from 25 general population cohorts comprising 0.9 million individuals. The associations of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were largely similar across races. For example, in Asians, whites, and blacks, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for eGFR 45–59 vs. 90–104 ml/min/1.73m2 were 1.3 (1.2–1.3), 1.1 (1.0–1.2) and 1.3 (1.1–1.7) for all-cause mortality, 1.6 (1.5–1.8), 1.4 (1.2–1.7), and 1.4 (0.7–2.9) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.6 (11.1–68.7), 11.2 (6.0–20.9), and 4.1 (2.2–7.5) for ESRD, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30–299 mg/g or dipstick 1-positive vs. an albumin-to-creatinine ratio under 10 or dipstick negative were 1.6 (1.4–1.8), 1.7 (1.5–1.9) and 1.8 (1.7–2.1) for all-cause mortality, 1.7 (1.4–2.0), 1.8 (1.5–2.1), and 2.8 (2.2–3.6) for cardiovascular mortality, and 7.4 (2.0–27.6), 4.0 (2.8–5.9), and 5.6 (3.4–9.2) for ESRD, respectively. Thus, the relative mortality or ESRD risks of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were largely similar among three major races, supporting similar clinical approach to CKD definition and staging, across races. PMID:24522492

  7. Association of serum total bilirubin with renal outcome in Japanese patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoh, Teppei; Nakayama, Masaru; Tanaka, Shigeru; Yoshitomi, Ryota; Ura, Yoriko; Nishimoto, Hitomi; Fukui, Akiko; Shikuwa, Yui; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-09-01

    Serum bilirubin has been reported to be associated with the progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Less is known, however, about the relationship between bilirubin and chronic kidney disease (CKD) of other etiologies. This study was designed to clarify whether serum total bilirubin concentration is associated with kidney disease progression in patients with CKD independent of etiology. This prospective observational study enrolled 279 consecutive patients with stages 3-5 CKD. The renal endpoint was the composite of the doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Patients were divided into three groups by their serum total bilirubin concentrations: ≤0.3 (lowest), 0.4-0.5 (middle), and ≥0.6 (highest) mg/dL. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine the risk factors for poor renal outcome. The median follow-up period was 21months. One-hundred and three patients reached renal end points. After multivariable adjustment, a 0.1mg/dL increase in serum bilirubin was associated negatively with poor renal outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.87). In addition, after adjustment for confounding factors, including traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, the middle (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.36-8.57) and lowest (HR 4.22, 95% CI 1.81-11.59) bilirubin groups had significantly higher HRs for renal outcome than the highest bilirubin group. Lower serum bilirubin concentration was independently associated with adverse renal outcomes, suggesting that the measurement of serum bilirubin is useful for predicting kidney disease progression in patients with moderate to severe CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrition education in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Nguyen, Hoang Anh

    2018-03-01

    Diet counseling and nutrition education are recommended in the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The importance of effectively addressing nutrition with patients has grown given the increasing prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions which influence CKD/ESRD. Dietary advice for individuals with CKD/ESRD can be seen as complex; and successful dietary management requires careful planning, periodic assessment of nutritional status, as well as monitoring of dietary compliance. In spite of recommendations and pressing need, formal training in nutrition and adequate preparation for providers is limited; and for physicians the lack of nutrition education has been acknowledged, repeatedly, as an area for improvement in medical training curricula. It has also been suggested that dietitians have an essential role in management of CKD in the primary care setting; however, dietitians who do not practice renal education daily may need training on the specific challenges in CKD/ESRD. The objectives of this chapter were to: characterize select nutrition education resources for providers who care for patients with CKD/ESRD; summarize key dietary components emphasized in the care of patients with CKD/ESRD; and address practical considerations in educational efforts focused on nutrition and CKD/ESRD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Non-albuminuric renal disease among subjects with advanced stages of chronic kidney failure related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; García-Cantón, César; Quevedo, Virginia; Lorenzo, Dionisio L; López-Ríos, Laura; Batista, Fátima; Riaño, Marta; Saavedra, Pedro; Checa, María D

    2014-03-01

    Urinary albumin excretion has been consistently found to be normal in a significant number of subjects with early stages of diabetic kidney disease. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of non-albuminuric chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among subjects who reach advanced stages of renal failure. Study population was composed of incident patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min) related to type 2 diabetes in a tertiary hospital from Gran Canaria (Spain) during a period of 2 years. Subjects were classified as normoalbuminuric (urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UACR ≥30 and <300 mg/g), or proteinuric (UACR ≥300 mg/g). Of 78 eligible patients, 21.8% had normoalbuminuria, 20.5% had microalbuminuria, and 57.7% had proteinuria. Individuals with normoalbuminuria were mostly women and had a lower prevalence of smoking and polyneuropathy than subjects with microalbuminuria or proteinuria. They also presented greater measures of body mass index and waist circumference, higher values of total and LDL cholesterol, and lower values of HbA1c and serum creatinine than subjects with microalbuminuria or proteinuria. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female sex (positively) and HbA1c and polyneuropathy (negatively) were independently associated with absence of albuminuria. In conclusion, around 20% of subjects with diabetes-related advanced chronic kidney disease, characteristically women, have normal urinary albumin excretion. HbA1c and polyneuropathy are inversely related to this non-albuminuric form of nephropathy.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Louis L; Warming, Peder E; Nielsen, Ture L

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in hemodialysis patients with spirometry and to examine the effects of fluid removal by hemodialysis on lung volumes. Patients ≥18 years at two Danish hemodialysis centers were included....... Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 /FVC ratio were measured with spirometry before and after hemodialysis. The diagnosis of COPD was based on both the GOLD criteria and the lower limit of normal criteria. There were 372 patients in treatment at the two...... centers, 255 patients (69%) completed spirometry before dialysis and 242 of these (65%) repeated the test after. In the initial test, 117 subjects (46%) had airflow limitation indicative of COPD with GOLD criteria and 103 subjects (40.4%) with lower limit of normal criteria; COPD was previously diagnosed...

  11. Etiology and management of dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Mona; Silverstein, Douglas M

    2015-12-01

    Lipids are essential components of cell membranes, contributing to cell fuel, myelin formation, subcellular organelle function, and steroid hormone synthesis. Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit various co-morbidities, including dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemias in children with CKD and ESRD is high, being present in 39-65% of patients. Elevated lipid levels in children without renal disease are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the risk for CVD in pediatric CKD/ESRD is unclear. The pathogenesis of dyslipidemia in CKD features various factors, including increased levels of triglycerides, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC-III), decreased levels of cholesterylester transfer protein and high-density lipoproteins, and aberrations in serum very low-density and intermediate-density lipoproteins. If initial risk assessment indicates that a child with advanced CKD has 2 or more co-morbidities for CVD, first-line treatment should consist of non-pharmacologic management such as therapeutic lifestyle changes and dietary counseling. Pharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia may reduce the incidence of CVD in children with CKD/ESRD, but randomized trials are lacking. Statins are the only class of lipid-lowering drugs currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the pediatric population. FDA-approved pediatric labeling for these drugs is based on results from placebo-controlled trial results, showing 30-50% reductions in baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although statins are generally well tolerated in adults, a spectrum of adverse events has been reported with their use in both the clinical trial and post-marketing settings.

  12. Dietary Intake, Nutritional Status, and Body Composition in Children With End-Stage Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontón-Vázquez, Consuelo; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Hurtado-López, Erika Fabiola; de la Torre Serrano, Adriana; García, Germán Patiño; Romero-Velarde, Enrique

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that dietary intake, anthropometric indicators, and body composition in children with end-stage kidney disease differs between those on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and those on hemodialysis (HD). This was a cross-sectional and consecutive study that included 55 children and adolescents with end-stage kidney disease who were undergoing replacement therapy (22 PD patients and 33 HD patients). Two 24-hour dietary recall surveys were conducted for each patient. Anthropometric, biochemical, and body composition indicators were estimated. A Student's t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test were used for the parametric variables, whereas association tests were estimated for the nonparametric variables (i.e., χ 2 , Fisher exact test, and odds ratio). Regression models were designed to predict dietary intake on anthropometric and body composition indicators. The mid-upper arm circumference was greater on the patients undergoing HD than on the PD patients (odds ratio = 15.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9, 85.1], P nutritional status in children on PD and 28% to 60% in children on HD. Nutritional status is affected in most patients on dialysis treatment, which differs significantly among those who are undergoing PD or HD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Pregnancy and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email A new baby is ... disease and pregnancy. Can a woman with "mild" kidney disease have a baby? That depends. There is good ...

  14. Relation of Aortic Valve and Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease to the Stage and Etiology of the Renal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Touw, Hugo R. W.; Gansevoort, Ron; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure have increased cardiac calcium loads. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and quantitative extent of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of

  15. Vitamin D and Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease: A New Paradigm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya; Joffe, Preben; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRA) are currently recommended for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in stage 5 CKD. They are considered to be contraindicated in the presence of low or normal (for a dialysis patient) levels of PTH due to the risk of developing adynamic bone disease...

  16. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  17. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Related Topics English English French Español Section Navigation Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... tips from the family health reunion guide and speak with your family during special gatherings. Your chances ...

  18. Clinical pharmacy activities in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemer Gunar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD represent worldwide health problems with an epidemic extent. Therefore, attention must be given to the optimisation of patient care, as gaps in the care of CKD and ESRD patients are well documented. As part of a multidisciplinary patient care strategy, clinical pharmacy services have led to improvements in patient care. The purpose of this study was to summarise the available evidence regarding the role and impact of clinical pharmacy services for these patient populations. Methods A literature search was conducted using the Medline, Embase and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases to identify relevant studies on the impact of clinical pharmacists on CKD and ESRD patients, regarding disease-oriented and patient-oriented outcomes, and clinical pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems. Results Among a total of 21 studies, only four (19% were controlled trials. The majority of studies were descriptive (67% and before-after studies (14%. Interventions comprised general clinical pharmacy services with a focus on detecting, resolving and preventing drug-related problems, clinical pharmacy services with a focus on disease management, or clinical pharmacy services with a focus on patient education in order to increase medication knowledge. Anaemia was the most common comorbidity managed by clinical pharmacists, and their involvement led to significant improvement in investigated disease-oriented outcomes, for example, haemoglobin levels. Only four of the studies (including three controlled trials presented data on patient-oriented outcomes, for example, quality of life and length of hospitalisation. Studies investigating the number and type of clinical pharmacist interventions and physician acceptance rates reported a mean acceptance rate of 79%. The most common reported drug-related problems were incorrect dosing, the need for additional

  19. Vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and ventricular hypertrophy in the early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Silvia; Coppola, Bettina; Dimko, Mira; Galani, Alessandro; Innico, Georgie; Frassetti, Nicla; Mariotti, Amalia

    2014-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with markedly increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. This increase is not fully explained by traditional CV risk factors but may in part be mediated by nontraditional risk factors, such as inadequate vitamin D (vit D) levels and insulin resistance (IR). Although IR is shown in nondiabetic CKD, its association with vit D deficiency and vascular disease in this population is unknown and what this study aims to investigate. The study comprised 67 patients with CKD (eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min) and 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex. The phlogosis indexes, vit D levels, IR, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. In our study, the mean value of LVMI and cIMT was significantly higher in patients with eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min compared with controls (p = 0.037 and p hypertrophy and atherosclerotic disease. Vitamin D deficiency and IR are thus associated with increased CV risk. More novel approaches to improving IR and vit D supplementation in the CKD population might lead to potential strategies for preventing excess CV mortality.

  20. Use of a new end stage kidney disease risk calculator in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline to evaluate the impact of different living kidney donor candidate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darren; Manzoor, Momena; Harley, Geoff; Whitlam, John; Cook, Natasha; Choy, Suet-Wan; Sandiford, Megan; Gibson, Charlotte; McMahon, Lawrence P; Roberts, Matthew A

    2017-05-20

    The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline recommends the incorporation of a new risk calculator that quantifies the end stage kidney disease (ESKD) risk based on a composite profile of risk factors in living kidney donor candidates (LKDCs). We compared the ESKD risk estimates in previously declined versus accepted LKDCs to evaluate the predictive capacity and potential impact of this tool. Baseline 15-year and lifetime ESKD risk estimates without donation were calculated using the risk calculator for LKDCs assessed from two centres between 2007 and 2015. LKDC suitability based on the proposed KDIGO and the existing Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (KHA-CARI) national guidelines was compared. Median 15-year ESKD risk was 0.14% (IQR 0.09-0.31%) in declined LKDCs (n = 59) versus 0.10% (0.07-0.14%) in accepted LKDCs (n = 89) (P calculator captured reasons for declining donation in only 39% of LKDCs. 46.9% of LKDCs with KHA-CARI contraindications were reclassified as having an acceptable (≤1%) lifetime risk and no KDIGO contraindications, primarily related to a lower pre-donation glomerular filtration rate or controlled hypertension with obesity. Declined LKDCs had a higher 15-year but similar lifetime ESKD risk. However, the calculator successfully differentiated declined LKDCs with a lifetime risk >1%. This risk calculator appears to complement but not replace clinical evaluation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence in favor of a severely impaired net intestinal calcium absorption in patients with (early-stage) chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, L; Meijers, B K I; Vanrenterghem, Y; Evenepoel, P

    2012-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential to many vital physiological processes. Little is known about the net and fractional intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their clinical and hormonal determinants. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 20 healthy volunteers (HV) and 72 stable CKD stage 1-4 patients and analyzed for parameters of mineral metabolism including calcidiol, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary intake was assessed by dietary history. The 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, as opposed to the phosphorus excretion, showed a stepwise decrease across CKD stages (median of 219, 84, 40, and 22 mg/day in HV and patients with CKD stages 1-2, 3 and 4, respectively). Younger age, high serum calcitriol, and high estimated GFR were associated with a high 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. High serum calcitriol levels and dietary phosphorus intake were associated with a high 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion. The fractional intestinal calcium absorption, as estimated by the urinary-to-ingested calcium ratio, decreased across CKD stages. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium, as opposed to phosphorus, is markedly decreased in CKD, even in early-stage disease. This is partly explained by low calcitriol levels and older age. Assuming a neutral calcium balance at the time of urine collection, we infer that net intestinal calcium absorption may be severely impaired in CKD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of aggressive osteodystrophy management on clinical outcomes in stage 5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham-Gray, Laura; Drasher, Tammy; Deckman, Karen; Graham, Diane; Liftman, Carol; Roberto, Linda; Peiffer, Phyllis; Denmark, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The study investigated whether the type of bone disease management (aggressive versus conventional) had an impact on clinical outcomes, namely bone health measures (e.g., biointact parathyroid hormone [BiPTH], serum corrected calcium [cCa] level, serum phosphorus [phos] level, and corrected calcium-phosphorus product [cCaPO(4)]). Retrospective chart review of 173 closed medical records of maintenance hemodialysis patients on thrice-weekly therapy from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2005. Two Conventional Management (i.e., control group) and three Aggressive Management (i.e., treatment group) dialysis facilities were enrolled. There was a significant interaction for group assignment and BiPTH levels (F = 4.12, P = .01), with the Aggressive Group trending toward lower BiPTH levels than the Conventional Group. The Conventional Group experienced a significantly lower mean annualized serum cCa level (F = 8.85, P = .003), and used non-calcium-based binders significantly more (P management appears to be as effective as traditional interventions in the treatment of mineral and bone metabolism disorders in chronic kidney disease.

  3. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  4. Glycaemic, blood pressure and lipid goal attainment and chronic kidney disease stage of type 2 diabetic patients treated in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcillo, Antonella; Pivin, Edward; Lalubin, Fabrice; Pitteloud, Nelly; Burnier, Michel; Zanchi, Anne

    2017-07-11

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes is rising in Europe. These patients are at high cardiovascular and renal risk and need a challenging multifactorial therapeutic approach. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the treatment and attainments of goals related to cardiovascular risk factors within chronic kidney disease stages in type 2 diabetic patients followed up by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Each participating physician entered into a web database the anonymised data of up to 15 consecutive diabetic patients attending her/his office between December 2013 and June 2014. Diabetes, hypertension and lipid lowering therapies were analysed, as well as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and goal attainments by KDIGO chronic kidney disease stage 1 to 4. A total of 1359 patients (mean age 66.5±12.4 years) were included by 109 primary care physicians. Chronic kidney disease stages 0-2, 3a, 3 b and 4 were present in 77.6%, 13.9%, 6.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. Average HbA1c was independent of chronic kidney disease stage and close to 7%; more than half of the patients reached the HbA1c goal. Eighty-four percent of patients were hypertensive and only 18.2% reached the then current Swiss or American Diabetes Association 2013 blood pressure goals. Despite loosening of blood pressure goals in 2015, only half of the patients reached them and most needed multiple therapies. Increased body mass index and advanced chronic kidney disease stage decreased the chance of reaching blood pressure goals. Lipid lowering therapy was prescribed in 62.1% of cases, with average LDL-c levels similar across chronic kidney disease stages. Only 42% of patients reached the LDL-c goal of primary prevention and 32% reached primary care physicians in Switzerland. Goal attainments for HbA1c and LDL-c were not influenced by chronic kidney disease stages, in contrast to blood pressure. Reaching

  5. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACKD)? M any people with chronic kid ney disease develop ACKD, a condition in which the kidneys develop fluid-filled sacs called renal (kidney) cysts. ACKD occurs in children and adults. The cysts are more likely to ...

  6. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagels Agneta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Methods Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2–5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. Results All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in ‘physical functioning’, ‘role physical’, ‘general health’ and in physical summary scores (PCS. The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2–3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES ≥ .80 - in ‘general health’ and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in ‘physical function’, ‘general health’ and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2–3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 – 0.79 in ‘role emotional’ and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate Conclusions Having CKD implies impaired HRQoL, also in earlier stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  7. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderkvist, Birgitta Klang; Medin, Charlotte; Hylander, Britta; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-06-18

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2-5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in 'physical functioning', 'role physical', 'general health' and in physical summary scores (PCS). The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2-3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES) ≥ .80 - in 'general health' and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in 'physical function', 'general health' and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2-3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 - 0.79) in 'role emotional' and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  8. [An assessment of nutritional status in children on maintenance hemodialysis due to stage 5 chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye-Ping; Shen, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Rong

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of children on maintenance hemodialysis due to stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the clinical significance of nutritional assessment indices. A total of 21 children on maintenance hemodialysis due to stage 5 CKD were grouped according to body mass index. The nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric parameters, biochemical parameters, inflammatory factors, residual renal function, indices of dialysis adequacy, and resting energy expenditure. Related indices were compared between the children with malnutrition and those with normal nutritional status. Of the 21 children, 10 had malnutrition and 11 had normal nutritional status. There were significant differences between the two groups in anthropometric parameters, levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and mean 24-hour residual urine volume (Pnutritional status of children with stage 5 CKD on maintenance hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to investigate the value of the measurement of resting energy expenditure in the evaluation and monitoring of nutritional status in children with stage 5 CKD on maintenance hemodialysis.

  9. Influence of Acute Kidney Injury Defined by the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease Score on the Clinical Course of PICU Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Felipe Cezar; Ramos Garcia, Pedro Celiny; Mattiello, Rita; Dresser, Daiane; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Korb, Cecilia; Dalcin, Tiago Chagas; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the pediatric-modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease criteria for disease course severity in patients with or without acute kidney injury admitted to a PICU. Retrospective cohort study. A 12-bed PICU at a tertiary referral center in Southern Brazil. All patients admitted to the study unit over a 1-year period. A database of all eligible patients was analyzed retrospectively. Patients were classified by pediatric-modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease score at admission and worst pediatric-modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease score during PICU hospitalization. The outcomes of interest were length of PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive drug therapy, and mortality. The Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 was used to assess overall disease severity at the time of PICU admission. Of 375 patients, 169 (45%) presented acute kidney injury at the time of admission and 37 developed acute kidney injury during PICU stay, for a total of 206 of 375 patients (55%) diagnosed with acute kidney injury during the study period. The median Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score predicted a mortality rate of 9% among non-acute kidney injury patients versus a mortality rate of 16% among acute kidney injury patients (p = 0.006). The mortality of patients classified as pediatric-modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease F was double that predicted by Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (7 vs 3.2). Patients classified as having severe acute kidney injury (pediatric-modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease I + F) exhibited higher mortality (14.1%; p = 0.001) and prolonged PICU length of stay (median, 7 d; p = 0.001) when compared with other patients. Acute kidney injury is a very frequent occurrence among patients admitted to PICUs. The degree of acute kidney injury severity, as assessed by the pediatric-modified Risk

  10. Comparison of health-related quality of life between patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease and patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Son, Heesook

    2016-01-01

    This study compared health-related quality of life in patients with early to mid-stage chronic kidney disease. This study utilized a comparative descriptive design. Patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were recruited from a hospital in Korea. Information from patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease was obtained from Korean national survey data. A total of 75 pairs were matched using the propensity score method. Health-related quality of life was compared using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire. Only 4% of patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease are aware of their disease. These patients have decreased mobility and ability to perform their usual activities (χ(2)  = 10.77, P = 0.001; χ(2)  = 7.22, P = 0.007, respectively). However, they have lower levels of anxiety and depression than patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (χ(2)  = 13.37, P chronic kidney disease. Educational intervention in asymptomatic patients is important to increase awareness and early detection of chronic kidney disease. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. A wearable artificial kidney for patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Victor; Rivara, Matthew B; Bieber, Scott; Munshi, Raj; Smith, Nancy Colobong; Linke, Lori; Kundzins, John; Beizai, Masoud; Ezon, Carlos; Kessler, Larry; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2016-06-02

    Stationary hemodialysis machines hinder mobility and limit activities of daily life during dialysis treatments. New hemodialysis technologies are needed to improve patient autonomy and enhance quality of life. We conducted a FDA-approved human trial of a wearable artificial kidney, a miniaturized, wearable hemodialysis machine, based on dialysate-regenerating sorbent technology. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the wearable artificial kidney in achieving solute, electrolyte, and volume homeostasis in up to 10 subjects over 24 hours. During the study, all subjects remained hemodynamically stable, and there were no serious adverse events. Serum electrolytes and hemoglobin remained stable over the treatment period for all subjects. Fluid removal was consistent with prescribed ultrafiltration rates. Mean blood flow was 42 ± 24 ml/min, and mean dialysate flow was 43 ± 20 ml/min. Mean urea, creatinine, and phosphorus clearances over 24 hours were 17 ± 10, 16 ± 8, and 15 ± 9 ml/min, respectively. Mean β 2 -microglobulin clearance was 5 ± 4 ml/min. Of 7 enrolled subjects, 5 completed the planned 24 hours of study treatment. The trial was stopped after the seventh subject due to device-related technical problems, including excessive carbon dioxide bubbles in the dialysate circuit and variable blood and dialysate flows. Treatment with the wearable artificial kidney was well tolerated and resulted in effective uremic solute clearance and maintenance of electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. These results serve as proof of concept that, after redesign to overcome observed technical problems, a wearable artificial kidney can be developed as a viable novel alternative dialysis technology. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02280005. The Wearable Artificial Kidney Foundation and Blood Purification Technologies Inc.

  12. Estimated GFR (eGFR by prediction equation in staging of chronic kidney disease compared to gamma camera GFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masum Alam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomerular filtration rate is an effective tool for diagnosis and staging of chronic kidney disease. The effect ofrenal insufficiency by different method of this tool among patients with CKD is controversial.Objective: The objec­tive of this study was to evaluate the performance of eGFR in staging of CKD compared to gamma camera based GFR.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU with the collaboration with National Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, BSMMU during the period of January 2011 to December 2012. Gama camera based GFR was estimated from DTP A reno gram and eGFR was estimated by three prediction equations. Comparison was done by Bland Altman agree­ment test to see the agreement on the measurement of GFR between three equation based eGFR method and gama camera based GFR method. Staging comparison was done by Kappa analysis to see the agreement between the stages identified by those different methods.Results: Bland-Altman agreement analysis between GFR measured by gamma camera, CG equation ,CG equation corrected by BSA and MDRD equation shows statistically significant. CKD stages determined by CG GFR, CG GFR corrected by BSA , MDRD GFR and gamma camera based GFR was compared by Kappa statistical analysis .The kappa value was 0.66, 0.77 and 0.79 respectively.Conclusions: This study findings suggest that GFR estimation by MDRD equation in CKD patients shows good agreement with gamma camera based GFR and for staging of CKD patients, eGFR by MDRD formula may be used as very effective tool in Bangladeshi population.

  13. Age and gender differences in the relationship between hepatitis C infection and all stages of Chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-C; Lee, Y-Y; Chen, I-C; Wang, S-H; Hsiao, C-T; Loke, S-S

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health issue with heavy economic burden. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of CKD, which can significantly impact the progression and mortality among patients with CKD. The prevalence of both illnesses is high in Taiwan. A multicentre and population-based cross-sectional study including 24 642 subjects was conducted to explore the association of HCV infection with the prevalence and severity of CKD. The measurements of metabolic parameters, eGFR and CKD stages were compared between subjects with HCV seropositivity and seronegativity. The analyses of association between HCV infection with CKD stages and evaluation of potential risk factors of CKD were performed by gender and age (≤ and >45 years). HCV-seropositive subjects accounted for 6.9% and had a significantly older age. The prevalence of CKD increased in those with HCV seropositivity (16.5%). Significantly higher prevalence of CKD stages ≥3 in HCV-seropositive subjects was noticed (7.8%). Age (>45 year), male gender, alcohol drinking, hypertension, creatinine and HCV infection were the significant factors associated with the presence of CKD. HCV seropositivity was an independent risk factor of developing CKD and associated with an increased risk of having CKD of all stages. The higher prevalence of earlier stage of CKD warrants longitudinal studies with frequent testing on renal function and sufficient duration to determine the changes of eGFR over time. Implementation of effective treatment intervention is also required for these subjects to prevent the progression of CKD to late stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized...

  15. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (pbehavior modification of CKD patients, namely, significantly lower discontinuous clinical visits, and behavior modification of both GPs and nephrologists, namely significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates, resulting in the retardation of CKD progression, especially in patients with proteinuric Stage 3 CKD. The University Hospital Medical Information

  16. Hydration status of patients with end-stage renal disease after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueutin, Victor; Ficheux, Maxence; Châtelet, Valérie; Lecouf, Angélique; Henri, Patrick; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the modification of hydration status within the first three months of renal transplantation. Fifty patients who underwent a first kidney allograft were prospectively followed for three months after renal transplantation to assess hydration status by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Two hours before the transplant procedure, 10/42 (23.8%) patients were overhydrated. Two days after surgery, 32/40 (80.0%) patients were overhydrated and at three months, 14/27 (51.9%) patients remained fluid-overloaded. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients had a lower hydration status (-0.60 L) than hemodialysis (HD) patients (0.70 L; p hydration status before transplantation (p = 0.031). At three months, 12/14 of the overhydrated patients had a creatinine clearance between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Patients receiving a first kidney transplant frequently have a hydration disorder. Transplantation is associated with increased hydration status, which seems to persist if DGF or SGF occurs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Mineral and Bone Disorder in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage I to V (Predialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hoon Lee

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As CKD progressed, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism and 1,25D3 deficiency increased, serum FGF-23 level increased and urinary phosphorus excretion decreased in children with CKD stage I to V predialysis.

  18. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Methods Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonu...

  19. Impact of end-stage kidney disease on academic achievement and employment in young adults: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter D; Dobbels, Fabienne; Lonsdale, Daniel C; Harden, Paul N

    2014-10-01

    Young adult kidney patients are at an important stage of development when end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) may adversely influence progress in education and employment. This study is designed to assess the impact of ESKD on education and employment outcomes in young adults. This cross-sectional study was a mixed methods design. Education and career achievements in young adults with ESKD were recorded quantitatively using a questionnaire survey (n = 57): 14 of 57 representative participants were subsequently selected for semistructured interview. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 57 young adults (median age 25): 8.8% (n = 5) were predialysis; 14.0% (n = 8) dialysis; and 78.9% (n = 45) were kidney transplant recipients. Median school-leaving age was 16 (interquartile range = 15-19). Of 57 young adults, 10 (17.5%) were still studying, 43 (75.4%) had completed education, 34 (59.7%) were employed (23 full time and 11 part time), and 19 (33.3%) were unemployed. Twenty-seven of 45 transplanted patients were employed (60.0%). Of these 27, 21 were full time (77.8%). Five of eight dialysis patients were employed: only one of eight was full-time employed (12.5%). Themes impacting on education and employment included low energy levels, time missed, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of loneliness and isolation, which may progress to depression and recreational drug use. Lack of understanding from educators and employers resulting in lost work, and career ambitions changed or limited because of dialysis. Dialysis has a major negative impact on education and reduced employment rates of young adults. There is a general lack of understanding among educators and employers of the impact of ESKD. Low energy levels, lack of self-esteem, and depression are key factors. There is a need for health care providers to recognize this issue and invest in supporting young adults with ESKD. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Contemporary Management of Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have emerged as a worldwide public health problem. Due to the remarkably higher incidence and prevalence of this chronic disease in Taiwan than in other countries, CKD/ESRD has contributed to a significant health burden in Taiwan. Patients with CKD/ESRD have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to the normal population. Patients with ACS alone can present differently than patients with ACS and CKD/ESRD. Also, due to the lower prevalence of chest pain and ST-segment elevation, CKD/ESRD patients were more difficult to diagnose than other patients. Furthermore, whether advances in ACS management with medical therapy and an early invasive approach could improve patient outcomes with CKD/ESRD is not known. The use of antiplatelets such as aspirin and other antithrombotic agents might reduce the incidence of ACS or stroke in CKD patients. However, such use could also increase bleeding risk and even increase the likelihood of mortality, especially in dialysis patients. While recent clinical data suggest the potential benefit of aggressive management with coronary intervention for CAD and ACS in this category of patients, further clinical studies are still indicated for the proper medical strategy and revascularization therapy to improve the outcomes of CAD and ACS in CKD/ESRD patients, both in Taiwan and worldwide. PMID:27122697

  1. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  2. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  3. Clinical Trial of Vadadustat in Patients with Anemia Secondary to Stage 3 or 4 Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edouard R; Smith, Mark T; Maroni, Bradley J; Zuraw, Qing C; deGoma, Emil M

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain limited. Vadadustat (AKB-6548) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase domain (HIF-PHD) inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of anemia secondary to CKD. A phase 2a, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial (NCT01381094) was undertaken in adults with anemia secondary to CKD stage 3 or 4. Eligible subjects were evenly randomized to 5 groups: 240, 370, 500, or 630 mg of once-daily oral vadadustat or placebo for 6 weeks. All subjects received low-dose supplemental oral iron (50 mg daily). The primary endpoint was the mean absolute change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints included iron indices, safety, and tolerability. Ninety-three subjects were randomized. Compared with placebo, vadadustat significantly increased Hb after 6 weeks in a dose-dependent manner (analysis of variance; p anemia secondary to stage 3 or 4 CKD. Global multicenter, randomized phase 3 trials are ongoing in non-dialysis-dependent and dialysis-dependent patients. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Relationship between symptom clusters and quality of life in patients at stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Jeon, JaeHee

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify the relationship between symptom clusters and quality of life (QOL) in patients with stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korea. Using self-reported questionnaires, data were collected from 143 patients who underwent treatment for CKD at one hospital in Korea. The 17-item Patient Outcome Scale was used to measure symptoms, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Instrument Version 2 (SF-36v2) was used to measure the QOL. Data were analyzed using factor analysis to draw symptom clusters. Among five symptom clusters, the energy insufficiency and pain cluster was found to have the highest prevalence and greatest severity. The severity of symptom clusters showed negative correlations with both physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores. Elderly patients scored low on PCS, whereas younger patients in their 30s and 40s scored low on MCS. Negative correlations were found between symptom clusters and PCS as well as MCS. The severity of symptoms and QOL had stronger relationships with subjective perception of symptoms and psychological factors than with objective clinical indicators. As the effects of physical and psychological symptoms on the QOL in patients with stages 2 to 4 CKD were identified in this study, nurses should develop strategic nursing plans focused on symptom clusters and patients' subjective perception of symptoms rather than objective clinical indicators in order to improve the QOL in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in 73 gouty patients with stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease: A retrospective study of 10 centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juge, Pierre-Antoine; Truchetet, Marie-Elise; Pillebout, Evangeline; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Vigneau, Cécile; Loustau, Clotilde; Cornec, Divi; Pascart, Tristan; Snanoudj, Renaud; Bailly, Florian; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Saraux, Alain; Dieudé, Philippe; Flipo, René-Marc; Richette, Pascal; Lioté, Frédéric; Bardin, Thomas; Chalès, Gérard; Ea, Hang-Korng

    2017-10-01

    The allopurinol dose is limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. Febuxostat has a hepatic metabolism and has been approved without dose adaptation in gouty patients with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease. We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of febuxostat for stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. In this retrospective study, we included patients with (1) a diagnosis of gout, (2) febuxostat treatment, (3) estimated glomerular filtration rate≤30mL/min/1.73m 2 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) at febuxostat initiation and (4) follow-up for at least 3 months after febuxostat initiation. Efficacy, safety and variation in estimated glomerular filtration rate were analyzed. We included 73 patients (mean age 70.2±11.8, 61 men, 31 with vascular chronic kidney disease and 18 renal transplantation) with gout (baseline serum uric acid level=9.86±2.85mg/dL, mean gout duration 6.2±7.0 years) from 10 academic centers. Comorbidities included cardiac failure (17.8%), hypertension (98.6%), diabetes mellitus (30.1%), dyslipidemia (64.8%) and history of cardiovascular events (38.4%). At the last visit (mean follow-up 68.5±64.8 weeks), the daily dose of febuxostat was 40mg for 7 patients (10.5%), 80mg for 50 (74.6%) and 120mg for 10 (14.9%). Serum uric acid level waschronic kidney disease. However, safety data were not clear regarding renal function. Larger studies are needed to assess safety. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease YESTERDAY Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) resulted ...

  7. Diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus develop diabetic kidney disease. This is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h, or > 300 mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), raised arterial......). Untreated microalbuminuria will gradually worsen, reaching clinical proteinuria or severely increased albuminuria (albuminuria grade A3) over 5 to 15 years. The GFR then begins to decline, and without treatment, end-stage renal failure is likely to result in 5 to 7 years. Although albuminuria is the first...... sign of diabetic nephropathy, the first symptom is usually peripheral edema, which occurs at a very late stage. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed in order to identify patients at risk of or with presymptomatic diabetic kidney disease. Annual monitoring of urinary...

  8. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairam, Krish; Scoffone, Cesare M; Alken, Peter

    2012-01-01

    by glomerular filtration rate, including chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II-greater than 60, stage III-30 to 59 and stages IV/V-less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). Patient characteristics, operative characteristics, outcomes and morbidity were assessed. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate data were...... available on 5,644 patients, including 4,436 with chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II, 994 with stage III and 214 with stages IV/V. A clinically significant minority of patients with nephrolithiasis presented with severe chronic kidney disease. A greater number of patients with stages IV/V previously...... underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy or nephrostomy and had positive urine cultures than less severely affected patients, consistent with the higher incidence of staghorn stones in these patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease stages IV/V had statistically significantly worse...

  10. During the pre-dialysis stage of chronic kidney disease, which treatment is associated with better survival in dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Alvarado, Raúl; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Luna, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Specialised care of patients in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with better survival in dialysis, but it is not known which treatments specifically favour this outcome. To analyse normal treatment in advanced stages of CKD and establish which treatments are associated with better survival in dialysis as well as their relationship with causes of death. Cohort, prospective observational study of 591 patients who started dialysis (491 haemodialysis and 100 peritoneal dialysis), who had previously been monitored in the CKD clinic. The treatments analysed were: antihypertensive treatments, statins, antiplatelet drugs, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, correction of metabolic acidosis, treatment with (calcium or non-calcium) phosphate binders, vitamin D (calcitriol or paricalcitol), erythropoietin and the availability of an internal arteriovenous fistula (IAVF). The independent association of each of these treatments with mortality in dialysis was analysed using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, pre-dialysis monitoring time, renal function at the start of dialysis, comorbidity, serum albumin and C-reactive protein, and with stratification of the type of dialysis. With a median follow-up period of 28 months, the total number of patients who died was 191 (32%). In the multivariate models, we observed that, in addition to age, the comorbidity index, serum albumin, pre-dialysis treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate and IAVF at the start of haemodialysis were significantly associated with better survival in dialysis. We did not observe differences in causes of death between the different treatments analysed. These results suggest a potential delayed benefit of some treatments in pre-dialysis stages on the outcome of dialysis. Furthermore, beginning dialysis without an IAVF, resulting in the need for intravenous catheters, worsens prognosis

  11. Nutritional evaluation of stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mauro Piratelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney failure undergoing dialysis have high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition. There is still no uniform method for assessing these patients' nutritional status. It is recommended that a set of subjective and objective methods should be applied so that an adequate nutritional diagnosis can be reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of patients undergoing hemodialysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the Dialysis Treatment Unit, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008. METHODS: Anthropometric and biochemical indicators were characterized for 48 patients who also gave responses to the modified Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire (SGAm, and possible correlations between these indicators were investigated. RESULTS: The frequency of moderate or severe malnutrition ranged from 22% to 54%, according to the parameter used. Regarding the patients' conformity with the ideal weight, 29% of them weighed less than 75% of the ideal, and thus were classified as having moderate or severe malnutrition. The most significant correlations were observed between body mass index (BMI and the idealness of triceps skinfold (TSF, upper arm circumference (UAC and upper arm muscle circumference (UAMC; and between SGAm and the idealness of UAC and UAMC. CONCLUSION: The frequency of malnutrition showed great variability among the patients, according to the evaluation criterion chosen. Routine nutritional monitoring and validation of methods for assessing body composition among such patients are extremely important for diagnosing malnutrition early on, thus preventing complications and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates in this population.

  12. Epicardial fat accumulation, cardiometabolic profile and cardiovascular events in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, A C; Amparo, F C; Oliveira, M A C; Amodeo, C; Smanio, P; Pinto, I M F; Lindholm, B; Stenvinkel, P; Carrero, J J

    2015-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) exerts pathogenic effects on cardiac structures. We analysed the associations between EAT and both cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and CV events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We included 277 nondialysed patients [median age 61, interquartile range (IQR) 53-68 years; 63% men] with stages 3-5 CKD in this cross-sectional evaluation. EAT and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by computed tomography. Patients were followed for median 32 (IQR 20-39) months, and the composite of fatal and nonfatal CV events was recorded. With increasing EAT quartiles, patients were older, had higher glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, waist, VAT and coronary calcification, higher levels of haemoglobin, triglycerides, albumin, C-reactive protein and leptin and higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischaemia; total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and 1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D progressively decreased. Associations between EAT and cardiac alterations were not independent of VAT. During follow-up, 58 CV events occurred. A 1-SD higher EAT volume was associated with an increased risk of CV events in crude [hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.12-1.78) and adjusted (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.21-1.99) Cox models. However, adding EAT to a standard CV disease risk prediction model did not result in a clinically relevant improvement in prediction. Epicardial adipose tissue accumulation in patients with CKD increases the risk of CV events independent of general adiposity. This is consistent with the notion of a local pathogenic effect of EAT on the heart or heart vessels, or both. However, EAT adds negligible explanatory power to standard CV disease risk factors. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Very large polycystic kidneys presenting with end stage renal failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of renal impairment and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Apart from cysts in the kidneys and other organs such as the liver, pancreas and other organs, patients also develop abdominal hernia thought to be as a result of ...

  14. Kidney function and mortality post-liver transplant in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aastha Sethi1, Michelle M Estrella1, Richard Ugarte2, Mohamed G Atta1 1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score incorporates serum creatinine and was introduced to facilitate allocation of orthotopic liver transplantation (LT. The objective is to determine the impact of MELD and kidney function on all-cause mortality. Among LTs performed in a tertiary referral hospital between 1995 and 2009, 419 cases were studied. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for death. Over mean follow-ups of 8.4 and 3.1 years during the pre-MELD and MELD era, 57 and 63 deaths were observed, respectively. Those transplanted during the MELD era had a higher likelihood of hepatorenal syndrome (8% vs 2%, P < 0.01, lower kidney function (median estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 77.8 vs 92.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01, and more pretransplantation renal replacement therapy (RRT (5% vs 1%; P < 0.01. All-cause mortality risk was similar in the MELD vs the pre-MELD era (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58–1.65. The risk of death, however, was nearly 3-fold greater (95% CI: 1.14–6.60 among those requiring pre-transplant RRT. Similarly, eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 post-transplant was associated with a 2.5-fold higher mortality (95% CI: 1.48–4.11. The study suggests that MELD implementation had no impact on all-cause mortality post-LT. However, the need for pre-transplant RRT and post-transplant kidney dysfunction was associated with a more than 2-fold greater risk of subsequent death. Keywords: eGFR, mortality, MELD, liver transplant

  15. Paediatric chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of markers of kidney damage. • Markers of kidney disease include any of the following: • proteinuria (urine dipstick ≥2+ or urine protein:creatinine ratio 5 × the upper limit of normal). • urine sediment abnormalities. • electrolyte and other abnormalities caused by tubular disorders. • histological abnormalities.

  16. Paediatric chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (oliguria) (<1.0 mL/kg/hour). • Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and plasma parathyroid hormone should be determined to assess bone mineral disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. • Renal ultrasound is necessary to demonstrate kidney size (small shrunken kidneys are characteristic of CKD) and.

  17. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonulin, hepcidin-25, soluble transferrin receptor, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured using commercially available assays. Zonulin was significantly lower among patients with CKD in comparison with healthy volunteers. There were no statistically significant differences in zonulin concentration between patients with and without inflammation. Zonulin was significantly correlated with hepcidin only in patients with inflammation. Zonulin was neither related to iron nor related to ferritin. Zonulin cannot be considered as an inflammatory marker in CKD. It does not play a role in the disturbances of iron metabolism in CKD. Its physiological role remains to be elucidated.

  18. Study of Red Cell Fragility in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Relation to Parathyroid Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Suchismita; Mishra, Anuva; Jena, Manoranjan; Rout, Sashi Bhusan; Mohapatra, Srikrushna

    2017-08-01

    Anaemia is one of the common complications associated with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) responsible for the increase in the morbidity and mortality in such patients. Several factors have been attributed to cause renal anaemia, amongst which hyperparathyroidism is one of the less recognised reasons. Most studies have been conducted in this regard in CKD patients undergoing haemodialysis. The level of PTH in early stages of chronic kidney disease has not been much studied. The excess amount of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) secondary to CKD has been suggested to be a causative factor for anaemia. To evaluate the serum PTH level in CKD patients before haemodialysis and to study the association of the haemoglobin status with the parathyroid hormone. Forty CKD patients above 18 years of age before haemodialysis and 25 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Routine biochemical and haematological parameters such as Routine Blood Sugar (RBS), urea, creatinine, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , PTH and Hb% were perfomed. Red cell osmotic fragility was measured by serial dilutions of whole blood with varying concentrations of sodium chloride ranging from 0.1% to 0.9%. The study revealed a significant fall in Hb%, along with a rise in Median Osmotic Fragility (MOF) and PTH in the CKD patients when compared to the control group. Linear regression of PTH with Hb% revealed significant negative association between both the parameters with a R 2 value of 0.677. Multilinear regression analysis of MOF and other independent variables such as Hb%, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , urea, PTH and creatinine highlighted the variance of MOF by 72%, maximal variance contributed by PTH. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.980 with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87% in detecting osmotic fragility at a cut off value of PTH ≥100 pg/ml. The underlying cause of anaemia should be identified early in the CKD patients before haemodialysis. Secondary

  19. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  20. The role of the body in end-stage kidney disease in young adults: Gender, peer and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara

    2015-09-01

    To understand how the physical body, and changes in the physical body, influence peer and intimate relationships and parenting in young adults on renal replacement therapies (RRT). Qualitative interview data from 40 young adults aged 16-30 years with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), first diagnosed aged 0-19 years, were analysed using modified grounded theory. Alternating modalities of RRT had a 'yo-yo' effect on the bodies of interviewees, repeatedly reconstructing them as either 'transplanted' bodies, often initially obese, or as 'dialysis' bodies', often underweight. Invisible somatic changes had a major impact on gendered social identity, making intimate social relationships and parenthood problematic. Prepubertal onset interviewees were generally less successful in forming partnerships than those with postpubertal onset; and interviewees on dialysis were likely to postpone partnering until they were transplanted. Social networks were essential for finding a partner, but male interviewees had fewer networks than females. Parenthood was particularly challenging for female interviewees. In ESKD, life-saving RRT brings major changes to the body. These adversely affect social relationships and family formation during the crucial period of early adulthood. Effects vary according to age of onset, RRT modality, and gender, with those who were ill before puberty and those on dialysis worst affected. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes, vitamins, minerals, and medications to help with growth and to prevent bone disease. Sometimes unhealthy kidneys have problems producing a hormone that helps make red blood cells, the cells ...

  2. Use of Extended-Release Calcifediol to Treat Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Stages 3 and 4 Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Stuart M; Crawford, Paul W; Melnick, Joel Z; Strugnell, Stephen A; Ali, Shaukat; Mangoo-Karim, Roberto; Lee, Sungchun; Petkovich, P Martin; Bishop, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are poorly addressed by current treatments. The present clinical studies evaluated extended-release (ER) calcifediol, a novel vitamin D prohormone repletion therapy designed to gradually correct low serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, improve SHPT control and minimize the induction of CYP24A1 and FGF23. Two identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolled subjects from 89 US sites. A total of 429 subjects, balanced between studies, with stage 3 or 4 CKD, SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency were randomized 2:1 to receive oral ER calcifediol (30 or 60 µg) or placebo once daily at bedtime for 26 weeks. Most subjects (354 or 83%) completed dosing, and 298 (69%) entered a subsequent open-label extension study wherein ER calcifediol was administered without interruption for another 26 weeks. ER calcifediol normalized serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>30 ng/ml) in >95% of per-protocol subjects and reduced plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) by at least 10% in 72%. The proportion of subjects receiving ER calcifediol who achieved iPTH reductions of ≥30% increased progressively with treatment duration, reaching 22, 40 and 50% at 12, 26 and 52 weeks, respectively. iPTH lowering with ER calcifediol was independent of CKD stage and significantly greater than with placebo. ER calcifediol had inconsequential impact on serum calcium, phosphorus, FGF23 and adverse events. Oral ER calcifediol is safe and effective in treating SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency in CKD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Obesity and kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Bentes, Ana Carla Sobral Novaes; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological rena...

  4. Diet quality in patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lauren A; Lambert, Kelly; Holt, Jane L; Meyer, Barbara J

    2017-12-01

    People on haemodialysis (HD) are at risk of consuming a poor quality diet. This includes inadequate intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). This study aims to investigate diet quality, with a particular focus on n-3 LCPUFA intake, in a population of incentre HD patients. Dietary intake was measured using three 24 hour recalls; the Polyunsaturated food frequency questionnaire (PUFA FFQ) and the Total Diet Score (TDS). Dietary intake was also compared to evidence based practice guidelines (EBPG). Nutritional status was assessed using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG SGA). A total of 32 dialysis patients were recruited, from two regional HD centres in New South Wales, Australia. Diet quality was the main outcome measure. Diet quality of study participants was poor, with the majority not meeting the EBPG for energy, protein and potassium. All participants exceeded the recommended amount of saturated fat. The mean TDS of the dialysis cohort was 10.2, which was significantly higher than the TDS of 9.3 of a healthy disease free cohort (p patients in this study had suboptimal diet quality. Improvements are required for better adherence to the EBPG. Increased consumption of n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids may also be of benefit. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  5. Osteoprotegerin and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Barragán, Alejandra; Gómez-Barrera, Isaias; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Ucero, Alvaro C; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is associated to increased mortality. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily receptor that inhibits the actions of the cytokines receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by preventing their binding to signaling receptors in the cell membrane. OPG-deficient mice display vascular calcification while OPG prevented calcification of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and protected kidney cells from TRAIL-induced death. OPG may be a biomarker in patients with kidney disease. Circulating OPG is increased in predialysis, dialysis and transplant CKD patients and may predict vascular calcification progression and patient survival. By contrast, circulating OPG is decreased in nephrotic syndrome. In addition, free and exosome-bound urinary OPG is increased in human kidney disease. Increased urinary OPG has been associated with lupus nephritis activity. Despite the association of high OPG levels with disease, experimental functional information available suggests that OPG might be protective in kidney disease and in vascular injury in the context of uremia. Thus, tissue injury results in increased OPG, while OPG may protect from tissue injury. Recombinant OPG was safe in phase I randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to fully define the therapeutic and biomarker potential of OPG in patients with kidney disease.

  6. Ergocalciferol treatment and aspects of mineral homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Lewin, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Focus on non-classical effects and possible less side effects of treatment with nutritional vitamin D, raises the expectation of possible benefits from treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (calcitriol) induces elevated...

  7. Stroke and Risks of Development and Progression of Kidney Diseases and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Wu

    Full Text Available There is little information about the association between stroke and kidney diseases. We aimed to investigate the impact of stroke on long-term renal outcomes.In this large population-based retrospective cohort study, we identified 100,353 subjects registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012, including 33,451 stroke patients and 66,902 age-, sex- and Charlson's comorbidity index score-matched controls.The incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD was higher in the stroke than in the control cohort (17.5 vs. 9.06 per 1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, the risk of developing CKD was significantly higher in patients with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-1.50, P<0.001. Subgroup analysis showed that stroke patients <50 years (aHR 1.61, P<0.001 and those with concomitant diabetes mellitus (aHR 2.12, P<0.001, hyperlipidemia (aHR 1.53, P<0.001 or gout (aHR 1.84, P<0.001 were at higher risk of incident CKD. Additionally, the risks of progression to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD were significantly higher for stroke patients (aHRs, 1.22 and 1.30; P = 0.04 and P = 0.008, respectively, independent of age, sex, comorbidities and long-term medications.Stroke is associated with higher risks for incident CKD, decline in renal function and ESRD. Younger stroke patients, as well as those with concomitant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or gout are at greater risk for kidney diseases.

  8. Relationship of FGF23 to indexed left ventricular mass in children with non-dialysis stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manish D; Turner, Charles; Booth, Caroline J; Waller, Simon; Rasmussen, Pernille; Goldsmith, David J A; Simpson, John M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations with indexed left ventricular mass in children with non-dialysis stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study cohort comprised 83 children (51 boys; mean age 12.1 ± 3.2 years) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 32.3 ± 14.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) who underwent clinic and ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), echocardiography and evaluation of biochemical markers of CKD-associated mineral bone disease. The mean left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 35.9 ± 8.5 g/m(2.7) (± standard deviation), with 30 (36.1 %) children showing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), all eccentric, as defined using age-specific criteria. For all subjects, the mean FGF23 concentration was 142.2 ± 204.4 ng/l and the normalised distribution following log transformation was 1.94 ± 0.39. There was significant univariate correlation of LVMI with GFR, body mass index (BMI) z-score and calcium intake, but not with 24-h systolic ABPM z-score, log intact parathyroid hormone or log FGF23. On multivariate analysis following adjustment for confounders, only elemental calcium content (g/kg/day) estimated from prescribed calcium-based phosphate binder dose (β = 154.9, p children are needed to clarify the roles of calcium-containing phosphate binders and FGF23 with LV mass and their roles in the evolution of the development of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  9. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; Pfruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; Pfruits and vegetable group (Pfruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  10. No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Rajnish; Peralta, Carmen A.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Sachs, Michael; Shah, Anuja; Norris, Keith; Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; McCullough, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16–10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD. PMID:23615501

  11. Etiology and treatment of growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Richard N

    2010-04-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in our understanding of the etiology of the growth retardation associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during the past 50 years. Significant interest has been focused on preventing and/or correcting the growth retardation because of the emergence of the dual therapeutic modalities of dialysis and renal transplantation to prolong the lives of infants, children, and adolescents afflicted with CKD and ESRD. These efforts have resulted in a significant improvement in the height Z-score over the past two decades of children with CKD and ESRD. This has had a salutary impact on the final adult height of such children which should hopefully lead to an enhanced quality of life in the future. This report addresses the progress that has been made in the management of growth retardation in the pediatric population with CKD and ESRD.

  12. Identification of impeding factors for dry weight achievement in end-stage renal disease after appropriate kidney graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-González, Sonia Catalina; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; Madero, Magdalena; Mora-Bravo, Franklin; Saavedra, Nadia; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Lerma, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that prevent dry weight achievement in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in renal replacement therapy through the change in their body weight after kidney transplant (KT) compared with 1 week before KT. The study included 188 ESRD patients of diverse etiology who received living kidney transplantation with normal immediate graft function, 62.2% were male, age 29 ± 11 years old. All patients were on renal replacement therapy for at least 1 month before KT with either hemodiafiltration (N = 106), hemodialysis (N = 25), or peritoneal dialysis (N = 57). Based on body weight difference (after transplant-before transplant), patients with body weight difference ≤2 kg were considered as being close to their dry weight (Group 1, N = 112), whereas patients with body weight difference >2 kg were considered as being overhydrated (Group 2, N = 76). Clinical and biochemical characteristics were obtained from the medical records at three periods of time: time of ESRD initiation (baseline), 1 week before undergoing KT, and 1 week after KT. The mean time (± standard deviation) from renal replacement therapy initiation to the week before KT was 9.2 ± 5 months. Group 2 had a higher proportion of men, antihypertensive use, peritoneal dialysis, and higher urine output during all periods. Before KT, Group 2 had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than Group 1. After KT, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased in Group 2, whereas no change occurred in Group 1. Before KT, Group 2 had higher levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphorous compared with Group 1. Compared with baseline, Group 1 had more optimal blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid parameters before KT than Group 2. After KT, all parameters improved with respect to baseline in both groups. Hemoglobin, albumin, and sodium were similar between groups, except for higher

  13. The development of anemia is associated to poor prognosis in NKF/KDOQI stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is a common condition in CKD that has been identified as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor in end-stage renal disease, constituting a predictor of low survival. The aim of this study was to define the onset of anemia of renal origin and its association with the evolution of kidney disease and clinical outcomes in stage 3 CKD (CKD-3). Methods This epidemiological, prospective, multicenter, 3-year study included 439 CKD-3 patients. The origin of nephropathy and comorbidity (Charlson score: 3.2) were recorded. The clinical characteristics of patients that developed anemia according to EBPG guidelines were compared with those that did not, followed by multivariate logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier curves and ROC curves to investigate factors associated with the development of renal anemia. Results During the 36-month follow-up period, 50% reached CKD-4 or 5, and approximately 35% were diagnosed with anemia (85% of renal origin). The probability of developing renal anemia was 0.12, 0.20 and 0.25 at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Patients that developed anemia were mainly men (72% anemic vs. 69% non-anemic). The mean age was 68 vs. 65.5 years and baseline proteinuria was 0.94 vs. 0.62 g/24h (anemic vs. non anemic, respectively). Baseline MDRD values were 36 vs. 40 mL/min and albumin 4.1 vs. 4.3 g/dL; reduction in MDRD was greater in those that developed anemia (6.8 vs. 1.6 mL/min/1.73 m2/3 years). These patients progressed earlier to CKD-4 or 5 (18 vs. 28 months), with a higher proportion of hospitalizations (31 vs. 16%), major CV events (16 vs. 7%), and higher mortality (10 vs. 6.6%) than those without anemia. Multivariate logistic regression indicated a significant association between baseline hemoglobin (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.24-0.28), glomerular filtration rate (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99), female (OR=0.19; 95% CI: 0.10-0.40) and the development of renal anemia. Conclusions Renal anemia is associated with a more rapid evolution to CKD-4, and a higher

  14. [A retrospective study on nutritional status and growth and development of 37 children with chronic kidney disease stage 3 to 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, R; Chen, C Y

    2016-09-01

    To retrospectively analyze the nutritional status and growth and development situation of the children with chronic kidney disease stage 3 to 5 when they were diagnosed at the first visit. After searching for the data of all the hospitalized cases during January 2007 to September 2015 in the Department of Nephrology of Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from the medical record system, data of 37 cases with complete clinical data were collected; all these cases were diagnosed as chronic kidney disease stage 3 to 5 according to the diagnostic criteria.We recorded these children's age, height, weight, body mass index, albumin, blood lipids and acidosis situation when they were first diagnosed, and then, analyzed and summarized their nutritional status and growth and development situation. In these 37 cases, 24 cases were boys and 13 cases were girls; 23 cases (62%) were shorter than the third percentile of age-sex-specific height; 18 cases (49%) exhibited lower weight than the third percentile of age-sex-specific weight; 5 cases (13.5%) showed lower BMI than the third percentile of height-age BMI, and 5 cases (13.5%) had obesity. The level of albumin was (37.0±8.7) g/L, and no statistically significant difference was observed within each stage. In all of these cases, 10 cases were hypoalbuminemia (27%), and the difference of its frequency between stage 3-4 and stage 5 was not statistically significant. Triglyceride was (2.2±1.1) mmol/L. The mean level was higher than the normal range, but with no statistically significant difference within each stage; 21 cases (62%) were diagnosed as hypertriglyceridemia, which were more frequent compared with the occurrence of the hypercholesterolemia (32%), the high low density lipoprotein (26%) and the low high density lipoprotein(12%). And the occurrence of decompensated metabolic acidosis in stage 5 (69%) was significantly higher than that in stage 3-4 (38%) (P=0.036 6, Growth retardation is

  15. Chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnani, Paola; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Jager, Kitty J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Massy, Ziad; Wanner, Christoph; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress

  16. Evaluation of relationship between sexual functions, depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Bennur; Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Ozgen, Gulten; Okumus, Muhammed Masuk; Seyahi, Nurhan; Sit, Dede; Kadioglu, Pınar

    2015-03-01

    The relation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with metabolic, psychiatric and endocrinologic disorder is well-known. Depressive mood and sexual dysfunction are frequently observed as renal functions deteriorate. We aimed to analyze the relationship of sexual dysfunction, depressive mood and life quality in patients with CKD at predialysis stage. Fifty-three patients; 27 female and 26 male with CKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 90 mL/min and followed up in the Nephrology Department, Bursa Sevket Yılmaz Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched 20 female and 20 male healthy control subjects were assigned to the control group. Detailed medical and sexual history was obtained by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Erectile Function International Evaluation Form (IEFF), Short form (SF) 36 Form and Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI). Biochemical and hormonal parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, total testosterone, DHEA-S, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol and prolactin were analyzed. Depression was observed in 12 male (46%) and 14 female (51%) patients. The frequency of depression among male patients and control subjects was similar, however, significantly higher in female patients than female controls (p=0.036). Physical function score, physical role score and pain score in SF 36 of entire patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001, respectively). The frequency of depression was similar between patients and controls (p>0.05). When SF 36 tests of male and female patients were compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status were significantly better in male patients (p=0.005, 0.016, 0.035, respectively). SF 36 scores of female patients were significantly lower than female controls (p=0.0001). The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was similar between male patients (84%) and controls (75%) (p=0.62). On the

  17. Description of cardiovascular remodeling parameters and osteopontin plasma level in dynamics of the candesartan therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease on the stage before dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vizir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the cardiovascular remodeling parameters and osteopontin plasma level in dynamics of the candesartan therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease on the stage before dialysis Methods and results. Peculiarities of the cardiovascular remodeling were studied in 52 patients with chronic kidney disease III, IV, and V stage. Echocardiography, carotid dopplerography, and immunoassay detection of the osteopontin level were done. The predominant type of pathological left ventricular geometry was concentric hypertrophy, its prevalence increased with worsening of the renal function. The maximum level of IMT was observed at stage V of the CKD. The chronic kidney disease progression was accompanied by increased plasma levels of the osteopontin. Conclusion. Direct correlation between the concentration of the protein and the index of left ventricular mass and the intima-media thickness were detected. The therapy with candesartan during 12 weeks leads to the significant reduction of osteopontin, which can be considered as a marker of cardiovascular remodeling in patients with CKD.

  18. Quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease: a comparative study between different disease stages and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Müslüm; Cengel Kültür, Ebru; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Bilginer, Yelda; Uluç, Sait; Baykan, Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life of children and adolescents in various stages of their chronic kidney disease (CKD) who were managed with different treatment modalities to that of children and adolescents without any chronic disease. The study included 18 renal transplant and 21 dialysis patients (8 on hemodialysis, 13 on peritoneal dialysis) and 16 patients who did not yet require renal replacement therapy. The control group consisted of 37 children without any chronic disease. Psychosocial Health Summary scores, Physical Health Summary scores, and Total Scale scores of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores were estimated for the groups. CKD patients had lower scores in all scales of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory than the control group. There were no differences in self-reported scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life scale scores between treatment groups; however, parents of the transplant patients had reported higher (more favorable) Physical Health Summary scores than those of the dialysis patients. Reports of parents and their children differed only in Physical Health Summary scores in the dialysis group; self-reports of the children were more favorable. These findings show that children and adolescents with CKD experience impaired quality of life on the physical and psychosocial functioning domains in comparison with healthy controls. The study findings implicate the need for further studies to investigate the quality of life in CKD patients at different stages as well as the perceptional differences between pediatric and adolescent CKD patients and caregiver proxy-reports about their quality of life.

  19. The relation of Complementary-Alternative Medicine use with glomerular filtration rate and depression in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Bennur; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Gokmen, Emel Saglam; Karakoc, Ayten; Sari, Hakan; Sarisakal, Samprie; Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Kayabasi, Hasan; Sit, Dede

    2015-05-08

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a broad field of health including all health care practices and methods; and their accompanying theories and beliefs. In the present study, we aimed to examine the frequency of complementary-alternative medicine use, and its relation with glomerular filtration rate and depression in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage. A total of 1053 predialysis patients; 518 female and 535 male, that were followed up with chronic kidney disease for at least 3 months were enrolled into the study. Demographic features, biochemical parameters and findings of physical examination were recorded. Their compliance to diet, and knowledge about disease were questioned. Beck depression inventory and questionnaire regarding to complementary-alternative medicine use were performed. The overall frequency of complementary-alternative medicine use was 40.3% . Total ratio of herbal products was 46%. Complementary-alternative medicine use was significantly more frequent in female or single patients, and patients that informed about chronic kidney disease or under strict diet (p:0.007, p:0.016, p:0.02, p:0.016; respectively). When glomerular filtration rate of participants were considered, complementary-alternative medicine use was similar in different stages of kidney disease. Depression was observed in 41.9% of patients and significantly frequent in patients with alternative method use (p:0.002). Depression score was higher as creatinine increases and glomerular filtration rate decreases (p:0.002; r: 0,093). We determined that complementary-alternative medicine use gradually increases at predialysis stage as glomerular filtration rate decreases and there is a strict relation between complementary-alternative medicine use and depression or female gender. Disorder related stressors may lead to seeking of alternative methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  1. A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2013-03-01

    Current guidelines recommend Na(+)-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) < 22 mM. Because diets in industrialized societies are typically acid-producing, we compared base-producing fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level < 22 mM, and were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition were randomly assigned to 1 year of daily oral NaHCO3 at 1.0 mEq/kg per day (n=35) or fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Plasma cystatin C-calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; P<0.01) and the fruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; P<0.01), consistent with improved metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (P<0.001). One-year urine indices of kidney injury were lower than baseline in both groups. Plasma [K(+)] did not increase in either group. One year of fruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia.

  2. Exploring access to end of life care for ethnic minorities with end stage kidney disease through recruitment in action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Emma; Randhawa, Gurch; Brown, Edwina; Da Silva Gane, Maria; Stoves, John; Warwick, Graham; Akhtar, Tahira; Magee, Regina; Sharman, Sue; Farrington, Ken

    2016-07-11

    Variation in provision of palliative care in kidney services and practitioner concerns to provide equitable access led to the development of this study which focussed on the perspectives of South Asian patients and their care providers. As people with a South Asian background experience a higher risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and end stage kidney failure (ESKF) compared to the majority population but wait longer for a transplant, there is a need for end of life care to be accessible for this group of patients. Furthermore because non English speakers and people at end of life are often excluded from research there is a dearth of research evidence with which to inform service improvement. This paper aims to explore issues relating to the process of recruitment of patients for a research project which contribute to our understanding of access to end of life care for ethnic minority patients in the kidney setting. The study employed an action research methodology with interviews and focus groups to capture and reflect on the process of engaging with South Asian patients about end of life care. Researchers and kidney care clinicians on four NHS sites in the UK recruited South Asian patients with ESKF who were requiring end of life care to take part in individual interviews; and other clinicians who provided care to South Asian kidney patients at end of life to take part in focus groups exploring end of life care issues. In action research planning, action and evaluation are interlinked and data were analysed with emergent themes fed back to care providers through the research cycle. Reflections on the process of patient recruitment generated focus group discussions about access which were analysed thematically and reported here. Sixteen patients were recruited to interview and 45 different care providers took part in 14 focus groups across the sites. The process of recruiting patients to interview and subsequent focus group data highlighted some of the key issues

  3. Bardet-Biedl syndrome with end-stage kidney disease in a four-year-old Romanian boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Jan D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a significant genetic cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Kidney abnormalities are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bardet-Biedl syndrome, but the onset of end-stage renal disease at an early age and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, however, are not commonly mentioned in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a four-year-old Romanian boy who presented to our department with 'febrile seizures'. After an initial evaluation, we diagnosed our patient as having hypertension, severe anemia and end-stage renal disease. He met the major and minor criteria for the diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome and underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Conclusions Close follow-up for renal involvement in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome from an early age is highly recommended to prevent end-stage renal disease and so renal replacement therapy can be started immediately.

  4. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  5. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanjue; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Dong, Xue; Huang, Rong; Tian, Sai; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Whether sex differences in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease incidence exist among diabetic patients remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative effect of diabetes on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease risk in women compared with men. We systematically searched Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for both cohort and case-control studies until October 2015. Studies were selected if they reported a sex-specific relationship between diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. We generated pooled estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis after log transformation with inverse variance weighting. Ten studies with data from more than 5 million participants were included. The pooled adjusted risk ratio of chronic kidney disease associated with diabetes mellitus was 3.34 (95 % CI 2.27, 4.93) in women and 2.84 (95 % CI 1.73, 4.68) in men. The data showed no difference in diabetes-related chronic kidney disease risk between the sexes (pooled adjusted women-to-men relative risk ratio was 1.14 [95 % CI 0.97, 1.34]) except for end-stage renal disease-the pooled adjusted women-to men relative risk ratio was 1.38 (95 % CI 1.22, 1.55; p = 0.114, I² = 38.1 %). The study found no evidence of a sex difference in the association between diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. However, the excess risk for end-stage renal disease was higher in women with diabetes than in men with the same condition, from which we assume that the female gender could accelerate the disease progression. Further studies are needed to support this notion and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Renal calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and uric acid handling: comparison between stage III chronic kidney disease patients and healthy oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, C G; Juarez, R; Vilas, M; Navarro, M; Rivera, H; Jauregui, R

    2012-10-01

    It is known that chronic kidney disease (CKD) and senescence bring about a progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and that in the former this is usually associated with an increase in the fractional excretion of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and uric acid. However, it has not yet been explained how these substances are excreted in the healthy oldest old. Thus, in the present study, we examined the renal handling of these substances in very aged people in comparison with CKD patients with similar GFR levels (stage III-CKD). Twenty volunteers were studied; 10 of them were healthy very old (VO) (≥ 75 years old) individuals and 10 were stage III CKD patients. Exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of altered (abnormally high or low) plasma calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and uric acid, as well as previous diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and obstructive uropathy and use of drugs that could alter plasma levels of the studied substances. All volunteers were on a diet with the same content of these elements (3-day dietary register). We measured calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, creatinine in serum plasma and morning urine, as well as serum parathyroid hormone level, in each volunteer. From these data, fractional excretion (FE) of these substances was obtained. A statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon test. Serum creatinine: 1.8 ± 0.4 mg/dl (CKD) versus 0.8 ± 0.2 mg/dl (VO), p = 0.0002; serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.3 mg/dl (CKD) versus 8.7 ± 0.4 (VO), p = 0.022; serum magnesium: 2.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl (CKD) versus 2.0 ± 0.1 (VO), p = 0.05; serum phosphorus: 3.9 ± 0.5 mg/dl (CKD) versus 3.0 ± 0.4 mg/dl (VO), p = 0.002; serum uric acid: 6.6 ± 1.5 (CKD) versus 5.2 ± 1.4 mg/dl (VO), p = 0.04; FE of calcium: 2.5 ± 1 % (CKD) versus 0.8 ± 0.3 % (VO), p = 0.04; FE of magnesium: 7.2 ± 4.1 % (CKD) versus 2.9 ± 0.9 % (VO), p = 0.02; FE of phosphorus: 25 ± 9 % (CKD) versus 9.1 ± 5.7(VO), p = 0.001; FE of uric acid: 10 ± 3 % (CKD

  7. [Nephroprotective role of early correction of impaired nutritional status in patients with chronic disease of the kidneys at a predialysis stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Iu S; Kozlovskaia, L V; Milovanova, L Iu

    2008-01-01

    To assess the rate and clinical significance of impaired nutritional status and impact of low-protein diet on inhibition of renal insufficiency in patients of stage III-IV chronic disease of the kidneys (CDK). A total of 200 patients with CDK stage III-IV were randomized into three groups: group 1 consisted of 123 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (73 with stage III and 50 with stage 1V), group 2--45 patients with systemic diseases (30 with stage III and 15 with stage IV), group 3 (a comparison group)--32 patients with CGN (17 with stage 111 and 15 with stage IV). Patients of groups 1 and 2 received low-protein diet (0.6 g protein kg/day) balanced by either high-calorie mix containing protein SUPRO 760 or ketosteril for 24-48 months. The nutritional status was studied by anthropometric data, absolute number of lymphocytes, levels of blood albumin and transferring, intake of protein, food calorie value according to 3-day diaries. Among 200 patients impaired nutritional status was detected in 22 (11.0%) patients. More than half of them had glomerulonephritis in systemic diseases (SLE, systemic vasculitis). Only in patients with systemic diseases nutritional disorders manifested at stage III. These disorders grew with progression of renal insufficiency and were detected primarily in patients with stage IV CDK. Patients with CGN on low-protein diet for a year and longer demonstrated slowing of the fall of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Early (predialysis) use of low-protein diet balanced by addition of amino- and keto-acids and high-energy nutritional mixes has a positive influence on nutritional status of patients with chronic renal insufficiency and can inhibit GFR lowering.

  8. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  9. Health related quality of life in patients with end stage kidney disease treated with haemodialysis in Malawi: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Thokozani; Chimera, Bernadette; Kamponda, Martin; Dreyer, Gavin

    2016-07-07

    Haemodialysis in Malawi consumes a disproportionate amount of the national health budget, costing approximately $20,000 per patient per year. Adjunctive therapeutic agents for end stage kidney disease and laboratory services to measure standard dialysis outcomes are not routinely available. Therefore, alternative outcome measures of the efficacy of haemodialysis in Malawi are required. We measured health related quality of life of adult patients in Malawi treated with haemodialysis for end stage kidney disease. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients receiving haemodialysis for end stage kidney disease at 4 dialysis centres in Malawi between 24/10/2012 and 30/11/012. Patients were included if they were >18 years of age and had been receiving haemodialysis for >3 months. We used the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument Short Form to assess health related quality of life. We recruited 22 of 24 eligible patients (mean age 44.8 ± 16.0 years, 59.1 % male, median duration on haemodialysis 12 months (Inter-quartile range 6-24 months)). Overall health related quality of life was low (mean score 59.9 ± 8.8, maximum possible score 100) with the lowest scores recorded for physical health component summary score (50.4 ± 22.8) compared to mental health component summary (61.3 ± 23.0) and kidney disease component summary (67.9 ± 13.2). Low household income (<$4000 per year) was associated with lower mental health component scores (adjusted r(2) = 0.413, p = 0.033). Quality of life of haemodialysis patients in Malawi can be easily measured using a validated questionnaire and provides an alternative and important measure of the efficacy of haemodialysis therapy. Physical health scores were particularly low and this may affect income generating capacity. Increased efforts are required to improve the quality of life of haemodialysis patients in Malawi with a particular focus on the burden of physical symptoms.

  10. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harambat, Jérôme; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Kim, Jon Jin; Tizard, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    In the past 30 years there have been major improvements in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, most of the available epidemiological data stem from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registries and information on the earlier stages of pediatric CKD is still limited. The

  11. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  12. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Paulina; Pinto, Viola; Rodriguez, Josefina; Zambrano, Maria Jose; Mericq, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review c...

  13. "It's hard to ask": examining the factors influencing decision-making among end-stage renal disease patients considering approaching family and friends for a kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Merryn A; Cornwall, Jon

    2018-05-04

    People needing kidney transplants in New Zealand can receive organs from deceased donors or from a living kidney donor. This project explored issues surrounding donor recruitment, examining the lived experience of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in order to facilitate improved donor recruitment for ESRD patients. A qualitative study comprising interviews of ESRD patients in Hawke's Bay, focusing on the factors surrounding approaching family and friends for a kidney. Purposeful sampling and thematic analysis of data was utilised. Fifteen participants were interviewed (Five female; mean age 49.8yrs). Most stated it was hard to ask for a kidney; almost half had never approached anyone. For many, approaching potential donors was a barrier. Many Māori had limited recruitment opportunities due to comorbidities within extended whanau, making the decision of who to approach difficult. Other barriers included concern for donor health, poor health literacy and poor self-efficacy. Recipients desired more support to facilitate approaching donors, with cultural differences observed between Māori and non-Māori in recruitment expectations. Tailored support could be enabled with development of a screening tool to assess willingness and motivation to accept donation, cultural needs, self-efficacy, communication skills and health literacy. Psychosocial support could help address barriers such as reciprocity concerns.

  14. Correlation of glomerular filtration rate measurement using Tc-99m DTPA with cystatin-C levels and creatinine clearance for staging of chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliyanti, A.; Iskandar, Azmi S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The presence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was established based on kidney damage presence and the level of kidney function through Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). It was also recognized that renal scintigraphy (renogram) using TC-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid) has advantages in the measurement of GFR. Recently, serum Cystatin-C is proposed as the new marker of GFR. The aim of this study is to find out the correlation of GFR, derived from renogram, with Cystatin- C levels and Creatinine Clearance (CC) in CKD. Material and Methods: A total of 30 subjects (age mean is 60.8 years, 21 males and 9 females) were enrolled in this study with diagnosis stage 2 of CKD. CKD staging was determined by Cockroft-Gault (CG) equation, taking into account the serum creatinine. Renogram was performed using a single head camera with IV administration of 5 mCi DTPA. Cystatin-C and creatinine clearance (24-hours urine samples) were include in this study. Results: The mean GFR of renogram, Cystatin-C, CC and CG are 64.96 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 28.047), 53.37 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 21.29), 58.09 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 35.45), 46.00 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 12.06) respectively. There is better correlation between renogram and Cystatin-C (r=0.585, p0.0007) compared renogram and CC (r=0.388, p=0.03) or renogram and CG (r=-0.029, p=0.87). Conclusion: Cystatin-C shows better indicator of GFR than CC and CG. Serum creatinine concentration alone should not be used to assess the level of kidney function in the staging of CKD. (author)

  15. Incidence and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury assessed with Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria in critically ill patients of medical and surgical intensive care units: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Koh, Shin Ok; Kim, Eun Jung; Cho, Jin Sun; Na, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Contrast medium used for radiologic tests can decrease renal function. However there have been few studies on contrast-associated acute kidney injury in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) patients using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria in critically ill patients in the ICU. We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients who underwent contrast-enhanced radiologic tests from January 2011 to December 2012 in a 30-bed medical ICU and a 24-bed surgical ICU. The study included 335 patients, and the incidence of CA-AKI was 15.5%. The serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate values in the CA-AKI patients did not recover even at discharge from the hospital compared with the values prior to the contrast use. Among 52 CA-AKI patients, 55.8% (n = 29) had pre-existing kidney injury and 44.2% (n = 23) did not. The CA-AKI patients were divided into risk (31%), injury (31%), and failure (38%) by the RIFLE classification. The percentage of patients in whom AKI progressed to a more severe form (failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) increased from 38% to 45% during the hospital stay, and the recovery rate of AKI was 17% at the time of hospital discharge. Because the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was the only significant variable inducing CA-AKI, higher APACHE II scores were associated with a higher risk of CA-AKI. The ICU and hospital mortality of patients with CA-AKI was significantly higher than in patients without CA-AKI. CA-AKI is associated with increases in hospital mortality, and can be predicted by the APACHE score. NCT01807195 on March. 06. 2013.

  16. Associations of epicardial fat with coronary calcification, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibroblast growth factor-23 in stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jasmine D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epicardial fat, quantified in a single multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT slice, is a reliable estimate of total epicardial fat volume (EFV. We sought to determine risk factors for EFV detected in a single-slice MSCT measurement (ssEFV in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our primary objective was to determine the association between ssEFV and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Methods 94 pre-dialysis stage 3–5 CKD patients underwent MSCT to measure ssEFV and CAC. ssEFV was quantified at the level of the left main coronary artery. Measures of inflammation, traditional and kidney-related cardiovascular disease risk factors were collected. Results Mean age: 63.7 ± 14 years, 56% male, 39% had diabetes, and mean eGFR: 25.1 ± 11.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean ssEFV was 5.03 ± 2.4 cm3. By univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI (r = 0.53; P = r = 0.51; P r = − 0.39; P =  Conclusions In stage 3–5 CKD, coronary calcification and IL-6 and were predictors of ssEFV. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which epicardial fat may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary disease, particularly in the CKD population.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Polycystic kidney disease Polycystic kidney disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that affects the kidneys and ...

  18. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR.

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... Healthy kidneys take the waste out of your blood. One type of waste is called creatinine. If you have ...

  20. Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, and plays a role in vascular calcification. We evaluated the relationship between osteoprotegerin levels and inflammatory markers, atherosclerosis, and mortality in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. A total of 145 subjects (median age 61 years, 61% men; 36 patients on hemodialysis, 55 patients on peritoneal dialysis, and 54 patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease were studied. Clinical characteristics, markers of mineral metabolism (including fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23] and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], and the intima-media thickness (IMT in the common carotid arteries were measured at baseline. Cardiac function was assessed by color tissue Doppler echocardiography. After 36 months follow-up, the survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was significantly different according to OPG levels (χ 2=14.33; P=0.002. Increased OPG levels were positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.38, P<0.001, FGF-23 (r=0.26, P<0.001 and hsCRP (r=0.0.24, P=0.003. In addition, OPG was positively associated with troponin I (r=0.54, P<0.001 and IMT (r=0.39, P<0.0001. Finally, in Cox analysis, only OPG (HR=1.07, 95%CI=1.02-1.13 and hsCRP (HR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04 were independently associated with increased risk of death. These results suggested that elevated levels of serum OPG might be associated with atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular...... (HR) 0.65, P = 0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P = 0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval...

  2. Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Polycystic Kidney Disease (SONG-PKD) : Study protocol for establishing a core outcome set in polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Sautenet, Benedicte; Rangan, Gopala; Craig, Jonathan C.; Ong, Albert C. M.; Chapman, Arlene; Ahn, Curie; Chen, Dongping; Coolican, Helen; Kao, Juliana Tze-Wah; Gansevoort, Ron; Perrone, Ronald; Harris, Tess; Torres, Vicente; Pei, York; Kerr, Peter G.; Ryan, Jessica; Gutman, Talia; Howell, Martin; Ju, Angela; Manera, Karine E.; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hamiwka, Lorraine A.; Tong, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common potentially life threatening inherited kidney disease and is responsible for 5-10% of cases of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cystic kidneys may enlarge up to 20 times the weight of a normal kidney due to the

  3. Successful Transplantation of a Split Crossed Fused Ectopic Kidney into a Patient with End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L. Mekeel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential donors with congenital renal anomalies but normal renal function are often overlooked because of a possible increase in technical difficulty and complications associated with the surgery. However, as the waiting list for a deceased donor kidney transplant continues to grow, it is important to consider these kidneys for potential transplant. This paper describes the procurement of a crossed fused ectopic kidney, and subsequent parenchymal transection prior to transplantation as part of a combined simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant. The transplant was uncomplicated, and the graft had immediate function. The patient is now two years from transplant with excellent function.

  4. Safety and effectiveness of daily teriparatide for osteoporosis in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease: post hoc analysis of a postmarketing observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikawa A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Nishikawa,1 Fumito Yoshiki,2 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Kenta Kajimoto,2 Hiroyuki Enomoto2 1Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., 2Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Abstract: Teriparatide (recombinant 1–34 N-terminal sequence of human parathyroid hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis should be prescribed with caution in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, in clinical settings, physicians and surgeons who treat such patients have few available options. We sought to further explore the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japanese patients with severe stages of CKD. This was a post hoc analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study that included patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture and stage 4 or 5 CKD. Patients received subcutaneous teriparatide 20 µg daily for up to 24 months. Safety profiles were assessed by physician-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Effectiveness was assessed by measuring bone formation (via procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide [P1NP], bone mineral density (BMD, and the incidence of clinical vertebral or nonvertebral fragility fractures. A total of 33 patients with severe stages of CKD (stage 4, n=30; stage 5, n=3 were included. All patients were female, and 81.8% had a history of previous fracture. No serious ADRs were recorded; a total of 4 ADRs were recorded for 4 of 33 patients. Increases in BMD and P1NP levels were observed both overall and in most individual patients. New fractures occurred in 1 patient with stage 5 CKD, but not in patients with stage 4 CKD. In this post hoc analysis conducted in Japan, teriparatide appeared to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis in elderly female patients with severe stages of CKD, and no new safety concerns were observed. Keywords: bone mineral density, chronic kidney disease, fragility

  5. A longitudinal study on the acceptance and effects of a therapeutic renal food in pet dogs with IRIS-Stage 1 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Fritsch, D A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Jewell, D E

    2018-02-01

    Currently, nutritional management is recommended when serum creatinine (Cr) exceeds 1.4 mg/dl in dogs with IRIS-Stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow progressive loss of kidney function, reduce clinical and biochemical consequences of CKD, and maintain adequate nutrition. It is unknown if dietary interventions benefit non-azotemic dogs at earlier stages. A prospective 12-month feeding trial was performed in client-owned dogs with IRIS-Stage 1 CKD (n = 36; 20 had persistently dilute urine with urine specific gravity (USG) 0.5; 10 had both). Ease of transition to therapeutic renal food and effects on renal biomarkers and quality of life attributes were assessed. Dogs were transitioned over 1 week from grocery-branded foods to renal food. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12-months a questionnaire to assess owner's perception of their pet's acceptance of renal food and quality of life was completed. Renal biomarkers, including serum Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and USG and UPC ratio were measured. Of 36 dogs initially enrolled, 35 (97%) dogs were transitioned to therapeutic renal food. Dogs moderately or extremely liked the food 88% of the time, ate most or all of the food 84% of the time, and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating 76% of the time. All renal biomarkers (Cr, BUN, and SDMA) were decreased (p ≤ .05) from baseline at 3-months, and remained decreased from baseline at 12-months in dogs completing the study (n = 20). Proteinuria was reduced in 12 of 16 dogs (p = .045) with proteinuria. Owners reported improvement in overall health and quality of life attributes, and hair and coat quality (all p food. Decreasing serum biomarker concentrations and reduction in proteinuria suggest stabilized kidney function. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Safety and effectiveness of daily teriparatide for osteoporosis in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease: post hoc analysis of a postmarketing observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Atsushi; Yoshiki, Fumito; Taketsuna, Masanori; Kajimoto, Kenta; Enomoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Teriparatide (recombinant 1-34 N-terminal sequence of human parathyroid hormone) for the treatment of osteoporosis should be prescribed with caution in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in clinical settings, physicians and surgeons who treat such patients have few available options. We sought to further explore the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japanese patients with severe stages of CKD. This was a post hoc analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study that included patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture and stage 4 or 5 CKD. Patients received subcutaneous teriparatide 20 μg daily for up to 24 months. Safety profiles were assessed by physician-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Effectiveness was assessed by measuring bone formation (via procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide [P1NP]), bone mineral density (BMD), and the incidence of clinical vertebral or nonvertebral fragility fractures. A total of 33 patients with severe stages of CKD (stage 4, n=30; stage 5, n=3) were included. All patients were female, and 81.8% had a history of previous fracture. No serious ADRs were recorded; a total of 4 ADRs were recorded for 4 of 33 patients. Increases in BMD and P1NP levels were observed both overall and in most individual patients. New fractures occurred in 1 patient with stage 5 CKD, but not in patients with stage 4 CKD. In this post hoc analysis conducted in Japan, teriparatide appeared to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis in elderly female patients with severe stages of CKD, and no new safety concerns were observed.

  7. Very low-protein diet plus ketoacids in chronic kidney disease and risk of death during end-stage renal disease: a historical cohort controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Chiodini, Paolo; Cupisti, Adamasco; Viola, Battista Fabio; Pezzotta, Mauro; De Nicola, Luca; Minutolo, Roberto; Barsotti, Giuliano; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Very low-protein intake during chronic kidney disease (CKD) improves metabolic disorders and may delay dialysis start without compromising nutritional status, but concerns have been raised on a possible negative effect on survival during dialysis. This study aimed at evaluating whether a very low-protein diet during CKD is associated with a greater risk of death while on dialysis treatment. This is an historical, cohort, controlled study, enrolling patients at dialysis start previously treated in a tertiary nephrology clinic with a very low-protein diet supplemented with amino acids and ketoacids (s-VLPD group, n = 184) or without s-VLPD [tertiary nephrology care (TNC) group, n = 334] and unselected patients [control (CON) group, n = 9.092]. The major outcome was survival rate during end-stage renal disease associated to s-VLPD treatment during CKD. The propensity score methods and Cox regression model were used to match groups at the start of dialysis to perform survival analysis and estimate adjusted hazard ratio (HR). In s-VLPD, TNC and CON groups, average age was 67.5, 66.0 and 66.3 years, respectively (P = 0.521) and male prevalence was 55, 55 and 62%, respectively (P = 0.004). Diabetes prevalence differed in the three groups (P cardiovascular (CV) disease was found (P < 0.001), being similar in TNC and CON (31 and 25%) and higher in s-VLPD (41%). Median follow-up during renal replacement therapy (RRT) was 36, 32 and 36 months in the three groups. Adjusted HR estimated on matched propensity patients was 0.59 (0.45-0.78) for s-VLPD versus CON. Subgroup analysis showed a lower mortality risk in s-VLPD versus matched-CON in younger patients (<70 years) and those without CV disease. No significant difference in HRs was found between s-VLPD and TNC. s-VLPD during CKD does not increase mortality in the subsequent RRT period. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Ulcerative Colitis Presented as Fever and Bloody Diarrhea at Initiation of Dialysis in an Elderly Patient with End-Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder that mainly affects the colon and rectum. Immunological derangements are associated with the pathogenesis of UC. Many patients with UC also have chronic kidney disease, associated with immunological disorders and/or pharmacotherapy for UC. Some patients with UC may develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD and require renal replacement therapy. However, little is known clinically about ESRD patients who develop UC or about patients with UC who develop ESRD. This report describes an elderly patient with ESRD who presented with fever and bloody diarrhea and was finally diagnosed as UC (pancolitis type at dialysis initiation. The patient was successfully treated with a series of immunosuppressive agents. This report highlights the importance of considering UC as a potential cause of bloody stool and fever in patients with ESRD.

  9. A nurse-coordinated model of care versus usual care for stage 3/4 chronic kidney disease in the community: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan J; Garg, Amit X; Goeree, Ron; Levin, Adeera; Molzahn, Anita; Rigatto, Claudio; Singer, Joel; Soltys, George; Soroka, Steven; Ayers, Dieter; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-06-01

    It is unclear how to optimally care for chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study compares a new coordinated model to usual care for CKD. A randomized trial in nephrology clinics and the community included 474 patients with median estimated GFR (eGFR) 42 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) identified by laboratory-based case finding compared care coordinated by a general practitioner (controls) with care by a nurse-coordinated team including a nephrologist (intervention) for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 742 days. 32% were diabetic, 60% had cardiovascular disease, and proteinuria was minimal. Guided by protocols, the intervention team targeted risk factors for adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Serial eGFR and clinical events were tracked. The average decline in eGFR over 20 months was -1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). eGFR declined by ≥4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) within 20 months in 28 (17%) intervention patients versus 23 (13.9%) control patients. Control of BP, LDL, and diabetes were comparable across groups. In the intervention group there was a trend to greater use of renin-angiotensin blockers and more use of statins in those with initial LDL >2.5 mmol/L. Treatment was rarely required for anemia, acidosis, or disordered mineral metabolism. Clinical events occurred in 5.2% per year. Patients with stage 3/4 CKD identified through community laboratories largely had nonprogressive kidney disease but had cardiovascular risk. Over a median of 24 months, the nurse-coordinated team did not affect rate of GFR decline or control of most risk factors compared with usual care.

  10. Efficacy and safety of osteoporosis medications in a rat model of late-stage chronic kidney disease accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, M; Takahata, M; Shimizu, T; Kanehira, Y; Kimura-Suda, H; Kameda, Y; Hamano, H; Hiratsuka, S; Sato, D; Iwasaki, N

    2017-04-01

    This study showed that bisphosphonate was safe and effective for the treatment of bone disorders in stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats. Intermittent teriparatide therapy showed an anabolic action on bone even under secondary hyperparathyroidism conditions without having an adverse effect on mineral metabolism in late-stage CKD. Patients with late-stage CKD are at high risk for fragility fractures. However, there are no consensus on the efficacy and safety of osteoporosis medications for patients with late-stage CKD. In the present study, we aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of alendronate (ALN) and teriparatide (TPD) for treating bone disorder in late-stage CKD with pre-existing secondary hyperparathyroidism using a rat model of CKD. Male 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 5/6 nephrectomy or sham surgery and randomized into the following four groups: sham, vehicle (saline subcutaneous (sc) daily), ALN (50 μg/kg sc daily), and TPD (40 μg/kg sc daily). Medications commenced at 24 weeks of age and continued for 4 weeks. Micro-computed tomography, histological analysis, infrared spectroscopic imaging, and serum assays were performed. Nephrectomized rats developed hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), and high creatinine, equivalent to CKD stage 4 in humans. ALN suppressed the bone turnover and increased the degree of mineralization in cortical bone, resulting in an improvement in the mechanical properties. TPD further increased the bone turnover and significantly increased the degree of mineralization, micro-geometry, and bone volume, resulting in a significant improvement in the mechanical properties. Both ALN and TPD had no adverse effect on renal function and mineral metabolism. BP is safe and effective for the treatment of bone disorders in stage 4 CKD rats. Intermittent TPD therapy showed an anabolic action on bone even under SHPT conditions without having an adverse effect on mineral metabolism in late-stage

  11. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the presence of CKD often complicates CVD treatment and prognosis. The prevalence of CVD is 69.6 percent among persons ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age-adjusted prevalence of CKD Stages 1-4 by Race/Ethnicity ... service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of ...

  12. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, which ...

  13. Using pharmacists to improve risk stratification and management of stage 3A chronic kidney disease: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Evans, Michael; Yule, Christina; Bohn, Larissa; Young, Amanda; Lewis, Meredith; Graboski, Elisabeth; Gerdy, Bethany; Ehmann, William; Brady, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leah; Antunes, Natacha; Green, Jamie; Snyder, Susan; Kirchner, H Lester; Grams, Morgan; Perkins, Robert

    2016-11-08

    Measurement of albuminuria to stratify risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not done universally in the primary care setting despite recommendation in KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines. Pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) may be helpful in improving CKD risk stratification and management. We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial using seven primary care clinic sites in the Geisinger Health System to evaluate the feasibility of pharmacist MTM in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and uncontrolled blood pressure (≥150/85 mmHg). In the three pharmacist MTM sites, pharmacists were instructed to follow a protocol aimed to improve adherence to KDIGO guidelines on testing for proteinuria and lipids, and statin and blood pressure medical therapy. In the four control clinics, patients received usual care. The primary outcome was proteinuria screening over a follow-up of 1 year. A telephone survey was administered to physicians, pharmacists, and patients in the pharmacist MTM arm at the end of the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between pharmacist MTM (n = 24) and control (n = 23) patients, although pharmacist MTM patients tended to be younger (64 vs. 71 y; p = 0.06) and less likely to have diabetes (17 % vs. 35 %; p = 0.2) or baseline proteinuria screening (41.7 % vs. 60.9 %, p = 0.2). Mean eGFR was 54 ml/min/1.73 m 2 in both groups. The pharmacist MTM intervention did not significantly improve total proteinuria screening at the population level (OR 2.6, 95 % CI: 0.5-14.0; p = 0.3). However, it tended to increase screening of previously unscreened patients (78.6 % in the pharmacist MTM group compared to 33.3 % in the control group; OR 7.3, 95 % CI: 0.96-56.3; p = 0.05). In general, the intervention was well-received by patients, pharmacists, and providers, who agreed that pharmacists could play an important role in CKD

  14. Phosphorus Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Wadi N; Moore, Linda W

    2016-01-01

    Serum phosphorus levels stay relatively constant through the influence of multiple factors-such as parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and vitamin D-on the kidney, bone, and digestive system. Whereas normal serum phosphorus ranges between 3 mg/dL to 4.5 mg/dL, large cross-sectional studies have shown that even people with normal kidney function are sometimes found to have levels ranging between 1.6 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL. While this may partially be due to diet and the factors mentioned above, total understanding of these atypical ranges of serum phosphorus remains uncertain. Risks for bone disease are high in people aged 50 and older, and this group comprises a large proportion of people who also have chronic kidney disease. Consuming diets low in calcium and high in phosphorus, especially foods with phosphate additives, further exacerbates bone turnover. Existing bone disease increases the risk for high serum phosphorus, and higher serum phosphorus has been associated with increased adverse events and cardiovascular-related mortality both in people with chronic kidney disease and in those with no evidence of disease. Once kidney function has deteriorated to end-stage disease (Stage 5), maintaining normal serum phosphorus requires dietary restrictions, phosphate-binding medications, and dialysis. Even so, normal serum phosphorus remains elusive in many patients with Stage 5 kidney disease, and researchers are testing novel targets that may inhibit intestinal transport of phosphorus to achieve better phosphate control. Protecting and monitoring bone health should also aid in controlling serum phosphorus as kidney disease advances.

  15. Association of Vitamin D Metabolites with Parathyroid Hormone, Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Calcium, and Phosphorus in Dogs with Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, V J; Harjes, L M; Dembek, K; Young, G S; Chew, D J; Toribio, R E

    2017-05-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is associated with progression of renal disease, development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPT), chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD), and increased mortality in people with CKD. Despite what is known regarding vitamin D dysregulation in humans with CKD, little is known about vitamin D metabolism in dogs with CKD. The purpose of our study was to further elucidate vitamin D status in dogs with different stages of CKD and to relate it to factors that affect the development of CKD-MBD, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Thirty-seven dogs with naturally occurring CKD were compared to 10 healthy dogs. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH) 2 D], and PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were measured. Their association with serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations and IRIS stage was determined. Compared to healthy dogs, all vitamin D metabolite concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages 3 and 4 CKD (r [creatinine]: -0.49 to -0.60; P Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life Impacts Mortality but Not Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesky, Mark D; Dutton, Mary; Dasgupta, Indranil; Yadav, Punit; Ng, Khai Ping; Fenton, Anthony; Kyte, Derek; Ferro, Charles J; Calvert, Melanie; Cockwell, Paul; Stringer, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, the relationship between pre-dialysis CKD, HRQL and clinical outcomes, including mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. All 745 participants recruited into the Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study to end March 2014 were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline including an assessment of HRQL using the Euroqol EQ-5D-3L. Health states were converted into an EQ-5Dindex score using a set of weighted preferences specific to the UK population. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association of HRQL with progression to ESRD or all-cause mortality. Regression analyses were then performed to identify variables associated with the significant HRQL components. Median eGFR was 25.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 19.6-33.7ml/min) and median ACR was 33 mg/mmol (IQR 6.6-130.3 mg/mmol). Five hundred and fifty five participants (75.7%) reported problems with one or more EQ-5D domains. When adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, eGFR and ACR, both reported problems with self-care [hazard ratio 2.542, 95% confidence interval 1.222-5.286, p = 0.013] and reduced EQ-5Dindex score [hazard ratio 0.283, 95% confidence interval 0.099-0.810, p = 0.019] were significantly associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Similar findings were observed for competing risk analyses. Reduced HRQL was not a risk factor for progression to ESRD in multivariable analyses. Impaired HRQL is common in the pre-dialysis CKD population. Reduced HRQL, as demonstrated by problems with self-care or a lower EQ-5Dindex score, is associated with a higher risk for death but not ESRD. Multiple factors influence these aspects of HRQL but renal function, as measured by eGFR and ACR, are not among them.

  17. Vascular complications in kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, Gürbey

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate the association between kidney disease and venous and arterial thrombosis and to provide insight in the mechanism of the association between kidney disease and thrombosis. Furthermore, the mortality risks for hemodialysis patients with catheter,

  18. Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Cysts were generated from organoids in vitro and the removal of adherent cues was shown to play a key role in polycystic kidney disease progression. These cysts resembled those of diseased tissue phenotypically and were capable of remodelling their microenvironment.

  19. Kidney Disease in Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runolfsdottir, Hrafnhildur Linnet; Palsson, Runolfur; Agustsdottir, Inger M; Indridason, Olafur S; Edvardsson, Vidar O

    2016-03-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a purine metabolism disorder causing kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The course of nephrolithiasis and CKD has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine long-term kidney outcomes in patients with APRT deficiency. An observational cohort study. All patients enrolled in the APRT Deficiency Registry of the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium. Kidney stones, acute kidney injury (AKI), stage of CKD, end-stage renal disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and changes in eGFR. Serum creatinine and eGFR calculated using creatinine-based equations. Of 53 patients, 30 (57%) were females and median age at diagnosis was 37.0 (range, 0.6-67.9) years. Median duration of follow-up was 10.3 (range, 0.0-31.5) years. At diagnosis, kidney stones had developed in 29 (55%) patients and 20 (38%) had CKD stages 3 to 5, including 11 (21%) patients with stage 5. At latest follow-up, 33 (62%) patients had experienced kidney stones; 18 (34%), AKI; and 22 (42%), CKD stages 3 to 5. Of 14 (26%) patients with stage 5 CKD, 12 had initiated renal replacement therapy. Kidney stones recurred in 18 of 33 (55%) patients. The median eGFR slope was -0.38 (range, -21.99 to 1.42) mL/min/1.73m(2) per year in patients receiving treatment with an xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitor and -5.74 (range, -75.8 to -0.10) mL/min/1.73m(2) per year in those not treated prior to the development of stage 5 CKD (P=0.001). Use of observational registry data. Progressive CKD and AKI episodes are major features of APRT deficiency, whereas nephrolithiasis is the most common presentation. Advanced CKD without a history of kidney stones is more prevalent than previously reported. Our data suggest that timely therapy may retard CKD progression. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  2. Chronic kidney disease in children (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karimdzhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern concepts of chronic kidney disease in children as a condition that develops due to the irreversible decrease in renal homeostatic functions in any severe progressive kidney disease, data on epidemiological prevalence, etiological factors, diagnostic methods, stages and clinical course of chronic kidney disease in children. Moreover, it was indicated that early detection and timely treatment of chronic kidney disease in children is an important background for preventing or postponing its adverse outcome. In addition, a high degree of disability and a significant decrease in the quality of life of patients, the complexity and high cost of therapy for patients with terminal chronic renal failure were shown, ma­king it very important to prevent its development in patients with nephropathies. We outlined the main principles of pathogenetic therapy based on the analysis of domestic and foreign guidelines for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in children. The schemes of treatment for protein-energy insufficiency, arterial hypertension, anemia, correction of mi­neral metabolism disorders are given. We discussed the question of reducing the level of azotemia with various drugs, and the development of new drugs to initiate early treatment and to prevent the development of severe forms of chronic kidney disease in children. The search for necessary literature sources was performed in Scopus, MedLine, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka, RINC databases.

  3. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review covers updated management of growth failure in these children including adequate nutrition, treatment of metabolic alterations, and early administration of recombinant human growth hormone (GH.

  4. The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the favorable renal prognosis in chronic kidney disease stages 4-5: the CKD-ROUTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Kawasaki, Tomoki; Sato, Hidehiko; Ando, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin D analogs have generally been recommended for treatment of mineral bone disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between this treatment and CKD progression has not yet been established. We designed a post hoc propensity score-matched cohort analysis derived from 3-year follow-up data of a prospective cohort. Adult participants with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5 who had newly been prescribed active vitamin D analogs during the observation period were eligible as matched cases. Then, matched controls were extracted from participants who had never been prescribed active vitamin D analogs. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease or a 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A Cox proportional hazards model evaluated the association between the use of vitamin D analogs and the primary outcome. We enrolled 240 patients (males, 65 %). The number of matched cases and controls was 30 and 210, respectively. The primary outcome was observed in 94 patients, whereas 25 patients died. The mean ± standard deviation age and eGFR were 69 ± 12 years and 17 ± 5.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In a Cox proportional hazard model, the use of vitamin D analogs was independently associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (crude hazard ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.19, 0.89; adjusted hazard ratio 0.38; 95 % confidence interval 0.17, 0.88). The use of vitamin D analogs is independently associated with the preservation of renal function in patients with pre-dialysis CKD stages 4-5.

  5. Five-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease (Stage 3-5) and Associated Risk Factors in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco J.; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12–11.44) and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83–2.33) cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19–2.79) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR) for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48). Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13–4.81), a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42–2.89), Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25–2.37), Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30–2.17), duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88) and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02–2.24). Conclusions After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5). Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM. PMID:25856231

  6. Five-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (stage 3-5 and associated risk factors in a Spanish cohort: the MADIABETES Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Salinero-Fort

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use.The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners in Madrid (Spain.The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12-11.44 and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83-2.33 cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19-2.79 cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48. Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13-4.81, a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42-2.89, Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25-2.37, Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30-2.17, duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88 and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.24.After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5. Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM.

  7. Evaluation of volume overload by bioelectrical impedance analysis, NT-proBNP and inferior vena cava diameter in patients with stage 3&4 and 5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Yildirim, Yaşar; Oto, Ferhat; Aydin, Fatma Yilmaz; Aydin, Emre; Kadiroglu, Ali Kemal; Yilmaz, Mehmet Emin

    2014-05-01

    Determination of fluid overload is important in chronic kidney disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of volume overload may decrease morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and studying other clinical characteristics, inferior vena cava diameter, and N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide associated with hydration status in chronic kidney disease Stages 3&4 and 5 in patients not undergoing dialysis. We examined 62 patients with Stages 3&4 and 68 patients with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured and analyzed after log transformation. Inferior vena cave diameter was measured with echocardiography and indexed for body surface area. Hydration status was assessed using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Overhydration was defined as overhydration/extracellular water >0.15. Overhydration was more frequent in Stage 5 than in Stages 3&4 patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, inferior vena cava index, and log NT-proBNP were higher in overhydrated compared to non-overhydrated patients. A significant positive correlation existed between overhydration/extracellular water and log NT-proBNP, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and inferior vena cava index. In multiple linear regression analysis, the variables associated with hydration status were male sex, extracellular water/total body water, and extracellular water/intracellular water (greater overhydration), while serum albumin levels had a negative association with overhydration. Overhydration is more prevalent in Stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients than in Stages 3&4 patients. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, inferior vena cava diameter, and NT-proBNP analysis in chronic kidney disease are useful methods to determine the volume overload.

  8. Dietary phosphorus restriction by a standard low-protein diet decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in patients with early and advanced stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Yonekura, Yuriko; Ito, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although recent studies demonstrated that FGF23 levels decreased in response to dietary restriction of phosphorus and/or use of phosphate binders, research on the effects of a standard low-protein diet is lacking. The effects of a standard low-protein diet on serum FGF23, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were investigated in patients with early (n = 15) and advanced (n = 20) CKD. Serum FGF23 levels decreased in both groups. Changes in FGF23 levels correlated with changes in 24 h urinary phosphorus excretion in the advanced CKD group. Decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were observed only in the advanced CKD group and increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels only in the early CKD group. These findings suggest that consuming standard low-protein diet decreased serum FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. Serum FGF23 levels may therefore be a useful marker to monitor the effects of a low-protein diet in early and advanced stage CKD.

  9. [Nutritional management of kidney diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovik, T E; Kutafina, E K; Tsygin, A N; Sergeeva, T V; Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Voznesenskaya, T S; Zakharova, I N; Semenova, N N; Zvonkova, N G; Yatsyk, S P

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of various kidney diseases in children remains high in recent decades. Adequate nutrition management can enhance the effectiveness of drug treatment, slow the frequency of relapses andprevent the progression of the disease. The article is devoted to modern approaches to diet therapy in various kidney diseases in children with the defeat of tubular and glomerular appa ratus. For the first time the therapeutic diets for children with various kidney diseases are presented. Particular attention is paid to diet therapy in nephrotic syndrome (steroid-responsive and steroid-refractory). Dietary approaches with modern formulas for enteral nutrition in cases of steroid therapy complications in children with renal insufficiency (in predialysis stage and on dialysis) are described. Differentiated nutritional approaches for patients with different types of crystalluria are separately presented.

  10. Mitochondria Damage and Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell. Kidney diseases, either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), are important clinical issues and global public health concerns with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapeutic strategies to cure or retard the progression of the diseases. Mitochondria-targeted therapeutics has become a major focus for modern research with the belief that maintaining mitochondria homeostasis can prevent kidney pathogenesis and disease progression. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular events that govern mitochondria functions in health and disease will potentially lead to improved therapeutics development.

  11. Working with Kidney Disease: Rehabilitation and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Working With Kidney Disease: Rehabilitation and Employment Print Email Many people with ... think I was discriminated against because of my kidney disease or kidney failure? If you think you have ...

  12. Hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease at Stages 1 and 2: Effect of mild anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Artul, Suheil; Nasrallah, Najib; Mograbi, Julnar; Mahamid, Mahmud

    2016-07-01

    The effect of anemia in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) on morbidity and mortality is known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mild anemia on hospitalization and 1-year all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. Hospitalized T2DM patients (n = 307) with a glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin excretion > 30 mg/24 h (Stage 1 and 2 CKD) were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups based on hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations: those with (mean [ ± SD] Hb 10.7 ± 0.7 g/dL) and without (mean Hb 13.3 ± 1.28 g/dL) anemia. There was no significant difference between patients with and without anemia in terms of age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, and cardiovascular diseases. The mean length of hospitalization of the 130 anemic and 177 non-anemic patients was 4.3 ± 3.5 and 3.5 ± 1.9 days, respectively (P anemia (9.2% vs 1.7%, respectively; P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that mild anemia was significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.92-2.54; P = 0.033). Mild anemia may increase the length of hospitalization and was associated with 1-year all-cause mortality among hospitalized T2DM patients with Stage 1 and 2 CKD. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Allopurinol Against Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Sima; Almasi, Afshin; Manouchehri, M; Omrani, Hamid Reza; Zandkarimi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in approximately 50% of patients with kidney failure due to decreased uric acid excretion, and it has been recently known as an independent factor in the progression of renal insufficiency. Allopurinol inhibits the production of uric acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of allopurinol on chronic kidney disease progression. In a clinical trial, patients with stages 3 and 4 of chronic kidney disease were divided into two groups to receive allopurinol, 100 mg, daily and placebo for 12 months. Patients' kidney function and serum uric acid levels were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after initial administration. Subgroups of patients with severe and mild glomerular filtration rate (GFR) impairment (GFR, 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively), were compared between the groups. Serum uric acid levels decreased significantly during after 12 months of allopurinol administration (P = .004). In patients with severe GFR impairment, serum creatinine levels did not decrease significantly and there was no significant increase in GFR, but in those with mild GFR impairment, serum creatinine levels decreased and GFR increase significantly (P chronic kidney disease progression and could be administered with other effective medications for controlling the kidney disease.

  14. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  15. Keto-supplemented Low Protein Diet: A Valid Therapeutic Approach for Patients with Steroid-resistant Proteinuria during Early-stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Xie, H; Fang, M; Wang, K; Chen, J; Sun, W; Yang, L; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    Low protein diets supplemented with keto acid (sLPD) are recommended for patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study assessed whether sLPD is beneficial for patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria during early-stage CKD. A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. In this study, 108 proteinuric patients who were steroid-resistant were assigned to a sLPD group (0.6 g/kg/d with 0.09 g/kg/d keto acids) or a normal protein diet group (NPD, 1.0 g/kg/d). Estimated dietary protein intake, urinary protein excretion, remission rate, renal function, nutritional status, and blood pressure were measured. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the sLPD group (47 patients) and the NPD group (49 patients). Urinary protein excretion significantly decreased in sLPD compared to NPD in months 6, 9, and 12 (Ppatients with steroid-resistant proteinuria.

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) View or Print All Sections ​​What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys are ...

  17. End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Surgery in Patients with Normal Preoperative Kidney Function: Balancing Surgical Strategy and Individual Disorders at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Volpe, Alessandro; Fiori, Cristian; Furlan, Maria; Dehò, Federico; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Porpiglia, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Simeone, Claudio; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Although nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has demonstrated benefit in terms of renal function preservation, it is unclear whether NSS might also decrease the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) relative to radical nephrectomy (RN). In the current paper, we aimed to report the rate and the predictors of ESRD after surgery, accounting for detailed individual baseline characteristics and comorbidities. A multi-institutional collaboration among five European tertiary care centers allowed study of 2027 patients with normal preoperative renal function and a clinically localized T1abN0M0 renal mass. Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of ESRD (defined as the onset of a postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney disease. Univariable ESRD rates at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were virtually equivalent for patients who underwent NSS (1.5% and 2.5%, respectively) versus RN (1.9% and 2.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.6). However, diabetes, smoking, uncontrolled hypertension, and other comorbidities were consistently more frequent in the NSS group relative to their RN counterparts. After adjusting for detailed baseline individual characteristics, NSS was shown to have an independent protective effect relative to RN (HR: 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p=0.02) at multivariable analyses. After accounting for individual baseline characteristics, such as age, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, or other comorbidities, partial nephrectomy independently protects against end-stage renal disease and the consequent need for dialysis relative to radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between ultrasonographically determined kidney volume and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegar Zubović, Sandra; Kristić, Spomenka; Sefić Pašić, Irmina

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate a correlation between calculated creatinine clearance as a measure of kidney's functional abilities and ultrasonographically determined kidney volume, which represents actual size of the kidney, in fact residual renal mass in chronic kidney disease, in order to determine possibilities of ultrasound as a diagnostic method in diagnosing and follow up of chronic renal disease. Methods Prospective study included 150 patients with registered demographic and anthropometric data, and also with relevant laboratory tests of renal function. Longitudinal diameter, thickness and width of the kidney and renal volume calculated according to the Dinkel's formula were measured by ultrasound. A correlation between the measured volume of the kidneys and calculated creatinine clearance was done by the Spearman method, with statistical significance of pkidney volume was found (pkidneys' volume showed a linear decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease: the kidney volume in the control healthy group was 171.7 ± 32.6 mL (95.22- 229.59 mL), and in the subjects classified in stage IV it was 74.7 ± 24.6 mL (43.22-165.65 mL). Conclusion Calculated volume of kidney well correlated with creatinine clearance as a measure of functional ability of the kidneys and with the stage of chronic renal disease. It can be used in clinical practice for monitoring of chronic kidney disease in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  19. Circulating FGF21 levels are progressively increased from the early to end stages of chronic kidney diseases and are associated with renal function in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hepatic hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. This study aims to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF21 concentrations are associated with the change of renal function and the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in the different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 240 subjects including 200 CKD patients (146 outpatients and 54 long-term hemodialytic patients and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited. All CKD subjects underwent echocardiograms to assess left ventricular mass index. Plasma FGF21 levels and other clinical and biochemical parameters in all subjects were obtained based on standard clinical examination methods. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly increased with the development of CKD from early- and end-stage (P<0.001 for trend, and significantly higher in CKD subjects than those in healthy subjects (P<0.001. Plasma FGF21 levels in CKD patients with LVH were higher than those in patients without LVH (P = 0.001. Furthermore, plasma FGF21 level correlated positively with creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, β2 microglobulin, systolic pressure, adiponectin, phosphate, proteinuria, CRP and triglyceride, but negatively with creatinine clearance rate (CCR, estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR, HDL-c, LDL-c, albumin and LVH after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Multiple stepwise regression analyses indicated that FGF21 was independently associated with BUN, Phosphate, LVMI and β2 microglobulin (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Plasma FGF21 levels are significantly increased with the development of early- to end-stage CKD and are independently associated with renal function and adverse lipid profiles in Chinese population. Understanding whether increased FGF21 is associated with myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.

  20. Growth and nutrition in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, Susan L

    2005-10-01

    Growth failure remains an important problem for children with kidney disease secondary to medical kidney disease or urologic disorders. In children with chronic kidney disease, growth remains suboptimal even with energy intake above 80% of the recommend daily allowance. Adults who had chronic kidney disease as children frequently report dissatisfaction with final adult height. Additionally, growth failure in children with end-stage renal disease is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including more frequent hospitalizations and increased mortality. This review describes the prevalence and morbidity associated with growth retardation in US children with chronic kidney disease. Additionally, available strategies to optimize growth and nutrition and current controversies in nutritional management and assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease are discussed.

  1. MicroRNA in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkacin Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and laboratory findings of kidney disease in an adult may find an explanation in kidney functional and/or structural abnormalities that already existed during infancy and childhood, but that may have been missed or underdiagnosed. All the cardiovascular abnormalities that occur in adults with chronic kidney disease are also present in children with chronic kidney disease. Complications in childhood chronic kidney disease will have consequences well beyond pediatric age and influence outcomes of affected young adults with disease. Kidney dysfunction appears early in the course of kidney disease and has been observed in children and adults with chronic kidney disease, condition characterised with kidney fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta is recognized as a major mediator of kidney fibrosis. New evidence illustrates the relationship between transforming growth factor beta signaling and microRNAs expression during kidney diseases development. MicroRNAs play important roles in kidney development and kidney diseases; they are naturally occurring, 22-nucleotide, noncoding RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional gene regulation. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is an indicator of several diseases including chronic kidney disease. Targeting microRNAs should be a therapeutic potential to ameliorate the disease related to fibrosis. The discovery that circulating miRNAs are detectable in serum and plasma, and that their expression varies as a result of disease, presents great potential to be used as biomarkers in kidney disease prevention and diagnosis.

  2. A case-control study of end-of-life treatment preferences and costs following advance care planning for adults with end stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, Marcus; Morton, Rachael L; Clayton, Josephine M; Tong, Allison; Mawren, Daveena; Silvester, William; Power, David; Ma, Ronald; Detering, Karen M

    2018-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of advance care planning (ACP) to improve the likelihood that end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patient's preferences will be known and adhered to at end-of-life. A case-control study of a nurse-led ACP program in adults with ESKD from a major tertiary hospital. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose preferences were known (by substitute decision maker and/or clinicians) and adhered to by their treating doctors. Secondary measures were health system resource use and costs ($AUD) for a nurse-led ACP intervention in the last 12-months of life. In total, 57 cases (38 men, mean age 73.8 years) and 57 historical controls (38 men, mean age 74.0 years) were included. Cases (38/57, 67%) were significantly more likely than controls (15/57, 26%) to have their preferences known and adhered to by their treating doctor at end-of-life (paverage hospital costs in the last 12 months of life was AUD $99,077 (SD = $71,002) per patient. The total cost of the ACP program in 2010/11 was AUD $26,821. ACP was associated with improvements in end-of-life care preferences known and adhered to for people with ESKD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Palliative care needs of patients living with end-stage kidney disease not treated with renal replacement therapy: An exploratory qualitative study from Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Maya J; Chitani, Alex; Dreyer, Gavin

    2017-05-29

    The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing rapidly but the palliative care needs of patients living with ESKD are not well described. Resource limitations at both health system and patient level act as major barriers to patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the form of dialysis. We undertook an exploratory qualitative study to describe the palliative care needs of patients with ESKD who were not receiving RRT, at a government teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. Study participants were adults aged > 18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 15 ml/min on two separate occasions, three months apart, who either chose not to have or were not deemed suitable for RRT. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. In October and November 2013, interviews were conducted with 10 adults (7 women with median age of 60.5 years). All were hypertensive and four were on treatment for HIV. Four themes emerged from the data: changes in functional status because of physical symptoms, financial challenges impacting hospital care, loss of role within the family and the importance of spiritual and cultural beliefs. This study reports on four thematic areas which warrant further quantitative and qualitative studies both in Malawi and other low-resource settings, where a growing number of patients with ESKD unable to access RRT will require palliative care in the coming years.

  4. MicroRNA in kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prkacin Ingrid; Cavric Gordana; Basic-Jukic Nikolina

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings of kidney disease in an adult may find an explanation in kidney functional and/or structural abnormalities that already existed during infancy and childhood, but that may have been missed or underdiagnosed. All the cardiovascular abnormalities that occur in adults with chronic kidney disease are also present in children with chronic kidney disease. Complications in childhood chronic kidney disease will have consequences well beyond pediatric age and influence ...

  5. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts an ischemic etiology of acute heart failure in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Kim, Sung Gyun; Kim, Hyung Jik; Song, Young Rim

    2014-04-01

    The non-invasive differentiation of ischemic and non-ischemic acute heart failure (AHF) not resulting from acute myocardial infarction is difficult and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to assess whether plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can identify ischemic etiology in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting with AHF. We prospectively analyzed 61 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic AHF was confirmed by coronary angiography or stress myocardial perfusion imaging. Plasma levels of BNP were measured at admission (BNP1) and 48 h after admission (BNP2). The mean age of the study patients was 67 years. In these patients, 70.5% had diabetes and 47.5% had dialysis-dependent CKD; 28 of these patients (45.9%) had an ischemic etiology with significantly higher concentrations of BNP1 and BNP2 than did patients without ischemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.755 (P=0.001) for BNP1 and 0.868 (Pischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP1 >2907 ng/L (odds ratio [OR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-48.4; P=0.002) and BNP2 >2322 ng/L (OR 93.1, 95% CI 7.0-1238.7; P=0.001) were independently associated with an ischemic etiology of AHF. Plasma BNP may represent a clinically useful non-invasive tool for identification of ischemic etiology of AHF in patients with stage 4-5 CKD. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  7. Growth Failure in Children with Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  8. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is ... are the symptoms of high blood pressure and kidney disease? Most people with high blood pressure do not ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease and Lipid Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovic, Sandra Vegar; Kristic, Spomenka; Prevljak, Sabina; Pasic, Irmina Sefic

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a serious public health problem due to the increase in incidence and prevalence of this disease worldwide. Given the significant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the population of patients with CKD, and the fact that dyslipidemia itself is a risk factor for CVD, increases the importance of lipid metabolism study in patients with CKD. Evaluate the lipid status of patients with chronic kidney disease. A one-year prospective study included 150 adult patients who were in various stages of chronic renal failure (stage I to IV). Estimate of creatinine clearance was performed using Cockroft-Goult formula. The classification of patients according to stages of chronic renal insufficiency was performed in accordance with the criteria of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). Of the total number of patients (N=150) there was 71 males and 79 females. The mean age of patients was 55.43 years. Average values of serum cholesterol were highest in patients with stage II renal disease and the lowest in patients classified as stage IV (5.76±1.60 mmol/L vs. 5.07±1.88 mmol/L). Analysis of the average value of triglycerides in blood show a slight increase through the stages of CKD in a manner that patients classified into stage I have low serum triglyceride levels (1.73±1.17 mmol/L (range 0.61 to 5.5 mmol/L), and patients classified in stage III the highest value 2.13±1.11 mmol/L (range 0.62 to 4.66 mmol/L). Average cholesterol levels does not statistically significantly change with progression of chronic renal disease. There is an almost linear increase in average triglyceride levels in chronic renal disease. Triglyceride levels in serum begins to increase in the early stage of chronic renal disease and reach the peak in stage IV.

  10. External validation and clinical utility of a prediction model for 6-month mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzley, Brian; Er, Lee; Chiu, Helen Hl; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Martinusen, Dan; Carson, Rachel C; Hargrove, Gaylene; Levin, Adeera; Karim, Mohamud

    2018-02-01

    End-stage kidney disease is associated with poor prognosis. Health care professionals must be prepared to address end-of-life issues and identify those at high risk for dying. A 6-month mortality prediction model for patients on dialysis derived in the United States is used but has not been externally validated. We aimed to assess the external validity and clinical utility in an independent cohort in Canada. We examined the performance of the published 6-month mortality prediction model, using discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analyses. Data were derived from a cohort of 374 prevalent dialysis patients in two regions of British Columbia, Canada, which included serum albumin, age, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, and answers to the "the surprise question" ("Would I be surprised if this patient died within the next year?"). The observed mortality in the validation cohort was 11.5% at 6 months. The prediction model had reasonable discrimination (c-stat = 0.70) but poor calibration (calibration-in-the-large = -0.53 (95% confidence interval: -0.88, -0.18); calibration slope = 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.83)) in our data. Decision curve analysis showed the model only has added value in guiding clinical decision in a small range of threshold probabilities: 8%-20%. Despite reasonable discrimination, the prediction model has poor calibration in this external study cohort; thus, it may have limited clinical utility in settings outside of where it was derived. Decision curve analysis clarifies limitations in clinical utility not apparent by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. This study highlights the importance of external validation of prediction models prior to routine use in clinical practice.

  11. Effects of Different Administration Protocols on the Plasma Concentration of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Dementia Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Amano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD increases with age. With the aging of the population in Japan, there is an increasing likelihood that patients with CKD will receive donepezil hydrochloride (DPZ, an antidementia drug, in the near future. Nevertheless, there have been few reports on how to use DPZ in patients with severe CKD. We report on 2 CKD stage 5 patients who received DPZ under different prescriptions. In case 1, 3 mg/day of DPZ was initially administered for 4 months, after which the dose was increased to 5 mg/day. In case 2, 5 mg was administered twice a week. The plasma concentration of DPZ was measured and the effectiveness was assessed using the Mini-Mental Health State Examination and the Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale. We found that (1 only a slight increase in the plasma concentration of DPZ was observed with a dose of 3 mg daily, (2 there was a significant increase in the plasma concentration with a dose of 5 mg daily, and (3 when 5 mg of DPZ was administered twice a week, the plasma concentration did not differ significantly from healthy controls who had received 5 mg daily. Although cognitive function was improved best when the 5-mg dose was administered daily with no apparent side effects, the plasma concentration came close to reaching a toxic level at this dose. Careful follow-up may be essential when DPZ is used at 5 mg/day or greater in severe CKD patients.

  12. Vasopressin, Copeptin, and Renal Concentrating Capacity in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease without Renal Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; Boertien, Wendy E.; van Beek, Andre P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Meijer, Esther; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent hereditary renal disease, characterized by cyst formation in the kidneys leading to end stage kidney failure. It is clinically acknowledged that ADPKD patients have impaired urine concentrating

  13. Clinical approach to kidney disease in kidney recipients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campistol, Josep M; Gutiérrez-Dalmau, Alex; Crespo, Josep; Saval, Núria; Grinyó, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, clinical criteria used by Spanish nephrologists when approaching chronic kidney disease (CKD) in kidney recipients, as well as their level of maintenance and control of renal function, were evaluated. An epidemiological, observational, multicenter, nation-wide, prospective study was carried out, with a 6-month follow-up period. Three hundred and sixty-eight adult patients with stage3 kidney disease after a 24-month or longer post-transplantation follow-up period were included. Visits schedule included a retrospective visit, a baseline visit, an optional mid-term visit, and a final visit at month6. Mean time since kidney transplantation was 8.2±5.4years. Most common pre-transplant cardiovascular risk factors were high blood pressure (80.2%), followed by high cholesterol levels (61.7%). Serum creatinine levels showed a statistically significant decrease from baseline visit to 6-month visit (0.06±0.22; P<.0001), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction was -1.03±6.14 (P=0.0014). Significant independent prognostic factors for GFR worsening were: higher 24-hour proteinuria (OR=1.001 per mg; P=.020), longer time since transplantation (OR=1.009 per month; P=.017), and lower hemoglobin levels (OR=1.261 per g/dl; P=.038). Donor age also had some negative influence (OR=1.021 per year; P=.106). Biopsies were obtained in only 8% of kidney transplant recipients with stage 3 CKD with an intervention being carried out in 25.4% of cases. Secondary markers and factors resulting in CKD progression, particularly anemia, are still frequently uncontrolled after kidney transplantation. Only about 2% of patients benefit from a therapeutic intervention based on a biopsy. Clinical perception differs from objective measures, which results in an obvious clinical inertia regarding risk factor control in such patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  15. [ANEMIA IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukmir, L; Fišić, M; Diminić-Lisica, I; Ljubotina, A

    2016-12-01

    Renal anemia develops secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its incidence increases with the progression of CKD. The aim is to inform family physicians about the latest developments and ways of approaching the issue, in accordance with national guidelines. The PubMed and Cochrane systematic reviews databases were searched for the 1996-2015 period using the following key words: anemia, chronic renal failure, erythropoietin, and primary health care. In addition, all relevant articles and textbooks available were manually searched to suggest the following conclusions. The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) slows down the progression of CKD, reduces the need for blood transfusions and improves the patient quality of life. Target hemoglobin (Hb) concentration to be permanently maintained is 110-120 g/L. Higher Hb levels are associated with higher mortality and major cardiovascular events in dialysis patients. Target hemoglobin level should be strictly individualized depending on CKD stage (both non-dialyzed and dialyzed population), age, other risks, initial and maintenance treatment. Early recognition and appropriate correction of anemia using ESA is of utmost importance in CKD patients. Systematic primary and secondary prevention measures along with education and professional implementation of national guidelines in daily work of family practitioners can improve medical care of patients with CKD.

  16. Diagnostic approach to chronic kidney disease | Naiker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be considered to be present if a patient has a glomerular filtration rate 3 months. These include proteinuria, haematuria and radiological abnormalities. Regardless of the stage of CKD, the approach is mainly similar.

  17. Can renal nutrition education improve adherence to a low-protein diet in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Barreto, Juliana Giglio; Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Bregman, Rachel; Cervante, Vicente Faria; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2013-05-01

    Low adherence is frequently observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are following a low-protein diet. We have evaluated whether a specific nutrition education program motivates patients with CKD who do not yet receive dialysis to reduce their protein intake and whether such a program improves adherence to a low-protein diet over and above standard dietary counseling. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the CKD outpatient clinic at Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study included adult patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Patients were randomized to a normal counseling group (individualized dietary program: 0.6 to 0.75 g protein/kg/day or 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day for patients with diabetes and 25 to 35 kcal/kg/day with sodium restriction) or an intense counseling group (same dietary program plus nutrition education materials). The nutrition education material included 4 different actions to improve patient knowledge and understanding of the low-protein and low-sodium diet. Both groups were followed by means of individual monthly visits to the outpatient clinic for 4 months. We looked for a change in protein intake from baseline values as well as the adherence rate, assessed as a 20% decrease of the initial protein intake (by 24-hour food recall). Eighty-nine patients completed the study (normal counseling n = 46; intense counseling n = 43). The number of patients who adhered to a low-protein diet was high but did not differ between groups (in the last visit 69% vs. 48%; P = .48; intense vs. normal counseling, respectively). The reduction in protein intake from baseline values was greater for the intense counseling group compared with the normal counseling group (at the last visit, -20.7 g/day [-30.9%] vs. -10.5 g/day [-15.1%], intense vs. normal counseling, respectively; P = .04). An intense nutrition education program contributed to reducing protein intake in patients with

  18. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max, versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max and sedentary behaviour (SED, in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p=0.001, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.028, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.045. Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p=0.035, reduced plasma LDL (p=0.001, triglycerides (p=0.029, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, increased plasma albumin (p=0.047, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.005, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.048. These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  20. Impaired vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetzner, Fabian; Scholze, Alexandra; Wittstock, Antje

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics.......Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show increased cardiovascular morbidity. We hypothesized that vascular properties which can be routinely evaluated noninvasively are related to different stages of CKD and their clinical and biochemical characteristics....

  1. Characteristics of bone mineral metabolism in patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: results of the OSERCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górriz, José L; Molina, Pablo; Bover, Jordi; Barril, Guillermina; Martín-de Francisco, Angel L; Caravaca, Francisco; Hervás, José; Piñera, Celestino; Escudero, Verónica; Molinero, Luis M

    2013-01-18

    OSERCE is a multi-centre and cross-sectional study with the aim of analysing the biochemical, clinical, and management characteristics of bone mineral metabolism alterations and the level of compliance with K/DOQI guideline recommendations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The study included a total of 634 patients from 32 different Spanish nephrology units, all with CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and not on dialysis (K/DOQI stage: 33% stage 3, 46% stage 4, and 21% stage 5). In 409 of these patients, laboratory parameters were also measured in a centralised laboratory, including creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OH-vitamin D, and 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D levels. The rates of non-compliance with the K/DOQI objectives for calcium, phosphorous, intact PTH, and calcium x phosphate product among these patients were 45%, 22%, 70%, and 4%, respectively. Of the 70% of patients with intact PTH levels outside of the target range established by the K/DOQI guidelines, 55.5% had values above the upper limit and 14.5% had values below the lower limit. Of the 45% of patients with calcium levels outside of the target range, 40% had values above the upper limit and 5% had values below the lower limit. Of the 22% of patients with phosphorous levels outside of the target range, 19% had values above the upper limit, and 3% had values below the lower limit. Finally, 4% of patients also had values for the calcium x phosphate product that were outside of the recommended range. Only 1.8% of patients complied with all four K/DOQI objectives. The values detected in centralised laboratory analyses were not significantly different from those measured in the laboratories at each institution. In addition, 81.5% of patients had a deficiency of calcidiol (25-OH-D3) (<30 ng/ml); of these, 35% had moderate-severe deficiency (<15 ng/ml) and 47% had mild deficiency (15-30 ng/ml). Calcitriol (1,25-OH2-D3

  2. Tailoring the 'Perfect Fit' for Renal Transplant Recipients with End-stage Polycystic Kidney Disease: Indications and Timing of Native Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrou, Chrysoula; Moris, Demetrios; Vernadakis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    The ideal timing of native nephrectomy in relation to kidney transplantation in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) can be a very puzzling decision for transplant surgeons and remains a matter of debate. This review article aims to present current literature regarding this highly controversial issue. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using "polycystic kidney disease", "renal/kidney transplantation" and "native nephrectomy" as key words. Our search was focused on the optimal timing of and indications for native nephrectomy in renal transplant recipients with ADPKD. In symptomatic cases, pre-transplant unilateral or bilateral native nephrectomy seems appropriate, in order to alleviate symptoms. In cases that are provided with the option of living-donor transplantation, the performance of the simultaneous procedure could be of benefit. When the principal indication of native nephrectomy is the creation of space for the renal allograft, various studies highlight the safety of the simultaneous approach of either unilateral or bilateral nephrectomy. No consensus exists on the appropriate timing for native nephrectomy in patients with ADPKD. Several issues to be addressed in the decision-making process are the importance of residual diuresis, the longer operative time along with the associated prolonged ischemia time and higher complication rate of the combined procedure. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Male Sexual Dysfunction and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in end-stage renal disease. Historically, this cause of considerable morbidity has been under-reported and under-recognized. The ideal approach to diagnosis and management remains unclear due to a paucity of good quality data, but an understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary in order to address the burden of this important complication of CKD. This paper will review the endocrine dysfunction that occurs in renal disease, particularly the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, discuss the causes of erectile dysfunction, infertility, and altered body image and libido in these patients and suggest appropriate treatment interventions. PMID:28382300

  4. Beneficial Effects of 6-Month Supplementation with Omega-3 Acids on Selected Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pluta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is accompanied by inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6-month supplementation with omega-3 acids on selected markers of inflammation in patients with CKD stages 1–3. Methods. Six-month supplementation with omega-3 acids (2 g/day was administered to 87 CKD patients and to 27 healthy individuals. At baseline and after follow-up, blood was taken for C-reactive protein (CRP and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 concentration and white blood cell (WBC count. Serum concentration of omega-3 acids—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA—was determined using gas chromatography. And 24-hour urinary collection was performed to measure MCP-1 excretion. Results. After six-month omega-3 supplementation, ALA concentration increased in CKD patients and in the reference group, while EPA and DHA did not change. At follow-up, a significant decrease in urinary MCP-1 excretion in CKD (p=0.0012 and in the reference group (p=0.001 was found. CRP, serum MCP-1, and WBC did not change significantly. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR did not change significantly in the CKD group. Conclusions. The reduction of urinary MCP-1 excretion in the absence of MCP-1 serum concentration may suggest a beneficial effect of omega-3 supplementation on tubular MCP-1 production. Trial Registration. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02147002.

  5. Palliative care needs of patients living with end-stage kidney disease not treated with renal replacement therapy: An exploratory qualitative study from Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya J. Bates

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing rapidly but the palliative care needs of patients living with ESKD are not well described. Resource limitations at both health system and patient level act as major barriers to patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT in the form of dialysis. We undertook an exploratory qualitative study to describe the palliative care needs of patients with ESKD who were not receiving RRT, at a government teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi.Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. Study participants were adults aged > 18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 15 ml/min on two separate occasions, three months apart, who either chose not to have or were not deemed suitable for RRT. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews.Results: In October and November 2013, interviews were conducted with 10 adults (7 women with median age of 60.5 years. All were hypertensive and four were on treatment for HIV. Four themes emerged from the data: changes in functional status because of physical symptoms, financial challenges impacting hospital care, loss of role within the family and the importance of spiritual and cultural beliefs.Conclusion: This study reports on four thematic areas which warrant further quantitative and qualitative studies both in Malawi and other low-resource settings, where a growing number of patients with ESKD unable to access RRT will require palliative care in the coming years.

  6. Clinical practice recommendations for native vitamin D therapy in children with chronic kidney disease Stages 2-5 and on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Rukshana; Wan, Mandy; Nagler, Evi V; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bishop, Nicholas; Cozzolino, Mario; Bacchetta, Justine; Edefonti, Alberto; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Vande Walle, Johan; Haffner, Dieter; Klaus, Günter; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent and often severe in children and adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although native vitamin D {25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]} is thought to have pleiotropic effects on many organ systems, its skeletal effects have been most widely studied. The 25(OH)D deficiency is causally linked with rickets and fractures in healthy children and those with CKD, contributing to the CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) complex. There are few studies to provide evidence for vitamin D therapy or guidelines for its use in CKD. A core working group (WG) of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs have developed recommendations for the evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in children with CKD. We present clinical practice recommendations for the use of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in children with CKD Stages 2-5 and on dialysis. A parallel document addresses treatment recommendations for active vitamin D analogue therapy. The WG has performed an extensive literature review to include meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in healthy children as well as children and adults with CKD, and prospective observational studies in children with CKD. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system has been used to develop and grade the recommendations. In the absence of applicable study data, the opinion of experts from the ESPN CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs is provided, but clearly GRADE-ed as such and must be carefully considered by the treating physician, and adapted to individual patient needs as appropriate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. High levels of both serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase are independent preictors of mortality in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Bayo, Miguel Ángel; Gonzales-Candia, Boris; Luna, Enrique; Caravaca, Francisco

    High serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are associated with increased mortality in the general population. However, this association has scarcely been investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of CKD patients with abnormally elevated serum GGT, and its value for predicting mortality. Retrospective observational study in a population cohort of adults with stage 4-5 CKD not yet on dialysis. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters of prognostic interest were recorded and used to characterise CKD patients with high levels of GGT (>36 IU/l). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse the influence of baseline serum GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on mortality for whatever reason. The study group consisted of 909 patients (mean age 65±15 years). Abnormally elevated GGT or ALP levels at baseline were observed in 209 (23%) and 172 (19%) patients, respectively, and concomitant elevations of GGT and ALP in 68 (7%). High GGT levels were associated with higher comorbidity burden, and a biochemical profile characterised by higher serum concentration of uric acid, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, and C-reactive. During the study period, 365 patients (40%) died (median survival time=74 months). In adjusted Cox regression models, high levels of GGT (hazard ratio [HR]=1.39;CI 95%: 1.09-1.78, P=.009) and ALP (HR=1.31; CI95%: 1.02-1.68, P=.038) were independently associated with mortality. High serum levels of GGT are independent predictors of mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Double bag or Y-set versus standard transfer systems for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Conal; Cody, June D; Khan, Izhar; Rabindranath, Kannaiyan S; Vale, Luke; Wallace, Sheila A

    2014-08-13

    Peritonitis is the most frequent serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). It has a major influence on the number of patients switching from CAPD to haemodialysis and has probably restricted the wider acceptance and uptake of CAPD as an alternative mode of dialysis.This is an update of a review first published in 2000. This systematic review sought to determine if modifications of the transfer set (Y-set or double bag systems) used in CAPD exchanges are associated with a reduction in peritonitis and an improvement in other relevant outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator. Studies contained in the Specialised Register are identified through search strategies specifically designed for CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of last search: 22 October 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing double bag, Y-set and standard peritoneal dialysis (PD) exchange systems in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Data were abstracted by a single investigator onto a standard form and analysed by Review Manager. Analysis was by a random effects model and results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twelve eligible trials with a total of 991 randomised patients were identified. Despite the large total number of patients, few trials covered the same interventions, small numbers of patients were enrolled in each trial and the methodological quality was suboptimal. Y-set and twin-bag systems were superior to conventional spike systems (7 trials, 485 patients, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.77) in preventing peritonitis in PD. Disconnect systems should be the preferred exchange systems in CAPD.

  9. Bowel Diseases and Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dorofeiev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review of contemporary publications analyzes the prevalence of combinations of bowel and renal diseases. Special attention is paid to the problem of correlation between bowel diseases and urolithiasis. We consider the possible pathogenic mechanisms of lesions, such as genetically determined violations of intestinal absorption and secretion, changes in the intestinal microbiota, systemic inflammatory response, water and electrolyte disturbances.

  10. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  11. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Marcuccilli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  12. Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCV-CI) to Evaluate Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children With Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common medical condition among children and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent, chronic, costly, and disabling disorder among them. The aim of this study was to investigate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children with early stages of CKD, and to compare it with the occurrence of OCD in healthy children. In this case-control study, we evaluated 160 children aged 7 to 17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group consisted of 80 healthy children and the case group included 80 children with Stage 1 to 3 CKD. The ages and sex of the children in the two groups were matched. OCD in children was evaluated using the obsessive compulsive inventory-child version (OCI-CV). The mean scores of doubting/checking (case: 3.52 ± 2.54, control: 2.5 ± 2.32, P = 0.007) and ordering (case: 2.59 ± 1.81, control: 1.5 ± 2.56, P = 0.005) in the children with CKD was significantly higher than in the healthy ones. Moreover, the mean total scores for the OCI-CV of the children with CKD at 15.32 ± 7.69 was significantly higher than the scores of the healthy ones at 11.12 ± 2.54 (P = 0.021). There was a significant correlation between the CKD duration and doubting/checking (P = 0.004, correlation coefficient (CC): 0.4), obsessing (P = 0.06, CC: 0.02), washing (P = 0.031, CC: 0.8), ordering (P = 0.001, CC: 0.2), and the total scores of the OCI-CV questionnaire (P = 0.04, CC: 0.4). The risk of OCD in children with CKD is significantly higher than that in healthy children. Although the results seem to suggest that psychiatric intervention can be helpful in treating OCD in children with CKD, further investigation into the medical condition is required so as to obtain more definitive conclusions.

  13. Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Syndrome Rather Than a Single Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Grassi, Giorgio; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Nazha, Marta; Roggero, Simona; Capizzi, Irene; De Pascale, Agostino; Priola, Adriano M; Di Vico, Cristina; Maxia, Stefania; Loi, Valentina; Asunis, Anna M; Pani, Antonello; Veltri, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The term "diabetic kidney" has recently been proposed to encompass the various lesions, involving all kidney structures that characterize protean kidney damage in patients with diabetes. While glomerular diseases may follow the stepwise progression that was described several decades ago, the tenet that proteinuria identifies diabetic nephropathy is disputed today and should be limited to glomerular lesions. Improvements in glycemic control may have contributed to a decrease in the prevalence of glomerular lesions, initially described as hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy, and revealed other types of renal damage, mainly related to vasculature and interstitium, and these types usually present with little or no proteinuria. Whilst glomerular damage is the hallmark of microvascular lesions, ischemic nephropathies, renal infarction, and cholesterol emboli syndrome are the result of macrovascular involvement, and the presence of underlying renal damage sets the stage for acute infections and drug-induced kidney injuries. Impairment of the phagocytic response can cause severe and unusual forms of acute and chronic pyelonephritis. It is thus concluded that screening for albuminuria, which is useful for detecting "glomerular diabetic nephropathy", does not identify all potential nephropathies in diabetes patients. As diabetes is a risk factor for all forms of kidney disease, diagnosis in diabetic patients should include the same combination of biochemical, clinical, and imaging tests as employed in non-diabetic subjects, but with the specific consideration that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may develop more rapidly and severely in diabetic patients.

  14. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, affecting one in 500 individuals. The cardinal manifestation of ADPKD is progressive cystic dilatation of renal tubules with kidney enlargement and progression to end-stage renal disease in approximately half of cases by 60 years of age. Although previously considered a condition of adults, it is clear that children and young adults are subject to the complications of ADPKD. Recent findings It has been increasingly recognized that interventions early in life are necessary in order to confer the best long-term outcome in this common condition. Therefore, it is imperative for pediatricians to recognize the manifestations and complications of this disease. Until recently ADPKD management focused on general principles of chronic kidney disease. However, several recent clinical trials in children and adults with ADPKD have focused on disease-specific therapies. Summary This review will highlight the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and appropriate management of ADPKD in childhood and will review recent relevant clinical trials in children and adults with this condition. PMID:25635587

  15. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, affecting one in 500 individuals. The cardinal manifestation of ADPKD is progressive cystic dilatation of renal tubules with kidney enlargement and progression to end-stage renal disease in approximately half of cases by 60 years of age. Although previously considered a condition of adults, it is clear that children and young adults are subject to the complications of ADPKD. It has been increasingly recognized that interventions early in life are necessary in order to confer the best long-term outcome in this common condition. Therefore, it is imperative for pediatricians to recognize the manifestations and complications of this disease. Until recently ADPKD management focused on general principles of chronic kidney disease. However, several recent clinical trials in children and adults with ADPKD have focused on disease-specific therapies. This review will highlight the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and appropriate management of ADPKD in childhood and will review recent relevant clinical trials in children and adults with this condition.

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratala, Abhilash; Bhattacharya, Deepti; Kazory, Amir

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide, the number of pregnant women with various degrees of renal dysfunction is expected to increase. There is a bidirectional relation between CKD and pregnancy in which renal dysfunction negatively affects pregnancy outcomes, and the pregnancy can have a deleterious impact on various aspects of kidney disease. It has been shown that even mild renal dysfunction can increase considerably the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Moreover, data suggest that a history of recovery from acute kidney injury is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition to kidney dysfunction, maternal hypertension and proteinuria predispose women to negative outcomes and are important factors to consider in preconception counseling and the process of risk stratification. In this review, we provide an overview of the physiologic renal changes during pregnancy as well as available data regarding CKD and pregnancy outcomes. We also highlight the important management strategies in women with certain selected renal conditions that are seen commonly during the childbearing years. We call for future research on underexplored areas such as the concept of renal functional reserve to develop a potential clinical tool for prognostication and risk stratification of women at higher risk for complications during pregnancy.

  17. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT: A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD. Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146, and nephrologists (19. In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241, key renal nursing and other (non-specialist staff (95 and a small number of relevant others (28. Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first

  18. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  19. Neuromuscular electrostimulation: a new therapeutic option to improve radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula maturation in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lucia; Esteve, Vicent; Yeste, Montserrat; Artigas, Vicent; Llagostera, Secundino

    2017-09-01

    Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) is the gold standard vascular access for end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Exercises after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation improve maturation. No articles are published regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) in AVF maturation. To assess the usefulness of a NMES programme on RCAVF maturation process. An 8-week single-centre prospective study. Two groups were established: control group (CG): underwent usual RCAVF forearm exercises and electrostimulation group (ESG): underwent RCAVF NMES programme. Handgrip (HG) measurement, preoperative Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) parameters, clinical and DUS maturation as well as surgical complications were assessed. Thirty-six patients (54% men). Mean age 67.9 ± 14.3 years; 12 ESG and 24 CG. Demographic data, comorbidities, medical treatment, HG and DUS measurement at baseline were similar. HG increased in both groups at the end of the study (CG 24.5 ± 9.5 vs. 26.1 ± 10.1 kg, p 0.048; ESG 25.8 ± 10.3 vs. 26.3 ± 11.6 kg, p 0.644). RCAVF forearm vein diameter (CG 3.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.7 ± 1.1 mm; ESG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.1 ± 1.7 mm) and humeral artery blood flow rate (CG 110.5 ± 20.7 vs. 1053.4 ± 510.7 ml/min; ESG 118.2 ± 31.6 vs. 954.1 ± 542.2 ml/min) statistically increased for both groups. A significant increase in clinical maturation in ESG (62.5 vs. 91.7%, p 0.046) at 8 weeks was observed. Four patients in each group developed juxta-anastomotic stenosis and were surgically repaired. No adverse NMES effects were registered. NMES of forearm muscles is a safe and effective technique to improve RCAVF maturation and constitutes a novel alternative to forearm isometrics exercises. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm the potential effect of NMES in the vascular access maturation process.

  20. Outcomes in adults and children with end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuntantang, Gloria; Osafo, Charlotte; Olowu, Wasiu A; Arogundade, Fatiu; Niang, Abdou; Porter, John; Naicker, Saraladevi; Luyckx, Valerie A

    2017-04-01

    The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but is probably high. Access to dialysis for ESKD is limited by insufficient infrastructure and catastrophic out-of-pocket costs. Most patients remain undiagnosed, untreated, and die. We did a systematic literature review to assess outcomes of patients who reach dialysis and the quality of dialysis received. We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles in English or French from sub-Saharan Africa reporting dialysis outcomes in patients with ESKD published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 22, 2015. No studies were excluded to best represent the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Outcomes of interest included access to dialysis, mortality, duration of dialysis, and markers of dialysis quality in patients with ESKD. Data were analysed descriptively and reported using narrative synthesis. Studies were all of medium to low quality. We identified 4339 studies, 68 of which met inclusion criteria, comprising 24 456 adults and 809 children. In the pooled analysis, 390 (96%) of 406 adults and 133 (95%) of 140 children who could not access dialysis died or were presumed to have died. Among those dialysed, 2747 (88%) of 3122 adults in incident ESKD cohorts, 496 (16%) of 3197 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts, and 107 (36%) of 294 children with ESKD died or were presumed to have died. 2508 (84%) of 2990 adults in incident ESKD cohorts discontinued dialysis compared with 64 (5%) of 1364 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts. 41 (1%) of 4483 adults in incident ESKD cohorts, 2280 (19%) of 12 125 adults in prevalent ESKD cohorts, and 71 (19%) of 381 children with ESKD received transplants. 16 studies reported on management of anaemia, 17 on dialysis frequency, eight on dialysis accuracy, and 22 on vascular access for dialysis INTERPRETATION: Most patients with ESKD starting dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa discontinue treatment and die. Further

  1. Impact of anticoagulation and platelet antiaggregation on anaemia and haemorragic events in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Ana; Goicoechea, Marian; Linares, Tania; Panizo, Nayara; García de Vinuesa, María Soledad; Verdalles, Úrsula; Verde, Eduardo; Pérez de José, Ana; Luño, José

    2018-03-01

    There is controversy concerning the risk/benefit of anticoagulation/antiaggregation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We analysed the impact of anticoagulation/antiaggregation on anaemia and haemorrhagic events in CKD patients. A total of 232 CKD patients stages 3 and 4 were followed during a mean follow-up time of 36.7 ± 11.6 months: 81 patients did not receive any anticoagulation or antiaggregation treatment, 91 received anticoagulation treatment and 60 patients received platelet antiaggregation. Haemorrhagic and cardiovascular events were recorded. Haemoglobin and ferritine levels were significantly higher in patients who did not receive anticoagulation or antiaggregation (Hb 13.7 ± 1.6, 13.3 ± 1.8 and 12.7±1.9g/dl, p=0.004; ferritine 170 ± 145, 140 ± 138, 105 ± 99μg/l, p=0.023). During follow up, 36 haemorrhagic events were registered: 4in the control group, 23 in the anticoagulation group and 9in the antiaggregation group (log rank 12.5; p=0.002). In a Cox model adjusted by age, renal function and haemoglobin levels, the anticoagulation increased the risk of bleeding by 4times (HR 4.180, 1.955-8.937); p=0,001) and antiaggregation by almost 3times (HR 2.780, 1.257-6.149, p=0.012). A total of 64 cardiovascular events were registered, 21 of which were classified as atherosclerotic events: 10 in the antiaggregation group, 8in the control group and 3in the anticoagulation group (log rank: 8.351; p=0.015). Anticoagulation treatment showed a reduction in the risk of atherosclerotic events (HR 0.136, 0.033-0.551, p=0.005) while platelet antiaggregation did not modified this risk (HR 1,566, 0.569-4.308). Anticoagulation and antiaggregation increase haemorrhagic risk in patients with CKD and worsen anaemia. Anticoagulation reduces atherosclerotic events by more than 85% while platelet antiaggregation does not modify this risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Susanne B; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Norris, Keith C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a national public health problem. Although the prevalence of early stages of CKD is similar across different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease is greater for minorities than their non-Hispanic white peers. Paradoxically, once on dialysis, minorities experience survival rates that exceed their non-Hispanic white peers. Advancing our understanding of the unique interplay of biological, genetic, environmental, sociocultural, and health care system level factors may prompt reorientation of our approach to health promotion and disease prevention. The potential of this new approach is to create previously unimagined gains to improve patient outcomes and reduce health inequities for patients with CKD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, incidental finding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.J. Gildenhuys

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Abbreviations: ADPKD, Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease; UPJ, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction; HK, horseshoe kidney;. RCC, renal cell carcinoma; MVA, motor vehicle accident; PVA, pedestrian vehicle accident; GH, gross haematuria; AP, abdominal pain; FP, flank pain;.

  4. Metformin in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has traditionally been regarded as contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), though guidelines in recent years have been relaxed to permit therapy if the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is > 30 mL/min. The main problem is the perceived risk of lactic acidosis (LA). Epidemiological...... reduction, including weight loss, which are beneficial to patients. The risk of death and cardiovascular disease is reduced by about a third in non-CKD patients. Since metformin intoxication undoubtedly causes LA, and metformin is renally excreted, inappropriate dosage of metformin will increase the risk...

  5. Chronic kidney disease in an adult with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H J; Bagnasco, S; Hamosh, A; Sperati, C J

    2014-01-01

    We report an adult male with classic propionic acidemia (PA) who developed chronic kidney disease in the third decade of his life. This diagnosis was recognized by an increasing serum creatinine and confirmed by reduced glomerular filtration on a (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) scan. Histopathology of the kidney showed moderate glomerulo- and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with very segmental mesangial IgA deposits. This is the second reported case of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia possibly indicating that chronic kidney disease may be a late-stage complication of propionic acidemia. Additionally, this is the first description of the histopathology of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia. As more cases emerge, the clinical course and spectrum of renal pathology in this disorder will be better defined.

  6. Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Carnosine inhibits advanced glycation end product formation and reduces the synthesis of matrix proteins such as fibronectin and collagen type VI of podocytes and mesangial cells. In experimental studies it was shown that carnosine reduces the level of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. It is suggested that carnosine is a naturally occurring anti-aging substance in human organisms with a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.This paper reports the results of studies concerning carnosine’s role in kidney diseases, particularly in ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and also in blood pressure regulation. The correlations between serum carnosine and serum carnosinase activity and polymorphism in the CNDP1 gene are analyzed. The role of CNDP1 gene polymorphism in the development of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease is discussed. Carnosine is engaged in different metabolic pathways. It has nephroprotective features. Further studies of carnosine metabolism and its biological properties, particularly those concerning the human organism, are required.

  7. Role of ultrasonographic chronic kidney disease score in the assessment of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, Mustafa; Çakır, Özgür; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Dayanan, Ramazan; Akın, Selçuk; Değirmen, Elif; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Turgut, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy imaging procedure to comment on the kidney disease. Data are limited about the relation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and all 3 renal US parameters, including kidney length, parenchymal thickness and parenchymal echogenicity, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between e-GFR and ultrasonographic CKD score calculated via these ultrasonographic parameters. One hundred and twenty patients with stage 1-5 CKD were enrolled in this study. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. US was performed by the same radiologist who was blinded to patients' histories and laboratory results. US parameters including kidney length, parenchymal thickness and parenchymal echogenicity were obtained from both kidneys. All 3 parameters were scored for each kidney, separately. The sum of the average scores of these parameters was used to calculate ultrasonographic CKD score. The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 14.19 years. Mean kidney length, parenchymal thickness, ultrasonographic CKD score and median parenchymal echogenicity were found as 96.2 ± 12.3, 10.97 ± 2.59 mm, 6.28 ± 2.52 and 1.0 (0-3.5), respectively. e-GFR was positively correlated with kidney length (r = 0.343, p < 0.001), parenchymal thickness (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with CKD score (r = -0.587, p < 0.001) and parenchymal echogenicity (r = -0.683, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for distinction of e-GFR lower than 60 mL/min showed that the ultrasonographic CKD score higher than 4.75 was the best parameter with the sensitivity of 81% and positive predictivity of 92% (AUC, 0.829; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92; p < 0.001). We found correlation between e-GFR and ultrasonographic CKD score via using all ultrasonographic parameters. Also, our study showed

  8. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garcia-Garcia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  9. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2), 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Soo Young; Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sarcopenia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt) two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Results Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3–5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02–3.68) in men but was not statistically significant in women. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD. PMID:26083479

  10. Salt intake in kidney disease-a missed therapeutic opportunity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Navis, Gerjan; Ritz, Eberhard

    Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD), treatment is not yet satisfactory, particularly when it is started in the late stages of the disease. Novel modes of intervention to mitigate the burden of disease are required. The reduction of dietary

  11. Prevention of chronic kidney disease : The next step forward!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    The incidence of end stage renal disease in patients who have not experienced a classic primary renal disease is dramatically increasing. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in these patients is due to diabetes, mostly type 2, hypertension and generalised atherosclerosis. As these patients are frequently

  12. Therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Compensatory structural and functional adaptation after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma according to preoperative stage of chronic kidney disease. Choi DK, Jung SB, Park BH, Jeong BC, Seo SI, Jeon SS, Lee HM, Choi HY, Jeon HG.J Urol. 2015 Oct;194(4):910-5. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.04.093.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Jung, S B; Park, B H; Jeong, B C; Seo, S I; Jeon, S S; Lee, H M; Choi, H Y; Jeon, H G

    2017-03-01

    We investigated structural hypertrophy and functional hyperfiltration as compensatory adaptations after radical nephrectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma according to the preoperative chronic kidney disease stage. We retrospectively identified 543 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma between 1997 and 2012. Patients were classified according to preoperative glomerular filtration rate as no chronic kidney disease-glomerular filtration rate 90ml/min/1.73m 2 or greater (230, 42.4%), chronic kidney disease stage II-glomerular filtration rate 60 to less than 90ml/min/1.73m 2 (227, 41.8%), and chronic kidney disease stage III-glomerular filtration rate 30 to less than 60ml/min/1.73m 2 (86, 15.8%). Computerized tomography performed within 2 months before surgery and 1 year after surgery was used to assess functional renal volume for measuring the degree of hypertrophy of the remnant kidney, and the preoperative and postoperative glomerular filtration rate per unit volume of functional renal volume was used to calculate the degree of hyperfiltration. Among all patients (mean age = 56.0y) mean preoperative glomerular filtration rate, functional renal volume, and glomerular filtration rate/functional renal volume were 83.2ml/min/1.73m 2 , 340.6cm 3 , and 0.25ml/min/1.73m 2 /cm 3 , respectively. The percent reduction in glomerular filtration rate was statistically significant according to chronic kidney disease stage (no chronic kidney disease 31.2% vs. stage II 26.5% vs. stage III 12.8%, P<0.001). However, the degree of hypertrophic functional renal volume in the remnant kidney was not statistically significant (no chronic kidney disease 18.5% vs. stage II 17.3% vs. stage III 16.5%, P = 0.250). The change in glomerular filtration rate/functional renal volume was statistically significant (no chronic kidney disease 18.5% vs. stage II 20.1% vs. stage III 45.9%, P<0.001). Factors that increased glomerular filtration rate/functional renal

  14. Genetic loci influencing kidney function and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Lord, Graham M; van der Harst, Pim; Lawlor, Debbie A; Sehmi, Joban S; Gale, Daniel P; Wass, Mark N; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beckmann, Jacqui; Bilo, Henk J G; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris J; Caulfield, Mark J; Connell, John M C; Cook, H Terence; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Davey Smith, George; de Silva, Ranil; Deng, Guohong; Devuyst, Olivier; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Dimkovic, Nada; Dockrell, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Ebrahim, Shah; Eggermann, Thomas; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Floege, Jurgen; Forouhi, Nita G; Gansevoort, Ron T; Han, Xijin; Hedblad, Bo; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Hepkema, Bouke G; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Hypponen, Elina; Johnson, Toby; de Jong, Paul E; Kleefstra, Nanne; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lapsley, Marta; Li, Yun; Loos, Ruth J F; Luan, Jian'an; Luttropp, Karin; Maréchal, Céline; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Nordfors, Louise; Parsa, Afshin; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda W; Perucha, Esperanza; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Roderick, Paul J; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanna, Serena; Schalling, Martin; Schlessinger, David; Schlieper, Georg; Seelen, Marc A J; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sjögren, Marketa; Smit, Johannes H; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Stenvinkel, Peter; Sternberg, Michael J E; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ubink-Veltmaat, Lielith J; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn; Zerres, Klaus; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Maxwell, Patrick H; McCarthy, Mark I; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Lightstone, Liz; Scott, James; Navis, Gerjan; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2010-05-01

    Using genome-wide association, we identify common variants at 2p12-p13, 6q26, 17q23 and 19q13 associated with serum creatinine, a marker of kidney function (P = 10(-10) to 10(-15)). Of these, rs10206899 (near NAT8, 2p12-p13) and rs4805834 (near SLC7A9, 19q13) were also associated with chronic kidney disease (P = 5.0 x 10(-5) and P = 3.6 x 10(-4), respectively). Our findings provide insight into metabolic, solute and drug-transport pathways underlying susceptibility to chronic kidney disease.

  15. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Quinlan, Amy; Heck-Kanellidis, Jennifer; Calderon, Dawn; Patel, Tejas; Gandhi, Bhavika; Patel, Shrinil; Hetavi, Mahida; Costanzo, Eric J; Cosentino, James; Patel, Chirag; Dewan, Asa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Salman, Loay; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2018-03-01

    While transradial approach to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions offers multiple advantages, the procedure can cause radial artery damage and occlusion. Because radial artery is the preferred site for the creation of an arteriovenous fistula to provide dialysis, patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly dependent on radial artery for their long-term survival. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients undergoing coronary interventions via radial artery. Stage of chronic kidney disease was based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. A total of 497 patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions were included. Over 70.4% (350/497) of the patients had chronic kidney disease. Stage II chronic kidney disease was observed in 243 (69%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 76.0 ± 8.4 mL/min). Stage III was observed in 93 (27%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 49 ± 7.5 mL/min). Stage IV chronic kidney disease was observed in 5 (1%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 25.6 ± 4.3 mL/min) and Stage V chronic kidney disease was observed in 9 (3%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 9.3 ± 3.5 mL/min). Overall, 107 of 350 patients (30%) had advanced chronic kidney disease, that is, stage III-V chronic kidney disease. Importantly, 14 of the 107 (13%) patients had either stage IV or V chronic kidney disease. This study finds that nearly one-third of the patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions have advanced chronic kidney disease. Because many of these patients may require dialysis, the use of radial artery to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions must be carefully considered in chronic kidney disease population.

  16. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  17. Polycystic kidney and liver disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosje, J T; van den Ingh, T S; van der Linde-Sipman, J S

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews 27 cases of polycystic disease of the kidneys and/or liver in cats. The multiple cysts in the kidneys were rounded in all but one case, as described in adult polycystic kidney disease in humans. In 68% of the cats presented with polycystic kidneys, there were also cystic changes of the liver (uni- or multilocular cysts and/or congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF)). In 1 cat polycystic changes of kidneys and liver were accompanied by cysts in the pancreas. In 5 cases there was severe pancreas fibrosis. Twenty-one of the 27 cats were Persian or Persian-crossbred.

  18. Pregnancy across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladunewich, Michelle A; Melamad, Nir; Bramham, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Management of the pregnant woman with chronic kidney disease is difficult for both nephrologists and obstetricians. Prepregnancy counselling with respect to risk stratification, optimization of maternal health prior to pregnancy, as well as management of the many potential pregnancy-associated complications in this complex patient population remains challenging due to the paucity of large, well-designed clinical studies. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of disease and the relative infrequency of pregnancy, particularly in more advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, leaves many clinicians feeling ill prepared to manage these pregnancies. As such, counselling is imprecise and management varies substantially across centers. All pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease can benefit from a collaborative multidisciplinary approach with a team that consists of nephrologists experienced in the management of kidney disease in pregnancy, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, high-risk pregnancy nursing staff, dieticians, and pharmacists. Further access to skilled neonatologists and neonatal intensive care unit support is essential given the risks for preterm delivery in this patient population. The goal of this paper is to highlight some of the data that currently exist in the literature, provide management strategies for the practicing nephrologist at all stages of chronic kidney disease, and explore some of the knowledge gaps where future multinational collaborative research efforts should concentrate to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with kidney disease across the globe. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  20. Progress on Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common life threatening hereditary disease of the kidney. It is a systemic disease characterized by multiple, bilateral renal cysts that result in massive renal enlargement and progressive functional impairment. This review discusses the current ...

  1. Early Effects of Renal Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With End-Stage Kidney Disease: Findings From the 4C-T Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Sugianto, Rizky Indrameikha; Thurn, Daniela; Azukaitis, Karolis; Bayazit, Aysun K; Canpolat, Nur; Eroglu, Ayse Guler; Caliskan, Salim; Doyon, Anke; Duzova, Ali; Karagoz, Tevfik; Anarat, Ali; Deveci, Murat; Mir, Sevgi; Ranchin, Bruno; Shroff, Rukshana; Baskin, Esra; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Özcakar, Z Birsin; Büscher, Rainer; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Dusek, Jiri; Kemper, Markus J; Matteucci, Maria C; Habbig, Sandra; Laube, Guido; Wühl, Elke; Querfeld, Uwe; Sander, Anja; Schaefer, Franz; Melk, Anette

    2018-03-01

    The early impact of renal transplantation on subclinical cardiovascular measures in pediatric patients has not been widely investigated. This analysis is performed for pediatric patients participating in the prospective cardiovascular comorbidity in children with chronic kidney disease study and focuses on the early effects of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality on cardiovascular comorbidity in patients receiving a preemptive transplant or started on dialysis. We compared measures indicating subclinical cardiovascular organ damage (aortal pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index) and evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in 166 pediatric patients before and 6 to 18 months after start of RRT (n = 76 transplantation, n = 90 dialysis). RRT modality had a significant impact on the change in arterial structure and function: compared to dialysis treatment, transplantation was independently associated with decreases in pulse wave velocity (ß = -0.67; P development of cardiovascular organ damage after renal transplantation.

  2. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Coresh, Josef; Bolton, Kline; Culleton, Bruce; Harvey, Kathy Schiro; Ikizler, T. Alp; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Kausz, Annamaria; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kusek, John; Levin, Adeera; Minaker, Kenneth L.; Nelson, Robert; Rennke, Helmut; Steffes, Michael; Witten, Beth; Hogg, Ronald J.; Furth, Susan; Lemley, Kevin V.; Portman, Ronald J.; Schwartz, George; Lau, Joseph; Balk, Ethan; Perrone, Ronald D.; Karim, Tauqeer; Rayan, Lara; Al-Massry, Inas; Chew, Priscilla; Astor, Brad C.; De Vine, Deirdre; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Nathan; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Keane, William; Kliger, Alan; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Willis, Kerry; Bailie, George; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Couser, William; de Zeeuw, Dick; Garber, Alan; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Hannah, Ramon G.; Acosta, Jaime Herrera; Hogg, Ronald; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lewis, Caya; Lowrie, Edmund; Matas, Arthur; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Nally, Joseph V.; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Smith, David; Star, Robert; Steinman, Theodore; Valderrabano, Fernando; Walls, John; Wauters, Jean-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease as a public health problem. Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of

  3. 42 CFR 410.48 - Kidney disease education services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Kidney disease education services. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: Kidney disease patient... treatment of cardiovascular disease. (ii) Prevention and treatment of diabetes. (iii) Hypertension...

  4. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  5. Influence of Diet Balanced with Essential Amino Acids / Keto Acid Analogs and High-Nutrient Blend on the Progression of Renal Failure in Patients in the Pre-Dialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease Caused by Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Aleksandrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low protein diet (LPD balanced with essential amino acids (EAA / keto acid analogs (KAA and protein “SUPRO-XT 219D” in the composition of the high-energy nutrient blend (HENB for slow down of renal failure in patients in the pre-dialysis stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD induced by systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD.Material and Methods: In this study, 46 patients (35 with systemic lupus erythematosus and 15 with various forms of systemic vasculitis with CKD in stages 3-4 were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (18 patients: 10 with CKD stage 3 and 8 with CKD stage 4 was given LPD (0.6 g protein per kg of body weight per day comprising 0.3 g of vegetable protein and 0.3 g of animal protein balanced with EAA/KAA (Diet #1; Group 2 (18 patients: 9 with CKD stage 3 and 9 with CKD stage 4 was given the same LPD, but with an increased vegetable protein content (purified soy protein SUPRO-XT 219D up to 0.4 g/kg/day in the composition of HENB (Diet #2; Group 3, comparison group, (10 patients: 7 with CKD stage 3 and 3 with CKD stage 4 was given a free diet (Diet #3 based on the patient’s personal preferences. Both options of LPD were offered to all the patients of Groups 1 and 2 regardless of their baseline nutritional status (NS. The duration of the observation was 24-48 months. The NS was evaluated based on the bioelectrical impedance analysis. The protein and calorie intake was calculated from the 3-day food diary.Results: Among the 46 patients with CKD stages 3-4, NS impairment was detected in almost half the patients (45.7%. Both forms of LPD were well tolerated. The correction of the nutritive impairment was achieved in patients with baseline impaired NS; the remaining patients of Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated the safety of NS against LPD. At the same time, among Group 3 patients, during the progression of renal disorders, the NS rate was observed to increase by 1.5 times (from 40% to 60

  6. αKlotho and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyra, J.A.; Hu, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-Klotho (αKlotho) protein is encoded by the gene, Klotho, and functions as a coreceptor for endocrine fibroblast growth factor-23. The extracellular domain of αKlotho is cleaved by secretases and released into the circulation where it is called soluble αKlotho. Soluble αKlotho in the circulation starts to decline in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 and urinary αKlotho in even earlier CKD stage 1. Therefore soluble αKlotho is an early and sensitive marker of decline in kidney function. Preclinical data from numerous animal experiments support αKlotho deficiency as a pathogenic factor for CKD progression and extrarenal CKD complications including cardiac and vascular disease, hyperparathyroidism, and disturbed mineral metabolism. αKlotho deficiency induces cell senescence and renders cells susceptible to apoptosis induced by a variety of cellular insults including oxidative stress. αKlotho deficiency also leads to defective autophagy and angiogenesis and promotes fibrosis in the kidney and heart. Most importantly, prevention of αKlotho decline, upregulation of endogenous αKlotho production, or direct supplementation of soluble αKlotho are all associated with attenuation of renal fibrosis, retardation of CKD progression, improvement of mineral metabolism, amelioration of cardiac function and morphometry, and alleviation of vascular calcification in CKD. Therefore in rodents, αKlotho is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for CKD but the enhancement of endogenous or supplement of exogenous αKlotho are promising therapeutic strategies to prevent, retard, and decrease the comorbidity burden of CKD. PMID:27125746

  7. Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrahian, Seyed Mehrdad; Falkner, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension, a global public health problem, is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the major modifiable risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. The interaction between hypertension and CKD is complex and increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. This is particularly significant in the setting of resistant hypertension commonly seen in patient with CKD. The pathophysiology of CKD associated hypertension is multi-factorial with different mechanisms contributing to hypertension. These pathogenic mechanisms include sodium dysregulation, increased sympathetic nervous system and alterations in renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity. Standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in establishing the diagnosis and management of hypertension in CKD. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides an additional assessment of diurnal variation in BP commonly seen in CKD patients. The optimal BP target in the treatment of hypertension in general and CKD population remains a matter of debate and controversial despite recent guidelines and clinical trial data. Medical therapy of patients with CKD associated hypertension can be difficult and challenging. Additional evaluation by a hypertension specialist may be required in the setting of treatment resistant hypertension by excluding pseudo-resistance and treatable secondary causes. Treatment with a combination of antihypertensive drugs, including appropriate diuretic choice, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate, is a key component of hypertension management in CKD patients. In addition to drug treatment non-pharmacological approaches including life style modification, most important of which is dietary salt restriction, should be included in the management of hypertension in CKD patients.

  8. Renal replacement therapy in the ICU: comparison of clinical features and outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Türkay; Karakurt, Sait; Tuğlular, Serhan

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study is to study clinical features and outcomes of the patients who had renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) between 2000 and 2007. We retrospectively studied 222 patients. Overall ICU mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) rates were 58.1 and 61.3 %. The mean APACHE II score was 27.6 ± 8.3. Chronic dialysis (CD) patients formed 45.5 % of the study population. Acute kidney injury (AKI) patients had higher rates of IMV (73 vs. 51.5 %, p = 0.002), cancer (27.8 vs. 7.9 %, p ≤ 0.001) and mortality (67.8 vs. 50.5 %, p = 0.010) than CD patients. AKI patients with normal kidney function (NKF) before ICU admission had poorer prognosis than acute-on-chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CD patients (78.6, 51 and 50.5 %, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that IMV (OR, 14.8; 95 % CI, 5.47-40.05; p ≤ 0.001) and having NKF before hospitalization (OR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.04-7.37; p = 0.041) were predictors of overall ICU mortality. Additionally, IMV is found as a prognostic factor for both AKI (OR, 18.7; 95 % CI, 4.48-77.72; p ≤ 0.001) and CD patients (OR, 8.14; 95 % CI, 2.01-33.04; p = 0.003), but APACHE II score is meaningful only for CD patients (OR, 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.02-1.26; p = 0.024). The areas under the ROC curves for APACHE II score were 0.52 (95 % CI, 0.39-0.66) for AKI and 0.78 (95 % CI, 0.55-0.89) for CD patients. The observed ICU mortality among patients requiring RRT is high and IMV is associated with mortality. AKI patients have increased mortality compared to CD patients. AKI patients with past NKF have poorer prognosis than acute-on-CKD and CD patients.

  9. Efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals-based antiviral therapies for hepatitis C virus patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Qu, Yundong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based antiviral therapies for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL on the Cochrane Library without time and language limitations. The search strategy used was "(End stage renal disease OR chronic kidney failure OR severe renal impairment OR chronic kidney disease OR dialysis) AND (sofosbuvir OR simeprevir OR grazoprevir OR elbasvir OR ombitasvir OR paritaprevir OR ritonavir OR dasabuvir OR daclatasvir OR asuparevir OR direct-acting antiviral OR DAA)". Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12), adverse events (AEs) and/or serious adverse events (SAEs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled. Eleven studies, comprising a total of 264 patients were included for our meta-analysis. The pooled SVR12 rate were 93.2% (95% CI 89.9%-95.9%, I 2 =0.0%), 89.4% (95% CI 82.0%-95.0%, I 2 =0.0%) and 94.7% (95% CI 91.0%-97.5%, I 2 =0.0%) in total population, patients with sofosbuvir-based therapies and patients with non-sofosbuvir-based therapies respectively. For HCV genotype 1 patients, the pooled SVR12 rate was 93.1% (95% CI 88.3%-96.7%, I 2 =20.0%). The pooled incidence of SAEs was 12.1% (95% CI 6.2%-19.7%, I 2 =55.0%). The pooled discontinuation rate because of AEs or SAEs in our meta-analysis was 2.2% (95% CI 0.8%-4.4%, I 2 =0.0%). DAA-based antiviral therapies are effective and well-tolerated for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biomarker for early renal microvascular and diabetic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2017-11-01

    Recognition of early stage of diabetic kidney disease, under common practice using biomarkers, namely microalbuminuria, serum creatinine level above 1 mg/dL and accepted definition of diabetic kidney disease associated with creatinine clearance value below 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , is unlikely. This would lead to delay treatment associated with therapeutic resistance to vasodilator due to a defective vascular homoeostasis. Other alternative biomarkers related to the state of microalbuminuria is not sensitive to screen for early diabetic kidney disease (stages I, II). In this regard, a better diagnostic markers to serve for this purpose are creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg), cystatin C. Recently, renal microvascular disease and renal ischemia have been demonstrated to correlate indirectly with the development of diabetic kidney disease and its function. Among these are angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, namely VEGF, VEGF receptors, angiopoietins and endostatin. With respect to therapeutic prevention, implementation of treatment at early stage of diabetic and nondiabetic kidney disease is able to restore renal perfusion and function.

  11. Comprehensive mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery and validation platform as applied to diabetic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Bringans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A protein biomarker discovery workflow was applied to plasma samples from patients at different stages of diabetic kidney disease. The proteomics platform produced a panel of significant plasma biomarkers that were statistically scrutinised against the current gold standard tests on an analysis of 572 patients. Five proteins were significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease defined by albuminuria, renal impairment (eGFR and chronic kidney disease staging (CKD Stage ≥1, ROC curve of 0.77. The results prove the suitability and efficacy of the process used, and introduce a biomarker panel with the potential to improve diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease.

  12. Chronic kidney disease in children with unilateral renal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Denis A; Ceccanti, Silvia; Frediani, Simone; Schiavetti, Amalia; Cozzi, Francesco

    2012-05-01

    In patients who have undergone nephrectomy lower stage chronic kidney disease may develop, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. We investigated whether the prevalence of lower stage chronic kidney disease is related to the amount of renal parenchyma excised in children with unilateral renal tumor. A total of 15 patients treated with nephrectomy and 10 treated with nephron sparing surgery were enrolled at a single academic center. The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines were used to classify patients by chronic kidney disease stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate values. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation and Schwartz equation were used in patients older and younger than 17 years, respectively. At a mean followup of more than 12 years 8 patients who had undergone nephrectomy and 1 treated with bilateral nephron sparing surgery presented with stage II chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Sequential measurements from diagnosis to 12 to 17 years postoperatively showed that stage II chronic kidney disease in patients who had undergone nephrectomy manifested as a negligible postoperative increase in mean ± SD estimated glomerular filtration rate (75.7 ± 25.5 vs 79.4 ± 3.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.6). Five of the 8 patients presented with stage II chronic kidney disease even before nephrectomy. The other 7 patients who had undergone nephrectomy and those treated with nephron sparing surgery presented with a significant postoperative increase in mean ± SD estimated glomerular filtration rate (81.1 ± 24 vs 102.3 ± 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.02, and 88.7 ± 2 vs 107.4 ± 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.005, respectively). A subset of children with unilateral renal tumor presents before and/or after nephrectomy, and not after nephron sparing surgery, with stage II chronic kidney disease, probably due to a reduced renal

  13. Continuation of lithium after a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Andersen, P K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether continued lithium or anticonvulsant treatment after a first diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with progression to irreversible end-stage kidney disease. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study including all individuals in Denmark in a period from...... 1995 to 2012 with a diagnosis of CKD and (i) a history of lithium treatment (N = 754, among whom 238 patients had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder) or (ii) a history of anticonvulsant treatment (N = 5.004, among whom 199 patients had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder). End-stage CKD was defined as chronic...

  14. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, Veronica Agatha; Spaan, Julia Jeltje; Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc Erich August

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), an endothelial disease that affects kidney function during pregnancy, is correlated to an increased future risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guideline emphasizes the combined role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria in determining the frequency of monitoring of kidney function. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of CKD in women with a history of PE. We investigated how many seemingly healthy women required monitoring of kidney function according to the KDIGO guideline. We included 775 primiparous women with a history of PE. They were at least 4 months postpartum, and had no pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. We estimated GFR by the CKD-Epidemiology equation and urinary albumin loss by albumin creatinine ratio in a 24-h urine collection. Most women, 669 (86.3 %), had a normal GFR and absent albuminuria. Based on the KDIGO guideline, 13.7 % would require at least yearly monitoring of kidney function. Only 1.4 % were classified to be at high risk for kidney function deterioration. Monitoring of kidney function seems relevant for about one in seven women with a history of PE, mainly due to albuminuria. Albuminuria should be evaluated postpartum to identify those women that need further monitoring of kidney function.

  15. Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency.

  16. Clinical aspects of chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical course of chronic kidney disease. Although patients with kidney disease may present with symptoms such as oedema (nephritic or nephrotic syndrome) and changes in urine composition, histological and functional renal decompensation can often not be diagnosed owing to a lack of symptoms. Undetected loss.

  17. Skin manifestations of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendez, J C; Vazquez-Martinez, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J

    2015-10-01

    Skin manifestations associated with chronic kidney disease are very common. Most of these conditions present in the end stages and may affect the patient's quality of life. Knowledge of these entities can contribute to establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Severe renal pruritus is associated with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. Nail exploration can provide clues about albumin and urea levels. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a preventable disease associated with gadolinium contrast. Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and secondary hyperparathyroidism, can lead to acquired perforating dermatosis and calciphylaxis, respectively. Effective and innovative treatments are available for all of these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm 2 ). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin [Ruijin Hospital Shanghai, Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  20. Renal oxygenation and hemodynamics in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhleen; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Nordquist, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Acute kidney injury (AKI) puts a major burden on health systems that may arise from multiple initiating insults, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiovascular surgery, radio-contrast administration as well as sepsis. Similarly, the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to increase with significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, an increasing number of AKI patients survive to develop CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). 2. Although the mechanisms for development of AKI and progression of CKD remain poorly understood, initial impairment of oxygen balance is likely to constitute a common pathway, causing renal tissue hypoxia and ATP starvation that will in turn induce extracellular matrix production, collagen deposition and fibrosis. Thus, possible future strategies for one or both conditions may involve dopamine, loop-diuretics, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and atrial natriuretic peptide, substances that target kidney oxygen consumption and regulators of renal oxygenation such as nitric oxide and heme oxygenase-1. PMID:23360244

  1. Polycystic Kidney Disease and the Vasopressin Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Maatje D. A.; Torres, Vicente E.

    Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney

  2. Functional genomics in renal transplantation and chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilflingseder, J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade, the development of genomic technology has revolutionized modern biological research. Functional genomic analyses enable biologists to study genetic events on a genome wide scale. Examples of applications are gene discovery, biomarker determination, disease classification, and drug target identification. Global expression profiles performed with microarrays enable a better understanding of molecular signature of human disease, including acute and chronic kidney disease. About 10 % of the population in western industrialized nations suffers from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment of end stage renal disease, the final stage of CKD is performed by either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation. The preferred treatment is renal transplantation, because of the higher quality of life. But the pathophysiology of the disease on a molecular level is not well enough understood and early biomarkers for acute and chronic kidney disease are missing. In my studies I focused on genomics of allograft biopsies, prevention of delayed graft function after renal transplantation, anemia after renal transplantation, biocompatibility of hemodialysis membranes and peritoneal dialysis fluids and cardiovascular diseases and bone disorders in CKD patients. Gene expression profiles, pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction networks were used to elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of the disease or phenomena, identifying early biomarkers or predictors of disease state and potentially drug targets. In summery my PhD thesis represents the application of functional genomic analyses in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation. The results provide a deeper view into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of kidney disease. Nevertheless, future multicenter collaborative studies, meta-analyses of existing data, incorporation of functional genomics into large-scale prospective clinical trials are needed and will give biomedical

  3. Quantitative MRI of kidneys in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Edwards, Marie E; Garg, Ishan; Irazabal, Maria V; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Harris, Peter C; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Erickson, Bradley J

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and utility of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for the assessment of kidneys in young adults with normal renal function (eGFR ranged from 90 to 130 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and patients with early renal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). This prospective case-control study was performed on ten normal young adults (18-30 years old) and ten age- and sex-matched patients with early renal parenchymal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). All subjects underwent a comprehensive kidney MRI protocol, including qualitative imaging: T1w, T2w, FIESTA, and quantitative imaging: 2D cine phase contrast of the renal arteries, and parenchymal diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The normal controls were imaged on two separate occasions ≥24 h apart (range 24-210 h) to assess reproducibility of the measurements. Quantitative MR imaging sequences were found to be reproducible. The mean ± SD absolute percent difference between quantitative parameters measured ≥24 h apart were: MTI-derived ratio = 4.5 ± 3.6%, DWI-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) = 6.5 ± 3.4%, BOLD-derived R2* = 7.4 ± 5.9%, and MRE-derived tissue stiffness = 7.6 ± 3.3%. Compared with controls, the ADPKD patient's non-cystic renal parenchyma (NCRP) had statistically significant differences with regard to quantitative parenchymal measures: lower MTI percent ratios (16.3 ± 4.4 vs. 23.8 ± 1.2, p quantitative measurements was obtained in all cases. Significantly different quantitative MR parenchymal measurement parameters between ADPKD patients and normal controls were obtained by MT, DWI, BOLD, and MRE indicating the potential for detecting and following renal disease at an earlier stage than the conventional qualitative imaging techniques.

  4. Multinational observational study on clinical practices and therapeutic management of mineral and bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 4, 5, and 5D: The OCEANOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal A. M. Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to assess the current clinical practices in monitoring and treatment patterns of chronic kidney disease (CKD-mineral bone disorder and the degree to which these practices met the kidney disease improving global outcome (KDIGO guidelines. This was an international, multi-center, cross-sectional, observational study in adult patients diagnosed with CKD Stages 4, 5, and 5D. Patients were enrolled from Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia, and Africa; patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or with any medical/surgical conditions precluding their participation were excluded. Frequency of measurements, levels of serum calcium (Ca, phosphorus and parathormone (parathyroid hormone [PTH], and presence vascular/valvular calcification were recorded. Of the 2250 patients enrolled, data on 2247 patients were evaluated. Overall, only a small percentage of patients met all three target KDIGO ranges of serum Ca, phosphorus, and PTH (13.7% [95% confidence interval: 12.0; 15.4], with a higher proportion among CKD Stage 5D patients (14.8% than CKD Stage 4 and 5 (5.6% patients. Majority (84.3% of the patients received treatment with phosphorous binders, of whom 85.5% received Ca-based phosphate binders. Overall, 57.0% of patients received Vitamin D treatment with a similar frequency among patients with CKD Stages 4, 5, and 5D. Over half (65.7% of the patients were screened for vascular/valvular calcification; of these, 58.8% had ≥1 calcification. Diabetes status, P, PTH, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol had significant impact on the prescription pattern of phosphorous binders. The current practices for the management of bone and mineral metabolism in CKD patients in the study region fall far short of meeting the KDIGO target range.

  5. When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease What's in this article? Treating Kidney Diseases Dialysis ...

  6. Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Why is nutrition important for someone with advanced chronic kidney disease? A person may prevent or delay some health ...

  7. Limited salt consumption reduces the incidence of chronic kidney disease: a modeling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Over, Eelco A B; Navis, Gerjan; Joles, Jaap A; Hoorn, Ewout J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2018-01-01

    In addition to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, high-salt intake has been associated with renal diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the potential health impact of salt reduction on chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the Netherlands.

  8. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jin Moon

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD and sarcopenia.We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation.Mean age, body mass index (BMI, and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p < 0.001. In addition, a correlation analysis showed that GFR and ASM/Wt had significant correlations in both men and women. Logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, BMI, caloric intake, log(physical activity, vitamin D level, and log(HOMA-IR, showed that the odds ratio for sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3-5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02-3.68 in men but was not statistically significant in women.The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD.

  9. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  10. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Public Service Announcement Kidney Disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a kidney. ...

  11. Distinct oxylipin alterations in diverse models of cystic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirujjaman, Md; Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Sidhu, Nikhil; Kugita, Masanori; Gabbs, Melissa; Nagao, Shizuko; Zhou, Jing; Ravandi, Amir; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-12-01

    Cystic kidney diseases are characterized by multiple renal cysts and are the leading cause of inherited renal disease. Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from fatty acids formed via cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 activity, and are important regulators of renal health and disease. Oxylipins are altered in nephronophthisis, a type of cystic kidney disease. To further investigate and to determine whether other cystic renal diseases share these abnormalities, a targeted lipidomic analysis of renal oxylipins was performed in orthologous models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 1 (Mx1Cre + Pkd1 flox/flox mouse) and 2 (Pkd2 ws25/- mouse), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (PCK rat) and nephronophthisis (jck/jck mouse). Kidney cyclooxygenase oxylipins were consistently higher in all diseased kidneys, even in very early stage disease. On the other hand, cytochrome P450 epoxygenase derived oxylipins were lower only in the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and nephronophthisis models, while lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 hydroxylase derived oxylipins were lower only in nephronophthisis. Sex effects on renal oxylipin alterations were observed but they did not always coincide with sex effects on disease. For oxylipins with sex effects, arachidonic acid derived oxylipins formed via cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases were higher in females, while oxylipins from other fatty acids and via cytochrome P450 enzymes were higher in males. The consistent and unique patterns of oxylipin alterations in the different models indicates the importance of these bioactive lipids in cystic renal diseases, suggesting that pharmacological agents (e.g. cyclooxygenase inhibitors) may be useful in treating these disorders, for which effective treatment remains elusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adhesion GPCRs in Kidney Development and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla-Vázquez, Salvador; Engel, Felix B.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the fastest growing pathology worldwide with a prevalence of >10% in many countries. In addition, kidney cancer represents 5% of all new diagnosed cancers. As currently no effective therapies exist to restore kidney function after CKD- as well as cancer-induced renal damage, it is important to elucidate new regulators of kidney development and disease as new therapeutic targets. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most successful class of pharmaceutical targets. In recent years adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs), the second largest GPCR family, gained significant attention as they are present on almost all mammalian cells, are associated to a plethora of diseases and regulate important cellular processes. aGPCRs regulate for example cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation, cell migration, and cell aggregation; all processes that play important roles in kidney development and/or disease. Moreover, polycystin-1, a major regulator of kidney development and disease, contains a GAIN domain, which is otherwise only found in aGPCRs. In this review, we assess the potential of aGPCRs as therapeutic targets for kidney disease. For this purpose we have summarized the available literature and analyzed data from the databases The Human Protein Atlas, EURExpress, Nephroseq, FireBrowse, cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and the National Cancer Institute Genomic Data Commons data portal (NCIGDC). Our data indicate that most aGPCRs are expressed in different spatio-temporal patterns during kidney development and that altered aGPCR expression is associated with a variety of kidney diseases including CKD, diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis as well as renal cell carcinoma. We conclude that aGPCRs present a promising new class of therapeutic targets and/or might be useful as diagnostic markers in kidney disease. PMID:29468160

  13. Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Diseases-A Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach to Hereditary Cystic Kidney Diseases in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jens Christian; Titieni, Andrea; Konrad, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype-phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases. To tackle these challenges comprehensive scientific approaches are urgently needed that match the ongoing "revolution" in genetics and molecular biology with an improved efficacy of clinical data collection. Network for early onset cystic kidney diseases (NEOCYST) is a multidisciplinary, multicenter collaborative combining a detailed collection of clinical data with translational scientific approaches addressing the genetic, molecular, and functional background of hereditary cystic kidney diseases. Consisting of seven work packages, including an international registry as well as a biobank, NEOCYST is not only dedicated to current scientific questions, but also provides a platform for longitudinal clinical surveillance and provides precious sources for high-quality research projects and future clinical trials. Funded by the German Federal Government, the NEOCYST collaborative started in February 2016. Here, we would like to introduce the rationale, design, and objectives of the network followed by a short overview on the current state of progress.

  14. Primary Care of the Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Meghan M; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, increased proteinuria, or both. CKD affects more than 10% of US adults, or 20 million people, and the numbers are rising as the population ages. However, CKD remains underdiagnosed. Diabetes and hypertension are the most common causes of CKD. Although end-stage renal disease is a feared complication of CKD, patients with CKD have a much greater risk of dying of cardiovascular (CV) disease than progressing to kidney failure. Special effort should be made to address modifiable CV risk factors in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrent truncating mutations in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase gene in two South Indian families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 causing later onset end-stage kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate transaminase deficiency. Here, we describe two unrelated patients who were diagnosed to have primary hyperoxaluria. Homozygous c.445_452delGTGCTGCT (p.L151Nfs*14 (Transcript ID: ENST00000307503; human genome assembly GRCh38.p2 (HGMD ID CD073567 mutation was detected in both the patients and the parents were found to be heterozygous carriers. Our patients developed end-stage renal disease at 23 years and 35 years of age. However, in the largest series published from OxalEurope cohort, the median age of end-stage renal disease for null mutations carriers was 9.9 years, which is much earlier than our cases. Our patients had slower progressions as compared to three unrelated patients from North India and Pakistan, who had homozygous c.302T>C (p.L101P (HGMD ID CM093792 mutation in exon 2. Further, patients need to be studied to find out if c.445_452delGTGCTGCT mutation represents a founder mutation in Southern India.

  16. Modelling kidney disease with CRISPR-mutant kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent epiblast spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin S.; Brooks, Craig R.; Lam, Albert Q.; Fu, Hongxia; Morizane, Ryuji; Agrawal, Vishesh; Saad, Abdelaziz F.; Li, Michelle K.; Hughes, Michael R.; Werff, Ryan Vander; Peters, Derek T.; Lu, Junjie; Baccei, Anna; Siedlecki, Andrew M.; Valerius, M. Todd; Musunuru, Kiran; McNagny, Kelly M.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Zhou, Jing; Lerou, Paul H.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived kidney cells (hPSC-KCs) have important potential for disease modelling and regeneration. Whether the hPSC-KCs can reconstitute tissue-specific phenotypes is currently unknown. Here we show that hPSC-KCs self-organize into kidney organoids that functionally recapitulate tissue-specific epithelial physiology, including disease phenotypes after genome editing. In three-dimensional cultures, epiblast-stage hPSCs form spheroids surrounding hollow, amniotic-like cavities. GSK3β inhibition differentiates spheroids into segmented, nephron-like kidney organoids containing cell populations with characteristics of proximal tubules, podocytes and endothelium. Tubules accumulate dextran and methotrexate transport cargoes, and express kidney injury molecule-1 after nephrotoxic chemical injury. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of podocalyxin causes junctional organization defects in podocyte-like cells. Knockout of the polycystic kidney disease genes PKD1 or PKD2 induces cyst formation from kidney tubules. All of these functional phenotypes are distinct from effects in epiblast spheroids, indicating that they are tissue specific. Our findings establish a reproducible, versatile three-dimensional framework for human epithelial disease modelling and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26493500

  17. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease : A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Eckardt, Kai Uwe; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Levin, Adeera; Coresh, Josef; Rossert, Jerome; de Zeeuw, Dick; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Lameire, Norbert; Eknoyan, Garabed

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. A simple definition and classification of kidney disease is necessary for international development and implementation of clinical practice

  18. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-16

    stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and accounts for approximately 30 - 50% of all deaths. It is a sobering fact that the risk for premature CVD in a 30-year-old patient with. ESRD is similar to that of a 70 - 80-year-old without ...

  19. Cerebral small vessel disease and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients.

  20. Clinical practice recommendations for treatment with active vitamin D analogues in children with chronic kidney disease Stages 2-5 and on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Rukshana; Wan, Mandy; Nagler, Evi V; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan; Cozzolino, Mario; Bacchetta, Justine; Edefonti, Alberto; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Vande Walle, Johan; Ariceta, Gema; Klaus, Günter; Haffner, Dieter; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal synthesis of active vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)] declines and is associated with hypocalcaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and the spectrum of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). In advanced CKD, active vitamin D analogues, including alfacalcidol, calcitriol and paricalcitol, are routinely administered. There are few studies on the use of vitamin D analogues in children with CKD and on dialysis. It is difficult to define bone-specific outcomes that can guide treatment with active vitamin D analogues in children with CKD-MBD. A core working group (WG) of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs has developed recommendations for the use of active vitamin D therapy in children with CKD and on dialysis. A second document in parallel with this one covers treatment recommendations for native vitamin D therapy. The WGs have performed an extensive literature review to include systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials in adults and children with CKD and prospective observational studies in children with CKD. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to develop and grade the recommendations. In the absence of applicable study data, the opinion of experts from the ESPN CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs is provided, but clearly GRADE-ed as such and must be carefully considered by the treating physician and adapted to individual patient needs as appropriate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. High dose ESAs are associated with high iPTH levels in hemodialysis patients with end-stage kidney disease: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan eChen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are the two most common complications associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are widely used in the management of anemia in hemodialysis patients. A reverse correlation has been established between hyperparathyroidism and hemoglobin levels. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the relationship of high dose ESAs and hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients with anemia. Methods: A total of 240 uremic patients maintained on regular hemodialysis were enrolled into this study. Among them, 142 patients were treated with Epiao® (epoetin-alfa and 98 patients were treated with Recormon® (epoetin-beta. The target hemoglobin concentration was 110-130 g/L. Laboratory measurements including hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were collected. Results: Hemoglobin concentration increased as iPTH level decreased by stratification. However, no significant association between anemia and calcium or phosphorus level was found. Patients with iPTH levels within 150-300 pg/mL had the highest levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Patients treated with Recormon and Epiao had similar hemoglobin concentrations. However, the dose of Recormon for anemia treatment was significantly less than that the dose of Epiao (P<0.05. The level of iPTH in the Recormon group was significantly lower than in the Epiao group. In patients with hemoglobin levels between 110-130 g/L (P<0.05, iPTH level was found to be significantly lower in patients treated with lower doses of ESAs than in patients treated with higher doses of ESAs, no matter which ESA was used (Recormon or Epiao, P<0.05. Conclusions: The dose of ESAs might be positively associated with iPTH level, suggesting that a reasonable hemoglobin target can be achieved by using the lowest possible ESA dose.

  2. Kidney injury molecule-1 in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Stegeman, Coen A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Goor, Harry

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a marker for renal proximal tubular damage, the hallmark of virtually all proteinuric, toxic and ischaemic kidney diseases. KIM-1 has gained increasing interest because of its possible pathophysiological role in modulating tubular damage and repair. In this

  3. Sonographic analysis of adult polycystic kidney disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sonographic analysis of adult polycystic kidney disease: Retrospective data from South‑East Nigeria. ... Only six (31.6%) patients were hypertensive at presentation and three patients (16%) were already in renal failure. Ultrasound showed a mean renal size of 88.92 cm2 for the right kidney and 98.97cm2 for the left.

  4. Cell-based therapies for chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, A.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314088350

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to end-stage renal failure, requiring renal replacement strategies. Development of new therapies to reduce progression of CKD is therefore a major global public health target. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether cell-based therapies have the

  5. Paediatric chronic kidney disease | van Biljon | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctors use various guidelines on paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) for managing their patients according to the availability of resources. As with adolescent and adult patients, CKD in children can also progress to end-stage renal failure – the time course being influenced by several modifiable factors. Decline in ...

  6. The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-27

    Jun 27, 2016 ... programs in high-risk populations (hypertensives, diabetes, and HIV) which aims to identify patients at early stages of CKD, and ... (HTN) and diabetes to be the two major causes of kidney disease worldwide.[7,9] Older age followed by HTN were ... AIDS and tuberculosis.[12] There has been no study done.

  7. Clinical aspects of chronic kidney disease | van Rensburg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any patient seeking any form of medical advice at any clinic or hospital, or from a doctor or other healthcare worker, should have their blood pressure recorded and a urine dipstick test done. The most useful indication of a diagnosis of any stage of chronic kidney disease, is the presence of either hypertension, urinary ...

  8. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  9. Vitamin D, Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: A role in the pathogenesis and management of Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Damasiewicz, Matthew John

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by the presence of proteinuria or decreased kidney function, with a prevalence of 10-15% in the adult population. CKD can progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with progressive abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism, defined as CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The use of vitamin D in CKD, the optimal level for initiating treatment and the use of current and novel biomarkers in the management of ...

  10. [The use of diuretics in kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heramb, Lene; Hallan, Stein; Aasarød, Knut

    2014-04-29

    Diuretics are an important part of the therapy for a number of medical conditions such as heart, liver and kidney failure and hypertension. This article presents updated knowledge on the use of diuretics in kidney disease. The article is based on a literature search in PubMed, information obtained from textbooks on neurophysiology and kidney disease and on the authors' clinical experience. Kidney disease affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diuretics, and this must be taken into account when selecting a drug and determining the dosage. This applies particularly to nephrotic syndrome and severe chronic renal disease (GFR diuretics is crucial to the rational use of diuretics in renal disease. Dose titration under close clinical monitoring and an optimal dosage interval make it possible to find the lowest possible effective dose and reduce the occurrence of side effects.

  11. Risk Score to Predict 1-Year Mortality after Haemodialysis Initiation in Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease under Predialysis Nephrology Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Few risk scores are available for predicting mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing predialysis nephrology care. Here, we developed a risk score using predialysis nephrology practice data to predict 1-year mortality following the initiation of haemodialysis (HD) for CKD patients. Methods This was a multicenter cohort study involving CKD patients who started HD between April 2006 and March 2011 at 21 institutions with nephrology care services. Patients who had not received predialysis nephrology care at an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of approximately 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were excluded. Twenty-nine candidate predictors were selected, and the final model for 1-year mortality was developed via multivariate logistic regression and was internally validated by a bootstrapping technique. Results A total of 688 patients were enrolled, and 62 (9.0%) patients died within one year of HD initiation. The following variables were retained in the final model: eGFR, serum albumin, calcium, Charlson Comorbidity Index excluding diabetes and renal disease (modified CCI), performance status (PS), and usage of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). Their β-coefficients were transformed into integer scores: three points were assigned to modified CCI≥3 and PS 3–4; two to calcium>8.5 mg/dL, modified CCI 1–2, and no use of ESA; and one to albumin7 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and PS 1–2. Predicted 1-year mortality risk was 2.5% (score 0–4), 5.5% (score 5–6), 15.2% (score 7–8), and 28.9% (score 9–12). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.89). Conclusions We developed a simple 6-item risk score predicting 1-year mortality after the initiation of HD that might help nephrologists make a shared decision with patients and families regarding the initiation of HD. PMID:26057129

  12. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small arter...

  13. Kidney Disease Profile of Syrian Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbalik Kara, Mehtap; Demircioglu Kilic, Beltinge; Col, Nilgun; Ozcelik, Ayse Aysima; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2017-03-01

    Although preventative nephrology is the effective management of childhood kidney diseases, it is hard to provide it in this undesirable conditions. In this study, we aimed to document the kidney disease profile of Syrian refugee children admitted to our hospital. One hundred and thirty Syrian refugee children were admitted to the Pediatric Nephrology Department of the University of Gaziantep from September 2012 to January 2015. Demographic data, history, symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory investigations, diagnosis, disease outcome, and therapeutic procedures such as peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were obtained from patient files. Of the 130 admitted children, 74 were girls (59.6%). The average age was 6.97 ± 4.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract were found in 34 children (26.2%). Other morbidities were chronic kidney disease in 30 (23.1%), nephrotic syndrome in 24 (18.5%), urolithiasis in 9 (6.9%), acute kidney injury in 4 (3.1%), glomerulonephritis in 5 (3.8%), enuresis in 12 (9.2%), and others in 12 (9.2%). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract and chronic kidney disease were highly prevalent in Syrian refugee children. Although free health care have been provided to all of these children, the continuation of political crisis and instability would increase the number of admissions and affect the quality of life of those children in a different environment from the home country.

  14. Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhu; Bayliss, George; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-05-24

    Renal disease caused by cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) occurs when cholesterol crystals become lodged in small renal arteries after small pieces of atheromatous plaques break off from the aorta or renal arteries and shower the downstream vascular bed. CCE is a multisystemic disease but kidneys are particularly vulnerable to atheroembolic disease, which can cause an acute, subacute, or chronic decline in renal function. This life-threatening disease may be underdiagnosed and overlooked as a cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with advanced atherosclerosis. CCE can result from vascular surgery, angiography, or administration of anticoagulants. Atheroembolic renal disease has various clinical features that resemble those found in other kidney disorders and systemic diseases. It is commonly misdiagnosed in clinic, but confirmed by characteristic renal biopsy findings. Therapeutic options are limited, and prognosis is considered to be poor. Expanding knowledge of atheroembolic renal disease due to CCE opens perspectives for recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of this cause of progressive renal insufficiency.

  15. Chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Simon Ds; Blakeman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important and common noncommunicable condition globally. In national and international guidelines, CKD is defined and staged according to measures of kidney function that allow for a degree of risk stratification using commonly available markers. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages, and early detection is important to reduce future risk. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes is greater than the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease for most people with CKD. CKD also predisposes to acute kidney injury - a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although only a small proportion of people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease, renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) represents major costs for health care systems and burden for patients. Efforts in primary care to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, and progression are therefore required. Monitoring renal function is an important task, and primary care clinicians are well placed to oversee this aspect of care along with the management of modifiable risk factors, particularly blood pressure and proteinuria. Good primary care judgment is also essential in making decisions about referral for specialist nephrology opinion. As CKD commonly occurs alongside other conditions, consideration of comorbidities and patient wishes is important, and primary care clinicians have a key role in coordinating care while adopting a holistic, patient-centered approach and providing continuity. This review aims to summarize the vital role that primary care plays in predialysis CKD care and to outline the main considerations in its identification, monitoring, and clinical management in this context.

  16. Chronic kidney disease among children in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cerón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD in Guatemala, estimate incidence and prevalence of pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD, and estimate time to progress to ESRD. METHODS: This study analyzed the registry of the only pediatric nephrology center in Guatemala, from 2004-2013. Incidence and prevalence were calculated for annual periods. Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation was used to determine significance of geographic distribution of incidence. Time to progress to ESRD and associated risk factors were calculated with multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1 545 patients from birth to less than 20 years of age, 432 had chronic renal failure (CRF. Prevalence and incidence of ESRD were 4.9 and 4.6 per million age-related population, respectively. Incidence was higher for the Pacific coast and Guatemala City. The cause of CRF was undetermined in 43% of patients. Average time to progress to ESRD was 21.9 months; factors associated with progression were: older age, diagnosis of glomerulopathies, and advanced-stage CKD at consultation. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and incidence of ESRD in Guatemala are lower than in other countries. This may reflect poor access to diagnosis. Areas with higher incidence and large proportion of CKD of undetermined cause are compatible with other studies from the geographic subregion. Findings on progression to ESRD may reflect delayed referral.

  17. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  18. [Polycystic kidney disease in a Persian cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, R; Zimmer, C; Reusch, C

    2001-04-01

    This case report is about a 9-year-old male castrated Persian cat with chronic renal failure. After physical examination and ultrasonography polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was diagnosed. Various aspects of etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of PKD are discussed.

  19. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Basu; Anjali Mohapatra

    2012-01-01

    There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ's disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin – angiotensin – aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ...

  20. Use of peritoneal dialysis in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Christine

    One sixth of patients receiving dialysis in the UK manage their underlying chronic kidney disease using peritoneal dialysis. Although it is generally undertaken at home, non-specialist renal nurses should understand how peritoneal dialysis works. This first in a two-part series describes chronic kidney disease and different treatment options, with a focus on peritoneal dialysis. Part 2 will guide non-renal nurses on how best to care for patients using this treatment option.

  1. Wnt Signaling in Kidney Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Zhou, Chengji J; Liu, Youhua

    2018-01-01

    Wnt signal cascade is an evolutionarily conserved, developmental pathway that regulates embryogenesis, injury repair, and pathogenesis of human diseases. It is well established that Wnt ligands transmit their signal via canonical, β-catenin-dependent and noncanonical, β-catenin-independent mechanisms. Mounting evidence has revealed that Wnt signaling plays a key role in controlling early nephrogenesis and is implicated in the development of various kidney disorders. Dysregulations of Wnt expression cause a variety of developmental abnormalities and human diseases, such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, cystic kidney, and renal carcinoma. Multiple Wnt ligands, their receptors, and transcriptional targets are upregulated during nephron formation, which is crucial for mediating the reciprocal interaction between primordial tissues of ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. Renal cysts are also associated with disrupted Wnt signaling. In addition, Wnt components are important players in renal tumorigenesis. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin is instrumental for tubular repair and regeneration after acute kidney injury. However, sustained activation of this signal cascade is linked to chronic kidney diseases and renal fibrosis in patients and experimental animal models. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls a diverse array of biologic processes, such as cell cycle progression, cell polarity and migration, cilia biology, and activation of renin-angiotensin system. In this chapter, we have reviewed recent findings that implicate Wnt signaling in kidney development and diseases. Targeting this signaling may hold promise for future treatment of kidney disorders in patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Defining Kidney Biology to Understand Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa H.; Brown, Dennis; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Sands, Jeff M.; Weisz, Ora A.; Mullins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Kidney Research National Dialogue represents a novel effort by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to solicit and prioritize research objectives from the renal research and clinical communities. The present commentary highlights selected scientific opportunities specific to the study of renal development, physiology, and cell biology. Describing such fundamental kidney biology serves as a necessary foundation for translational and clinical studies that will advance disease care and prevention. It is intended that these objectives foster and focus scientific efforts in these areas in the coming decade and beyond. PMID:24370769

  3. Shaping Public Health Initiatives in Kidney Diseases: The Peer Kidney Care Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, James B; Gilbertson, David T; Collins, Allan J

    2016-01-01

    While broad-based societal efforts to improve public health have targeted disorders such as cardiovascular disease and cancer for several decades, efforts devoted to kidney disease have developed only more recently. The Peer Kidney Care Initiative, a novel effort designed to address knowledge gaps in the care of patients with kidney disease, examines key disease processes, the roles of geography and seasonality on outcomes, and longitudinal trends in outcomes over time. Admissions for gastrointestinal bleeds increased approximately 28% between 2004 and 2011 in prevalent patients. Infection with Clostridium difficile increased nearly 70% between 2003 and 2010 in patients within a year of initiation. Admissions for heart failure in prevalent patients decreased approximately 25% between 2004 and 2012, but admissions for volume overload increased a nearly equal amount. Incidence rates varied substantially by geographic region, such that unadjusted rates in the highest region were nearly double than those in the lowest. There was seasonal variation in all-cause mortality of approximately 15-20% in both incident and prevalent patients, suggesting a link between cardiovascular events and seasonally related environmental conditions. New cases of end-stage renal disease fell from 385 per million population in 2003 to 344 in 2012, a decline of approximately 10%. Peer complements existing kidney disease epidemiologic efforts by examining specific actionable disease entities, exploring geographic variation in care, highlighting the role of seasonality on outcomes, and emphasizing the importance of trending outcomes over time as overall societal progress is being made. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A qualitative assessment of personal and social responsibility for kidney disease: the Increasing Kidney Disease Awareness Network Transplant Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Galvin, Georgia; Sabin, Janice; Davis, Connie; Dick, Andre; Young, Bessie A

    2011-01-01

    Limited qualitative research has explored opinions of kidney disease health care providers regarding racial and ethnic disparities in access to and receipt of kidney transplantation. Key informant interviews were conducted among transplant nephrologists, nephrologists, transplant social workers, and transplant coordinators to determine barriers to transplantation among African Americans compared to whites with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-eight interviews were audio recorded and transcribed to hardcopy for content analysis. Grounded theory was used to determine dominant themes within the interviews. Reliability and validity were ensured by several coinvestigators independently sorting verbatim responses used for generating themes and subsequent explanations. Several major categories arose from analysis of the transcripts. Under the category of personal and social responsibility for kidney transplantation, interviews revealed 4 major themes: negative personal behaviors, acquisition of and lack of self-treatment of comorbid conditions, lack of individual responsibility, and the need for more social responsibility. Many providers perceived patients as being largely responsible for the development of ESRD, while some providers expressed the idea that more social responsibility was needed to improve poor health status and disparities in kidney transplantation rates. Kidney disease health providers seemed torn between notions of patients' accountability and social responsibility for racial disparities in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Further research is needed to clarify which aspects contribute most to disparities in access to transplantation.

  5. MicroRNAs in kidney physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trionfini, Piera; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. They have important roles during kidney development, homeostasis and disease. In particular, miRNAs participate in the onset and progression of tubulointerstitial sclerosis and end-stage glomerular lesions that occur in various forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, miRNAs represent potential new therapeutic targets for a debilitating disease that continues to increase in prevalence worldwide and for which fully effective therapies are lacking. Several lines of research aimed at improving common CKD diagnostic tools and avoiding invasive kidney biopsies have also identified circulating miRNAs as possible diagnostic and even prognostic biomarkers of kidney disease. This Review discusses current understanding of the function of miRNAs in CKD, focusing on functions specifically involved in the transforming growth factor β1 pathway, which is activated in CKD. miRNAs that, according to available evidence, seem to be involved in diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and graft rejection, are also discussed.

  6. Evaluating the Contribution of the Cause of Kidney Disease to Prognosis in CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Staplin, Natalie; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relevance of the cause of kidney disease to prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 6,245 nondialysis participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP). PREDICTOR: Baseline cause...... of kidney disease was categorized into 4 groups: cystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, and other recorded diagnoses. OUTCOMES: End-stage renal disease (ESRD; dialysis or transplantation) and death. RESULTS: During an average 4.7 years' follow-up, 2,080 participants progressed...... to ESRD, including 454 with cystic kidney disease (23% per year), 378 with glomerulonephritis (10% per year), 309 with diabetic nephropathy (12% per year), and 939 with other recorded diagnoses (8% per year). By comparison with patients with cystic kidney disease, other disease groups had substantially...

  7. SECRETED KLOTHO AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease. PMID:22396167

  8. Experience of Percutaneous Versus Surgically Placed Catheter for Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, S; Ferdaus, T; Khondokar, S A; Khan, M H; Hanif, M

    2016-10-01

    The lifespan and outcome of end stage renal disease (ESRD) children have dramatically improved since the development of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), it offers several advantages over hemodialysis. Percutaneous placement of CAPD catheters in children is minimally invasive, reliable, safe and cost-effective method. Percutaneous method of CAPD catheter insertion can be used in children to avoid the complications of general anesthesia and surgery. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of CAPD in children, to find out the complication profile of CAPD & to compare the advantages of surgical versus percutaneously placed CAPD catheters in children. This prospective longitudinal comparative study was carried out in the department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2014. A total of 8 children with ESRD were included (Age 5-14 year, M: F=1: 1). All underwent CAPD, Group I = surgically placed CAPD catheter (N=5), Group II = percutaneously placed CAPD catheter (N=3). Average duration of CAPD in Group I and Group II were 31.6 vs. 9 (months) with a total of 158 vs. 27 patient months of CAPD respectively. The rate of complications of the 2 groups and their outcome were compared. Common complications being observed were peritonitis 1 episode per 12.1 vs. 1.8 patient months (pchildren (pchildren, but percutaneous method of catheter insertion is associated with higher rate of complications. Placement of catheter by surgical method with elective omentectomy will reduce catheter related complications. Early detection of peritonitis and prompt therapy is essential for a favourable outcome.

  9. Influence of late-stage chronic kidney disease on overall survival in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma following radical nephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chen Wen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Patients with late-stage CKD had a higher risk of having poor OS. Patients with concomitant bladder tumor had a greater risk of having bladder cancer recurrence despite primary tumor stage. Concomitant bladder tumor, however, had no effect on OS and CSS in this study.

  10. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  11. [Wasting in chronic kidney disease: Refeeding techniques and artificial nutrition practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasian, Céline; Azar, Raymond; Fouque, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is an independent factor associated with morbi-mortality in chronic kidney disease. Wasting is particularly common in chronic diseases of organs such as kidney disease with a major impact at the stage of dialysis. It covers 20 to 70% of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease according to the degree of evolution of the disease and the diagnostic method used patients. Mechanisms of PEW are based mainly on anorexia and metabolic abnormalities caused by kidney disease. Nutritional treatment differs depending on the stage of the kidney disease acute or chronic treated whether or not by dialysis. Nutritional monitoring should be regular, individualized and collaborative to detect a risk of PEW or treat installed PEW. Refeeding techniques should allow all the nutritional needs. Their indications depend on the clinic, biochemical assessment and nutrient intake. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. MR imaging of adult glomerulocystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, K.; Nakata, H.; Hashimoto, O.; Kaizu, K.; University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu

    1991-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with hypertension and severe renal dysfunction was diagnosed as having adult glomerulocystic kidney disease. MR imaging of the kidney showed a diffuse reduction of the intensity of the renal cortex with a loss of normal cortico-medullary differentiation of T1-weighted images. Numerous small cortical cysts were also demonstrated. These MR findings complemented the results of the biopsy and were useful for making a definitive diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Src family kinases in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-09-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) belong to nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases and have been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion, and angiogenesis. The role and mechanisms of SFKs in tumorgenesis have been extensively investigated, and some SFK inhibitors are currently under clinical trials for tumor treatment. Recent studies have also demonstrated the importance of SFKs in regulating the development of various fibrosis-related chronic diseases (e.g., idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, renal fibrosis, and systemic sclerosis). In this article, we summarize the roles of SFKs in various chronic kidney diseases, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy, autosomal dominant form of polycystic kidney disease, and obesity-associated kidney disease, and discuss the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Diet and Diabetic Kidney Disease: Plant Versus Animal Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Ranjani N; Vorland, Colby J; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this review is to present an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of plant-based diets in delaying progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The ideal quantity of dietary protein has been a controversial topic for patients with DKD. Smaller studies have focused on protein source, plant versus animal, for preventing progression. Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns that focus on plant-based foods, those that are lower in processed foods, or those that are lower in advanced glycation end products (AGE) may be useful in prevention of DKD progression. Increasing plant-based foods, incorporating diet patterns that limit processed foods, or potentially lowering AGE contents in diets may be beneficial for dietary management of DKD. However, dietary studies specifically targeted at DKD treatment are sparse. Further, large trials powered to assess outcomes including changes in kidney function, end-stage kidney disease, and mortality are needed to provide more substantial evidence for these diets.

  15. Role of leptin in reverse epidemiology in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2007-01-01

    , indicating leptin resistance. In healthy subjects increased leptin concentration constitutes a biomarker for increased cardiovascular risk. On the other hand, a recent prospective long-term study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy showed that reduced serum leptin......Leptin is mainly produced by adipocytes and metabolized in the kidney. Leptin is taken up into the central nervous system by a saturable transport system, and controls appetite in rodents and in healthy subjects. Leptin acts on peripheral tissue and increases the inflammatory response...

  16. The association between bioimpedance analysis and quality of life in pre-dialysis stage 5 chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Chaivanit, Pechngam

    2014-03-01

    Protein-energy wasting is a significant problem in End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Furthermore, it compromises the patient's Quality of life (QOL). Multifrequency Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS) is a validated method to assess body composition in dialysis patients. There has been no data on the relationship between body composition and QOL in ESRD patients who were treated with different modalities. To explore the association between body composition as assessed by BIS and QOL in ESRD patients who received different treatment modalities. The present study is a cross sectional, descriptive analytic study of the association between QOL and BIS in ESRD patients in Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand. QOL was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, body composition was measured by BIS technique. The difference between groups was tested by one-way ANOVA test, relationship between groups was tested with Pearson correlation test. Eighteen predialysis-CKD5, 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 34 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in the present study. All PD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 1.7 per week and all HD patients had weekly Kt/V > or = 3.6 per week. There were no statistically difference in baseline characteristics including Charlson comorbidity index, dietary intake, BMI, and blood pressure between groups. Mean QOL scores in each group were in the middle range and not significantly difference. PD patients had more over hydration when compare to HD patients (16.18 +/- 11.24 vs. 2.36 +/- 11.07 %OH/ECW p < 0.0001). There were inversed correlation between overhydration and physical health in HD patients (r = -0.372, p = 0.033) but not in PD and CKD5 patients. CKD5 patients had more lean tissue index (LTI) than PD and HD patients (LTI = 14.34 +/- 3.13, 12.26 +/- 3.65, 11.48 +/- 3.48 kg/m2 respectively, p = 0.023). There were correlation between LTI and overall QOL in CKD5 (r = 0.690, p = 0.002) and PD patients (r = 0.498, p = 0.010). In HD patients, LTI

  17. Subclinical cerebral abnormalities in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi

    2013-01-01

    Impaired kidney function or chronic kidney disease (CKD), as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is associated with incident stroke risk. However, few studies have examined the relationship between CKD and subclinical cerebral abnormalities. We examined 675 elderly subjects (mean age 69.9 years), who were living independently at home without apparent dementia, using magnetic resonance imaging. Serum creatinine values, measured by the enzymatic method, were used for the Japanese equation of eGFR. Subclinical lacunar infarction, deep white matter lesions, and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 88 (13.0%), 240 (35.6%) and 158 (23.4%) of the 675 participants, respectively. In the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis, age (OR 2.081/10, 95% CI 1.541-2.810), hypertension (OR 3.656, 95% CI 2.184-6.119), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.961, 95% CI 1.007-3.820), alcohol intake (OR 2.130, 95% CI 1.283-3.535), and eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were significant factors concerning subclinical lacunar infarction. CKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was not significantly associated with subclinical lacunar infarction. Decreased eGFR was not a significant factor associated with white matter lesions (WMLs). Age (OR 2.781/10, 95% CI 2.252-3.435), hypertension (OR 1.746, 95% CI 1.231-2.477), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.854, 95% CI 1.070-3.213), but not eGFR were significant factors concerning WMLs. The present study showed that community-dwelling elderly subjects with late stage 3 CKD were at high risk for prevalent subclinical lacunar infarction. The identification of CKD-specific modifiable risk factors for SBI and WMLs is of increased importance for prevention of subclinical brain ischemic lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (stages 3-5) in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls: A study from Kashmir Valley Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M Saleem; Mir, Mohamad Muzzafer; Muzamil, Mudasir

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a range of metabolic bone diseases. Fracture rates are higher in CKD patients than age-matched controls throughout all the five stages of CKD. Dialysis patients have 4 times as many hip fractures as expected for their age. CKD forms an independent risk factor for osteoporosis, even in the absence of traditional risk factors. This study was carried out at the nephrology unit in a tertiary care center of Kashmir to know the prevalence of osteoporosis in CKD patients having glomerular filtration rate (GFR) stages 3-5). Among the 151 cases studied, the average estimated GFR was 16.78 ± 10.714 mL/min. There were 98 males (64.9%) and 53 females (35.1%). Their mean age was 51.01 ± 14.138 years. Osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score was seen in 31 patients (31.6%) while 43 patients (28.5%) had osteoporosis at L1, L2 lumbar vertebrae. The prevalence of osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score as well as osteopenia was highest in stage-5 CKD. In our study, the body mass index (BMI) had a positive correlation with osteoporosis; low BMI patients were at higher risk for osteoporosis (P = 0.014). In the Kashmir valley, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 31.8% in CKD patients against 22% in controls. Thus, CKD forms an important risk factor for osteoporosis even in the absence of traditional risk factors. We recommend early screening, detection, and management of osteoporosis to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in this subset of patients.

  19. Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (stages 3–5 in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls: A study from Kashmir Valley Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saleem Najar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a range of metabolic bone diseases. Fracture rates are higher in CKD patients than age-matched controls throughout all the five stages of CKD. Dialysis patients have 4 times as many hip fractures as expected for their age. CKD forms an independent risk factor for osteoporosis, even in the absence of traditional risk factors. This study was carried out at the nephrology unit in a tertiary care center of Kashmir to know the prevalence of osteoporosis in CKD patients having glomerular filtration rate (GFR <60 mL/min (stages 3–5. Among the 151 cases studied, the average estimated GFR was 16.78 ± 10.714 mL/min. There were 98 males (64.9% and 53 females (35.1%. Their mean age was 51.01 ± 14.138 years. Osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score was seen in 31 patients (31.6% while 43 patients (28.5% had osteoporosis at L1, L2 lumbar vertebrae. The prevalence of osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score as well as osteopenia was highest in stage-5 CKD. In our study, the body mass index (BMI had a positive correlation with osteoporosis; low BMI patients were at higher risk for osteoporosis (P = 0.014. In the Kashmir valley, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 31.8% in CKD patients against 22% in controls. Thus, CKD forms an important risk factor for osteoporosis even in the absence of traditional risk factors. We recommend early screening, detection, and management of osteoporosis to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in this subset of patients.

  20. The definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease: a KDIGO Controversies Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Coresh, Josef; El Nahas, Meguid; Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T; Kasiske, Bertram L; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2011-07-01

    The definition and classification for chronic kidney disease was proposed by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) in 2002 and endorsed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) in 2004. This framework promoted increased attention to chronic kidney disease in clinical practice, research and public health, but has also generated debate. It was the position of KDIGO and KDOQI that the definition and classification should reflect patient prognosis and that an analysis of outcomes would answer key questions underlying the debate. KDIGO initiated a collaborative meta-analysis and sponsored a Controversies Conference in October 2009 to examine the relationship of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria to mortality and kidney outcomes. On the basis of analyses in 45 cohorts that included 1,555,332 participants from general, high-risk, and kidney disease populations, conference attendees agreed to retain the current definition for chronic kidney disease of a GFR 30 mg/g, and to modify the classification by adding albuminuria stage, subdivision of stage 3, and emphasizing clinical diagnosis. Prognosis could then be assigned based on the clinical diagnosis, stage, and other key factors relevant to specific outcomes. KDIGO has now convened a workgroup to develop a global clinical practice guideline for the definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease.

  1. Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Your family history and things in your environment such as infections, viruses, toxic chemicals or pollutants ( ... to show how well your kidneys are filtering wastes Check for antiphospholipid antibodies and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) at least once during your disease. ...

  2. Chronic kidney disease screening methods and its implication for Malaysia: an in depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almualm, Yasmin; Zaman Huri, Hasniza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR 60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.

  3. Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Paul; Vasa, Priya; Brenner, Darren; Iglar, Karl; McFarlane, Phil; Morrison, Howard; Badawi, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor for death and cardiovascular-related morbidity, but estimates to date of its prevalence in Canada have generally been extrapolated from the prevalence of end-stage renal disease. We used direct measures of kidney function collected from a nationally representative survey population to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Canadian adults. Methods: We examined data for 3689 adult participants of cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009) for the presence of chronic kidney disease. We also calculated the age-standardized prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by chronic kidney disease group. We cross-tabulated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with albuminuria status. Results: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease during the period 2007–2009 was 12.5%, representing about 3 million Canadian adults. The estimated prevalence of stage 3–5 disease was 3.1% (0.73 million adults) and albuminuria 10.3% (2.4 million adults). The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly higher among adults with chronic kidney disease than among those without it. The prevalence of albuminuria was high, even among those whose eGFR was 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater (10.1%) and those without diabetes or hypertension (9.3%). Awareness of kidney dysfunction among adults with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease was low (12.0%). Interpretation: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction was substantial in the survey population, including individuals without hypertension or diabetes, conditions most likely to prompt screening for kidney dysfunction. These findings highlight the potential for missed opportunities for early intervention and secondary prevention of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23649413

  4. Obesity and kidney disease: Beyond the hyperfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, A; Franzese, O; Nisticò, S; Campia, U; Lauro, D; Cardillo, C; Di Daniele, N; Tesauro, M

    2016-09-01

    In industrialized countries, overweight and obesity account for approximately 13.8% and 24.9% of the kidney disease observed in men and women, respectively. Moreover, obesity-associated glomerulopathy is now considered as "an emerging epidemic." Kidney function can be negatively impacted by obesity through several mechanisms, either direct or indirect. While it is well established that obesity represents the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, awareness that obesity is associated with direct kidney damage independently of hypertension and diabetes is still not widespread. In this paper we will discuss the emerging role of adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral depot, in obesity-induced chronic kidney damage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Direct renin inhibition in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    that renin inhibition could hold potential for improved treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease, with diabetic nephropathy as an obvious group of patients to investigate, as the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is enhanced in these patients and as there is an unmet need...... early as a beneficial effect was unlikely and there was an increased frequency of side effects. Also in non-diabetic kidney disease a few intervention studies have been carried out, but there is no ongoing hard outcome study. In this review we provide the current evidence for renin inhibition in chronic...... kidney disease by reporting of the studies published so far as well as perspective on the future possibilites....

  6. Dietary sodium in chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.

  7. An analysis on the level changing of UET and SET in blood and urine in early stage of kidney disease caused by diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Yang Wenying; Cai Tietie

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between UET and SET variation and early changes of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: UET and SET were measured in 24 patients with diabetes, 19 with early stage diabetic nephropathy, 21 with advanced diabetic nephropathy and 30 normal as contrast. Results: Apparent uprise of UET and SET was observed in all patients when compared to normal contrasts (P 2 -macroglobulin was revealed (P<0.05). Conclusion: UET and SET levels uprose as long as diabetic nephropathy deteriorated. As a result, UET and SET may act as sensitive indices in diagnosing early stage diabetic nephropathy

  8. Alterations of retinol-binding protein 4 species in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and their relation to lipid parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2010-01-01

    ) was assessed in serum of 45 healthy controls and 52 patients with stage 2-5 of CKD using ELISA and RBP4 immunoprecipitation with subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. A reduction of glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by a gradual elevation of RBP4 serum levels and relative amounts of RBP4-LL. Correlation...

  9. Dermatoglyphics in kidney diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathne, Buddhika T B; Meier, Robert J; Salgado, Sujatha S; Agampodi, Suneth B

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases are becoming a major cause of global burden with high mortality and morbidity. The origins of most kidney diseases are known, but for some the exact aetiology is not yet understood. Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridge patterns and it has been used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect or predict different medical conditions that have foetal origin. However, there have been a limited number of studies that have evaluated a dermatoglyphic relationship in different kidney diseases. The aim of this review was to systematically identify, review and appraise available literature that evaluated an association of different dermatoglyphic variables with kidney diseases. This review is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The PubMed(®) (Medline), POPLINE, Cochrane Library and Trip Database and grey literature sources such as OpenGrey, Google Scholar, and Google were searched to earliest date to 17 April 2014. Of the 36 relevant publications, 15 were included in the review. Of these studies, there are five case reports, seven case series and three comparative studies. Possible association of dermatoglyphics with Wilms tumor (WT) had been evaluated in two comparative studies and one case series that found fewer whorls and a lower mean total ridge count (TRC). Another study evaluated adult polycystic kidney disease (APCD) type III that revealed lower TRC means in all cases. All other case series and case reports describe dermatoglyphics in various kidney disease such as acro-renal-ocular syndrome, potter syndrome, kabuki makeup syndrome, neurofaciodigitorenal syndrome, syndactyly type V, ring chromosome 13 syndrome, trisomy 13 syndrome and sirenomelia. It is evident that whorl pattern frequency and TRC have been used widely to investigate the uncertainty related to the origin of several kidney diseases such as WT and APCD type III. However, small sample sizes

  10. Obesity and kidney disease: hidden consequences of the epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This year World Kidney Day promotes education on the harmful consequences of obesity and its association with kidney disease, advocating a healthy lifestyle and health policy measures that makes preventive behaviours an affordable option. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, kidney cancer, nephrolithiasis, obesity, ...

  11. CDKD: a clinical database of kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess water from the blood. Loss of kidney function leads to various health issues, such as anemia, high blood pressure, bone disease, disorders of cholesterol. The main objective of this database system is to store the personal and laboratory investigatory details of patients with kidney disease. The emphasis is on experimental results relevant to quantitative renal physiology, with a particular focus on data relevant for evaluation of parameters in statistical models of renal function. Description Clinical database of kidney diseases (CDKD has been developed with patient confidentiality and data security as a top priority. It can make comparative analysis of one or more parameters of patient’s record and includes the information of about whole range of data including demographics, medical history, laboratory test results, vital signs, personal statistics like age and weight. Conclusions The goal of this database is to make kidney-related physiological data easily available to the scientific community and to maintain & retain patient’s record. As a Web based application it permits physician to see, edit and annotate a patient record from anywhere and anytime while maintaining the confidentiality of the personal record. It also allows statistical analysis of all data.

  12. DIFFERENCES IN ILLNESS REPRESENTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderquist, Birgitta Klang; Heiwe, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    To explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness representations, including symptoms and causal attributions. Fifty-four patients responded to the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a further seven patients undertook cognitive interviews regarding the IPQ-R. All respondents had CKD stage 2-5, not undergoing renal replacement therapy. Those in earlier CKD stages and those with fewer symptoms perceived a significantly different understanding of their condition than those in more advanced disease stages or with more symptoms. Behavioural and psychological attributions were commonly referred to as contributing causes to CKD. These attributions were associated to negative illness representations. An uncertainty assessing symptoms attributed to CKD was indicated, especially in earlier disease stages. Illness representations differ with CKD stages and symptom burden. The patients in earlier disease stages or with fewer symptoms did not hold as strong beliefs about their illness as being a threat as those in advanced stages or with more symptoms. Self-blame emerged as a common causal attribution. Patients did not always relate symptoms to CKD, therefore this study identifies a gap in patients' disease knowledge, especially in earlier stages of the condition. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Issues of Acute Kidney Injury Staging and Management in Sepsis and Critical Illness: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusshag, Christian; Weigand, Markus A.; Zeier, Martin; Morath, Christian; Brenner, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high incidence on intensive care units around the world and is a major complication in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis or septic shock. The short- and long-term complications are thereby devastating and impair the quality of life. Especially in terms of AKI staging, the determination of kidney function and the timing of dialytic AKI management outside of life-threatening indications are ongoing matters of debate. Despite several studies, a major problem remains in distinguishing between beneficial and unnecessary “early” or even harmful renal replacement therapy (RRT). The latter might prolong disease course and renal recovery. AKI scores, however, provide an insufficient outcome-predicting ability and the related estimation of kidney function via serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/urea is not reliable in AKI and critical illness. Kidney independent alterations of creatinine- and BUN/urea-levels further complicate the situation. This review critically assesses the current AKI staging, issues and pitfalls of the determination of kidney function and RRT timing, as well as the potential harm reflected by unnecessary RRT. A better understanding is mandatory to improve future study designs and avoid unnecessary RRT for higher patient safety and lower health care costs. PMID:28657585

  14. Kidney disease and aging: A reciprocal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are overrepresented in elderly patients. This provides specific challenges for the treatment, as the start of dialysis in vulnerable elderly patients may be associated with a rapid decline in functional performance. However, prognosis in elderly patients with ESRD is quite variable and related to the presence of comorbidity and geriatric impairments. The decision to start dialysis in elderly patients should always be based on shared decision making, which may be aided by the use of prediction models which should however not be used to withhold dialysis treatment. The treatment of ESRD in elderly patients should be based on a multidimensional treatment plan with a role for active rehabilitation. Moreover, there also appears to be a reciprocal relationship between aging and CKD, as the presence of geriatric complications is also high in younger patients with ESRD. This has led to the hypothesis of a premature aging process associated with CKD, resulting in different phenotypes such as premature vascular aging, muscle wasting, bone disease, cognitive dysfunction and frailty. Prevention and treatment of this phenotype is based on optimal treatment of CKD, associated comorbidities, and lifestyle factors by established treatments. For the future, interventions, which are developed to combat the aging process in general, might also have relevance for the treatment of patients with CKD, but their role should always be investigated in adequately powered clinical trials, as results obtained in experimental trials may not be directly translatable to the clinical situation of elderly patients. In the meantime, physical exercise is a very important intervention, by improving both physical capacity and functional performance, as well as by a direct effect on the aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetic kidney disease: a report from an ADA Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Katherine R; Bakris, George L; Bilous, Rudolf W; Chiang, Jane L; de Boer, Ian H; Goldstein-Fuchs, Jordi; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Narva, Andrew S; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Neumiller, Joshua J; Patel, Uptal D; Ratner, Robert E; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Molitch, Mark E

    2014-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included (1) identification and monitoring, (2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, (3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, (4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, (5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, (6) children and adolescents, and (7) multidisciplinary approaches and medical home models for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the generation of new knowledge that will meaningfully improve life for people with DKD. Copyright © 2014 American Diabetes Association and the National Kidney Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Depressed cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Brito Junior, Helio Lima de; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Oliveira, Felipe Gomes de; Casali, Thais Gomes; Bignoto, Tiago Costa; Fernandes, Natalia Maria da Silva; Beraldo, Antonio Fernando de Castro Alves; Paula, Rogério Baumgratz de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A dysfunctional autonomic nervous system (ANS) has also been recognized as an important mechanism contributing to the poor outcome in CKD patients, with several studies reporting a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Objective: Evaluate the sympathovagal balance in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients with CKD stages 3, 4 and 5 not yet on dialysis (CKD group) and age-matched healthy subjects (CON...

  17. N-acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittstock, Antje; Burkert, Magdalena; Zidek, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease show increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that are partly related to impaired arterial vascular reactivity. We investigated whether intravenous administration of the antioxidant acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity...

  18. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  19. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk : epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Mann, Johannes F.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wen, Chi Pang

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a

  20. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuegel, Courtney; Bansal, Nisha

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the population of CKD patients with concurrent HF continues to grow. The accurate diagnosis of HF is challenging in patients with CKD in part due to a lack of validated imaging and biomarkers specifically in this population. The pathophysiology between the heart and the kidneys is complex and bidirectional. Patients with CKD have greater prevalence of traditional HF risk factors as well as unique kidney-specific risk factors including malnutrition, acid-base alterations, uraemic toxins, bone mineral changes, anemia and myocardial stunning. These risk factors also contribute to the decline of kidney function seen in patients with subclinical and clinical HF. More targeted HF therapies may improve outcomes in patients with kidney disease as current HF therapies are underutilised in this population. Further work is also needed to develop novel HF therapies for the CKD population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Stroke and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2014-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate or increased urinary albumin excretion, is recognised as a rapidly growing global health burden, and increasing evidence suggests that it contributes to the risk and severity of cerebrovascular diseases. In particular, chronic kidney disease is an established risk factor for stroke and is also strongly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities and cognitive impairment, partly because it shares several traditional and non-traditional risk factors, and sometimes uraemia-related and dialysis-related factors, with cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke differs among regions and races and is greater in Asian than in non-Asian people. Chronic kidney disease seems to be predictive of severe neurological deficits and poor vital and functional outcomes after both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, which is partly due to the limitations of pharmacotherapies, including limited use and effects of novel oral anticoagulants, other antithrombotic treatments, and reperfusion treatment for hyperacute ischaemic stroke. In view of the strong two-way association between stroke and kidney disease, the pathophysiological interactions between the brain and kidney should be the subject of intensive study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of an Educational Program on Adherence to Therapeutic Regimen among Chronic Kidney Disease Stage5 (CKD5) Patients under Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, Hala I. Abo; Elsawi, Khiria; Selim, Mohga; NasrAllah, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease on health care services worldwide is growing and the increased development of educational interventions which help patients to better manage their conditions is evident internationally. It has been recognized that poor adherence can be a serious risk to the health and wellbeing of patients. Adherence to fluid…

  3. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complement C3 is typically decreased in the acute phase and usually normalises within 6 - 12 weeks after ... are elevated. • Serum complement C3 and C4 levels are usually normal. • Serological tests should be done .... kidney diseases in children optimal feeding in an anuric patient. Other common indications for dialysis.

  4. Kidney biomimicry--a rediscovered scientific field that could provide hope to patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Most studies on kidney disease have relied on classic experimental studies in mice and rats or clinical studies in humans. From such studies much understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of kidney disease has been obtained. However, breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases have been relatively few, and new approaches to fight kidney disease are needed. Here we discuss kidney biomimicry as a new approach to understand kidney disease. Examples are given of how various animals have developed ways to prevent or respond to kidney failure, how to protect themselves from hypoxia or oxidative stress and from the scourge of hyperglycemia. We suggest that investigation of evolutionary biology and comparative physiology might provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dyslipidemia, Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24380085

  6. [END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE, DIALYSIS TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF COMORBIDITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is clearly defined as a state of damaged kidney function lasting for more than three months. Changes manifest in serum and urine pathological findings with frequent morphological changes in the kidneys and reduction in glomerular filtration. The aim is to show the possibilities of renal replacement therapy and waste related disease during dialysis treatment. The methods are based on strong evidence and guidelines. Glomerular filtration is the basis in evaluating the stage of chronic kidney disease. Based on the measures of glomerular filtration reduction, chronic kidney disease is classified into five stages, thus facilitating approach to treatment of particular groups of patients depending on the level of glomerular filtration damage. Kidney function can be replaced by dialysis or transplantation and in certain cases symptomatically if the patient refuses dialysis treatment. Malnutrition, hypertension, kidney anemia and bone-mineral disease are often present in patients with higher stages of chronic kidney disease, particularly stage 5 and kidney function replacement by dialysis. In conclusion, timely treatment reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease, Basal Insulin Glargine, and Health Outcomes in People with Dysglycemia: The ORIGIN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Nylen, Eric S; Doumas, Michael; Probstfield, Jeff; Mann, Johannes F E; Gilbert, Richard E; Gerstein, Hertzel C

    2017-12-01

    Early stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with established type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease. The role of early stages of chronic kidney disease on macrovascular outcomes in prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known. In the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, the introduction of insulin had no effect on cardiovascular outcomes compared with standard therapy. In this post hoc analysis of ORIGIN, we compared cardiovascular outcomes in subjects without to those with mild (Stages 1-2) or moderate chronic kidney disease (Stage 3). Τwo co-primary composite cardiovascular outcomes were assessed. The first was the composite end point of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes; and the second was a composite of any of these events plus a revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for heart failure. Several secondary outcomes were prespecified, including microvascular outcomes, incident diabetes, hypoglycemia, weight, and cancers. Complete renal function data were available in 12,174 of 12,537 ORIGIN participants. A total of 8114 (67%) had no chronic kidney disease, while 4060 (33%) had chronic kidney disease stage 1-3. When compared with nonchronic kidney disease participants, the risk of developing the composite primary outcome (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death) in those with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease was 87% higher; hazard ratio (HR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.71-2.04 (P chronic kidney disease 1-3 was also associated with a greater than twofold higher risk for both all-cause mortality (HR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.98-2.38; P chronic kidney disease had significantly higher risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (50%), nonfatal stroke (68%), any stroke (84%), the above composite primary end point plus revascularization or heart failure requiring

  8. Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Tser Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD development. Insulin resistance (IR plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for CKD in nondiabetic patients. IR is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage CKD, even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. IR, along with oxidative stress and inflammation, also promotes kidney disease. In patients with end stage renal disease, IR is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and is linked to protein energy wasting and malnutrition. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, elevated serum adipokines and fetuin-A, metabolic acidosis, vitamin D deficiency, depressed serum erythropoietin, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressors of cytokine signaling all cause IR by suppressing insulin receptor-PI3K-Akt pathways in CKD. In addition to adequate renal replacement therapy and correction of uremia-associated factors, thiazolidinedione, ghrelin, protein restriction, and keto-acid supplementation are therapeutic options. Weight control, reduced daily prednisolone dosage, and the use of cyclosporin decrease the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation. Improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying IR in CKD may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce uremia-associated morbidity and mortality.

  9. Relation of Coronary Flow Reserve to Other Findings on Positron Emission Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Left Heart Catheterization in Patients With End-stage Renal Disease Being Evaluated for Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Yehuda; Morgenstern, Rachelle; Weinberg, Richard; Chiles, Mariana; Bhatti, Navdeep; Ali, Ziad; Mohan, Sumit; Bokhari, Sabahat

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and often goes undetected. Abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR), which predicts increased risk of cardiac death, may be present in patients with ESRD without other evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We prospectively studied 131 patients who had rest and dipyridamole pharmacologic stress N 13 -ammonia positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (PET MPI) for kidney transplant evaluation. Thirty-four patients also had left heart catheterization. Abnormal PET MPI was defined as qualitative ischemia or infarct, stress electrocardiogram ischemia, or transient ischemic dilation. CFR was calculated as the ratio of stress to rest coronary blood flow. Global CFR < 2 was defined as abnormal. Of 131 patients who had PET MPI (66% male, 55.6 ± 12.1 years), 30% (39 of 131) had abnormal PET MPI and 59% (77 of 131) had abnormal CFR. In a subset of 34 patients who had left heart catheterization (66% male, 61.0 ± 12.1 years), 68% (23 of 34) had abnormal CFR on PET MPI, and 68% (23 of 34) had ≥70% obstruction on left heart catheterization. Abnormal CFR was not significantly associated with abnormal PET MPI (p = 0.13) or obstructive CAD on left heart catheterization (p = 0.26). In conclusion, in the first prospective study of PET MPI in patients with ESRD, abnormal CFR is highly prevalent and is independent of abnormal findings on PET MPI or obstructive CAD on left heart catheterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Tips for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: Tips for Parents Print Email If your child has been diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, you are no doubt feeling distressed and bewildered. ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: REN-related kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions REN-related kidney disease REN-related kidney disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Pelizaeus-Merzbacher- ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: uromodulin-associated kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Uromodulin-associated kidney disease Uromodulin-associated kidney disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Pelizaeus-Merzbacher- ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: medullary cystic kidney disease type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Pelizaeus-Merzbacher- ...

  14. Growth in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Halima S; Mahan, John D

    2011-09-01

    Poor growth is a common sequela of CKD in childhood. It not only affects the psychosocial development of a child but also has significant effects even in the adult life. The multifactorial etiology and severe consequences of growth failure in CKD warrant evaluation of all the modifiable and nonmodifiable causes. Treatment strategies must be directed toward the specific factors for each child with CKD. Among the various metabolic, nutritional, and hormonal disturbances complicating CKD, disordered growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis are important contributors toward poor growth in children with CKD. CKD is recognized as a state of GH resistance rather than GH deficiency, with multiple mechanisms contributing to this GH resistance. Recombinant GH (rGH) therapy can be used in this population to accelerate growth velocity. Although its use has been shown to be effective and safe in children with CKD, there continues to be some uncertainty and reluctance among practitioners and families regarding its usage, thereby resulting in a surprisingly low use in children with CKD. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of growth failure, its effect, and management strategies in children with CKD. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Rocco, Michael V.; Anderson, Sharon; Andreoli, Sharon P.; Bailie, George R.; Bakris, George L.; Callahan, Mary Beth; Greene, Jane H.; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Lash, James P.; McCullough, Peter A.; Miller III, Edgar R.; Nally, Joseph V.; Pirsch, John D.; Portman, Ronald J.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Sica, Domenic; Wesson, Donald E.; Agodoa, Lawrence; Bolton, Kline; Cutler, Jeffrey A.; Hostetter, Tom; Lau, Joseph; Uhlig, Katrin; Chew, Priscilla; Kausz, Annamaria; Kupelnick, Bruce; Raman, Gowri; Sarnak, Mark; Wang, Chenchen; Astor, Brad C.; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Adeera; Levin, Nathan; Bailie, George; Becker, Bryan; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Carrera, Fernando; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Crooks, Peter W.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greenwood, Roger; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Haley, William E.; Hogg, Ronald; Hull, Alan R.; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lameire, Norbert; Locatelli, Francesco; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Obrador, Gregorio; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Ronco, Claudio; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Schoolwerth, Anton C.; Star, Robert; Steffes, Michael; Steinman, Theodore; Wauters, John-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Pereira, Brian J.G.; Willis, Kerry; Gucciardo, Anthony; Fingerhut, Donna; Klette, Margaret; Schachne, Elicia

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: CHRONIC KIDNEY disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure (Fig 1), with poor outcomes and high cost. The prevalence of earlier stages of CKD is approximately 100 times greater than the prevalence

  16. Range and Heterogeneity of Outcomes in Randomized Trials of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, Lauren S. H.; Sautenet, Benedicte; Tong, Allison; Hanson, Camilla S.; Samuel, Susan; Zappitelli, Michael; Dart, Allison; Furth, Susan; Eddy, Allison A.; Groothoff, Jaap; Webb, Nicholas J. A.; Yap, Hui-Kim; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Sinha, Aditi; Alexander, Stephen I.; Goldstein, Stuart L.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Raman, Gayathri; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the range and heterogeneity of outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials of interventions for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register was searched to March 2016. Randomized trials involving children across all stages of

  17. Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Diseases—A Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach to Hereditary Cystic Kidney Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Christian König

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype–phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases. To tackle these challenges comprehensive scientific approaches are urgently needed that match the ongoing “revolution” in genetics and molecular biology with an improved efficacy of clinical data collection. Network for early onset cystic kidney diseases (NEOCYST is a multidisciplinary, multicenter collaborative combining a detailed collection of clinical data with translational scientific approaches addressing the genetic, molecular, and functional background of hereditary cystic kidney diseases. Consisting of seven work packages, including an international registry as well as a biobank, NEOCYST is not only dedicated to current scientific questions, but also provides a platform for longitudinal clinical surveillance and provides precious sources for high-quality research projects and future clinical trials. Funded by the German Federal Government, the NEOCYST collaborative started in February 2016. Here, we would like to introduce the rationale, design, and objectives of the network followed by a short overview on the current state of progress.

  18. Technology innovation for patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsides, Nicos; Keane, David F; Lindley, Elizabeth; Mitra, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    The loss of kidney function is a life-changing event leading to life-long dependence on healthcare. Around 5000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure every year. Historically, technology in renal medicine has been employed for replacement therapies. Recently, a lot of emphasis has been placed on technologies that aid early identification and prevent progression of kidney disease, while at the same time empowering affected individuals to gain control over their chronic illness. There is a shift in diversity of technology development, driven by collaborative innovation initiatives such the National Institute's for Health Research Healthcare Technology Co-operative for Devices for Dignity. This has seen the emergence of the patient as a key figure in designing technologies that are fit for purpose, while business involvement has ensured uptake and sustainability of these developments. An embodiment of this approach is the first successful Small Business Research Initiative in the field of renal medicine in the UK.

  19. Disease Assessment of Elderly Patients with Early and Middle Stage Knee Osteoarthritis took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Guang Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the diseases condition of the elderly patients with early and middle stage osteoarthritis of the knee took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection. Methods: A total of 78 cases of elderly knee osteoarthritis patients were selected in our hospital from August 2011 to February 2014 as observation group. 88 cases of joint function normal healthy people were chosen as the control group. After treatment, differences of serum protein expressions and CTX II, COMP, HA levels as well as related factors of Hippo-Yap signaling pathway in the synovial fluid, such as HMGB2, CCL1 and PD-1of the two groups were compared. Results: after treatment, serum PON-1, paraoxonase-3, AMBP, ApoM, KAP and TN expression levels in the observation group were higher than those of the control group patients. APOL1 level was lower than that of the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment, serum COMP level in the observation group was lower than that in the control group patients. CTX II, HA levels were higher than those in the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment YAP, BCL-2 levels in synovial fluid in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. Synovial fluid HMGB2 CCL1, NO and PD-1 levels of the observation group patients after treatment were lower than those of the control group. Conclusions: the elderly patients with early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis can be treated by oral administration, fumigation combined with sodium hyaluronate injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which can optimize the whole body and local non-infective inflammatory state, and promote the rehabilitation of the patients.

  20. Estimated Visceral Adipose Tissue, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Reductions in Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Cystatin C in the Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha França

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the association between obesity and initial phases of chronic kidney disease (CKD is still limited, principally those regarding the influence of visceral adipose tissue. We investigated whether the visceral adipose tissue is more associated with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR than total and abdominal obesity in hypertensive individuals with stage 1-2 CKD. A cross-sectional study was implemented which involved 241 hypertensive patients undergoing treatment at a primary health care facility. GFR was estimated using equations based on creatinine and cystatin C levels. Explanatory variables included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and estimated visceral adipose tissue (eVAT. The mean age was 59.6±9.2 years old and 75.9% were female. According to BMI, 28.2% of subjects were obese. Prevalence of increased WC and eVAT was 63.9% and 58.5%, respectively. Results from the assessment of GFR by BMI, WC, and eVAT categories showed that only women with increased eVAT (≥150 cm2 had a lower mean GFR by Larsson (P=0.016, Levey 2 (P=0.005, and Levey 3 (P=0.008 equations. The same result was not observed when the MDRD equation was employed. No association was found between BMI, WC, eVAT, and GFR using only serum creatinine. In the early stages of CKD, increased eVAT in hypertensive women was associated with decreased GFR based on cystatin C.

  1. [Impact of anemia correction on the production of the circulating morphogenetic protein α-Klotho in patients with Stages 3B-4 chronic kidney disease: A new direction of cardionephroprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Yu S; Mukhin, N A; Kozlovskaya, L V; Milovanova, S Yu; Markina, M M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of anemia correction with erythropoiesis stimulants on the serum level of the circulating morphogenetic protein α-Klotho in patients with Stages 3B--4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). 64 patients aged 42±8 years with Stages 3B--4 nondiabetic CKD were examined and divided into 2 groups: 1) 32 patients with anemia (the target hemoglobin levels could be achieved and kept with erythropoietin and iron saccharate in 20 patients (Group A) and those could not be done in 12 patients (Group 1B). A control group (Group 2) consisted of 32 non-anemic patients matched for gender, age, and degree of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction. Along with iron exchange indicators, the time course of changes in serum Klotho levels were examined in all the 64 patients during screening and one year after the end of the study. For correction of anemia, 32 patients with this condition (Groups 1A and 1B) took short-acting epoetin (hypodermic recormon 2,000 IU thrice per week + iron (intravenous venofer 5 ml of 100 mg once per week)) under control of hemoglobin levels and serum transferrin iron and ferritin saturation. After achieving the target hemoglobin level of 110-120 g/l, for its keeping, all the patients received, instead of short-acting epoetin, long-acting hypodermic darbepoetin-α 1.5 µg once every 2 months and intravenous iron saccharate 100 mg once every 2 weeks. Among the 32 anemic patients in Group 1, 20 (63%) (Group 1 A) could achieve the target hemoglobin level (110--120 g/l) and maintain it within this range, by performing therapy with epoitin-β + iron saccharate; anemia (the hemoglobin level of anemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure), but also a pathogenetic factor of CKD progression. Anemia correction with erythropoiesis stimulants has been shown to enhance the renal and extrarenal production of α-Klotho.

  2. Neuronal activation in the central nervous system of rats in the initial stage of chronic kidney disease-modulatory effects of losartan and moxonidine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Palkovits

    Full Text Available The effect of mild chronic renal failure (CRF induced by 4/6-nephrectomy (4/6NX on central neuronal activations was investigated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry staining and compared to sham-operated rats. In the 4/6 NX rats also the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan, and the central sympatholyticum moxonidine was studied for two months. In serial brain sections Fos-immunoreactive neurons were localized and classified semiquantitatively. In 37 brain areas/nuclei several neurons with different functional properties were strongly affected in 4/6NX. It elicited a moderate to high Fos-activity in areas responsible for the monoaminergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus (e.g. noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe, histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus. Other monoaminergic cell groups (A5 noradrenaline, C1 adrenaline, medullary raphe serotonin neurons and neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (innervating the sympathetic preganglionic neurons and affecting the peripheral sympathetic outflow did not show Fos-activity. Stress- and pain-sensitive cortical/subcortical areas, neurons in the limbic system, the hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs were also affected by 4/6NX. Administration of losartan and more strongly moxonidine modulated most effects and particularly inhibited Fos-activity in locus coeruleus neurons. In conclusion, 4/6NX elicits high activity in central sympathetic, stress- and pain-related brain areas as well as in the limbic system, which can be ameliorated by losartan and particularly by moxonidine. These changes indicate a high sensitivity of CNS in initial stages of CKD which could be causative in clinical disturbances.

  3. [DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučak, J; VučK, E; Balint, I

    2016-12-01

    According to consensus definition, chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes urinary excretion of albumin >30 mg/day and/ or reduction in kidney function defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for a period longer than three months, in the presence of kidney tissue damage verified by imaging or histologic methods. In developed world, the first cause of CKD is diabetes, followed by arterial hypertension, and the less frequent causes are inflammatory disease (glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis) and congenital condition (polycystic kidney disease). Currently, there is valid classification under the acronym CGA, where C stands for the cause, G for glomerular filtration rate (GFR category) and A for the level of albuminuria category. In early stages, patients usually have no symptoms but there are changes in creatinine values, estimated GFR (eGFR) reduction and presence of albuminuria, especially in patients at risk. Determining the grade of renal impairment is important because of different approaches to treatment, monitoring, expected complications, and patient education. Due to improved diagnostic methods and population aging, CKD is diagnosed ever more increasingly. Family physicians should be familiar with the basic principles of screening and diagnosis of CKD to provide them with appropriate care in collaboration with secondary and tertiary health care.

  4. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease: an increasingly common multi-morbid disease in need of a paradigm shift in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocour, P H

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes is considered the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease. The increasing incidence of obesity and an ageing population, together, will lead to a greater number of people with diabetes associated with chronic kidney disease that could either be secondary to diabetic nephropathy or of different aetiology. Ageing and obesity influence approaches to the management of diabetes and accurate assessment of kidney disease. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease consume a disproportionate component of expenditure on medical care. Guidelines on managing diabetes and kidney disease do not recognize the complex multi-morbid nature of the process. In addition to managing glycaemia and monitoring renal function, the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular disease itself need to be factored into care. People with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are more vulnerable to retinopathy and foot complications requiring coordinated care. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are more prone to anaemia and metabolic bone disease than those without diabetes at similar stages of chronic kidney disease, further increasing their vulnerability to acute complications from cardiovascular disease, foot emergencies and fractures. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are also more prone to hospitalization with infections and acute kidney injury. Given the 30-40% prevalence of kidney disease amongst people with diabetes, potentially >2% of the adult population would fit into this category, making it vital that new surveillance models of supported care are provided for those living with diabetes and kidney disease and for primary care teams who manage the vast majority of such people. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  5. Angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with lower mortality than ACE inhibitors in predialytic stage 5 chronic kidney disease: A nationwide study of therapy with renin-angiotensin system blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available Dual renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade using angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs is reported to improve proteinuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, its renoprotective effect and safety remain uncertain in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD. From January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2009, we enrolled 14,117 pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients with serum creatinine >6mg/dL and hematocrit <28% under the treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and RAS blockade. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs against the commencement of long-term dialysis and all-cause mortality for ACEI/ARB users. Over a median follow-up of 7 months, 9,867 patients (69.9% required long-term dialysis and 2,805 (19.9% died before progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. In comparison with the ARB-only users, dual blockade with ACEIs and ARBs was associated with a significantly higher risk of (1 death in all CKD patients (HR = 1.49, [95%CI, 1.30-1.71]; P = 0.02 and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.58, [95%CI, 1.34-1.86]; P = 0.02; (2 composite endpoint of long-term dialysis or death in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.10, [95%CI, 1.01-1.20]; P = 0.04; (3 hyperkalemia-associated hospitalization in non-diabetic subgroup (HR, 2.74, [95%CI, 1.05-7.15]; P = 0.04. However, ACEIs users were associated with higher mortality than ARBs users in all CKD patients (HR = 1.17, [95%CI, 1.07-1.27]; P = 0.03 and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.32, [95%CI, 1.18-1.48]; P = 0.03. Monotherapy of RAS blockade, especially ARB, is more effective and safer than dual RAS blockade in pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients.

  6. Original Research Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data in Nigeria have reported that kidney diseases account for six to 12 percent of medical ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced and kidney failure is imminent. .... urinary tract infection and history of cancer compared with the controls.

  7. Systemic Redox Imbalance in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina P. Poulianiti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD.

  8. [Polycystic liver disease without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; González, P; Venegas, J L

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic liver disease is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. The natural history and clinical manifestations of polycystic liver disease are based on the disease as it manifests in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The occurrence of polycystic liver disease independently from polycystic kidney disease has been known for a long time. More recently, a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease has been identified on chromosome 19p 13.2-13.1. Isolated polycystic liver disease is underdiagnosed and genetically distinct from polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD but with similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We report here two men with polycystic liver disease no associated with ADPKD. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively.

  9. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antic, Amira; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Paripovic, Dusan; Paripovic, Aleksandra; Kocev, Nikola; Golubovic, Emilija; Milosevic, Biljana

    2012-05-01

    The epidemiological information from well-defined populations regarding childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those concerning non-terminal stages, are scanty. The epidemiology of CKD in children is often based on renal replacement therapy (RRT) data, which means that a considerable number of children in earlier stages of CKD are missed as they will reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adulthood. Here, we report the basic epidemiological data on childhood CKD in Serbia, gathered over the 10-year period of activity of the Serbian Pediatric Registry of Chronic Kidney Disease. Since 2000-09, data on incidence, prevalence, aetiology, treatment modalities and outcome of children aged 0-18 years, with CKD Stages 2-4 and CKD Stage 5, were collected by reporting index cases from paediatric centres. Three hundred and thirty-six children were registered (211 boys, 125 girls, male/female ratio 1.7). The median age at registration was 9.0 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3-13]. Median follow-up was 4.0 years (IQR, 1-9). The median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the time of the registration was 39.6 mL/min/1.73m(2) (IQR, 13.8-65.4). Median annual incidence of CKD 2-5 stages was 14.3 per million age-related population (p.m.a.r.p.), while those of CKD 2-4 or CKD 5 were 9.1 and 5.7 p.m.a.r.p., respectively. The median prevalence of CKD 2-5 was 96.1 p.m.a.r.p., 52.8 p.m.a.r.p. in CKD 2-4 and 62.2 p.m.a.r.p. in CKD 5. The main causes of CKD were congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract and hereditary nephropathies. Kidney survival was the worst in children with glomerular diseases and in those with advanced CKD. Haemodialysis was the most common first modality of RRT. Mortality rate was 4.5%, mainly due to cardiovascular and infectious complications. Epidemiology of paediatric CKD in Serbia is similar to that reported from developed European countries. The knowledge of the epidemiology of earlier stages of CKD is essential for both institution of

  10. Inhibiting the Progression of Arterial Calcification with Vitamin K in HemoDialysis Patients (iPACK-HD Trial: Rationale and Study Design for a Randomized Trial of Vitamin K in Patients with End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Holden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease, which is due in part to progressive vascular calcification, is the leading cause of death among patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD on dialysis. A role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification is plausible based on the presence of vitamin K dependent proteins in vascular tissue, including matrix gla protein (MGP. Evidence from animal models and observational studies support a role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification. A large-scale study is needed to investigate the effect of vitamin K supplementation on the progression of vascular calcification in patients with ESKD, a group at risk for sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency. Methods/Design: We plan a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter controlled trial of incident ESKD patients on hemodialysis in centers within North America. Eligible subjects with a baseline coronary artery calcium score of greater than or equal to 30 Agatston Units, will be randomly assigned to either the treatment group (10 mg of phylloquinone three times per week or to the control group (placebo administration three times per week. The primary endpoint is the progression of coronary artery calcification defined as a greater than 15% increase in CAC score over baseline after 12 months. Discussion: Vitamin K supplementation is a simple, safe and cost-effective nutritional strategy that can easily be integrated into patient care. If vitamin K reduces the progression of coronary artery calcification it may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality in men and women with ESKD. Trial registration: NCT 01528800.

  11. Patient activation with knowledge, self-management and confidence in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle L; Zimmerman, Lani; Welch, Janet L; Hertzog, Melody; Pozehl, Bunny; Plumb, Troy

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a growing health problem on a global scale. The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease presents an urgent need to better understand the knowledge, confidence and engagement in self-managing the disease. This study examined group differences in patient activation and health-related quality of life, knowledge, self-management and confidence with managing chronic disease across all five stages of chronic kidney disease. The study employed a descriptive correlational design. Participants were recruited from five primary care, three nephrology clinics and one dialysis centre in two Midwestern cities in the United States. The convenience sample included 85 adults with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, including kidney failure, who spoke English. Seven measurements were used to collect data via telephone interviews with participants not receiving haemodialysis, and face-to-face interviews with those receiving haemodialysis at the beginning of their treatment session. Analyses indicated that half the participants were female (50.58%), the mean age was 63.21 years (SD = 13.11), and participants with chronic kidney disease stage 3 were the most activated. Post hoc differences were significant in patient activation and blood pressure self-management and anxiety across chronic kidney disease stages, excluding stage 5. Engaging patients in the self-management of their health care and enhancing patients' ability to self-manage their blood pressure may work to preserve kidney health. Healthcare providers should collaborate with patients to develop strategies that will maintain patients' health-related quality of life, like reducing anxiety as kidney disease progress. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Bone marrow cytological evaluation in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borin-Crivellenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since anemia is indicated as an important compromising factor for the quality of life of dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD, bone marrow cytological analysis may provide more information on the hematological profile these dogs and, therefore, allow clinicians to not only choose the most adequate treatment but also monitor the response to therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility with sternal bone marrow puncture in chronic kidney disease (CKD using only local anesthesia and check if the cytological analysis is helpful to determine the hematological status. We found that erythroid hypoplasia occurred only in terminal CKD patients, and that the bone marrows of dogs with CKD stages 2 and 3 were quantitatively similar to those of elderly dogs. All dogs tolerated the bone marrow puncture using only local anesthesia with lidocaine and bone marrow cytological evaluation may be a useful tool for hematopoietic evaluation of anemic dogs with CKD.

  13. Incidence of acute kidney injury among patients with chronic kidney disease: a single-center retrospective database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yutaka; Horino, Taro; Kataoka, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Tatsuki; Ode, Kazu; Shimamura, Yoshiko; Ogata, Koji; Inoue, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Terada, Yoshio; Okuhara, Yoshiyasu

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication among hospitalized individuals and is closely associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study evaluated the incidences of AKI according to CKD stage at Kochi Medical School hospital during 1981-2011. AKI was defined and staged according to the kidney disease improving global outcomes criteria, using serum creatinine levels. We analyzed data from 122,653 Japanese patients (57,105 men, 46.6 %). The incidence of AKI was 7.8 % (95 % confidence interval 7.7-8.0 %). Compared to non-AKI patients, patients with stage 1-2 AKI were more likely to be men. Patients with stage 1-2 AKI were significantly older than non-AKI or stage 3 AKI patients. The incidences of AKI were 6.7, 5.9, 10.4, 18.4, 30.0, and 48.8 % among individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rates of ≥90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and kidney function, and the proportions among outpatients exhibited step-wise increases with milder pre-existing reduced kidney function. CKD was a risk factor for AKI, and the incidence of AKI was positively associated with pre-existing reduced kidney function (CKD stage). We also found that the prevalence of AKI at early-stage CKD among outpatients was higher than expected. We suggest that outpatients should be monitored for AKI, given its unexpected incidence in that population.

  14. Progression of chronic kidney disease in children with vesicoureteral reflux: the North American Pediatric Renal Trials Collaborative Studies Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Thomas E; Mathews, Ranjiv; Martz, Karen; Neu, Alicia

    2009-10-01

    We describe a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease due to vesicoureteral reflux. We compared the rate of progression to end stage renal disease in those patients to the rate in children with another cause of chronic kidney disease and identified potential risk factors for progression. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies Registry. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux as a cause of chronic kidney disease were compared to 2 other diagnostic cohorts. The 3 groups were compared with respect to baseline characteristics and progression to end stage renal disease based on diagnostic category. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for progression to end stage renal disease using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Data on 6,981 patients were available for analysis. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux as a cause of chronic kidney disease had a significantly slower rate of progression to end stage renal disease than patients with renal aplasia, hypoplasia or dysplasia and all other causes (log rank p renal disease in patients with vesicoureteral reflux as the cause of chronic kidney disease we found that, in addition to older age and more advanced chronic kidney disease stage, a history of urinary tract infection at registration was significantly associated with an increased risk of progression. Children with vesicoureteral reflux had a slower rate of progression to end stage renal disease than children with another cause of chronic kidney disease even after controlling for multiple possible confounders. In children with vesicoureteral reflux as the cause of chronic kidney disease older age, higher chronic kidney disease stage and history of urinary tract infection are significantly associated with the risk of progression to end stage renal disease.

  15. Prediction of survival in patients with Stage IV kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment was evaluated and the predictors of adjusted survival (AS were identified in patients with disseminated kidney cancer treated at the Republican Research and Practical Center for Oncology and Medical Radiology in 1999 to 2011 (A.E. Okeanov, P.I. Moiseev, L.F. Levin. Malignant tumors in Belarus, 2001–2012. Edited by O.G. Sukonko. Seven factors (regional lymph node metastases; distant bone metastases; a high-grade tumor; sarcomatous tumor differentiation; hemoglobin levels of < 125 g/l in women and < 150 g/l in men; an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 40 mm/h; palliative surgery were found to have an independent, unfavorable impact on AS. A multidimensional model was built to define what risk group low (no more than 2 poor factors, moderate (3–4 poor factors, and high (more than 4 poor factors the patients with Stage IV kidney cancer belonged to. In these groups, the median survival was 34.7, 17.2, and 4.0 months and 3-year AS rates were 48.6, 24.6, and 3.2 %, respectively. 

  16. Histopathology of kidney disease in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    Kidney disease is one of the most puzzling fish diseases known to exist in the United States. In less than Io years it has invaded the Pacific Northwest, exacting a heavy toll of hatchery salmon. Its first appearance apparently was in Massachusetts where Belding and Merrill' described a disease similar to that now seen on the Pacific Coast. In I946 it was diagnosed in Washington2 and since that time has been observed in an ever increasing number of hatcheries. There are unpublished reports of the same or similar diseases in both California and Washington in the early I93o's.3 The latest outbreaks occurred in the Federal hatcheries at Berlin, New Hampshire, and Cortland, New York, in brook, brown, and rainbow trout.4 There is evidence to indicate that the disease may be much more widely spread in New York State.5 The disease is especially dangerous since little is known of the origin or source of the causative agent. Indeed, the classification of the diplobacillus associated with kidney disease is still uncertain. Thus, with our present knowledge, it is difficult or impossible to eradicate the malady from an infected hatchery. Histopathologic studies were undertaken to clarify the pathology of the disease and to compare the eastern form with the western form.

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienaimé, Frank; Legendre, Christophe; Terzi, Fabiola; Canaud, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is a common autoimmune disease caused by pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies, leading to recurrent thrombosis and/or obstetrical complications. Importantly for nephrologists, antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with various renal manifestations including large renal vessel thrombosis, renal artery stenosis, and a constellation of intrarenal lesions that has been termed antiphospholipid nephropathy. This last condition associates various degrees of acute thrombotic microangiopathy, proliferative and fibrotic lesions of the intrarenal vessels, and ischemic modifications of the renal parenchyma. The course of the disease can range from indolent nephropathy to devastating acute renal failure. The pejorative impact of antiphospholipid antibody-related renal complication is well established in the context of systemic lupus erythematous or after renal transplantation. In contrast, the exact significance of isolated antiphospholipid nephropathy remains uncertain. The evidence to guide management of the renal complications of antiphospholipid syndrome is limited. However, the recent recognition of the heterogeneous molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of intrarenal vascular lesions in antiphospholipid syndrome have opened promising tracks for patient monitoring and targeted therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of clinical outcomes of coronary artery stent implantation in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease including hemodialysis for three everolimus eluting (EES) stent designs: Bioresorbable polymer-EES, platinum chromium-EES, and cobalt chrome-EES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takao; Hatada, Katsuharu; Kishi, Syohei; Fuse, Koichi; Fujita, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshio; Takahashi, Minoru; Matsubara, Taku; Okabe, Masaaki; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2017-11-22

    New-generation bioresorbable polymer-everolimus eluting stents (BP-EES) are available. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes for BP-EES compared to more established stent designs, namely the platinum chromium-EES (PtCr-EES) and cobalt chrome-EES(CoCr-EES) in patients with the end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) including hemodialysis (HD). One-hundred-forty-one consecutive stents (BP-EES [n = 44], PtCr-EES [n = 45], and CoCr-EES [n = 52]) were implanted in 104 patients with CKD. All patients underwent a follow-up coronary angiography at 12 months after implantation. End-stage CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , or the need for HD. The following outcome variables were compared among the three stent groups after implantation and the 12-month follow-up: target lesion revascularization (TLR), stent thrombosis (ST), and major adverse cardiac event (MACE). Minimal stent diameter (MSD) and %diameter-stenosis (%DS) were measured using quantitative coronary angiography. The overall rate of TLR and MACE was 14.6% and 30.8%, respectively, with no incidence of ST. Immediately after implantation, the MSD (P = 0.22) and %DS (P = 0.42) were equivalent among the three groups. However, at the 12-month follow-up, a tendency towards higher TLR was observed for the BP-EES group (22.7%) compared with the PtCr-EES (8.8%) and CoCr-EES (9.6%) groups (P = 0.07). Late loss in lumen diameter was also significantly greater for the BP-EES (0.51 ± 0.64 mm) group than either the PtCr-EES (0.20 ± 0.61 mm) and CoCr-EES (0.25 ± 0.70 mm) groups (P = 0.03). BP-EES might increase the risk of in-stent restenosis in patients with end-stage of CKD or the need for HD. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nox-4 and progressive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Nox-4 is a member of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of enzymes implicated in reactive oxygen species generation. Nox-4 is distributed in many tissues; however, its physiological functions remain poorly understood. In contrast to other Nox isoforms, it is unique in that it produces large amounts of hydrogen peroxide constitutively and does not require other cytosolic oxidase components for its activation. This review highlights the recent developments in Nox-4 research and progressive kidney disease as well as the potential of new Nox-4 inhibitors to reduce renal damage. Recently, Nox-4 was shown to be implicated in kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. Nox-4 has been identified as playing a role in damage to the kidney induced by hyperglycaemia and other major pathways of renal damage, including advanced glycation end-products, the renin-angiotensin system, TGF-β and protein kinase C. The role of Nox-4 as a target for renoprotection remains controversial, although recent positive preclinical data have stimulated increased interest in inhibiting the enzyme in clinical trials of renal disease.

  1. Dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saland, Jeffrey M; Pierce, Christopher B; Mitsnefes, Mark M; Flynn, Joseph T; Goebel, Jens; Kupferman, Juan C; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L

    2010-12-01

    Dyslipidemia, a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, is frequent among both adults and children with chronic kidney disease. Here, we describe the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia from a cross-sectional analysis of 391 children aged 1-16 years, enrolled in the multicenter Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study, with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR), measured by the plasma disappearance of iohexol, of 43 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Multivariate analysis was applied to adjust for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), GFR, and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Proteinuria was in the nephrotic range in 44 and the BMI exceeded the 95th percentile in 57 patients of this cohort. Baseline lipid analysis found a high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in 126, increased non-HDL-C in 62, and reduced HDL-C in 83. Overall, 177 children had dyslipidemia, of whom 79 had combined dyslipidemia. Lower GFR was associated with higher triglycerides, lower HDL-C, and higher non-HDL-C. Nephrotic-range proteinuria was significantly associated with dyslipidemia and combined dyslipidemia. Compared with children with a GFR>50, children with a GFRchildren with moderate chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia is common and is associated with lower GFR, nephrotic proteinuria, and non-renal factors including age and obesity.

  2. World Kidney Day 2016, adverting the legacy of kidney disease, focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  3. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Secondary hyperparathyroidism prevalence and profile, between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with stage 3 to 4 chronic kidney disease attended in internal medicine wards. MiPTH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana; García-Sánchez, Francisco; Maciá-Botejara, Enrique; Ramiro-Lozano, José Manuel; Masero-Carretero, Antonio; Robles, Nicolás Roberto; Bureo-Dacal, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) is a leading cause of renal osteodystrophy, and an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim is to establish differences in prevalence and profile of SHPTH, regarding diabetics or non-diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional multicenter study which included patients with stages 3 to 4 CKD. SHPTH was considered when the intact PTH levels (iPTH) were equal or higher than 70pg/ml. We divided the sample into two groups (diabetics and non-diabetics). We used robust statistical methods. 409 patients (214 diabetics) were studied. HPTH was found in 60.4% of diabetics vs 65% of non-diabetics (P=0.42). Diabetics with HPTH were younger (79.5 vs 82.3 years-old, P=0.005), and had more hypertension (P=0.0014), dyslipidemia (P=0.0001) and comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant relationship in case of diabetics, with age (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 1.005-1.09 P=0.02 ), and with statins treatment (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.17-4.54, P=0.01). The prevalence of SHPTH between the groups was similar, however, diabetics had more presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and SHPTH in this case was also related with moderate microalbuminuria and lower levels of vitamin D. An association with statins was also found in this group. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmental cystic disease of the kidney: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Soo Bong; Chung, Sung Hwa; Cho, Jae Ho

    2008-01-01

    Segmental cystic disease of the kidney is a rare form of cystic disease of the kidney that manifests as variable sized, numerous cysts that are localized in a segment of one kidney. Morphologically and pathologically, it is indistinguishable from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease except for its unilateral localization, the lack of an autosomal dominant genetic background and the progressive deterioration of the renal function. We experienced a case of surgically confirmed segmental cystic disease of the kidney in a 49-year-old patient and we report on its ultrasonographic and CT findings, along with a brief review of the relevant literature

  6. Kidney Disease and Diabetes - What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease when the nephrons can no longer filter blood as well as they used to. Damage usually happens slowly, over many years. As more and more filters fail, the kidneys eventually are unable to keep ...

  7. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Mar 16. Content courtesy of Judy Kirk MS, RDN, CSR, CDN If ... prevention and treatment of kidney disease. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  8. Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease: an integrated clinical syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Lakhmir S; Kimmel, Paul L

    2012-09-01

    The previous conventional wisdom that survivors of acute kidney injury (AKI) tend to do well and fully recover renal function appears to be flawed. AKI can cause end-stage renal disease (ESRD) directly, and increase the risk of developing incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and worsening of underlying CKD. In addition, severity, duration, and frequency of AKI appear to be important predictors of poor patient outcomes. CKD is an important risk factor for the development and ascertainment of AKI. Experimental data support the clinical observations and the bidirectional nature of the relationships between AKI and CKD. Reductions in renal mass and nephron number, vascular insufficiency, cell cycle disruption, and maladaptive repair mechanisms appear to be important modulators of progression in patients with and without coexistent CKD. Distinction between AKI and CKD may be artificial. Consideration should be given to the integrated clinical syndrome of diminished GFR, with acute and chronic stages, where spectrum of disease state and outcome is determined by host factors, including the balance of adaptive and maladaptive repair mechanisms over time. Physicians must provide long-term follow-up to patients with first episodes of AKI, even if they presented with normal renal function.

  9. Pharmacological management of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Mei, Changlin

    2014-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) represents a therapeutic challenge as effective treatment to retard the growth of cysts in the kidneys and the liver has not been available despite decades of intense basic and clinical research. Several clinical trials have been performed in recent years to study the effect of diverse drugs on the growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on functional deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate. The drug classes that have been tested in randomized clinical trials include the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, sirolimus and everolimus, the somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide, pasireotide), and most recently, the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, tolvaptan. The results with the mTOR inhibitors were disappointing, but more encouraging with the somatostatin analogues and with tolvaptan. Additional drugs are being tested, which include among others, the SRC-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, bosutinib, and the traditional Chinese herbal medication, triptolide. Additional therapeutic strategies to retard cyst growth aim at blood pressure control via inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. Given the accumulated knowledge, it is currently uncertain whether drugs will become available in the near future to significantly change the course of the relentlessly progressing polycystic kidney disease.

  10. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ′s disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin - angiotensin - aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by a low T3 syndrome which is now considered a part of an atypical nonthyroidal illness. CKD patients also have increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The physiological benefits of a hypothyroid state in CKD, and the risk of CKD progression with hyperthyroidism emphasize on a conservative approach in the treatment of thyroid hormone abnormalities in CKD. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with glomerulonephritis often by a common autoimmune etiology. Several drugs could affect both thyroid and kidney functions. There are few described interactions between thyroid and renal malignancies. A detailed knowledge of all these interactions is important for both the nephrologists and endocrinologists for optimal management of the patient.

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure patterns in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua; Ng, Derek; Flynn, Joseph T; Mitsnefes, Mark; Poffenbarger, Tim; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan

    2012-07-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is the best method of detecting abnormal BP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose hypertension may be missed with casual BP measurements. We report ABPM findings in 332 children 1 year after entry in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study. All of the subjects underwent casual and ambulatory BP measurement. BP was categorized based on casual and ABPM results into normal (42%), white-coat (4%), masked (35%), and ambulatory (14%) hypertension. Only half of the subjects had a normal ABPM. BP load was elevated (>25%) in 52% (n = 172), whereas mean BP was elevated in 32% (n = 105). In multivariate analysis, those using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor were 89% more likely to have a normal ABPM than those who did not report using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.17-3.04]). For every 20% faster decline in annualized glomerular filtration rate change, the odds of an abnormal ABPM increased 26% (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.97-1.64]). A 2.25-fold increase in urine protein:creatinine ratio annualized change was associated with a 39% higher odds of an abnormal ABPM (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.06-1.82]). Abnormalities on ABPM are common in children with chronic kidney disease and are strongly associated with known risk factors for end-stage renal disease. Individuals on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were less likely to have abnormal ABPM, suggesting a possible therapeutic intervention. ABPM should be used to monitor risk and guide therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

  12. Kidney disease and obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Kramer, Holly; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Sharma, Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The theme of World Kidney Day 2017 is 'kidney disease and obesity: healthy lifestyle for healthy kidneys'. To mark this event, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited five leading researchers to describe changes in the epidemiology of obesity-related kidney disease, advances in current understanding of the mechanisms and current approaches to the management of affected patients. The researchers also highlight new advances that could lead to the development of novel treatments and identify areas in which further basic and clinical studies are needed.

  13. The Warburg Effect in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Darshi, Manjula; Sharma, Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Defining risk factors for DKD using a reductionist approach has proven challenging. Integrative omics-based systems biology tools have shed new insights in our understanding of DKD and have provided several key breakthroughs for identifying novel predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we highlight the role of the Warburg effect in DKD and potential regulating factors such as sphingomyelin, fumarate, and pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 in shifting glucose flux from complete oxidation in mitochondria to the glycolytic pathway and its principal branches. With the development of highly sensitive instruments and more advanced automatic bioinformatics tools, we believe that omics analyses and imaging techniques will focus more on singular-cell-level studies, which will allow in-depth understanding of DKD and pave the path for personalized kidney precision medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [DIET CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić-Marković, N; Šutić, I; Popović, B; Marković, R; Vučak, J

    2016-12-01

    Because of the increasing number of patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a significant public health problem. As kidney function decreases, it is necessary to introduce certain dietary modifications. The aim was to investigate what is the appropriate approach to diet of CKD patients, which could contribute to slowing down progression of the disease. Dietary recommendations are individual for each patient, but also vary in the same patient depending on the stage of disease progression because special attention must be paid to appropriate intake of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates and fats), micronutrients (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, various vitamins), and water. In newly diagnosed patients, it is necessary to assess their nutritional status and energy requirements. It has been shown that protein-energy malnutrition, muscle loss and cachexia are strong predictors of mortality in CKD. Comparing different dietary approaches in everyday life of patients suffering from CKD, it was found that the most effective diet is Mediterranean food style. Studies confirm that Mediterranean diet has a preventive effect on renal function and reduces progression of the disease. Preventive measures, correct identification and early intervention can increase survival of patients and improve their quality of life. Mediterranean diet tailored to individual stages of CKD has been confirmed as the best choice in CKD patients.

  15. [Obesity and kidney disease - renal consequences of an "epidemic"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Helmut; Lang, Susanne Maria

    2017-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread in the German population, affecting not only adults but also a significant number of children and adolescents. The risk to develop chronic kidney disease is markedly increased in overweight or adipose children, adolescents and adults.Overweight and obesity induced risk factors have a direct impact on the development of chronic renal disease (obesity-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). They accelerate the progression of coexistent nephropathies (diabetic or hypertensive nephropathy, primary glomerulonephritides) and are independent risk factors for the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.Obesity induced nephropathies are basically preventible. Marked weight reduction, normoglycemia and control of hypertension may contribute to an improved glomerular filtration rate and/or reduced proteinuria in early stages of renal damage.The prevalence of kidney diseases in Germany is 13 % and estimated 80 000 patients need renal replacement therapy. In order to avoid a further rapid increase in numbers, preventive measures should be enforced more rigorously.It is necessary to raise the awareness of the negative consequences of obesity in the general public, to motivate the public to adopt a healthier lifestyle and to install nephrological surveillance to contain the obesity "epidemic". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Taming the chronic kidney disease epidemic: a global view of surveillance efforts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakrishnan, Jai; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Saran, Rajiv; Williams, Desmond E.; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Powe, Neil; Brück, Katharina; Wanner, Christoph; Stel, Vianda S.; Venuthurupalli, Sree K.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Healy, Helen G.; Salisbury, Anne; Fassett, Robert G.; O'Donoghue, Donal; Roderick, Paul; Matsuo, Seiichi; Hishida, Akira; Imai, Enyu; Iimuro, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is now recognized to be a worldwide problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality and there is a steep increase in the number of patients reaching end-stage renal disease. In many parts of the world, the disease affects younger people without diabetes or

  17. Lipid profile in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... SUMMARY. Background: Dyslipidaemia is one of the cardiovascular risk factors responsible for cardiovascular disease and rapid progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end stage renal disease. Early detection and management of dyslipidaemia will reduce cardiovascular burden and retard ...

  18. Pubertal development in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Dieter; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    Impairment of pubertal growth and sexual maturation resulting in reduced adult height is an significant complication in children suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Delayed puberty and reduced pubertal growth are most pronounced in children with pre-existing severe stunting before puberty, requiring long-term dialysis treatment, and in transplanted children with poor graft function and high glucocorticoid exposure. In pre-dialysis patients, therapeutic measures to improve pubertal growth are limited and mainly based on the preservation of renal function and the use of growth hormone treatment. In patients with end-stage CKD, early kidney transplantation with steroid withdrawal within 6 months of renal transplantation allows for normal pubertal development in the majority of patients. This review focuses on the underlying pathophysiology and strategies for improving height and development in these patients.

  19. [Management of high blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease : Summary of recent guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougardy, J M; Leeman, M

    Chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure are two common diseases that mutually maintain during their evolution. In the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, most pat ients are hypertensive and show signs of vascular disease (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular or peripheral). Almost one third of the patients with advanced chronic kidney disease exhibit resistant hypertension that requires complex therapeutic management. In chronic kidney disease, antihypertensive treatment is conditioned by comorbidities, but also by proteinuria, which is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in addition to the rate of glomerular filtration rate. The treatment of high blood pressure is a cornerstone of the management of the chronic kidney disease. It limits the risk of cardiovascular events (eg. myocardial infarction, stroke), but also slows the progression of chronic kidney disease. Various recommendations have been recently published on the subject in order to offer assistance to the therapeutic management of hypertension in the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this article is to highlight these main key elements.

  20. Cognitive Impairment and Structural Neuroimaging Abnormalities Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Chen Pi; Yu-Feng Xu; Rong Xu; Zhi-Kai Yang; Zhen Qu; Yu-Qing Chen; Gui-Ling Liu; Jie Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging is common in chronic kidney disease patients. We aimed to explore its association with dialysis modality and the relationship between cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging. Methods: Sixty peritoneal dialysis patients and 30 hemodialysis and 30 non-dialyzed stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease patients without history of stroke were enrolled for the study. Participants were matched for age, gender, educa...

  1. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  2. Vitamin D therapy for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Ishir; Thadhani, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D has played a central role in the nephrologist's armamentarium, with active vitamin D analogues enjoying broad use for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Increasing data are now coming to light about the broader biological actions of vitamin D, including wide-ranging effects in several endocrine pathways, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, and even the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As additional agents are emerging to help with control of metabolic bone disease, these nontraditional pathways of vitamin D action will become increasingly important to consider when formulating a treatment plan. Although the only approved use for vitamin D analogues in CKD is the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism, well-conducted clinical trials may soon broaden the scope of this therapy. This article reviews the role of vitamin D therapy in CKD and looks to the answers that future research may bring.

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  4. Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hosohata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake has been related to the development to chronic kidney disease (CKD as well as hypertension. In its early stages, symptoms of CKD are usually not apparent, especially those that are induced in a “silent” manner in normotensive individuals, thereby providing a need for some kind of urinary biomarker to detect injury at an early stage. Because traditional renal biomarkers such as serum creatinine are insensitive, it is difficult to detect kidney injury induced by a high-salt diet, especially in normotensive individuals. Recently, several new biomarkers for damage of renal tubular epithelia such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1 have been identified. Previously, we found a novel renal biomarker, urinary vanin-1, in several animal models with renal tubular injury. However, there are few studies about early biomarkers of the progression to CKD associated with a high-salt diet. This review presents some new insights about these novel biomarkers for CKD in normotensives and hypertensives under a high salt intake. Interestingly, our recent reports using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY fed a high-salt diet revealed that urinary vanin-1 and NGAL are earlier biomarkers of renal tubular damage in SHR and WKY, whereas urinary Kim-1 is only useful as a biomarker of salt-induced renal injury in SHR. Clinical studies will be needed to clarify these findings.

  5. [Chronic kidney disease in 5 708 people receiving physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo; Chen, Zhiheng; Zhang, Hao; Gong, Ni; Wang, Yan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in people receiving physical examination. This retrospective study included people over 20 years old who had physical examination in the Health Management Center of Third Xiangya Hospital from Janurary 2008 to June 2011. CKD and its risk factors as well as questionnaire were recorded. The risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. CKD was defined by kidney damage (microalbuminuria≥30 mg/L) and/or hematuria and/or reduced kidney function [evaluate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)physical examination reports were included. The detection rate of albuminuria, reduced renal function and hematuria was 25.0%, 1.7% and 1.1%. The detection rate of CKD was 25.6%, and detection rate of CKD stage 1-5 was 17.8%, 6.7%, 1.1%, 0 and 0, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, male, age, and smoking were the risk factors for CKD. Increasing physical activity was the protective factor against CKD. High prevalence of CKD in people receiving physical examination is found in Changsha, especially stage 1 and 2 CKD. Physical examination is important to screen CKD. Stopping smoking, control of blood glucose, blood pressure, blood lipids and increasing physical activity may help reduce the prevalence of CKD.

  6. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues.

  7. Childhood kidney disease in developing countries: Is it a forgotten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries, infections and other non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disorders, eclipse resource allocation for kidney diseases. Efforts need to be focused on increasing education and awareness on the impact of kidney diseases as a multiplier ...

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Midhat Elmacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of morbidityand mortality among child and adults with chronicrenal disease. Recent data demonstrate a high incidenceand prevalence of traditional and uremia related cardiovascularrisk factors in children. This review summarizesthe current literature on cardiovascular risk factors, mortalityand morbidity in children with chronic kidney disease.Key words: Child, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular

  9. Averting the legacy of kidney disease - focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ingelfinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, in that the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease as a consequence of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, although only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that the World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  10. Averting the legacy of kidney disease: focus on childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:28031959

  11. Averting the legacy of kidney disease--focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Ingelfinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  12. Urine Glycoprotein Profile Reveals Novel Markers for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a significant public health problem, and progression to end-stage renal disease leads to dramatic increases in morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying progression of disease are poorly defined, and current noninvasive markers incompletely correlate with disease progression. Therefore, there is a great need for discovering novel markers for CKD. We utilized a glycoproteomic profiling approach to test the hypothesis that the urinary glycoproteome profile from subjects with CKD would be distinct from healthy controls. N-linked glycoproteins were isolated and enriched from the urine of healthy controls and subjects with CKD. This strategy identified several differentially expressed proteins in CKD, including a diverse array of proteins with endopeptidase inhibitor activity, protein binding functions, and acute-phase/immune-stress response activity supporting the proposal that inflammation may play a central role in CKD. Additionally, several of these proteins have been previously linked to kidney disease implicating a mechanistic role in disease pathogenesis. Collectively, our observations suggest that the human urinary glycoproteome may serve as a discovery source for novel mechanism-based biomarkers of CKD.

  13. 76 FR 14676 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Cognitive Function in Chronic Diseases... Diseases and Nutrition Research; 93.849, Kidney Diseases, Urology and Hematology Research, National...

  14. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood. Each kidney contains about a million tiny filters that can process around 40 gallons of fluid every day—about enough to fill a house’s hot water heater. When blood passes through the ...

  15. Genetic loci influencing kidney function and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Lord, Graham M.; van der Harst, Pim; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Sehmi, Joban S.; Gale, Daniel P.; Wass, Mark N.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beckmann, Jacqui; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M. C.; Cook, H. Terence; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Smith, George Davey; de Silva, Ranil; Deng, Guohong; Devuyst, Olivier; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Dimkovic, Nada; Dockrell, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Ebrahim, Shah; Eggermann, Thomas; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Floege, Jurgen; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Han, Xijin; Hedblad, Bo; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Hypponen, Elina; Johnson, Toby; de Jong, Paul E.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lapsley, Marta; Li, Yun; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian'an; Luttropp, Karin; Marechal, Celine; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nordfors, Louise; Parsa, Afshin; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perucha, Esperanza; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Roderick, Paul J.; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanna, Serena; Schalling, Martin; Schlessinger, David; Schlieper, Georg; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sjogren, Marketa; Smit, Johannes H.; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D.; Stenvinkel, Peter; Sternberg, Michael J. E.; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ubink-Veltmaat, Lielith J.; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn; Zerres, Klaus; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Maxwell, Patrick H.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Lightstone, Liz; Scott, James; Navis, Gerjan; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    Using genome-wide association, we identify common variants at 2p12-p13, 6q26, 17q23 and 19q13 associated with serum creatinine, a marker of kidney function (P = 10(-10) to 10(-15)). Of these, rs10206899 (near NAT8, 2p12-p13) and rs4805834 (near SLC7A9, 19q13) were also associated with chronic kidney

  16. Genetic loci influencing kidney function and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Lord, Graham M.; van der Harst, Pim; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Sehmi, Joban S.; Gale, Daniel P.; Wass, Mark N.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beckmann, Jacqui; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M. C.; Cook, H. Terence; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Davey Smith, George; de Silva, Ranil; Deng, Guohong; Devuyst, Olivier; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Dimkovic, Nada; Dockrell, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Ebrahim, Shah; Eggermann, Thomas; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Floege, Jurgen; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Han, Xijin; Hedblad, Bo; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Hypponen, Elina; Johnson, Toby; de Jong, Paul E.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lapsley, Marta; Li, Yun; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian'an; Luttropp, Karin; Maréchal, Céline; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nordfors, Louise; Parsa, Afshin; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perucha, Esperanza; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Roderick, Paul J.; Ruokonen, A