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Sample records for stage embryo quality

  1. Monozygotic Triplets and Dizygotic Twins following Transfer of Three Poor-Quality Cleavage Stage Embryos

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    Reshef Tal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive technology has been linked to the increased incidence of monozygotic twinning. It is of clinical importance due to the increased risk of complications in multiple pregnancies in general and in monozygotic twins in particular. Case. A 29-year-old female, nulligravida underwent her first IVF cycle. Three poor-quality cleavage stage embryos were transferred resulting in monochorionic triamniotic triplets and dichorionic diamniotic twins. Selective embryo reduction was performed at 12 weeks leaving dichorionic twins. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section due to preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing at 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Our case emphasizes that even embryos with significant morphological abnormalities should be considered viable and the possibility of simultaneous spontaneous embryo splitting must be factored into determining number of embryos to transfer.

  2. impact on embryo quality

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    Marijan Tandara

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: In men with poorer semen quality, evaluated by standard semen parameters, a higher proportion of sperm with damaged DNA can also be expected. Higher sperm DNA damage, established by Halosperm test, also had an impact on embryo quality in this group of patients.

  3. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  4. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  5. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e.

  6. Cryopreservation of biopsied cleavage stage human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachecki, James J; Cohen, Jacques; Munné, Santiago

    2005-12-01

    The aim was to develop a method to optimize cryopreservation of biopsied multi-celled human embryos. Human day 3 embryos that were donated to research, along with those found to be chromosomally abnormal after blastomere biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hyridization (FISH), were cryopreserved using a slow-freezing protocol in either standard embryo cryopreservation solution [embryo transfer freezing medium (ETFM), a conventional sodium-based medium] or CJ3 (a choline-based, sodium-free medium). After thawing, the number of intact cells was recorded and the previously biopsied embryos were re-analysed using FISH. Biopsied embryos had a lower proportion of intact blastomeres after cryopreservation as compared with intact embryos. However, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher proportion of blastomeres from intact and biopsied embryos cryopreserved in CJ3 (84.1 and 80.1% respectively) survived after thaw than those in ETFM (73.6 and 50.5% respectively). The proportion of aneuploid and mosaic embryos was not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the frequency of lost cells by aneuploid and mosaic embryos was similar. This study describes a new method that improves the survival of cryopreserved biopsied embryos, and shows that it may also be beneficial for the storage of intact human multi-celled embryos.

  7. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glujovsky, Demián; Farquhar, Cindy; Quinteiro Retamar, Andrea Marta; Alvarez Sedo, Cristian Roberto; Blake, Deborah

    2016-06-30

    Advances in cell culture media have led to a shift in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) practice from cleavage stage embryo transfer to blastocyst stage transfer. The rationale for blastocyst transfer is to improve both uterine and embryonic synchronicity and enable self selection of viable embryos, thus resulting in better live birth rates. To determine whether blastocyst stage (day 5 to 6) embryo transfers improve the live birth rate, and other associated outcomes, compared with cleavage stage (day 2 to 3) embryo transfers. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Bio extracts from inception to 4th April 2016. We also searched registers of ongoing trials and the reference lists of studies retrieved. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effectiveness of blastocyst versus cleavage stage transfers. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were live birth and cumulative clinical pregnancy rates. Secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, high order pregnancy, miscarriage, failure to transfer embryos, and embryo freezing. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main comparisons using GRADE methods. We included 27 RCTs (4031 couples or women).The live birth rate following fresh transfer was higher in the blastocyst transfer group (odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.82; 13 RCTs, 1630 women, I(2) = 45%, low quality evidence) following fresh transfer. This suggests that if 29% of women achieve live birth after fresh cleavage stage transfer, between 32% and 42% would do so after fresh blastocyst stage transfer.There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates per couple of cumulative pregnancy following fresh and frozen

  8. Improvement of porcine cloning efficiency by trichostain A through early-stage induction of embryo apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianqian; Zhu, Kongju; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Zhenwei; Huang, Yuankai; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong; Mo, Delin; Cong, Peiqing

    2013-03-15

    Trichostain A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos in many species, apparently by improved epigenetic reprogramming. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TSA-induced apoptosis in cloned porcine embryos. At various developmental stages, a comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were used to detect apoptosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency. In this study, TSA significantly induced apoptosis (in a dose-dependent manner) at the one-, two-, and four-cell stages. However, in blastocyst stage embryos, TSA decreased the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in TSA-treated versus control embryos at the two-cell stage (not statistically significant). The expression ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of antiapoptotic potential, was higher in TSA-treated groups at the one-, two-, and four-cell and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, expression levels of pluripotency-related genes, namely, Oct4 and Nanog, were elevated at the morula stage (P < 0.05) in TSA treatment groups. We concluded that inducing apoptosis might be a mechanism by which TSA promotes development of reconstructed embryos. At the initial stage of apoptosis induction, abnormal cells were removed, thereby enhancing proliferation of healthy cells and improving embryo quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Climatic factors affecting quantity and quality grade of in vivo derived embryos of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Vargas, Josué; Jahnke, Marianna M; Dohlman, Tyler M; Rothschild, Max F; Gunn, Patrick J

    2018-02-17

    The present study investigated the effects of climatic variables on the quality grade and quantity of in vivo derived cattle embryos in the Midwestern United States. Climatic information included greatest and least daily temperature, average daily wind speed and average temperature-humidity index for each of the 765 records. The response variables included the number of ovarian structures, viable embryos, quality grade 1 embryos, quality grade 2 embryos, quality grade 3 embryos, freezable embryos (sum of quality grade 1 and quality grade 2 embryos), transferable embryos (sum of quality grade 1-3 embryos), degenerate embryos and unfertilized ova. Measures for variables among the breeds of donors and sires grouped by geographical origin were compared. A negative effect of greater temperatures during the early embryonic development stage tended (P climatic variables have significant effects on the in vivo production of cattle embryos and that wind speed should be considered in future analyses of factors affecting embryo quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of supplementation of different growth factors in embryo culture medium with a small number of bovine embryos on in vitro embryo development and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, C J; Salvador, I; Cebrian-Serrano, A; Lopera, R; Silvestre, M A

    2013-03-01

    When embryos are cultured individually or in small groups, blastocyst yield efficiency and quality are usually reduced. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of the embryo culture medium (CM) with several growth factors (GFs) on embryo development and apoptosis rate when a reduced number of embryos were in vitro cultured. Two experimental studies (ES) were carried out. In ES 1, five treatments were tested to study the effect of GF on embryo development: Control (∼30 to 50 embryos cultured in 500 μl of CM); Control 5 (Five embryos cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM), without addition of GF in either of the two control groups; epidermal GF (EGF); IGF-I; and transforming GF-α (TGF-α) (Five embryos were cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF, 10 ng/ml IGF-I or 10 ng/ml TGF-α, respectively). In ES 2, following the results obtained in ES 1, four different treatments were tested to study their effect on embryo development and quality (number of cells per blastocyst and apoptotic rate): Control; Control 5; EGF, all three similar to ES 1; EGF + IGF-I group (five embryos cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF and 10 ng/ml IGF-I). In both ESs, it was observed that a higher proportion of embryos cultured in larger groups achieved blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in reduced groups (22.6% v. 14.0%, 12.6% and 5.3% for Control v. Control 5, IGF-I, TGF-α groups in ES 1, and 24.9% v. 17.1% and 19.0% for Control v. Control 5 and EGF in ES 2, respectively; P embryos cultured in medium supplemented with EGF (18.5%) or with EGF + IGF-I (23.5%), in ES 1 and ES 2, respectively. With regard to blastocyst quality, embryos cultured in reduced groups and supplemented with EGF, alone or combined with IGF-I, presented lower apoptosis rates than embryos cultured in reduced groups without GF supplementation (11.6% and 10.5% v. 21.9% for EGF, EGF + IGF-I and Control 5 groups, respectively; P embryos, increasing blastocyst

  11. Establishing some Correlations between Certain Morphometric Parameters and Embryo Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Păcală

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish some correlations between certain morphometric parameters and embryo quality. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: zona pellucida thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter. For experiments we used embryos recovered at 24 hours from mouse females superovulated with gonadotrope hormones (eCG and hCG. The embryos recovered were cultivated in KSOM media, supplemented with amino acids, and during the in vitro cultivation they were measured at different time intervals for establishing morphometric parameters. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab 15, using Fitted Line Plot regression that allows testing of the linear and polynomial regression of one variable. After statistical analyze of the data we found that the thickness of the zona pellucida can constitute a morphometric parameter that can be used as an indicator of subsequent development of the 2 cell embryos to morula and blastocyst stage respectively. The other morphometric parameters studied (outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter cannot be used as indicators of the embryo development.

  12. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared...

  13. Effect of chilling on the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos at various cleavage stages

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, S.; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine embryos and zygotes are known to be sensitive to “temperature shock” when cooled to temperatures near 0°C. The effect of chilling on in vitro derived embryos at various cleavage stages was investigated.

  14. Development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos after removal of zona pellucida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The need of the zona pellucida (ZP) for in vitro development is controversial because it might be an obstacle to hatching of the blastocyst. This study investigated the development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos by observation of the developmental kinetics...... of developmental percentages and occurrence of apoptosis on Day 6 and Day 7 (Time of PA, Day 0); and (3) investigation of the robustness of embryos using vitrification on Day 4. The developmental kinetics showed that there was a general trend for zona-free PA embryos to develop faster than zona intact PA embryos...... at all developmental stages, but the difference was only significant at the five-cell stage. When compared with development of zona-intact embryos, ZP removal decreased the overall blastocyst percentage (83.9 ± 2.0 vs. 72.5 ± 2.9, respectively) and especially the percentage of good morphology (grades 1...

  15. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  17. The effects of MRI on mouse embryos during fetal stage

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    Nakamura, Takashi; Sakazaki, Takahiko; Itokawa, Yuka [Suzuka University of Medical Science, Koriyama (Japan)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The effects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on mouse embryos at the early stage of organogenesis were investigated. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed on day 8 of gestation to MRI at 0.5 T for 0.5 hour to 3 hours. The mortality rates of embryos or fetuses, the incidence of external malformations, fetal body weight and sex ratio were observed at day 18 of gestation. A significant increase in embryonic mortality was observed after exposure to either 0.5 T MRI for 0.5 hour or 2 hours. However, the exposure to MRI for 1 hour or 3 hours did not induce any significant increase in embryonic mortality when compared with control. External malformations such as exencephaly, cleft palate and anomalies of tail were observed in all experimental groups exposed to each MRI. A statistically significant increase of external malformations was observed in all groups treated with 0.5 T MRI for 0.5 hour and 3 hours. The incidence of external malformations in the mice group exposed to 0.5 T MRI for 0.5-hour was found to be higher than those of mice group exposed to 0.5 T MRI for 2 hours. The effects of MRI on the external malformations might not to be dose-dependent. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal body weight and sex ratio among each MRI exposure groups.

  18. Pregnancy outcome and live birth after IVF and ICSI according to embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Patricia; Léandri, Roger; Merlet, Françoise; Juillard, Jean-Claude; Epelboin, Sylvie; Guibert, Juliette; Jouannet, Pierre; Patrat, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    The pregnancy outcome and the chances of birth were assessed according to embryo quality after IVF or ICSI. The implantation rate (IR), the loss of gestational sacs rate (LGSR), and birth rate (BR) were determined according to the cleavage stage and the integrity of blastomeres after day-2 homogeneous embryo transfers (n = 1812). The LGSR was higher after transfers of 2-3-cell or 5-6-cell embryos and was significantly increased when more than 20% of the embryo volume was fragmented in 4-cell embryos. After transfers of 4-cell embryos without fragmentation, the BR was significantly higher than the BR after transfers of 4-cell embryos with 1-20% fragmentation (16.6% vs 13.1%). The difference was the consequence of a higher IR (20.4% vs 17.3%) but also of a lower LGSR (18.9% vs 24.2%). Not only implantation and the ability to give a pregnancy, but also the capacity to give a live birth are dependent on the embryo quality.

  19. Effect of diabetes mellitus on quality and quantity pregnant rat in Pre-implantation embryo development

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    fatemeh Javadnia

    2004-01-01

    Results: The cleavage rate in diabetic groups decreased (P<0.001 as 63% in compare to 94.8% of embryos reach to 2 cell stage on the second day of pregnancy and 38.1% in compare to 52.2% of embryo on thethird day have reach to 4 cell stage and 8.5% in compare to 78.2% of embryo on the pourth have reached to morula in normal and diabetic groups respectively. The number of embryos with best quality increased (P<0.0001 from 95.5% to 74.5% on second day and from 94.1% to 47.5% on third day three and from 88.9% to 8.5% on fourth day in normal group in compare to diabetic group respectively. Conclusion: IDDM in rat pregnancy mothers will causes significantly abnormality in quality of embryo as fragmentation and decrease in the number of embryo in compare to normal groups on the second day, third day, and fourth day of preimplantation period.

  20. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    -lapse monitored for 24 h or analyzed by diffential staining. After warming, the embryos had to be cultured for at least 8 h before their survival rates were stabilized. Both the survival rate and 8 h and the hatching rate at 24 h of Day 4 embryos were significantly higher than those vitrified on Day5 or Day 6 (P...

  1. Totipotency segregates between the sister blastomeres of two-cell stage mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, E; Israel, S; Witten, A; Schulte, K; Schlatt, S; Nordhoff, V; Boiani, M

    2017-08-15

    Following fertilization in mammals, it is generally accepted that totipotent cells are exclusive to the zygote and to each of the two blastomeres originating from the first mitotic division. This model of totipotency was inferred from a minority of cases in which blastomeres produced monozygotic twins in mice. Was this due to experimental limitation or biological constraint? Here we removed experimental obstacles and achieved reliable quantification of the prevalence of dual totipotency among mouse two-cell stage blastomeres. We separated the blastomeres of 1,252 two-cell embryos, preserving 1,210 of the pairs. Two classes of monozygotic twins became apparent at the blastocyst stage: 27% formed a functional epiblast in both members (concordant), and 73% did so in only one member of the pair (discordant) - a partition that proved insensitive to oocyte quality, sperm-entry point, culture environment and pattern of cleavage. In intact two-cell embryos, the ability of sister blastomeres to generate epiblast was also skewed. Class discovery clustering of the individual blastomeres' and blastocysts' transcriptomes points to an innate origin of concordance and discordance rather than developmental acquisition. Our data place constraints on the commonly accepted idea that totipotency is allocated equally between the two-cell stage blastomeres in mice.

  2. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

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    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  3. Stage selection and restricted oviposition period improves cryopreservation of dipteran embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2015-04-01

    Embryos of two dipteran species (Musca domestica and Lucilia sericata) were assessed for an effective sampling time that would result in the highest post-cryopreservation hatch rate, with a primary goal to define species-specific egg collection periods and the effects of manual stage selection on post cryopreservation yield. The effects of the time taken to collect eggs on, (a) the proportion of embryos reaching a specific developmental stage between 17 and 20 h of development, and (b) the post-cryopreservation hatch rate were assessed. Permeabilization treatment applied at any stage of embryonic development did not significantly reduce embryo viability. Eggs collected over longer durations significantly reduced the number of embryos available in a specific developmental stage amenable to cryopreservation. Hatch percentage after cryopreservation of the embryos of M. domestica collected over a 60 min period was 10.7 ± 8.7% compared to 31 ± 5% for the eggs collected for just 15 min. Similarly, percent hatch in L. sericata resulted in 17.0 ± 3.9 and cryopreservation after manual selection of specific embryonic developmental stages from the dechorionated samples. Post-cryopreservation hatching rate for stage-selected M. domestica embryos was 86.5 ± 5.5% compared to 33.3 ± 4.5% for embryos staged only by an overall visual confirmation. In the case of L. sericata, the hatching percentage was 79.0 ± 11.1 for stage-selected embryos compared to 17.0 ± 3.9% without individual selection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

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    Devjak R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  5. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

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    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal correlations for quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 2. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal correlations for quality traits of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) across environments. C. H. Shi H. Z. Zhang J. G. Wu. Research Note Volume 85 Issue 2 August 2006 pp 147-151 ...

  7. Ovulatory response and embryo quality in Katahdin ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the superovulatory response (SR), embryo quality and embryonic development in Katahdin ewes that received a dietary supplement of palm oil (PO). Ten ewes were assigned to receive 35 g palm oil (n = 10, PO3) and 10 to receive 70 g palm oil (n = 10, PO6) for 25 days. On day 0, the ...

  8. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hu, Ping [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); Zhang, Hongchang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang, E-mail: yindq@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Qingshun, E-mail: qingshun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  9. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Ping; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Hongchang; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  10. Biopsy of human morula-stage embryos: outcome of 215 IVF/ICSI cycles with PGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Zakharova

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is commonly performed on biopsies from 6-8-cell-stage embryos or blastocyst trophectoderm obtained on day 3 or 5, respectively. Day 4 human embryos at the morula stage were successfully biopsied. Biopsy was performed on 709 morulae from 215 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS, and 3-7 cells were obtained from each embryo. The most common vital aneuploidies (chromosomes X/Y, 21 were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. No aneuploidy was observed in 72.7% of embryos, 91% of those developed to blastocysts. Embryos were transferred on days 5-6. Clinical pregnancy was obtained in 32.8% of cases, and 60 babies were born. Patients who underwent ICSI/PGS treatment were compared with those who underwent standard ICSI treatment by examining the percentage of blastocysts, pregnancy rate, gestational length, birth height and weight. No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. Day 4 biopsy procedure does not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The increased number of cells obtained by biopsy of morulae might facilitate diagnostic screening. There is enough time after biopsy to obtain PGD results for embryo transfer on day 5-6 in the current IVF cycle.

  11. Temporal and developmental-stage variation in the occurrence of mitotic errors in tripronuclear human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, Eleni; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic errors during early development of human preimplantation embryos are common, rendering a large proportion of embryos chromosomally mosaic. It is also known that the percentage of diploid cells in human diploid-aneuploid mosaic embryos is higher at the blastocyst than at the cleavage stage.

  12. Temporal and Developmental-Stage Variation in the Occurrence of Mitotic Errors in Tripronuclear Human Preimplantation Embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, Eleni; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    Mitotic errors during early development of human preimplantation embryos are common, rendering a large proportion of embryos chromosomally mosaic. It is also known that the percentage of diploid cells in human diploid-aneuploid mosaic embryos is higher at the blastocyst than at the cleavage stage.

  13. Chromosome fragility at FRAXA in human cleavage stage embryos at risk for fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdyck, Pieter; Berckmoes, Veerle; De Vos, Anick; Verpoest, Willem; Liebaers, Inge; Bonduelle, Maryse; De Rycke, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited intellectual disability syndrome, is caused by expansion and hypermethylation of the CGG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. This expanded repeat, also known as the rare fragile site FRAXA, causes X chromosome fragility in cultured cells from patients but only when induced by perturbing pyrimidine synthesis. We performed preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on 595 blastomeres biopsied from 442 cleavage stage embryos at risk for FXS using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. In six blastomeres, from five embryos an incomplete haplotype was observed with loss of all alleles telomeric to the CGG repeat. In all five embryos, the incomplete haplotype corresponded to the haplotype carrying the CGG repeat expansion. Subsequent analysis of additional blastomeres from three embryos by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the presence of a terminal deletion with a breakpoint close to the CGG repeat in two blastomeres from one embryo. A blastomere from another embryo showed the complementary duplication. We conclude that a CGG repeat expansion at FRAXA causes X chromosome fragility in early human IVF embryos at risk for FXS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. Extracellular matrix synthesis in blastula and gastrula stages of normal and hybrid frog embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Pulse-chase labelling experiments and light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography were used to examine the site of synthesis, mode of transport, and sites of deposition of fucose-, glucose- and mannose-labelled materials in different developmental stages of normal developing Rana pipiens embryos and interspecific hybrid embryos formed by fertilizing the eggs of R. pipiens with the sperm of R. catesbeiana. In both normal and hybrid embryos, after a 15-30 min pulse, grains are closely associated with juxtanuclear and cytoplasmic collections of membrane-bound vescicles which resemble the Golgi apparatus. In normal embryos following a 15-30 min pulse and a 60-min chase, grains are largely cleared from the cytoplasmic vescicles and deposited in the extra-cellular spaces or along cell surfaces. In contrast, arrested hybrid embryos given a 15-30 min pulse and a 60-min chase show a marked accumulation of grains over cytoplasmic structures such as the Golgi apparatus and vescicular elements in the cell cortex. Certain interesting features of regional variation in synthetic activity in developing normal embryos are also described. (author)

  16. Supplementation of bovine embryo culture medium with L-arginine improves embryo quality via nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; da Silva, Bruno Barauna; Carter, Timothy Frederick; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell-signaling molecule that regulates a variety of molecular pathways. We investigated the role of NO during preimplantation embryonic development by blocking its production with an inhibitor or supplementing in vitro bovine embryo cultures with its natural precursor, L-arginine, over different periods. Endpoints evaluated included blastocyst rates, development kinetics, and embryo quality. Supplementation with the NO synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) from Days 1 to 8 of culture decreased blastocyst (P L-arginine decreased blastocyst rates (P L-arginine improved embryo hatching rates (P supplementing the embryo culture medium with L-arginine favors preimplantation development of bovine embryos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  18. Natural selection of human embryos: decidualizing endometrial stromal cells serve as sensors of embryo quality upon implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Teklenburg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is widely viewed as dependent upon an intimate dialogue, mediated by locally secreted factors between a developmentally competent embryo and a receptive endometrium. Reproductive success in humans is however limited, largely because of the high prevalence of chromosomally abnormal preimplantation embryos. Moreover, the transient period of endometrial receptivity in humans uniquely coincides with differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs into highly specialized decidual cells, which in the absence of pregnancy invariably triggers menstruation. The role of cyclic decidualization of the endometrium in the implantation process and the nature of the decidual cytokines and growth factors that mediate the crosstalk with the embryo are unknown.We employed a human co-culture model, consisting of decidualizing ESCs and single hatched blastocysts, to identify the soluble factors involved in implantation. Over the 3-day co-culture period, approximately 75% of embryos arrested whereas the remainder showed normal development. The levels of 14 implantation factors secreted by the stromal cells were determined by multiplex immunoassay. Surprisingly, the presence of a developing embryo had no significant effect on decidual secretions, apart from a modest reduction in IL-5 levels. In contrast, arresting embryos triggered a strong response, characterized by selective inhibition of IL-1beta, -6, -10, -17, -18, eotaxin, and HB-EGF secretion. Co-cultures were repeated with undifferentiated ESCs but none of the secreted cytokines were affected by the presence of a developing or arresting embryo.Human ESCs become biosensors of embryo quality upon differentiation into decidual cells. In view of the high incidence of gross chromosomal errors in human preimplantation embryos, cyclic decidualization followed by menstrual shedding may represent a mechanism of natural embryo selection that limits maternal investment in developmentally impaired pregnancies.

  19. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11–12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left–right asymmetry specification. PMID:22308471

  20. Syntheses of nucleic acid and protein in somatic embryos of Fritillaria ussuriensis maxim in different development stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Tang Wei; Wang Hui

    1993-09-01

    After developing a procedure for somatic embryogenesis in Fritillaria ussuriensis, dynamics on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein during globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped, cotyledonary, and mature somatic embryo stages was demonstrated by both autoradiography and scintillation counting. The rates of syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein gradually increase between the globular and cotyledonary somatic embryos stages. DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis rates are in peak at the cotyledonary later stage, precotyledonary stage, and cotyledonary stage, respectively. It appears that more DNA, RNA, and protein are synthesized in the cotyledonary somatic embryo stage than in other stages. All these results indicate that an increased syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein is associated with the differentiation of embryogenic cells and organogenesis in somatic embryos

  1. Volatiles identified from five stages of embryo development separated from a heterogeneous suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A H; Chamberlain, D; Wilson, G; Ryan, M F

    1991-11-01

    Five stages of embryo development were fractionated from a mature culture of Daucus carota (Gelbe Rheinsche), using a series of metal sieves. The composition of the population of embryos in each fraction was determined quantitatively from microscopic investigations. Volatiles from samples of tissue from six stages of development were trapped on activated charcoal cartridges. These volatiles, some of which may play a significant role in the interaction of the plant with the carrot root fly (Psila rosae), were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The resulting chromatograms are arranged in order of embryo development. The progressive elaboration of the volatile profile reflects the increased biosynthetic capacity of the developing embryo.

  2. The impact of food intake and social habits on embryo quality and the likelihood of blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Halpern, Gabriela; Setti, Amanda S; Figueira, Rita Cássia S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of patients' lifestyle factors and eating habits on embryo development. A total of 2659 embryos recovered from 269 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included. The frequency of intake of food items and social habits were registered and its influences on embryo development evaluated. The consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits positively influenced the embryo quality at the cleavage stage. The quality of the embryo at the cleavage stage was also negatively correlated with the consumption of alcoholic drinks and smoking habits. The consumption of fruits influenced the likelihood of blastocyst formation, which was also positively affected by the consumption of fish. Being on a weight-loss diet and consumption of red meat had a negative influence on the likelihood of blastocyst formation. The likelihood of blastocyst formation was also negatively influenced by the consumption of alcoholic drinks and by smoking habits. The consumption of red meat and body mass index had a negative effect on the implantation rate and the likelihood of pregnancy. In addition, being on a weight-loss diet had a negative influence on implantation rate. Our evidence suggests a possible relationship between environmental factors and ovary biology. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine during early developmental stages of ovoviviparous and oviparous embryos in the brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko

    1980-01-01

    DNA synthesis in the embryos during various developmental stages in the brood pouch of the Artemia female as well as the encysted eggs produced by oviparity was studied by autoradiography using 3 H-thymidine. Nuclei of the embryos through the blastula stage in the brood pouch were labelled, regardless of the existence of the thick shell surrounding the embryos. However, incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into nuclei was absent in the stages between gastrula and early nauplii which had developed in the brood pouch or were delivered from encysted dry eggs. (author)

  4. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of gastrulation, sea urchin embryos deposit a calcium carbonate endoskeleton consisting of two spicules. Sea water is the source for the mineral ions, but the specific stages of the transport and deposition pathway are not well understood. This study shows that the first-formed mineral is deposited inside intracellular micrometer-size vesicles as solid nanospheres. Surprisingly, the initial deposits are distributed widely inside the embryonic cells, including epithelial cells. ...

  5. Genome stability of bovine in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos is higher compared to in vitro-produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tšuiko, Olga; Catteeuw, Maaike; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Destouni, Aspasia; Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Smits, Katrien; Kurg, Ants; Salumets, Andres; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Voet, Thierry; Van Soom, Ann; Robert Vermeesch, Joris

    2017-11-01

    Is the rate and nature of chromosome instability (CIN) similar between bovine in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured cleavage-stage embryos? There is a major difference regarding chromosome stability of in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured embryos, as CIN is significantly lower in in vivo-derived cleavage-stage embryos compared to in vitro-cultured embryos. CIN is common during in vitro embryogenesis and is associated with early embryonic loss in humans, but the stability of in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos remains largely unknown. Because human in vivo preimplantation embryos are not accessible, bovine (Bos taurus) embryos were used to study CIN in vivo. Five young, healthy, cycling Holstein Friesian heifers were used to analyze single blastomeres of in vivo embryos, in vitro embryos produced by ovum pick up with ovarian stimulation (OPU-IVF), and in vitro embryos produced from in vitro matured oocytes retrieved without ovarian stimulation (IVM-IVF). Single blastomeres were isolated from embryos, whole-genome amplified and hybridized on Illumina BovineHD BeadChip arrays together with the bulk DNA from the donor cows (mothers) and the bull (father). DNA was also obtained from the parents of the bull and from the parents of the cows (paternal and maternal grandparents, respectively). Subsequently, genome-wide haplotyping and copy-number profiling was applied to investigate the genomic architecture of 171 single bovine blastomeres of 16 in vivo, 13 OPU-IVF and 13 IVM-IVF embryos. The genomic stability of single blastomeres in both of the in vitro-cultured embryo cohorts was severely compromised (P vivo. Only 18.8% of in vivo-derived embryos contained at least one blastomere with chromosomal anomalies, compared to 69.2% of OPU-IVF embryos (P vivo-developed embryos, in vitro procedures exacerbate chromosomal abnormalities during early embryo development. Hence, the present study highlights that IVF treatment compromises embryo viability and should be applied

  6. Molecular asymmetry in the 8-cell stage Xenopus tropicalis embryo described by single blastomere transcript sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Elena; Owens, Nick D L; Grant, Ian M; Gomes-Faria, Rosa; Gilchrist, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    Correct development of the vertebrate body plan requires the early definition of two asymmetric, perpendicular axes. The first axis is established during oocyte maturation, and the second is established by symmetry breaking shortly after fertilization. The physical processes generating the second asymmetric, or dorsal-ventral, axis are well understood, but the specific molecular determinants, presumed to be maternal gene products, are poorly characterized. Whilst enrichment of maternal mRNAs at the animal and vegetal poles in both the oocyte and the early embryo has been studied, little is known about the distribution of maternal mRNAs along either the dorsal-ventral or left-right axes during the early cleavage stages. Here we report an unbiased analysis of the distribution of maternal mRNA on all axes of the Xenopus tropicalis 8-cell stage embryo, based on sequencing of single blastomeres whose positions within the embryo are known. Analysis of pooled data from complete sets of blastomeres from four embryos has identified 908 mRNAs enriched in either the animal or vegetal blastomeres, of which 793 are not previously reported as enriched. In contrast, we find no evidence for asymmetric distribution along either the dorsal-ventral or left-right axes. We confirm that animal pole enrichment is on average distinctly lower than vegetal pole enrichment, and that considerable variation is found between reported enrichment levels in different studies. We use publicly available data to show that there is a significant association between genes with human disease annotation and enrichment at the animal pole. Mutations in the human ortholog of the most animally enriched novel gene, Slc35d1, are causative for Schneckenbecken dysplasia, and we show that a similar phenotype is produced by depletion of the orthologous protein in Xenopus embryos. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body movements during early stages of chick embryo under intermittent low oxygen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kenji; Chiba, Yuya; Shimouchi, Akito

    2017-07-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the characteristic pattern of body movements in early stages of chick embryos under intermittent low oxygen incubation environment. In order to achieve this aim, the oxygen control system that can be set arbitrary oxygen concentration was developed. We choose the 18% of O2 concentration and tried to measure the embryonic body movements. As a results, only one chick embryo in the early stages under intermittent 18% O2 environment (the cycle is 18%O2-10min and 21%O2-50min) was successfully recorded and its body movements were analyzed. The characteristic body movements, which are attributed to the instantaneous effect of low oxygen environment, compared with before and after normal O2 condition were not observed. Because the early stage embryos in which the significant organs aside from heart are not formed yet have a strong adaptation to environment changes, short hypoxic condition like a 10 min might not affect instantaneous embryonic physiological changes. Meanwhile, although the cyclic interval of the large body movements becomes short in the normal development, it became long in 18%O2 condition. This result might indicate that intermittent low oxygen condition accumulatively influenced physiological function. Further improvements of accuracy in the oxygen control system and the calculation system of body movements, and further experiments under low oxygen conditions are required in the next step.

  8. Single stage incubators and Hypercapnia during incubation affect the vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in broiler embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J I M; Bortoluzzi, C; Schmidt, J M; Scapini, L B; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E

    2017-01-01

    Incubation management can have direct effects on neonate health and consequently affect post-hatching development. The effects of incubation in multiple and single stage incubators with different concentrations of CO 2 were evaluated in terms of the vessel density in the chorioallantoic membrane, hatching, heart morphology, and body development of the neonate up to the tenth day. A total of 2,520 fertile eggs were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 levels of CO 2 in 4 single-stage incubators (4,000; 6,000; 8,000; and 10,000 ppm) and a control treatment based on multiple-stage incubation, totaling 5 treatments. The levels of CO 2 were used during the first 10 d of the incubation period, and after this period, all eggs were submitted to the same level of CO 2 (4,000 ppm). Eggs that were incubated in multiple-stage incubators presented a lower percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane, lower yolk absorption by the embryo, wall depth of the right ventricle, and greater humidity losses in the eggs when compared to eggs in the single-stage incubators. The eggs submitted to hypercapnia, between 5,000 and 6,000 ppm of CO 2 , had a higher percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane; the embryos originating from these eggs had higher weight, with higher relative weight of the liver. However, the same levels reduced the yolk absorption. Single-stage incubation with moderate levels of hypercapnia is an efficient tool to be adopted by the hatcheries when attempting to improve chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  10. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Foy: Effects of ocean acidification on embryo stages of Tanner crab: Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To study the effects of ocean acidification we examined the effects of ocean acidification on the embryo stages of the economically important southern Tanner crab,...

  11. Stage-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in vivo activity in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Carbonell, Gregoria; San Segundo, Laura; Sastre, Salvador; Beltrán, Eulalia M; Fernández-Torija, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos, this study aimed to quantitatively characterize the stage-dependent in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) as indicator of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity. Embryos were challenged for 24-h to an agonist (β-naphthoflavone [BNF], 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μg L(-1)) or to its combination (2.5 μg L(-1)) with an antagonist (α-naphthoflavone [ANF], 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg L(-1)), initiated at four different developmental time points (1, 3, 6, and 9 d post-fertilization [dpf]). Respective induction and competitive inhibition were evaluated over fluorescent images of whole embryo (nonorgan-specific [NOS] EROD activity) and gallbladder (organ-specific [OS] EROD activity). Both flavonoids showed signs of stability in solution. Generally speaking, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for NOS EROD increased with BNF concentration and exposure challenge. BNF co-exposure with ⩾50 μg ANF L(-1) during the 1-2 and 3-4 dpf challenges lowered NOS EROD to undetectably induced levels. Significant increments in MFIs for OS-EROD were seen from exposures to ⩾2.5 μg BNF L(-1), peaking during the 6-7 dpf challenge regardless of BNF concentration. The simultaneous BNF/ANF incubation showed competitive inhibition for OS EROD activity, although levels were generally detectably induced during all challenges and at all ANF concentrations. The morphometric in vivo gallbladder analysis indicated significant dilation in the 10 dpf-old embryos co-exposed to BNF and 200 μg ANF L(-1). This quantitative approach can be used successfully at 4 dpf at the NOS-EROD or OS-EROD levels, although the NOS-EROD response was sensitive enough to induction or inhibition, even at 2 dpf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Poor prognosis with in vitro fertilization in Indian women compared to Caucasian women despite similar embryo quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora K Shahine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03, were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01, and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06. Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2. LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01 with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46-0.86. Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40-0.79 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  13. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    embryos before the transfer to a recipient still remains challenging. Presently, the predominant non-invasive technique for selecting viable embryos is based on morphology, where parameters such as rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as developmental kinetics are evaluated mostly...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro......RNA. This review outlines the potential of several non-invasive in-vitro methods based on analysis of spent embryo culture medium....

  14. Follicular fluid insulin like growth factor-1 (FF IGF-1) is a biochemical marker of embryo quality and implantation rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bindu N; Chimote, Natachandra M; Chimote, Meena N; Chimote, Nishad N; Nath, Nirmalendu M

    2013-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been reported to play a role in human follicular and embryonic development. However, earlier studies carried out mostly in animal models or in culture mediums supplemented with IGF-1 have been unable to directly link IGF-1 with embryo quality. Results correlating IGF-1 with pregnancy outcome have also been ambiguous so far. The aim of this study is to find if in situ follicular-fluid level of IGF-1 is predictive of embryo quality and implantation rates in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Prospective study involving 120 cycles of conventional IVF-embryo transfer in infertile women. IGF-1 concentrations were estimated in pooled follicular-fluid on the day of oocyte-pickup. Embryo quality was assessed daily at different developmental stages. Cycles were sorted into low and high follicular fluid insulin-like growth factor-1 (FF IGF-1) groups according to the median value of measurement. Embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were the main outcome measures. Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. FF IGF-1 correlates with embryo quality (Pearson r = 0.3894, r (2) = 0.1516, P > 0.0001) and clinical pregnancy (Pearson r = 0.5972, r (2) = 0.36, P > 0.0001). High FF IGF-1 group shows significantly higher rates of fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation and top grade embryos compared with low FF IGF-1 group. Clinical pregnancy rates (38.33 vs. 20%, P = 0.0272) and embryo implantation rates (21.6 vs. 10.32%, P = 0.0152) are also significantly higher in the high versus low FF IGF-1 group. Threshold value of FF IGF-1 for clinical pregnancy is FF IGF-1 is a plausible biochemical marker of embryo quality and implantation rate and correlates with clinical pregnancy rates in conventional IVF cycles.

  15. Frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in high quality embryos from young couples using preimplantation genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesahat, Farzaneh; Montazeri, Fatemeh; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Saeedi, Hojjatollah; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Using morphological assessment for this selection demonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantation potential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factor that can influence human reproductive success in ART. The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence of aneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryos from young patients undergoing ART for sex selection. A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at the age of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides of blastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryos using preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomal chromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sex chromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000). The most frequent detected chromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13. There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems that morphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing the embryos without these abnormalities.

  16. Frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in high quality embryos from young couples using preimplantation genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Using morphological assessment for this selection demonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantation potential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factor that can influence human reproductive success in ART. Objective: The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence of aneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryos from young patients undergoing ART for sex selection. Materials and Methods: A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at the age of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides of blastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Results: There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryos using preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomal chromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sex chromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000. The most frequent detected chromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13. Conclusion: There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems that morphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing the embryos without these abnormalities

  17. Superovulation Response and In vivo Embryo Production Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to a search dish containing holding medium and grouped in to embryos and UFO under a stereomicroscope (MotisSMZ 140/143®, Roanoke, USA). The embryos were graded for their developmental stage (from stage 1 = 1-cell to stage 9 = expanded hatched blastocyst) and quality (from quality 1 = excellent to quality 4.

  18. Genetic analysis for quality of frozen embryos produced by Holstein cattle donors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Schenkel, F S; Malchiodi, F; Sargolzaei, M; Price, C A; Baes, C; Miglior, F

    2017-09-01

    The number of embryos produced by Holstein donors has been shown to be heritable, so it could be possible to genetically select for this trait to improve the efficiency of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) in dairy cattle. Another important parameter to consider for achieving good results from ART is embryo quality because embryos of good quality have more chance of producing live offspring. The possibility of using genetic selection for increasing the quality of embryo produced from ART has yet to be assessed. The objective of this study was, therefore, to perform a genetic analysis of embryo quality of Holstein donors in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada. The data set used was missing quality score data for embryos transferred fresh into a recipient, so the analyses were only performed for frozen embryos. With most traits in the Canadian dairy industry being evaluated with linear models, embryo quality was also evaluated with this class of models. However, considering the categorical nature of embryo quality, a threshold model was also evaluated. Embryo quality data were analyzed with either a univariate linear animal model or a univariate binomial threshold animal model. Genetic parameters estimated from the different models were comparable. A low heritability was found for the donor (0.04 ± <0.01) and the service sire (0.02 ± <0.01), but the repeatability estimate for the donor was higher (0.17), indicating that it was worthwhile to use a repeated records model. Overall, considering the low genetic parameters estimated, slow genetic progress is expected for the quality of frozen embryos produced by Canadian Holstein donors. Rank correlations were calculated between breeding values estimated from different models. High correlations were found between all models, indicating that no substantial re-ranking of the animals is expected from the different models. So, even though a threshold model is better suited for the analysis of categorical

  19. Intra- and interobserver analysis in the morphological assessment of early stage embryos during an IVF procedure: a multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroe Johanna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality control programs are necessary to maintain good clinical practice. Embryo grading has been described as one of the external quality assurance schemes. Although the evaluation of embryos is based on the assessment of morphological characteristics, considerable intra- and inter-observer variability has been described. In this multicentre study, the variability in the embryo evaluation has been evaluated using morphological characteristics on day 1, day 2 and day 3 of embryo development. Methods Five embryologists of four different IVF centers participated in this study. Multilevel images of embryos were presented on a website at different time points to evaluate intra-and inter-observer agreement in the assessment of embryo morphology. The embryos were evaluated on day 1, day 2 and day 3 of their development and each embryologist had to decide if the embryo had to be transferred, cryopreserved or discarded. Results Both intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were good to excellent for the position of the pronuclei on day 1, the number of blastomeres on day 2 and day 3 and the clinical decision (transfer, cryopreservation, discard. For all other characteristics (size of pronuclei, presence of cytoplasomic halo, degree of fragmentation and size of blastomeres the intra- and inter-observer agreement was moderate to very poor. Conclusions Mono- or multicentre quality control on embryo scoring by morphological assessment can easily be performed through the design of a simple website. In the future the website design can be adapted to generate statistical feedback upon scoring and can even include a training module.

  20. Prediction of in-vitro developmental competence of early cleavage-stage mouse embryos with compact time-lapse equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Losonczi, Eszter; Molnár, Miklós; Lang, Zsolt; Mátyás, Szabolcs; Rajczy, Klára; Molnár, Katalin; Kovács, Péter; Nagy, Péter; Conceicao, Jason; Vajta, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    Single blastocyst transfer is regarded as an efficient way to achieve high pregnancy rates and to avoid multiple pregnancies. Risk of cancellation of transfer due to a lack of available embryos may be reduced by early prediction of blastocyst development. Time-lapse investigation of mouse embryos shows that the time of the first and second cleavage (to the 2- and 3-cell stages, respectively) has a strong predictive value for further development in vitro, while cleavage from the 3-cell to the 4-cell stage has no predictive value. In humans, embryo fragmentation during preimplantation development has been associated with lower pregnancy rates and a higher incidence of developmental abnormalities. Analysis of time-lapse records shows that most fragmentation is reversible in the mouse and is resorbed in an average of 9 h. Daily or bi-daily microscopic checks of embryo development, applied routinely in human IVF laboratories, would fail to detect 36 or 72% of these fragmentations, respectively. Fragmentation occurring in a defined time frame has a strong predictive value for in-vitro embryo development. The practical compact system used in the present trial, based on the 'one camera per patient' principle, has eliminated the usual disadvantages of time-lapse investigations and is applicable for the routine follow-up of in-vitro embryo development. Copyright 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2014-01-07

    Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. We reconstructed various stages of the formation pathway of calcium carbonate from calcium ions in sea water to mineral deposition and integration into the forming spicules. Monitoring calcium uptake with the fluorescent dye calcein shows that calcium ions first penetrate the embryo and later are deposited intracellularly. Surprisingly, calcium carbonate deposits are distributed widely all over the embryo, including in the primary mesenchyme cells and in the surface epithelial cells. Using cryo-SEM, we show that the intracellular calcium carbonate deposits are contained in vesicles of diameter 0.5-1.5 μm. Using the newly developed airSEM, which allows direct correlation between fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we confirmed the presence of solid calcium carbonate in the vesicles. This mineral phase appears as aggregates of 20-30-nm nanospheres, consistent with amorphous calcium carbonate. The aggregates finally are introduced into the spicule compartment, where they integrate into the growing spicule.

  2. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. We reconstructed various stages of the formation pathway of calcium carbonate from calcium ions in sea water to mineral deposition and integration into the forming spicules. Monitoring calcium uptake with the fluorescent dye calcein shows that calcium ions first penetrate the embryo and later are deposited intracellularly. Surprisingly, calcium carbonate deposits are distributed widely all over the embryo, including in the primary mesenchyme cells and in the surface epithelial cells. Using cryo-SEM, we show that the intracellular calcium carbonate deposits are contained in vesicles of diameter 0.5–1.5 μm. Using the newly developed airSEM, which allows direct correlation between fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we confirmed the presence of solid calcium carbonate in the vesicles. This mineral phase appears as aggregates of 20–30-nm nanospheres, consistent with amorphous calcium carbonate. The aggregates finally are introduced into the spicule compartment, where they integrate into the growing spicule. PMID:24344263

  3. Influence of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 on embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, Funda; Gulekli, Bulent; Dogan, Erbil; Korhan, Peyda; Dogan, Seda; Bige, Ozgur; Cimrin, Dilek; Atabey, Nese

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between follicular fluid levels of propeptide and mature forms of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 with subsequent oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Eighty-one infertile patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The expression levels of the propeptide and mature forms of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 were determined by western blot analysis. The levels of follicular fluid hormones (FSH, E2, and P) were measured with automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. The relationships between the levels of GDF9 and BMP15, hormones, oocyte maturation, and embryo quality. Mature GDF9 levels were significantly correlated with the nuclear maturation of oocytes. The mean mature GDF9 level was 4.87±0.60 in the high-embryo-quality group and 1.45±0.81 in the low-embryo-quality group. There were no statistically significant differences in embryo quality among the patients regarding propeptide GDF9 and BMP15 expression status. There was a negative correlation between follicular fluid levels of P and the mature form of GDF9. Higher mature GDF9 levels in the follicular fluid were significantly correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  5. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, S. D.; Soloy, E.; Kanka, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo...

  6. Addition of sucrose on cryoprotectant solution of vitrification enhances the quality of Dorper sheep embryos produced in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Pains Oliveira do Monte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding sucrose in vitrification solution of ovine embryos produced in vivo. Forty Dorper ewes were selected and superovulated. Immediately prior to the embryo collection by laparotomy, a laparoscopy was performed to verify the superovulatory response. The recovered flushing was followed by embryo evaluation and embryos were divided in two experimental groups where embryos from Control group were submitted to a traditional vitrification protocol and embryos from Sucrose group to a modified vitrification protocol with sucrose. After warming, embryos were again divided regarding cryoprotectant removal (Indirect or not (Direct. The embryo quality was classified as embryos of degrees I (excellent or good, II (regular, III (poor and IV (dead or degenerate. It was also verified the homogeneity of mass, occurrence of embryonic mass retraction and rupture of pellucid zone. The results were expressed as percentages and were subjected to Chi-square test with P < 0.05. The embryos vitrified in the presence of sucrose had lower proportions of lower-quality embryos after warming (22.20 vs. 44.50%, higher percentages of homogeneous embryos after warming (63.89 vs. 38.89 % while concerning other parameters there was no difference between these groups. It can be concluded that the addition of 0.4 M sucrose during vitrification improves the embryo quality.

  7. The influence of thyroid autoimmunity on embryo quality in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, A; Sabbadin, C; Marin, L; Ragazzi, E; Dessole, F; Armanini, D; Donà, G; Bordin, L; Ambrosini, G

    2018-02-20

    The influence of thyroid autoimmunity in assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome in euthyroid women is still controversial. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated embryo quality in 123 euthyroid women undergoing ART with or without thyroid autoantibodies (TAA). Embryo quality was assessed in 119 embryos of 29 infertile patients with TAA and in 394 embryos of 94 infertile patients without TAA. Our results showed not statistically significant differences in age, body mass index, anti-Müllerian hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels between cases and controls. Thyroid stimulating hormone was within the normal range, but significantly higher in TAA patients compared with the controls (2.4 ± 0.8 vs. 2 ± 0.9 mIU/L, respectively, p women with at least one autoantibody (p women undergoing ART even when thyroid function is normal.

  8. Two-staged nuclear transfer can enhance the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Bing; Cai, Lu; Li, Jia-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Li; Ji, Feng-Yu

    2011-02-01

    The technique of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which interspecies cloned embryos can be reconstructed by using domestic animal oocytes as nuclear recipients and endangered animal or human somatic cells as nuclear donors, can afford more opportunities in endangered animal rescue and human tissue transplantation, but the application of this technique is limited by extremely low efficiency which may be attributed to donor nucleus not fully reprogrammed by xenogenic cytoplasm. In this study, goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) were used as nuclear donors, in vitro-matured sheep oocytes were used as nuclear recipients, and a two-stage nuclear transfer procedure was performed to improve the developmental ability of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos. In the first stage nuclear transfer (FSNT), GFFs were injected into the ooplasm of enucleated sheep metaphase-II oocytes, then non-activated reconstructed embryos were cultured in vitro, so that the donor nucleus could be exposed to the ooplasm for a period of time. Subsequently, in the second stage nuclear transfer, FSNT-derived non-activated reconstructed embryo was centrifuged, and the donor nucleus was then transferred into another freshly enucleated sheep oocyte. Compared with the one-stage nuclear transfer, two-stage nuclear transfer could significantly enhance the blastocyst rate of goat-sheep interspecies clone embryos, and this result indicated that longtime exposure to xenogenic ooplasm benefits the donor nucleus to be reprogrammed. The two-stage nuclear transfer procedure has two advantages, one is that the donor nucleus can be exposed to the ooplasm for a long time, the other is that the problem of oocyte aging can be solved.

  9. Developmental toxicity of deltamethrin and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, Reshma Shabnam; Gundala, Harold Philip

    2018-03-05

    Synthetic pyrethroids are the major insecticides used widely in agriculture and household pest control. Deltamethrin (DM), a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) is the major metabolite formed due to metabolism of DM. In order to illustrate the toxic response of zebrafish embryos/larvae to DM and PBA the present research was carried out. For this 4hpf embryos were treated with two concentrations of DM (100 and 200 μg/L) for 48 h and PBA (1000 and 2000 μg/L) for 96 h or 99.9% ethanol (solvent control). Early life stage parameters were observed at specified time points. DM-treated embryo/larvae exhibited increased mortality, delay in hatching time, decrease in percentage of hatched embryos, increase of heartbeat rate and decrease in blood flow; lightening of body and eye pigmentation in a dose dependent manner. Pericardial and yolk sac edema along with were also caused by DM. Along with these crooked notochord, tail deformation was noticed in hatched and unhatched embryos. In case of PBA treated embryos and larvae, increased embryos/larvae length and yolk sac size were observed. Other abnormalities like edema (yolk sac and pericardial), decreased eye and body pigmentation were also observed but in some embryos only. These were not as severe as observed in parental compound indicating that DM is more toxic than its metabolite PBA. The data contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of fish exposed to DM and PBA.

  10. Alcohol consumption and quality of embryos obtained in programmes of in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wdowiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Infertility is defined as a state when a couple fails to conceive a pregnancy after one year of regular intercourse without the use of contraception. Alcohol consumption is one of the main stimulants which negatively affect the female and male reproductive system. objective. The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of alcohol consumption by the examined women on the quality of embryos obtained during in vitro fertilization programmes. material and methods. The study covered 54 women who received treatment due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed using computer software STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland. results. The study showed that 42.59% from among 100% of the women in the study consumed alcohol. In the group of women who consumed alcohol, class A embryos constituted 4.35%, class B embryos – 86.96%, while embryos of class C – 8.69%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the classes of embryos and alcohol consumption by the women examined (p=0.001. In addition, a statistically significant relationship was found between the amount of alcohol consumed and the classes of embryos (p=0.005. A significantly larger number of class B embryos came from women who consumed more than 25 grams of ethyl alcohol daily (72.72%, compared to those who consumed alcohol sporadically (44.44%, or those who abstained entirely from alcohol (30.00%. conclusions. Alcohol consumption causes the development of poorer quality embryos. Significantly more embryos of class B came from oocytes of women who consumed alcohol, compared to class A. An active campaign against alcohol consumption should be carried out among women at reproductive age to safeguard their fertility and future motherhood.

  11. Does dietary fat intake influence oocyte competence and embryo quality by inducing oxidative stress in follicular fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment. Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality. Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality. Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant. Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development. PMID:24639727

  12. The Quantity and Quality of Brahman Cross Cattle Embryo After Injected FSH and PMSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cattles were used in this experiment to determine the quantity and quality of embryo after injected FSH (follicle stimulating hormone and PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin in Brahman Cross Cattle. The experiment was assigned into Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T1 = 4 mg of FSH twice a day intra-ovary decreased doses, T2 = 8 mg of FSH twice a day intra-ovary decreased doses, T3 = 300 IU of PMSG single dose intra-ovary, T4 = 600 IU of PMSG single dose intra-ovary, T5 = 40 mg of FSH twice a day intramuscular decreased doses. Trial cattle were oestrus synchronized using 15 mg of PGF2α that gave twice at 11-daily intervals. One day after giving FSH and PMSG was detected the cattle’s oestrus. Washing uterus was done at day 7 after AI using mixture of PBS, FCS and streptomicyn. Data observed were cow performances, embryo quantity and embryo quality. Results of experiment showed that 19 cattle (95% responded oestrus synchronized treatment and super ovulation, whereas 1 cattle (5% did not respond oestrus synchronized treatment and super ovulation. Generally, cattle showed oestrus at 2 – 3 days after giving PGF2α. Eleven cattle (57,90% showed oestrus at 2 days after giving PGF2α whereas the others (8 cattle, 42,10% showed oestrus 3 days giving PGF2α. The treatment of giving FSH and PMSG could increase (P<0,05 embryo. T5 was highest compared the others ( T1, T2, T3 and T4, while T2 and T4 were higher than T1 and T3. Produced total embryo was 82 with average 4,3 ± 5,67 using FSH and PMSG. 8 embryo (9,76%, 9 embryos (10,90, 20 embryo (24,40%, 16 embryo (19,50% and 29 embryos (35,40% were grade A, B, C, D and E respectively. It is concluded that giving of 40 mg FSH intramusculer produce the best embryo donor whereas and giving of FSH 8 mg intraovari was the best effeciency. (Animal Production 11(2: 96-102 (2009 Key Words : Brahman Cross Cattle, embryo, PGF2α PMSG, FSH

  13. Thermal effect on heart rate and hemodynamics in vitelline arteries of stage 18 chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the thermal effects on heart rate, hemodynamics, and response of vitelline arteries of stage-18 chicken embryos. Heart rate was monitored by a high-speed imaging method, while hemodynamic quantities were evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at seven different temperatures (36-42 °C with 1 °C interval) after 1h of incubation to stabilize the heart rate. The heart rate increased in a linear manner (r = 0.992). Due to the increased cardiac output (or heart rate), the hemodynamic quantities such as mean velocity (U(mean)), velocity fluctuation (U(fluc)), and peak velocity (U(peak)) also increased with respect to the Womersley number (Ω) in the manner r = 0.599, 0.693, and 0.725, respectively. This indicates that the mechanical force exerting on the vessel walls increases. However, the active response (or regulation) of the vitelline arteries was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The early-stage diagnosis of albinic embryos by applying optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Yen; Cai, Jyun-Jhang; Chang, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Albinism is a kind of congenital disease of abnormal metabolism. Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) is chosen as the model to study the development of albinic embryos as it is albinic, ovoviviparous and with short life period. This study proposed an imaging method for penetrative embryo investigation using optical coherence tomography. By imaging through guppy mother’s reproduction purse, we found the embryo’s eyes were the early-developed albinism features. As human’s ocular albinism typically appear at about four weeks old, it is the time to determine if an embryo will grow into an albino.

  15. A study of two sequential culture media - impact on embryo quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective. A comparative study of embryo quality and pregnancy outcome between Sydney IVF medium and. Quinn's Advantage sequential culture media. Design. A prospective randomised controlled trial and a retrospective study. Setting. In vitro fertilisation clinic in an academic research environment. Patients.

  16. Effect of induced peritoneal endometriosis on oocyte and embryo quality in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Ziyyat, A; Naoura, I; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Aractingi, S; Darai, E; Lefevre, B

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of peritoneal endometriosis on oocyte and embryo quality in a mouse model. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 33 B6CBA/F1 female mice (endometriosis group, N = 17) and sham-operated were used as control (sham group, N = 16). Mice were superovulated 4 weeks after surgery and mated or not, to collect E0.5-embryos or MII-oocytes. Evaluation of oocyte and zygote quality was done by immunofluorescence under spinning disk confocal microscopy. Endometriosis-like lesions were observed in all mice of endometriosis group. In both groups, a similar mean number of MII oocytes per mouse was observed in non-mated mice (30.2 vs 32.6), with a lower proportion of normal oocytes in the endometriosis group (61 vs 83 %, p endometriosis group (21 vs 35.5, p = 0.02) without difference in embryo quality. Our results support that induced peritoneal endometriosis in a mouse model is associated with a decrease in oocyte quality and embryo number. This experimental model allows further studies to understand mechanisms of endometriosis-associated infertility.

  17. Differential expression of metallothionein isoforms in terrestrial snail embryos reflects early life stage adaptation to metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene.

  18. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Pujihastuti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  19. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased......Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos....... In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos against ambient...

  20. Vitrification in Open and Closed Carriers at Different Cell Stages: Assessment of Embryo Survival, Development, DNA Integrity and Stability during Vapor Phase Storage for Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High cooling rates with vitrification can be achieved through the use of carriers that allow cryopreservation in fluid volumes Methods Frozen one-cell mouse embryos were thawed and randomly allocated to treatment groups. Embryos were cultured and vitrified at the 8-cell (CL or at the blastocyst (BL stage. The cryoloop, an open carrier was tested against two closed systems, the Cryotip and the HSV straw. Carriers were tested for their ability to maintain embryo viability when held in the vapor phase of a dry shipper for a period of 96 hours. Outcome parameters monitored were embryo survival, recovery, subsequent development and signs of DNA damage. Results A total of 561 embryos were vitrified. The only parameter significantly affected by the type of carrier was the percentage of embryos recovered after warming. Vitrification of both CL and BL stage embryos in the Cryotip resulted in significantly lower recovery rates (P Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine DNA integrity after vitrification on different carriers and at different cell stages. It also provides insight on relative safety of short term vapor storage of vitrified embryos during transport. Within the limits of this study we could not detect an adverse effect of vapor storage on blastomere DNA or other measured outcome parameters.

  1. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Buchanan, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Stage-specific analyses of starch and 18 sugars, including pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols, were made throughout seed development for zygotic embryo and female gametophyte (FG) tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tissue was most often analyzed in triplicate from two open-pollinated families grown in different locations and sampled in different years. Carbohydrates were analyzed by enzymatic assay, high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For all carbohydrates quantified, peak concentrations were higher in embryo tissue than in FG tissue. Significant changes in starch and sugar concentrations occurred over time, with both seed collections showing similar trends in temporal changes. Although concentrations were not always similar, embryo and FG tissues generally showed similar patterns of change in starch and sugar concentrations over time. Total starch concentration was highest during early seed development and decreased as development progressed. The major sugars contributing to osmotic potential during early seed development were D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. During mid-seed development, D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, melibiose and raffinose provided major contributions to the osmotic environment. During late seed development, sucrose, raffinose, melibiose, stachyose and fructose were the major contributors to osmotic potential. These data suggest stage-specific media composition for each step in the somatic embryogenesis protocol.

  2. Changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos caused by heat shock: relationship to developmental acquisition of thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakatani Miki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While initially sensitive to heat shock, the bovine embryo gains thermal resistance as it progresses through development so that physiological heat shock has little effect on development to the blastocyst stage by Day 5 after insemination. Here, experiments using 3’ tag digital gene expression (3’DGE and real-time PCR were conducted to determine changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos in response to heat shock (40 degrees C for 8 h that could be associated with thermotolerance. Results Using 3’DGE, expression of 173 genes were modified by heat shock, with 94 genes upregulated by heat shock and 79 genes downregulated by heat shock. A total of 38 differentially-regulated genes were associated with the ubiquitin protein, UBC. Heat shock increased expression of one heat shock protein gene, HSPB11, and one heat shock protein binding protein, HSPBP1, tended to increase expression of HSPA1A and HSPB1, but did not affect expression of 64 other genes encoding heat shock proteins, heat shock transcription factors or proteins interacting with heat shock proteins. Moreover, heat shock increased expression of five genes associated with oxidative stress (AKR7A2, CBR1, GGH, GSTA4, and MAP2K5, decreased expression of HIF3A, but did not affect expression of 42 other genes related to free radical metabolism. Heat shock also had little effect on genes involved in embryonic development. Effects of heat shock for 2, 4 and 8 h on selected heat shock protein and antioxidant genes were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Heat shock increased steady-state amounts of mRNA for HSPA1A (PHSP90AA1 (PSOD1 or CAT. Conclusions Changes in the transcriptome of the heat-shocked bovine morula indicate that the embryo is largely resistant to effects of heat shock. As a result, transcription of genes involved in thermal protection is muted and there is little disruption of gene networks involved in embryonic development. It is likely that

  3. Embryo quality and impact of specific embryo characteristics on ongoing implantation in unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van Echten-Arends, Janny; Arts, Eus G. J. M.

    Objective: To study the implantation potential of unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle IVF according to their morphological characteristics. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic department of reproductive medicine. Patient(S): A series of 449 single embryo transfers derived from

  4. Should we consider day-2 and day-3 embryo morphology before day-5 transfer when blastocysts reach a similar good quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbemont, Charlene; Sarandi, Solmaz; Boujenah, Jeremy; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Sermondade, Nathalie; Vivot, Alexandre; Poncelet, Christophe; Grynberg, Michael; Sifer, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Clinical outcomes of 291 day-5 blastocyst transfers carried out between January 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively compared according to their quality at day 2 and 3. Inclusion criteria were female age younger than 37 years; first or second IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle; quality of the transferred blastocyst: blastocoele B3 or higher; inner-cell-mass A/B; trophectoderm A/B; and known implantation outcome for each transferred blastocyst. Blastocysts were classified into good-quality and poor-quality embryo groups at day 2 and 3. Implantation (38.7% versus 41.4), clinical pregnancy (40.3% versus 45.9%), miscarriage (22.2% versus 26.7%;) and live birth rates (37.4% versus 38.8%) were comparable in day 2 good and poor-quality embryo groups. No signficiant differences in morphology of transferred blastocysts at day 3 were found. Multivariable analysis highlighted that poor or good embryo quality at day 2 and day 3 were not predictive of the implantation of good-quality blastocysts (at day 2: adjusted odds ratio = 0.82 CI 95% 0.49 to 1.38; at day 3: adjusted odds ratio = 1.39; CI 95% 0.77 to 2.52). Good-quality blastocyst transfer should, therefore, be carried out irrespective of embryo quality at cleavage stage, as it may not compromise success rates in a good-prognosis population. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyridoxine supplementation during oocyte maturation improves the development and quality of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelenain, Mansour; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Kawahara, Manabu; El-Monem Montaser, Abd; Zaabel, Samy Moawad; Kim, Sung-Woo; Nagano, Masashi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2017-03-15

    Recently, inhibition of cathepsin B (CTSB) activity during in vitro maturation (IVM) and culture (IVC) improved the developmental competence and quality of bovine oocytes and embryos. E-64 is a widely used inhibitor to inhibit CTSB activity, however, E-64 inhibits not only CTSB activity but also the activities of other proteases including cathepsin L (CTSL), papain, calpain, and trypsin. Pyridoxine, the catalytically active form of vitamin B6, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes and has the ability to inhibit CTSB activity. However, whether pyridoxine has an improving effect during IVM of bovine oocytes is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyridoxine supplementation during IVM on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes and the quality of the produced blastocysts. Supplementation of pyridoxine to the maturation medium significantly decreased the activity of CTSB in both bovine cumulus cells and oocytes. Moreover, pyridoxine improved both the blastocyst and hatched blastocyst rates. In addition, the presence of pyridoxine during IVM also significantly improved the quality of the produced embryos by increasing the total cell number as well as decreasing the CTSB mRNA expression and apoptotic rate. These results indicate that pyridoxine is a promising tool to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes and subsequent embryo quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exogenous γ-tocotrienol promotes preimplantation development and improves the quality of porcine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Enok; Min, Sung-Hun; Song, Bong-Seok; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jin-Woo; Bae, Jung-Ho; Park, Soo-Yong; Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Dong-Seok; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2015-03-01

    γ-tocotrienol (GTT), an isomer of vitamin E, has been the subject of increasing interest due to its strong anti-oxidant effects. Therefore, in this study, the effects of GTT on blastocyst development, expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic index were investigated in preimplantation porcine embryos. After in vitro maturation and fertilisation, porcine embryos were cultured for 6 days in porcine zygote medium 3 supplemented with or without GTT (200μM) under oxidative stress conditions (200μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)). Blastocyst development was significantly improved in the GTT-treated group when compared with the H2O2-treated group (Pembryos. Moreover, the total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly increased in the GTT-treated group relative to the untreated group under H2O2-induced oxidative stress (Pembryos via modulation of intracellular levels of ROS and the apoptotic index during the preimplantation stage.

  7. Embryo quality and implantation rate in two different culture media: ISM1 versus Universal IVF Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xella, Susanna; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio; Tirelli, Alessandra; Volpe, Annibale

    2010-04-01

    To compare the outcome of two different culture media marketed by the MediCult AS Company (Jyllinge, Denmark)-Universal IVF Medium and ISM1 Medium culture-which, in addition to glucose, pyruvate, and energy-providing components, also contain amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and cholesterol. Laboratory and retrospective clinical study. University teaching hospital. A total of 726 patients, undergoing IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure, comparable in mean age range, oocyte retrieval, and infertility indication, were included in the study. Laboratory quality and standard procedures were maintained unaffected. Oocyte retrieval, different embryo culture media. Embryo quality, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation rate. The frequency of good-quality embryos (79% vs. 74%) and the percentages of ongoing pregnancy (27.5% vs. 18%) and implantation rate (15% vs. 10%) were significantly higher in the group treated with ISM1 Medium rather than Universal IVF Medium. ISM1 Medium culture seems to improve the performance of embryonic growth and development, as well as increasing the percentage of pregnancy. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  9. Silencing CENPF in bovine preimplantation embryo induces arrest at 8-cell stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toralová, Tereza; Šušor, Andrej; Němcová, Lucie; Kepková, Kateřina; Kaňka, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 5 (2009), s. 783-791 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/06/1226; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : CENPF * bovine embryo * preimplantation development Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2009

  10. A catalog of Xenopus tropicalis transcription factors and their regional expression in the early gastrula stage embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Ira L; Paraiso, Kitt D; Patrushev, Ilya; Chiu, William T Y; Cho, Ken W Y; Gilchrist, Michael J

    2017-06-15

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involve highly combinatorial interactions between transcription factors and short sequence motifs in cis-regulatory modules of target genes to control cellular phenotypes. The GRNs specifying most cell types are largely unknown and are the subject of wide interest. A catalog of transcription factors is a valuable tool toward obtaining a deeper understanding of the role of these critical effectors in any biological setting. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of the transcription factors for the diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis. We identify 1235 genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors, comparable to the numbers found in typical mammalian species. In detail, the repertoire of X. tropicalis transcription factor genes is nearly identical to human and mouse, with the exception of zinc finger family members, and a small number of species/lineage-specific gene duplications and losses relative to the mammalian repertoires. We applied this resource to the identification of transcription factors differentially expressed in the early gastrula stage embryo. We find transcription factor enrichment in Spemann's organizer, the ventral mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm, and report 218 TFs that show regionalized expression patterns at this stage. Many of these have not been previously reported as expressed in the early embryo, suggesting thus far unappreciated roles for many transcription factors in the GRNs regulating early development. We expect our transcription factor catalog will facilitate myriad studies using Xenopus as a model system to understand basic biology and human disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single cell proteomics using frog (Xenopus laevis) blastomeres isolated from early stage embryos, which form a geometric progression in protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M.; Peuchen, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This pro...

  12. Lipofection of siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shinichi

    2018-04-13

    Bovine preimplantation embryos exhibit dramatic biological changes between before and after the 8-16-cell stage. Here we report a simple lipofection method to transfect siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well (WOW) culture system. Bovine one-cell embryos produced in vitro were freed from the zona pellucida and cultured up to the 8-16-cell stage in WOW dishes. The 8-16-cell embryos were lipofected with siRNA and the transfection efficiency was assessed at 48 h of transfection. Lipofection with a red fluorescent non-targeting siRNA revealed the importance of zona removal for transfection of siRNA into embryos. Using this method, we knocked down the methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) gene, achieving a significant reduction in MAT2A expression (P < 0.05) concomitant with the marked inhibition of blastocyst development. Our proposed method, tentatively named 'Octo-lipofection', may be useful to analyze gene functions in bovine preimplantation embryos without expensive equipment and skill-intensive techniques.

  13. Progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration adversely affects the outcome of IVF with transferred embryos at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, En-Yin; Du, Qing-Yun; Xiong, Yu-Jing; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Yu, Yi-Ping; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-08-04

    The effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles is a matter of ongoing debate. The replacement of cleavage-stage embryos with blastocyst-stage embryos for transfer was proposed to avoid the possible impairment of PE in fresh cycles. This study aimed to assess the association between PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in IVF/ICSI cycles with embryos transferred at different developmental stages (cleavage and blastocyst). Moreover, a secondary aim was to determine the thresholds at which PE has a detrimental effect on CPRs. This single-center retrospective cohort study included more than 10,000 patients undergoing day 3 cleavage-stage embryo transfer (ET) and 1146 patients undergoing day 5 blastocyst-stage embryo transfer (ET) using gonadotropin and GnRH agonist for controlled ovarian stimulation. Serum PE was inversely associated with CPRs in both cleavage- and blastocyst-stage ET cycles. In the day 3 ET cycles, CPRs (progesterone levels < 0.5 ng/ml, 49.2 %) significantly declined when the progesterone concentration reached 1.0 ng/ml (45.5 %) and decreased further when the progesterone concentration increased to 1.5 ng/ml (36.2 %). In the day 5 blastocyst-stage ET cycles, patients with serum progesterone levels ≥1.75 ng/ml had significantly lower CPRs (31.3 % VS. 41.4 %, p < 0.001) compared to patients with serum progesterone levels <1.75 ng/ml. The negative association of PE with CPRs was noted in both ET groups, even after adjusting for confounders. Furthermore, the developmental stage of the transferred embryos was not linked to the effect of PE on CPRs because the interaction between the developmental stage of the transferred embryos and PE was not significant. PE on the day of hCG administration is associated with

  14. Transcriptome profiles of embryos before and after cleavage in Eriocheir sinensis: identification of developmental genes at the earliest stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Min; Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Song, Chengwen

    2017-07-01

    In crab, embryogenesis is a complicated developmental program marked by a series of critical events. RNA-Sequencing technology offers developmental biologists a way to identify many more developmental genes than ever before. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptomes of Eriocheir sinensis oosperms (Os) and embryos at the 2-4 cell stage (Cs), which are separated by a cleavage event. A total of 18 923 unigenes were identified, and 403 genes matched with gene ontology (GO) terms related to developmental processes. In total, 432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the two stages. Nine DEGs were specifically expressed at only one stage. These DEGs may be relevant to stage-specific molecular events during development. A number of DEGs related to `hedgehog signaling pathway', `Wnt signaling pathway' `germplasm', `nervous system', `sensory perception' and `segment polarity' were identified as being up-regulated at the Cs stage. The results suggest that these embryonic developmental events begin before the early cleavage event in crabs, and that many of the genes expressed in the two transcriptomes might be maternal genes. Our study provides ample information for further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying crab development.

  15. Absence of Sperm Factors as in the Parthenogenesis Does Not Interfere on Bovine Embryo Sensitiveness to Heat Shock at Pre-Implantation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L S A; Paludo, F; Pereira, M M; Wohlres-Viana, S; Gioso, M M; Carvalho, B C; Quintao, C C R; Viana, J H M

    2016-02-01

    Oocyte has been considered the major contributor for embryo thermo-tolerance. However, it was shown that sperm factors can be transferred to the oocyte during fertilization, raising the question of whether the absence of such factors could interfere on embryo thermo-tolerance. In this study, we used parthenogenesis to generate bovine embryos without spermatozoa in order to test whether the absence of sperm factors could influence their thermo-sensitiveness at early stages. In vitro fertilized (IVF) and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos at 44 h post-insemination/chemical activation were exposed to 38.5°C (control) or 41°C (heat shock) for 12 h and then developed for 48 h and up to blastocyst stage. Apoptosis index and expression of PRDX1, GLUT1, GLUT5 and IGF1r genes in blastocysts derived from heat-shocked embryos were also evaluated. The heat shock decreased the blastocyst rate at day seven (p 0.05) between method of activation (IVF and PA) and temperature (38.5°C or 41.5°C) for all developmental parameters evaluated. Expression of GLUT1 gene was downregulated (p < 0.05) by heat shock in both IVF and PA blastocyst whereas expression of GLUT5 and IGF1r genes was downregulated (p < 0.05) by heat shock in PA blastocysts. Those data show that the heat shock affects negatively the embryo development towards blastocysts stage, increases the apoptotic index and disturbed the expression of some genes in both IVF and PA embryos, indicating that the presence or absence of sperm factors does not influence the sensitivity of the bovine embryo to heat shock. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  17. A comparison of psychological functioning in couples undergoing frozen-thawed embryo replacement in various stages of treatment using the Mean Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W A; Menezes, M Q; Martin, C W; Thong, K J

    2004-09-01

    The objectives were to identify the stage(s) of frozen embryo replacement cycle where the couples are most vulnerable to psychological dysfunction. Assessment was performed by using the Mean Affect Adjective Check-List (MAACL). Thirty couples completed the MAACL questionnaire at the following stages: (a) pretreatment (visit 1), (b) before embryo transfer (visit 2), and (c) before pregnancy test (visit 3). Each partner had to complete a separate questionnaire set. For both partners, the depression score for visit 3 was significantly higher and the sensation seeking and positive affect scores were significantly lower than the corresponding scores for earlier visits. Anxiety scores were similar for all visits. For men, the hostility scores were significantly higher between visits 1 and 2 while in women the same was reported between visits 3 and 2. Psychological counselling should be targeted at couples especially after embryo transfer. MAACL is a useful method for measuring psychological dysfunction in these couples.

  18. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Kong

    Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  19. Comparison of three superovulation protocols with or without GnRH treatment at the time of artificial insemination on ovarian response and embryo quality in Thai native heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Pitchayapipatkul, Jakkhaphan; Chuawongboon, Phirawit; Rakwongrit, Dumrongrak; Sakhong, Denpong; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-03-01

    To optimize the superovulation protocol in Thai native cattle, the present research was designed to (1) compare three different protocols designed to induce superstimulation and (2) study the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at insemination time (to induce ovulation) on ovarian follicular activities in terms of the number of large follicles, corpora lutea (CLs) and unovulated follicles, and the number and quality of ova/embryos recovered in Thai native heifers. Initially, the estrous cycles of animals (n = 36) at unknown stages were synchronized by two prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) injections at an interval of 12 days. Follicular development of heifers was randomly superstimulated with one of three different treatment protocols: treatment A-a total of 100 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (pFSH; Folltropin®-V) administered in eight decreasing doses; treatment B-a single dose of 100 mg pFSH dissolved in 30% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone; or treatment C-ablation of all follicles ≥5 mm with a single dose of pFSH. All heifers received PGF 2α 48 h after the initiation of FSH treatment to induce luteolysis from the previous cycle, and they were twice inseminated at 12 and 24 h after the onset of estrus. Heifers in each treatment were assigned to be injected or not with GnRH at the time of first insemination with frozen/thawed semen to induce ovulation. About 7 days after artificial insemination (AI), ova/embryos were collected and classified. The numbers of large follicles at the onset of estrus were not statistically significantly different; meanwhile, the maximum diameters of follicles at the time of first insemination in treatment C were smaller compared with the other treatment groups (p insemination time resulted in a greater number of CLs and fewer unovulated follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection (p = 0.001), which subsequently resulted in a higher number of total ova/embryos recovered (p = 0.030). Among

  20. Pre-incubation of porcine semen reduces the incidence of polyspermy on embryos derived from low quality oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Francisco Brogni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main cause of low efficiency of in vitro produced porcine embryos is the high polyspermic penetration rates at fertilization, which is aggravated in low quality oocytes. Experiment 1 evaluated the embryo development in high and low quality oocytes. Experiment 2 evaluated the embryo development and quality of low quality oocytes fertilized with sperm pre-incubated during 0h (control, 0.5h, 1h and 1.5h. Experiment 3 investigated fertilization and monospermic rates of the same groups of Experiment 2. Experiment 4 evaluated embryo development, cell density, fertilization and monospermic rates of high quality oocytes using semen pre incubated during the best time observed in the previous experiments. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were analyzed by chi-square test, and remaining data by ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤0.05. The cleavage (74.8 vs 51.7% and blastocyst (33.7 vs 9.8% rates were greater in oocytes of high versus low quality, with no differences in cell density. Fertilization rates (65.6 to 79.5% were not influenced by pre-incubation time. However, semen pre-incubation during 1.5h increased monospermic penetration (53.3% and cleavage rates (92.5% in low quality oocytes. Blastocyst rate was improved with 1.5h of semen pre incubation; however they were still lower than that observed with high quality control oocytes. Ultimately, pre-incubation did not influence fertilization, monospermic penetration, embryo development rates, nor cell density in oocytes of high quality. Low-quality porcine oocytes resulted in better rates of embryo development if in vitro fertilized with sperm pre-incubated for 1.5 hour.

  1. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Quality Initiative promotes ongoing CMS strategies to improve the quality of care provided to ESRD patients. This initiative...

  2. Effects of the ionizing radiations in the different stages of the embryo-fetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    'In utero' exposures to ionizing radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the framework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could be associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every 'in utero' exposure will increase their probability. (author)

  3. Runx expression is mitogenic and mutually linked to Wnt activity in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Robertson

    Full Text Available The Runt homology domain (Runx defines a metazoan family of sequence-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins that are critical for animal development and causally associated with a variety of mammalian cancers. The sea urchin Runx gene SpRunt-1 is expressed throughout the blastula stage embryo, and is required globally during embryogenesis for cell survival and differentiation.Depletion of SpRunt-1 by morpholino antisense-mediated knockdown causes a blastula stage deficit in cell proliferation, as shown by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation and direct cell counts. Reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR studies show that the cell proliferation deficit is presaged by a deficit in the expression of several zygotic wnt genes, including wnt8, a key regulator of endomesoderm development. In addition, SpRunt-1-depleted blastulae underexpress cyclinD, an effector of mitogenic Wnt signaling. Blastula stage cell proliferation is also impeded by knockdown of either wnt8 or cyclinD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP indicates that Runx target sites within 5' sequences flanking cyclinD, wnt6 and wnt8 are directly bound by SpRunt-1 protein at late blastula stage. Furthermore, experiments using a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter transgene show that the blastula-stage operation of a cis-regulatory module previously shown to be required for wnt8 expression (Minokawa et al., Dev. Biol. 288: 545-558, 2005 is dependent on its direct sequence-specific interaction with SpRunt-1. Finally, inhibitor studies and immunoblot analysis show that SpRunt-1 protein levels are negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3.These results suggest that Runx expression and Wnt signaling are mutually linked in a feedback circuit that controls cell proliferation during development.

  4. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  5. Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca S; Nunez, Brandy; Sakurai, Kumi; Fielder, Thomas; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu

    2016-03-24

    Growing concerns about safety of ART on human gametes, embryos, clinical outcomes and long-term health of offspring require improved methods of risk assessment to provide functionally relevant assays for quality control testing and pre-clinical studies prior to clinical implementation. The one-cell mouse embryo assay (MEA) is the most widely used for development and quality testing of human ART products; however, concerns exist due to the insensitivity/variability of this bioassay which lacks standardization and involves subjective analysis by morphology alone rather than functional analysis of the developing embryos. We hypothesized that improvements to MEA by the use of functional molecular biomarkers could enhance sensitivity and improve detection of suboptimal materials/conditions. Fresh one-cell transgenic mouse embryos with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by Pou6f1 or Cdx2 control elements were harvested and cultured to blastocysts in varied test and control conditions to compare assessment by standard morphology alone versus the added dynamic expression of GFP for screening and selection of critical raw materials and detection of suboptimal culture conditions. Transgenic mouse embryos expressing functionally relevant biomarkers of normal early embryo development can be used to monitor the developmental impact of culture conditions. This novel approach provides a superior MEA that is more meaningful and sensitive for detection of embryotoxicity than morphological assessment alone.

  6. Confinement and clearance of OCT4 in the porcine embryo at stereomicroscopically defined stages around gastrulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Thorup, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    maintaining expression of OCT4 at the end of gastrulation. In the ectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages, OCT4 became undetectable at the neural groove and somite stage, respectively. As in the mouse, PGCs showed onset of c-kit expression when located in extraembryonal compartments. They appeared to follow...... the endoderm during extraembryonal allocation and the mesoderm on return to the genital ridge....

  7. Quality improvement of transgenic cloned bovine embryos using an aggregation method: Effects on cell number, cell ratio, embryo perimeter, mitochondrial distribution, and gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J I; Jin, J I; Ghanem, N; Choi, B H; Fakruzzaman, M; Ha, A N; Lee, K L; Uhm, S J; Ko, D H; Koo, B C; Lee, J G; Kong, I K

    2015-09-01

    The production of cloned embryos using conventional methods has extremely low success rates owing to low embryo quality. To improve the quality of cloned bovine embryos expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we applied an aggregation culture method. The EGFP gene was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts using a retroviral vector system. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was performed using these cells, and the resulting embryos were cultured in aggregates or individually. Gene expression was analyzed by a microarray, and differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The total number of cells per blastocyst and the ratio of inner cell mass cells to trophectoderm cells were higher in aggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (agBL; 368.7 ± 109.6 and 1:4.8, respectively) than in in vitro-fertilized blastocysts (ivfBL; 189.8 ± 65.8 and 1:2.6, respectively) and nonaggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (sBL; 113.1 ± 36.3 and 1:1.5, respectively; P fluorescence intensity was higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL and sBL groups (P genes identified in the microarray belonged to 18 categories. Expression of the Krüppel-like factor 4 gene, which is associated with cell proliferation, development, and transcription, was 7.2-fold higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL group (P  0.05). Expression of the heat shock 70-kDa protein 1A gene, which is associated with apoptosis, was 12-fold higher in the sBL group than in the ivfBL and agBL groups (P Expression of a stemness-related gene (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and trophectoderm-specific genes (homeobox protein CDX2 and keratin 18) was higher in the agBL group than in the sBL group (P expression of the stemness gene homeobox protein NANOG did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the aggregation method improves the quality of cloned embryos expressing EGFP and might be helpful

  8. Developmental toxicity and induction of vitellogenin in embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to methyl Paraben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambal, Vrinda Yatin; Selvan, Karthikeyan Ponnien; Lite, Christy; Barathi, S; Santosh, Winkins

    2017-07-01

    MethylParaben (MP), a methyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, is used as an anti-microbial preservative in foods, drugs and cosmetics for decades. It enters the aquatic environment, and can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Little is known on the developmental toxicity of MP exposure to zebrafish during early life stages. In this study, the developmental effects of MP were evaluated in embryo-larval zebrafish (at concentrations ranging from 100μM, 200μM, 400µM, 800μM and 1000μM for 96h post fertilization (hpf). The survival, hatching, heart beat rate and developmental abnormalities were observed in the embryos exposed to MP. MP exposure resulted in decreased heart rate and hatching rate. Defects including pericardial edema blood cell accumulation and bent spine were observed in all the treated concentration, except at 100μM. With increasing concentrations, the frequency of these defects increased. The 96 hpf LC 50 of MP was calculated to be 428μM (0.065mg/L). Furthermore, RT-PCR result showed that in larval zebrafish exposed to 100μM (0.015mg/L) of MP till 96 hpf, expression of vitellogenin I (Vtg -I) was significantly upregulated compared to the control group. This data suggest that even though lower concentrations of MP do not cause phenotypic malformations, it leads to dysregulated expression of estrogenic biomarker gene Vtg-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  10. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana, ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  11. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Armenta-Medina, Alma; Xiang, Daoquan; Datla, Raju; Gillmor, C Stewart; Abreu-Goodger, Cei

    2017-12-01

    The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana , ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  12. Embryonic death, dwarfism and fetal malformations after irradiation of embryos at the zygote stage. Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Saint-Georges, L. de; Baugnet-Mahieu, L.; Vankerkom, J.

    1995-01-01

    Female mice of the BALB/c and CF1 strains were mated and irradiated with various doses of X-rays 7 h after presumed fertilization. 18 days later, females were killed and their uteri examined for prenatal mortality at the different stages of development. Living fetuses were weighed and examined for the presence of external malformations. A number of them were also examined for skeletal anomalies. Radiation induced mainly a dose-dependent increase of the preimplantation loss in the BALB/c strain and of the early postimplantation loss in the CF1 strain. Embryos of the BALB/c strain were refractory to the induction of teratogenic effects after such preimplantation irradiation. In CF1 mice, the frequency of malformed fetuses increased regularly after irradiation, the difference with controls being significant for the doses of 10, 50 and 100 cGy. Dwarfism occurrence also appeared to be increased by irradiation in this strain, although the importance of this effect varied depending on the criterion chosen for the assessment of dwarfs. With the definition proposed in the present paper, the increase in the frequency of dwarfs paralleled that of malformed fetuses, being significant after doses of 50 and 100 cGy. Irradiation did not increase the frequency of skeletal anomalies. A careful examination of the various data obtained to date led us to conclude that radiation may possibly be teratogenic in several mouse strains, when administered as early as during the one-cell stage and, to a lesser extent, during the following preimplantation stages. However, early prenatal mortality will remain by far the greatest risk associated with an exposure to radiation during this period. Moreover, the relativity of the risk of abnormality due to such irradiation should be considered in the context of the high prevalence of developmental defects spontaneously occurring during human pregnancy

  13. Embryonic death, dwarfism and fetal malformations after irradiation of embryos at the zygote stage. Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.; Saint-Georges, L. de; Baugnet-Mahieu, L. [Laboratory of Radiobiology, Department of Radioprotection, CEN/SCK, Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-11-01

    Female mice of the BALB/c and CF1 strains were mated and irradiated with various doses of X-rays 7 h after presumed fertilization. 18 days later, females were killed and their uteri examined for prenatal mortality at the different stages of development. Living fetuses were weighed and examined for the presence of external malformations. A number of them were also examined for skeletal anomalies. Radiation induced mainly a dose-dependent increase of the preimplantation loss in the BALB/c strain and of the early postimplantation loss in the CF1 strain. Embryos of the BALB/c strain were refractory to the induction of teratogenic effects after such preimplantation irradiation. In CF1 mice, the frequency of malformed fetuses increased regularly after irradiation, the difference with controls being significant for the doses of 10, 50 and 100 cGy. Dwarfism occurrence also appeared to be increased by irradiation in this strain, although the importance of this effect varied depending on the criterion chosen for the assessment of dwarfs. With the definition proposed in the present paper, the increase in the frequency of dwarfs paralleled that of malformed fetuses, being significant after doses of 50 and 100 cGy. Irradiation did not increase the frequency of skeletal anomalies. A careful examination of the various data obtained to date led us to conclude that radiation may possibly be teratogenic in several mouse strains, when administered as early as during the one-cell stage and, to a lesser extent, during the following preimplantation stages. However, early prenatal mortality will remain by far the greatest risk associated with an exposure to radiation during this period. Moreover, the relativity of the risk of abnormality due to such irradiation should be considered in the context of the high prevalence of developmental defects spontaneously occurring during human pregnancy.

  14. A simplified table for staging embryos of the pipid frog Pipa arrabali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLÍVIA G.S. ARAÚJO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pipa is a Neotropical genus of frogs that dwell in freshwater environments. It includes four species that lack free-swimming larvae (P. aspera, P. arrabali, P. pipa, and P. snethlageae and three with tadpoles (P. carvalhoi, P. myersi, and P. parva. Developmental tables such as the one proposed by Nieuwkoop and Faber might be useful for Pipa species with tadpoles. However, for the other Pipa species, to determine stages by this table or by any of the tables already prepared for frogs without tadpoles (e.g., Crinia nimbus, Eleutherodactylus coqui, and Oreobates barituensis is impossible. By using embryonic, juvenile, and subadult specimens, we generated a staging table for P. arrabali, from the moment limb buds were first observed until birth, based on diagnostic features such as snout-vent length; growth, morphology, and reabsorption of the external tail; growth and differentiation of fore and hind limbs; development of intestine and vent tube; position of the angle of the mouth relative to nostrils and eyes; and color of preserved individuals. Based on these observations, we discuss some noteworthy traits (e.g., posture of hands and feet. We also compare the pattern of development of P. arrabali with that of other anuran species (with and without tadpoles.

  15. Use of novel silver nanoparticles with Hyaluronan as potential biological labels for determining the quality of embryos development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Hevkan, Ivan I.; Bilyi, Oleksandr I.; Osypchuk, Oleksandr S.; Zyuzyun, Aza B.

    2013-09-01

    In reproductive medicine it is important to determine the quality of embryo development without interference in their function and viability. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles makes them promising candidates for optical sensing, molecular labeling and imaging applications. Furthermore unique optical properties of silver nanoparticles provide an opportunity to use them as real time analytic tools in living state especially for observation of dynamic processes in gametes and embryos. The main aim of the study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of novel silver nanoparticles with prospect of their use for the determining the quality of embryo development. For this purpose, we investigated the optical properties of new silver nanoparticles in biological mediums during cultivation and their influence on rabbit's embryos development in vitro. The physicochemical and biological properties of novel silver nanoparticles were compared with silver nanoparticles identical in size and shapes but with different chemical surfaces modifications by polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. The results suggest that silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid were disintegrated with the formation of new complexes with proteins in biological mediums. This property with strong optical surface plasmon resonance of novel silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan makes them promising candidates in diagnostic area and gives reasons to explore them as biomarkers of target molecules. Nevertheless novel silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan at the concentrations of 0.1-1 μg/ml have no toxic effect on rabbit's embryos development and can be successfully applied in reproductive medicine.

  16. Maintenance ofMestimprinted methylation in blastocyst-stage mouse embryos is less stable than other imprinted loci following superovulation or embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velker, Brenna A M; Denomme, Michelle M; Krafty, Robert T; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2017-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are fertility treatments used by subfertile couples to conceive their biological child. Although generally considered safe, these pregnancies have been linked to genomic imprinting disorders, including Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell Syndromes. Silver-Russell Syndrome is a growth disorder characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation. The Mest imprinted domain is one candidate region on chromosome 7 implicated in Silver-Russell Syndrome. We have previously shown that maintenance of imprinted methylation was disrupted by superovulation or embryo culture during pre-implantation mouse development. For superovulation, this disruption did not originate in oogenesis as a methylation acquisition defect. However, in comparison to other genes, Mest exhibits late methylation acquisition kinetics, possibly making Mest more vulnerable to perturbation by environmental insult. In this study, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of superovulation and in vitro culture on genomic imprinting at the Mest gene. Superovulation resulted in disruption of imprinted methylation at the maternal Mest allele in blastocysts with an equal frequency of embryos having methylation errors following low or high hormone treatment. This disruption was not due to a failure of imprinted methylation acquisition at Mest in oocytes. For cultured embryos, both the Fast and Slow culture groups experienced a significant loss of maternal Mest methylation compared to in vivo -derived controls. This loss of methylation was independent of development rates in culture. These results indicate that Mest is more susceptible to imprinted methylation maintenance errors compared to other imprinted genes.

  17. Vitrification of pronuclear-stage mouse embryos on solid surface (SSV) versus in cryotube: comparison of the effect of equilibration time and different sugars in the vitrification solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, H; Sagirkaya, H; Mercan, H Odaman; Dinnyès, A

    2004-02-01

    The cryopreservation of pronuclear-stage embryos has particular importance in transgenic technology and human assisted reproductive technology (ART). The objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of cryopreservation of pronuclear-stage mouse embryos. Two vitrification methods (solid surface vitrification (SSV) vs. vitrification in cryotube) have been compared with special emphasis on the effect of the exposure of the embryos to the solutions for various times and the sugar content (trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose) of the vitrification solutions. Pronuclear-stage embryos were either exposed to 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 1 M propylene-glycol (PG) solution for 2, 5, 10, or 15 min or not exposed to this "equilibration" solution. The vitrification solutions consisted of 2.75 M DMSO and 2.75 M PG in M2 medium supplemented with 1 M trehalose (DPT), 1 M sucrose (DPS), or 1 M raffinose (DPR). In the cryotube method, groups of 15-25 embryos were transferred into a 1.8 ml cryotube containing 30 microl of DPT, DPS, or DPR. After 30 sec, the cryotubes were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and stored for 1 day to 1 month. Vitrified samples were warmed by immersing the cryotubes in a 40 degrees C water bath and then immediately diluted with 300 microl of 0.3 M trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose in M2. In the SSV method, after equilibration 15-20 embryos were exposed to DPT, DPS, or DPR solutions for around 20 sec before being dropped in 2-microl drops onto a pre-cooled (-150 to -180 degrees C) metal surface. Vitrified droplets were stored in cryovials in LN(2). Warming was performed by transferring the vitrified droplets into 0.3 M solutions of trehalose, sucrose, or raffinose at 37 degrees C, respectively. Results showed that both SSV and cryotube vitrification methods can result in high rates of in vitro blastocyst development (up to 58.3 and 68.5% with DPR, respectively), not statistically different from that of the controls (58.3 and 64.4%). Even

  18. Analysis of compaction initiation in human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Yumoto, Keitaro; Sugishima, Minako; Mizoguchi, Chizuru; Kai, Yoshiteru; Iba, Yumiko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the initiation of compaction in human embryos in vitro by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC), with the goal of determining the precise timing of compaction and clarifying the morphological changes underlying the compaction process. One hundred and fifteen embryos donated by couples with no further need for embryo-transfer were used in this study. Donated embryos were thawed and processed, and then their morphological behavior during the initiation of compaction was dynamically observed via time-lapse cinematography (TLC) for 5 days. Although the initiation of compaction occurred throughout the period from the 4-cell to 16-cell stage, 99 (86.1 %) embryos initiated compaction at the 8-cell stage or later, with initiation at the 8-cell stage being most frequent (22.6 %). Of these 99 embryos, 49.5 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. In contrast, of the 16 (13.9 %) embryos that initiated compaction prior to the 8-cell stage, only 18.8 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. Embryos that initiated compaction before the 8-cell stage showed significantly higher numbers of multinucleated blastomeres, due to asynchronism in nuclear division at the third mitotic division resulting from cytokinetic failure. The initiation of compaction primarily occurs at the third mitotic division or later in human embryos. Embryos that initiate compaction before the 8-cell stage are usually associated with aberrant embryonic development (i.e., cytokinetic failure accompanied by karyokinesis).

  19. The nasal apparatus of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) embryo at the stage of the fully formed chondrocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabý, O

    1991-01-01

    The nasal apparatus of the squirrel embryo at the optimum stage of the chondrocranium displays simple (though not always primitive) features and individual structures developed largely as in other rodents and even in insectivores. Primitive features include the presence of a cartilago paraseptalis communis and probably the simplicity of the olfactory labyrinth, whose main support in the region as a whole is ethmoturbinale I, whose dorsal and ventral lamella divide off the basic recesses; anterior (frontalis), maxillaris and frontoturbinalis. Completely caudally we find ethmoturbinale I, the frontoturbinalia and the relevant secondary (greatly reduced) recesses. The zona annularis is interrupted by failure of the rostral processes of the lamina transversalis anterior (corresponding to the processes laterales ventrales) to fuse with the capsula nasi ant. or with the anlage of the septum nasi. We did find a fenestra nasi superior (lateralis). The atrioturbinale is well developed, the maxilloturbinale only as a trace, but we have a very striking nasoturbinale. In the rostral region of the olfactory segment, the cartilaginous capsule has a very conspicuous thickening, which in this part is formed of paranasal cartilage. The thickening presents outwardly as the prominentia anterior; cavity of the recessus anterior (frontalis) is formed inside it. The rest of the dorsal and caudal wall of this cavity forms the crista semicircularis, which further caudally circumscribes the foramen olfactorium. A foramen epiphaniale is present. The vestibular region of the epithelial nasal tube is interestingly formed. In cross section it is crescent-shaped; the nasal tube itself opens into the convexity, but the lamina transversalis ant. sends a turbinale into the concavity. A cartilago alaris superior, which develops independently in situ, is present; in our stage it is associated with the wall of the capsule, but ventrolaterally it terminates freely and is not joined to any other

  20. Characterization of secreted proteins of 2-cell mouse embryos cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage with and without protein supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tanya; Yu, Liang; Nyalwidhe, Julius; Horcajadas, Jose A; Bocca, Silvina; Swanson, R James; Oehninger, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    To identify the secreted proteins of murine embryos grown in vitro. Two-cell mouse embryos (n=432) were randomly allocated to culture to the blastocyst stage in protein-free and in protein-supplemented (3 % BSA) media. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE; bands were visualized by coomassie staining, followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RT-PCR and confocal microscopy were used to confirm gene/protein expression in blastocysts. Of all individually identified proteins, 34 and 23 were found in embryos cultured without and with BSA, respectively, and 20 were common. Identified proteins having an N-terminal secretory sequence or transmembrane domains located on the extracellular backbone were postulated as secreted proteins. Gene and protein expression for two selected molecules were confirmed. Functional analysis revealed over-represented processes related to lipid metabolism, cyclase activity, and cell adhesion/membrane functions. This study provided evidence to further characterize secreted proteins by mouse embryos grown from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Because of homology between murine and human, these results may provide information to be translated to the clinical setting.

  1. Human amniotic epithelial cells as feeder layer to derive and maintain human embryonic stem cells from poor-quality embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ávila-González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature suggest that human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines used in research do not genetically represent all human populations. The derivation of hESC through conventional methods involve the destruction of viable human embryos, as well the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer, which has several drawbacks. We obtained the hESC line (Amicqui-1 from poor-quality (PQ embryos derived and maintained on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC. This line displays a battery of markers of pluripotency and we demonstrated the capacity of these cells to produce derivates of the three germ layers.

  2. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Non invasive assessment of embryo quality: proteomics, metabolomics and oocyte-cumulus dialogue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, D; Feuerstein, P; Cadoret, V; Puard, V; Uzbekova, S; Dalbies-Tran, R; Teusan, R; Houlgatte, R; Labas, V; Guérif, F

    2009-01-01

    Preimplantation embryo development is one of the key features with implantation itself to achieve a pregnancy. Assisted Reproductive Technologies both in human and animal have improved our knowledge on these events, although it remains elusive to predict embryo potential to give a baby. Among various ways to define embryo viability, noninvasive approaches get a serious advantage linked to the final transfer of the embryo. Techniques devoted to characterize the embryo secretome using proteomic or metabolomic approaches may be non invasive. Based on a direct identification of products of the embryo metabolism or an assessment of profile(s) related with embryo viability, they have greatly improved their sensitivity to allow their use in clinical embryology, once validated. Oocyte-cumulus dialogue, as a key factor for oocyte competence to meiosis and embryo development, was particularly concerned with both genomic and proteomic assessment of cumulus cells. While it is not possible to designate at the time being which among these approaches will be robust and cost-efficient enough to help routinely the clinical embryologist in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), one can predict that our ability to select the "right" embryo will combine morphological criteria already available with validated biomarkers.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase-positive innervation is present at undifferentiated stages of the sea turtle Lepidochelis olivacea embryo gonads: implications for temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Jiménez-Trejo, F J; Favila, R; Moreno-Mendoza, N A; Granados Rojas, L; Barrios, F A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Merchant-Larios, H

    1999-07-19

    In embryos of different reptile species, incubation temperature triggers a cascade of endocrine events that lead to gonad sex differentiation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which temperature sets in motion this process are still controversial. Here, we begin evaluating the possible participation of the nervous system in temperature-dependent sex determination by showing the existence and origin of acetylcholinesterase (AchE)-positive nerve fibers in undifferentiated gonads of the Lepidochelys olivacea (L. olivacea) sea turtle putative male and female embryos, along the thermosensitive period for sex determination (TPSD; stages 20-27). AChE-positive nerve bundles and fibers were readily visualized until developmental stage 24 and thereafter. DiI injections and confocal imaging showed that some of these gonadal nerves arise from the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord levels, and might thus be sensory in nature. Because the vertebrate spinal cord is capable of integrating by itself thermoregulatory responses with no intervention of uppermost levels of the central nervous system, we also evaluated spinal cord maturation during the TPSD. The maturation of the spinal cord was more advanced in putative female than in male embryos, when sex determination is taking place for each sex; this process starts and ends earlier in male than in female embryos. Together these observations open the possibility that the spinal cord and the innervation derived from it could play a direct role in driving or modulating the process of temperature-dependent gonad sex determination and/or differentiation, particularly in female L. olivacea embryos.

  5. Neural network classification of sweet potato embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, Enrique; Harrell, Roy C.

    1993-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a process that allows for the in vitro propagation of thousands of plants in sub-liter size vessels and has been successfully applied to many significant species. The heterogeneity of maturity and quality of embryos produced with this technique requires sorting to obtain a uniform product. An automated harvester is being developed at the University of Florida to sort embryos in vitro at different stages of maturation in a suspension culture. The system utilizes machine vision to characterize embryo morphology and a fluidic based separation device to isolate embryos associated with a pre-defined, targeted morphology. Two different backpropagation neural networks (BNN) were used to classify embryos based on information extracted from the vision system. One network utilized geometric features such as embryo area, length, and symmetry as inputs. The alternative network utilized polar coordinates of an embryo's perimeter with respect to its centroid as inputs. The performances of both techniques were compared with each other and with an embryo classification method based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Similar results were obtained with all three techniques. Classification efficiency was improved by reducing the dimension of the feature vector trough a forward stepwise analysis by LDA. In order to enhance the purity of the sample selected as harvestable, a reject to classify option was introduced in the model and analyzed. The best classifier performances (76% overall correct classifications, 75% harvestable objects properly classified, homogeneity improvement ratio 1.5) were obtained using 8 features in a BNN.

  6. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY, 4-cell (4C or 16-cell (16C were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic

  7. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  8. Providing quality palliative care in end-stage Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Paul A; Ford, James L; Kim, Kye Y

    2013-08-01

    Providing quality palliative care is a daunting task profoundly impacted by diminished patient capacity at the end of life. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a disorder that erases our memories and is projected to increase dramatically for decades to come. By the time the patients with AD reach the end stage of the disease, the ability of patients to provide pertinent subjective complaints of pain and discomfort would have vanished. Historical perspectives of palliative care, exploration of the AD process, ethical issues, and crucial clinical considerations are provided to improve the understanding of disease progression and quality of care for patients with end-stage AD.

  9. Systems Genetics Implicates Cytoskeletal Genes in Oocyte Control of Cloned Embryo Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Gaughan, John; Midic, Uros; Han, Zhiming; Liang, Cheng-Guang; Patel, Bela G.; Latham, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer is an important technology, but remains limited due to poor rates of success. Identifying genes supporting clone development would enhance our understanding of basic embryology, improve applications of the technology, support greater understanding of establishing pluripotent stem cells, and provide new insight into clinically important determinants of oocyte quality. For the first time, a systems genetics approach was taken to discover genes contributing to the ability of an oocyte to support early cloned embryo development. This identified a primary locus on mouse chromosome 17 and potential loci on chromosomes 1 and 4. A combination of oocyte transcriptome profiling data, expression correlation analysis, and functional and network analyses yielded a short list of likely candidate genes in two categories. The major category—including two genes with the strongest genetic associations with the traits (Epb4.1l3 and Dlgap1)—encodes proteins associated with the subcortical cytoskeleton and other cytoskeletal elements such as the spindle. The second category encodes chromatin and transcription regulators (Runx1t1, Smchd1, and Chd7). Smchd1 promotes X chromosome inactivation, whereas Chd7 regulates expression of pluripotency genes. Runx1t1 has not been associated with these processes, but acts as a transcriptional repressor. The finding that cytoskeleton-associated proteins may be key determinants of early clone development highlights potential roles for cytoplasmic components of the oocyte in supporting nuclear reprogramming. The transcriptional regulators identified may contribute to the overall process as downstream effectors. PMID:23307892

  10. Quality of Life in End Stage Renal Failure Patients Undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the quality of life of 45 patients with end stage renal failure undergoing dialysis in Mauritius using the standard United Kingdom version of the Short Form 36 Items Health Survey (SF36) questionnaire. Our findings showed that gender, level of social and emotional support, marital status, and travel time were ...

  11. The association between homocysteine in the follicular fluid with embryo quality and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Pelin; Ersoylu, Bilge; Cepni, Ismail; Guralp, Onur; Atakul, Nil; Irez, Tulay; Idil, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between follicular fluid homocysteine levels and embryo quality and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Fifty infertile women who were admitted to our clinic were enrolled in the study. Ovulation induction was performed by using GnRH agonist and gonadotropins. For each patient, homocysteine level in the follicular fluid was measured by using nephelometric method after the oocyte pick-up. The association between the homocysteine concentration in the follicular fluid and the oocyte-embryo quality, pregnancy rates and hormone levels were investigated. Mean ± SD Hcy was 9.6 ± 2.02 μmol/L and 14.9 ± 2.93 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p Homocystein did not have any correlation with M2, late M2, and total number of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, and embryo quality grade. Area under curve (AUC) of hcy for prediction of pregnancy failure was 0.922 (p = 0.0001, 95% Confidence interval 0.85-0.99). A threshold of 11.9 μmol/L of hcy had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 91.6% for prediction of pregnancy failure. The subgroup analysis in male factor infertility group (n = 28), showed that mean homocystein was 9.9 ± 2.44 μmol/L and 14.1 ± 2.72 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p = 0.002). Low follicular fluid homocysteine level is associated with a better chance of clinical pregnancy.

  12. THE NEED FOR TEACHING ABOUT QUALITY AND SPREADING QUALITY CULTURE AT THE STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Spychalski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the need for teaching about the quality, as well as building pro-quality attitudes already at the school stage. The author presents quality issues, complications associated with its divergent understanding and its historical conditioning in Poland and also a brief explanation of the need of learning about quality since early childhood. TQM philosophy is described, as well as an overview of examples of building quality culture and education about quality in various countries of the world, together with their noticeable positive results. The current status of education on quality in Poland and quality issues affecting skills desired by employers is discussed.

  13. Mycotoxin alpha-zearalenol impairs the quality of preimplantation porcine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfeng; Camargo Rodriguez, Omar; Memili, Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-Zearalenol (α-ZEA) is one of derivatives from Zearalenone (ZEA) which impacts mammalian reproduction and development. Previous studies have shown that pigs are sensitive to the estradiol-like effects of α-ZEA. However, the effect of α-ZEA for the early embryonic development has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to identify the direct toxicity of α-ZEA on porcine preimplantation embryonic development, embryo quality and expression of developmentally important genes. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in porcine zygote medium 3 (PZM-3) in the presence of α-ZEA (n=2,957) or 17β-estradiol (E2) (n=1,333) dissolved in 0.1% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) from 24 to 84 h post insemination followed by determination of apoptotic cell numbers and transcript levels of BAX, BCL2L1 and POU5F1 in blastocysts. Cleavage rates on day 2 were significantly decreased in 10, 30 and 60 µM α-ZEA groups; whereas blastocyst rates on day 6 were significantly decreased in the 30 and 60 µM of α-ZEA groups. Only the 100 µM E2 group significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. Total cell numbers (TCN) in blastocysts were significantly lower in the 10 µM α-ZEA group, but no differences in apoptotic cell rates were found. The expression levels of POU5F1 and BCL2L1 transcripts were similar; however, levels of BAX transcripts and the BAX/BCL2L1 ratio were increased in both α-ZEA groups. Since α-ZEA and E2 did not elicit similar effects, results suggest that α-ZEA might impact porcine preimplantation embryonic development through pathways other than estrogen receptor binding.

  14. Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Janaina T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs, a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24% were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT, membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1 and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation. Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects.

  15. Embryo splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  16. Blastocyst Morphology Holds Clues Concerning The Chromosomal Status of The Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Savio Figueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo morphology has been proposed as an alternative marker of chromosomal status. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the chromosomal status on day 3 of embryo development and blastocyst morphology. Materials and Methods: A total of 596 embryos obtained from 106 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI followed by preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening (PGS were included in this retrospective study. We evaluated the relationship between blastocyst morphological features and embryonic chromosomal alteration. Results: Of the 564 embryos with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH results, 200 reached the blastocyst stage on day 5 of development. There was a significantly higher proportion of euploid embryos in those that achieved the blastocyst stage (59.0% compared to embryos that did not develop to blastocysts (41.2% on day 5 (P<0.001. Regarding blastocyst morphology, we observed that all embryos that had an abnormal inner cell mass (ICM were aneuploid. Embryos with morphologically normal ICM had a significantly higher euploidy rate (62.1%, P<0.001. As regards to the trophectoderm (TE morphology, an increased rate of euploidy was observed in embryos that had normal TE (65.8% compared to embryos with abnormal TE (37.5%, P<0.001. Finally, we observed a two-fold increase in the euploidy rate in high-quality blastocysts with both high-quality ICM and TE (70.4% compared to that found in low-quality blastocysts (31.0%, P<0.001. Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities do not impair embryo development as aneuploidy is frequently observed in embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. A high-quality blastocyst does not represent euploidy of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y. However, aneuploidy is associated with abnormalities in the ICM morphology. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether or not the transfer of blastocysts with low-quality ICM should be

  17. The developmental stage of chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    Like mammals, bird embryos are capable of chemosensory learning, but the ontogeny of their feeding preferences has not been examined. We tested if the timing of stimulation in chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on later food preferences. We exposed chicken embryos to an olfactory stimulus for a 4-day period in the middle or toward the end of the incubation period. The chicks were tested for their preference between foods with and without the olfactory stimulus in 3-min choice tests and on a 24-h time scale. Regardless of the type of food (familiar or novel) or the duration of the test, the control chicks not exposed to the olfactory stimulus consistently showed significant preferences for non-odorized foods. Chicks that were exposed in ovo to the olfactory stimulus did not show a preference for odorized or non-odorized foods. Only those chicks that were exposed to the olfactory stimulus toward the end of the incubation period differed from the controls and incorporated a higher proportion of odorized food into their diets on a 24-h time scale. This result indicates that olfactory stimulation at the end of embryonic development has a stronger impact on later feeding preferences. Our findings contribute to the growing pool of recent data appreciating the impact of olfactory signals on behavior regulation in avian species.

  18. Congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities and perinatal results in IVF/ICSI newborns resulting from very poor quality embryos: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, R; Perez, S; de Los Santos, M J; Larreategui, Z; Ayerdi, F; Expósito, A; Burgos, J; Martínez Indart, L; Pijoan, J I; Matorras, R

    2015-01-01

    To explore whether the transfer of very poor quality (VPQ) embryos is associated with an increase in congenital malformations or perinatal problems. In this retrospective case-control study, 74 children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) resulting exclusively from the transfer of VPQ embryos were compared with 1,507 children born after the transfer of top morphological quality (TQ) embryos over the same period of time in the same centers. The prevalence of birth defects in children resulting from VPQ embryos was 1.35% (1/74), similar to the 1.72% (26/1,507) when only TQ embryos were transferred; the rate of chromosomal abnormalities detected was also similar (0.0 vs. 0.4%), as was perinatal mortality. After correcting for multiplicity (higher in the TQ group), the aforementioned parameters remained similar in the two groups. Congenital malformations and perinatal complications do not seem to be more common in children born after transfer of VPQ embryos in IVF/ICSI cycles. Given our preliminary data, which need to be confirmed in much larger studies, when only VPQ embryos are available for transfer in IVF/ICSI cycles, we do not believe that they should be discarded with the intention of avoiding birth defects or perinatal complications. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  20. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  1. Pronuclear scoring as a predictor of embryo quality in in vitro fertilization program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jedrzejczak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many strategies have been proposed for the selection of viable embryos for transfer in human assisted reproduction. These have included morphological scoring criteria for 20, 28, 44 and 68 h after insemination. The embryo selection is based on morphology, degree of fragmentation and development to the 8-cell. All have shown some correlation with implantation. However, the overall success of these methods is still limited, with over 50% of all transferred embryos failing to implant. Pronuclear zygote morphology has gained much attention recently due to its positive value in predicting implantation and pregnancy. This prospective study involved 178 conventional IVF patients only. The key aspects of pronuclear scoring and namely the presence of a cytoplasmic halo were related to day 3 of development and morphology in a retrospective study. The Z-score and the presence/absence of a halo had significant effect on the rate of development on day 3 embryo. Low Z-score result in slow development and poor morphology. The absence of a halo also resulted in slow and poor development, low morphology, increased fragmentation.

  2. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  3. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  4. The action of X-rays on electrophysiological characteristics in early stages of development of frog embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevdoradze, V.V.; Nadarejshvili, K.Sh.

    1987-01-01

    Comparative investigation of dynamics of changes in the membrane potential (MP), input resistance (R in ) and the coefficient of electric coupling (K ec ) between blastomers in the process of the first divisions of irradiated and nonirradiated Rana ridibunda frog embryo cleavage is carried out. Microelectrophysiological equipment has been used. It is detected that 12 Gy radiation dose does not change cycling of changes and absolute MP and K ec while the amplitute of cyclic oscillations (R in ) decreases sharpy. Possible mechanisms of this effect and perspectives of investigation of certain general problems on radiation membranology are discussed

  5. Effect of cumulus cell removal 4 h post-insemination on fertilization and embryo quality: a prospective randomized sibling-oocyte study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yamei; Tong, Xiaomei; Jiang, Lingying; Zhu, Haiyan; Yang, Lingyun; Zhang, Songying

    2013-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate whether cumulus cell removal 4 h post-insemination could influence fertilization and embryo quality. The study included 61couples undergoing standard long down regulation protocol from July 2011 to May 2012. Sibling oocytes of each patient were randomly assigned to either the 4 h group or the 20 group. For the 4 h group, cumulus cells were removed 4 h after gamete coincubation; for the 20 group, cumulus cells removal was performed 20 h after insemination. Fertilization rate, embryo quality, pregnancy rate and implantation rate were assessed. A total of 801 sibling cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were randomized to the 4 h group (421 COCs) or 20 h group (380 COCs). There was no difference in the two pronuclei, one pronucleus and grade 1-2 embryo rate. Three pronuclei rate was significantly higher in the 4 h group compared to the 20 h group (12.6 % vs. 8.2 %, P = 0.041). Comparison of embryo transfer cycles in which either embryos from the 4 h group or 20 h group were transferred did not reveal any statistically significant differences in pregnancy or implantation rates. The results of the present study indicate that cumulus cell removal 4 h post-insemination may increase the percentage of tripronuclear zygotes. However, normal fertilization rate, embryo development, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rates are not influenced by the timing of cumulus cell removal.

  6. Determination of gene expression patterns using high-throughput RNA in situ hybridizaion to whole-mount Drosophila embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiszmann, R.; Hammonds, A.S.; Celniker, S.E.

    2009-04-09

    We describe a high-throughput protocol for RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) to Drosophila embryos in a 96-well format. cDNA or genomic DNA templates are amplified by PCR and then digoxigenin-labeled ribonucleotides are incorporated into antisense RNA probes by in vitro transcription. The quality of each probe is evaluated before ISH using a RNA probe quantification (dot blot) assay. RNA probes are hybridized to fixed, mixed-staged Drosophila embryos in 96-well plates. The resulting stained embryos can be examined and photographed immediately or stored at 4oC for later analysis. Starting with fixed, staged embryos, the protocol takes 6 d from probe template production through hybridization. Preparation of fixed embryos requires a minimum of 2 weeks to collect embryos representing all stages. The method has been used to determine the expression patterns of over 6,000 genes throughout embryogenesis.

  7. Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, Pier M; Canaider, Silvia; Facchin, Federica; Bianconi, Eva; Ljungberg, Liza; Rotilio, Domenico; Burigana, Fabio; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in different pathological conditions. In the present review we recall in a synthetic way the most important researches about the use of SCDSFs in reprogramming cancer cells and in modulating the high speed of multiplication of keratinocytes which is characteristic of some pathological diseases like psoriasis. Moreover we add here the results about the capability of SCDSFs in modulating the homeostasis of human adiposederived stem cells (hASCs) isolated from a fat tissue obtained with a novel-non enzymatic method and device. In addition we report the data not yet published about a first protein analysis of the SCDSFs and about their role in a pathological condition like neurodegeneration.

  8. In vitro development of OPU-derived bovine embryos cultured either individually or in groups with the silk protein sericin and the viability of frozen-thawed embryos after transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomohiro; Ikebata, Yoshihisa; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Tanihara, Fuminori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Otoi, Takeshige

    2015-07-01

    The optimization of single-embryo culture conditions is very important, particularly in the in vitro production of bovine embryos using the ovum pick-up (OPU) procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of embryos derived from oocytes obtained by OPU that were cultured either individually or in groups in medium supplemented with or without sericin and to investigate the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after a direct transfer. When two-cell-stage embryos were cultured either individually or in groups for 7 days in CR1aa medium supplemented with or without 0.5% sericin, the rates of development to blastocysts and freezable blastocysts were significantly lower for the embryos cultured individually without sericin than for the embryos cultured in groups with or without sericin. Moreover, the rate of development to freezable blastocysts of the embryos cultured individually with sericin was significantly higher than that of the embryos cultured without sericin. When the frozen-thawed embryos were transferred directly to recipients, the rates of pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth and normal calving in the recipients were similar among the groups, irrespective of the culture conditions and sericin supplementation. Our findings indicate that supplementation with sericin during embryo culture improves the quality of the embryos cultured individually but not the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after transfer to recipients. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effect of sericin on preimplantation development of bovine embryos cultured individually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, T; Ikebata, Y; Onitsuka, T; Wittayarat, M; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Otoi, T

    2012-09-01

    The silk protein sericin has been identified as a potent antioxidant in mammalian cells. This study was conducted to examine the effects of sericin on preimplantation development and quality of bovine embryos cultured individually. When two-cell-stage embryos were cultured individually for 7 days in CR1aa medium supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% sericin, rates of total blastocyst formation and development to expanded blastocysts from embryos cultured with 0.5% sericin were higher (P sericin. When embryos were cultured individually for 7 days in the CR1aa medium supplemented with 0 or 0.5% sericin under two oxidative stress conditions (50 or 100 μm H(2)O(2)), the addition of sericin significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of embryos exposed to 100 μm H(2)O(2). However, the protective effect of sericin was not observed in development of embryos exposed to 50 μm H(2)O(2). When embryos were exposed to 100 μm H(2)O(2) during culture, the DNA fragmentation index of total blastocysts from embryos cultured with 0.5% sericin was lower than blastocysts derived from embryos cultured without sericin (4.4 vs. 6.8%; P sericin to in vitro culture medium improved preimplantation development and quality of bovine embryos cultured individually by preventing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test for the screening of waste water quality and for testing the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo test, a test proposed for routine waste water control, was compared with the acute fish toxicity test, in the determination of six types of waste water and ten different chemicals. The waste water was sampled from the following industrial processes: paper and cardboard production, hide tanning, metal galvanisation, carcass treatment and utilisation, and sewage treatment. The chemicals tested were: dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulphoxide, cadmium chloride, cyclohexane, hydroquinone, mercuric chloride, nickel chloride, nonylphenol, resmethrin and sodium nitrite. For many of the test substances, the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test results showed high correlations. However, there were certain environmentally-relevant substances for which the results of the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test differed significantly, up to 10,000-fold (Hg(2+) > 150-fold difference; NO(2)(-) > 300-fold; Cd(2+) > 200-fold; resmethrin > 10,000-fold). For the investigated waste water samples and chemicals, the survival rate of the zebrafish embryos showed high variations between different egg samples, within the range of the EC50 concentration. Subsequently, 5-6 parallel assays were deemed to be the appropriate number necessary for the precise evaluation of the toxicity of the test substances. Also, it was found that the sensitivities of different ontogenetic stages to chemical exposure differed greatly. During the first 12 hours after fertilisation (4-cell stage to the 5-somite stage), the embryos reacted most sensitively to test substance exposure, whereas the later ontogenetic stages showed only slight or no response, indicating that the test is most sensitive during the first 24 hours post-fertilisation.

  11. Expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 in the human cumulus cells as a biomarker of oocytes and embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin B Demiray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the transforming growth factor-B superfamily, as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs subfamily and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, play a role during follicular development, and the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, AMH, and THY1 are expressed in ovaries. Aim: This study was designed to define whether or not the expressions of these proteins in human cumulus cells (CCs can be used as predictors of the oocyte and embryo competence. Settings and Design: The study included nine female patients who were diagnosed as idiopathic infertility, aged 25–33 years (median 30 years and underwent Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Materials and Methods: The CCs from 60 oocyte–cumulus complexes obtained from the nine patients were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining in respect of BMPs, AMH and THY1 markers. The CCs surrounding the same oocytes were evaluated separately according to the oocyte and embryo quality. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were statistically analyzed for differences using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U test (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences in immunofluorescence staining were observed in oocyte quality and embryo quality for the BMP2 only (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed for AMH or CD90/THY1. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the expression of BMP2 in the CCs of good quality oocytes and subsequently a good embryo.

  12. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  13. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  14. From callus to embryo: a proteomic view on the development and maturation of somatic embryos in Cyclamen persicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christina; Lindhorst, Kathrin; Braun, Hans-Peter; Winkelmann, Traud

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the proteome structures following the pathway in somatic embryogenesis of Cyclamen persicum were analysed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE with two objectives: (1) to identify the significant physiological processes during somatic embryogenesis in Cyclamen and (2) to improve the maturation of somatic embryos. Therefore, the effects of maturation-promoting plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) and high sucrose levels on torpedo-shaped embryos were investigated. In total, 108 proteins of differential abundance were identified using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and a digital proteome reference map. In callus, enzymes related to energy supply were especially distinct, most likely due to energy demand caused by fast growth and cell division. The switch from callus to globular embryo as well as from globular to torpedo-shaped embryo was associated with controlled proteolysis via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway. Storage compound accumulation was first detected 21 days after transfer to plant growth regulator (PGR)-free medium in early torpedo-shaped embryos. Increase in abundance of auxin-amidohydrolase during embryogenesis suggests a possible increase in auxin release in the late embryo stages of Cyclamen. A development-specific isoelectric point switch of catalases has been reported for the first time for somatic embryogenesis. Several proteins were identified to represent markers for the different developmental stages analysed. High sucrose levels and ABA treatment promoted the accumulation of storage compounds in torpedo-shaped embryos. Additionally, proteins of the primary metabolic pathways were decreased in the proteomes of ABA-treated embryos. Thus, ABA and high sucrose concentration in the culture medium improved maturation and consequently the quality of somatic embryos in C. persicum.

  15. Optimizing the number of cleavage stage embryos to transfer on day 3 in women 38 years of age and older: a Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Goldman, Marlene B; Hatasaka, Harry; MacKenzie, Todd A; Surrey, Eric S; Racowsky, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    To determine the optimal number of day 3 embryos to transfer in women >or=38 years by conducting an evidence-based evaluation. Retrospective analysis of 2000-2004 national SART data. National writing group. A total of 36,103 day 3 embryo transfers in women >or=38 years undergoing their first assisted reproductive technology cycle. None. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of pregnancy, delivery, and multiple births (twin or high order) based on age- and cycle-specific parameters. Pregnancy rates, delivery rates, and multiple rates increased up to transfer of three embryos in 38-year-olds and four in 39-year-olds; beyond this number, only multiple rates increased. In women >or=40 years, delivery rates and multiple rates climbed steadily with increasing numbers transferred. Multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant effect of age, number of oocytes retrieved, and embryo cryopreservation on delivery and multiple rates. Maximum FSH level was not an independent predictor by multivariate analysis. Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection was associated with lowered delivery rate. No more than three or four embryos should be transferred in 38- and 39-year-olds, respectively, whereas up to five embryos could be transferred in >or=40-year-olds. Numbers of embryos to transfer should be adjusted according to number of oocytes retrieved and availability of excess embryos for cryopreservation.

  16. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Galland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality.

  17. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Marc; He, Dongli; Lounifi, Imen; Arc, Erwann; Clément, Gilles; Balzergue, Sandrine; Huguet, Stéphanie; Cueff, Gwendal; Godin, Béatrice; Collet, Boris; Granier, Fabienne; Morin, Halima; Tran, Joseph; Valot, Benoit; Rajjou, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins) in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality. PMID:29213276

  18. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Salih, Sana M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, miR-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy. PMID:24795753

  19. Examining the Effects of Altered Water Quality on Sea Urchin Fertilization Success and Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne Dominique; Tamaru, Clyde S.; Gorospe, Kelvin Dalauta; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of shifting marine environmental conditions caused by global climate change and localized water pollution, marine organisms are becoming increasingly exposed to changing water quality conditions. For example, they are exposed to more extreme salinity fluctuations as a result of heavier rainfall, melting polar caps, or extreme droughts.…

  20. Effect of the microenvironment and embryo density on developmental characteristics and gene expression profile of bovine preimplantative embryos cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franka; Lund, Qamaruddin; Ghanem, Nasser; Phatsara, Chirawath; Griese, Josef; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2009-03-01

    The Well of the Well (WOW) system has been developed to culture embryos in small groups or to track the development of single embryos. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of the microenvironment provided by the WOW system and embryo density on developmental rates, embryo quality and preimplantative gene expression profile of the resulting embryos. Embryos cultured in a group of 16 reached the blastocyst stage at a significantly lower level than zygotes cultured in a group of 50 (22.2 vs 30.3%), whereas zygotes cultured in WOW were able to compensate against low embryo densities, reaching a blastocyst rate as high as embryos cultured in a group of 50 (31.3 vs 30.3%). Moreover, embryos derived from WOW culture did not differ in terms of differential cell counts and apoptotic cell index compared with controls. The gene expression analysis revealed 62 transcripts to be upregulated and 33 transcripts to be downregulated by WOW culture. Comparing the in vivo derived blastocysts with the blastocysts derived from WOW culture, and group culture, expression of ATP5A1, PLAC8 and KRT8 was more similar to the embryos derived from WOW culture, whereas expression of S100A10 and ZP3 genes was more similar to blastocysts cultured in a group. In conclusion, microenvironment as well as embryo density significantly affected developmental rates. While subsequent blastocysts did not differ in terms of differential cell counts and apoptotic cell index, significant differences were observed in terms of the relative abundance of transcripts in the resulting embryos.

  1. Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bardon-Albaret

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n = 17 or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n = 7. Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23 < r < −0.08, revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

  2. Effect of vitamin A supplementation at different gaseous environments on in vitro development of pre-implantation sheep embryos to the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, N; Shankar, M B; Deecaraman, M

    2010-11-01

    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is an important antioxidant whose role in embryo development in vitro and in vivo is well established. Oxidative stress is a major cause of defective embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of all-trans retinol supplementation to maturation and embryo culture media under different gaseous environments on the development of ovine oocytes and embryos in vitro. The percentages of cleavage, morula and blastocyst, total cell count and comet assay were taken as indicators of developmental competence of embryos. In experiments I and II, all-trans retinol at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 μM were supplemented to the oocyte maturation medium and cultured in an environment of 5% or 20% O2 respectively. All-trans retinol supplementation (6 μM) to the maturation medium at 5% O2 levels significantly increased blastocyst yield and total cell number (P embryo culture media under a 5% or 20% O2 environment, respectively. All-trans retinol supplementation to the embryo culture medium at 5% O2 levels did not yield any significant result whereas the culture at 20% O2 levels gave significantly higher blastocyst yield in the 6 μM supplemented group compared with the control group (P < 0.01).

  3. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    all three cell cycles. In the eight-cell stage embryo, a primary vacuole appeared as an electron lucid area originating in the centre of the nucleolar precursor body. In nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from nonactivated cytoplasts, the nuclear envelope was fragmented or completely broken down...... vacuoles. A nucleolar precursor body typical for the two-cell stage control embryos was never observed. None of the reconstructed embryos of this group reached the eight-cell stage. Nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from activated cytoplasts, in contrast, exhibited a complete nuclear envelope at all...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  4. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar Mohapatra

    Full Text Available Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1% live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC, and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF.

  5. ESTÁDIOS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EMBRIÕES NA OBTENÇÃO DE PLANTAS EM CRUZAMENTOS ENTRE GENITORES APIRENOS DE VIDEIRA EMBRYO GROWTH STAGES ON PLANT OBTENTION FROM CROSSES BETWEEN SEEDLESS GRAPE PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANE LEITE DO AMARAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o efeito do estádio de desenvolvimento de embriões resgatados na obtenção de plantas em cruzamentos entre genitores apirenos de videira, utilizando dois métodos de cultivo in vitro de sementes-traço. No método 1 (M1, as sementes-traço foram cultivadas 60 dias em meio-de-cultura ER e no método 2 (M2 60 dias em ER, mais 30 dias em meio-de-cultura MS. O estádio de desenvolvimento do embrião foi identificado no final destes períodos, quando do resgate e transferência para meio-de-cultura WP. Quatro tipos de embriões foram identificados: globular, cordiforme, torpedo e indefinido. O estádio globular foi encontrado com maior freqüência, levando à obtenção de maior número de plantas, mesmo tendo apresentado menor capacidade de gerar plantas. A maior eficiência em gerar plantas foi obtida com o estádio torpedo. No M2, ocorreu maior número de embriões germinados e de plantas desenvolvidas. Como o estádio de desenvolvimento do embrião influencia na obtenção de plantas, o resgate de embriões em estádio mais avançado do seu desenvolvimento leva a tem maior capacidade de gerar plantas. Portanto, uso de técnicas que favoreçam o resgate de embriões mais desenvolvidos pode aumentar o número de plantas obtidas.It was investigated the effect of the growth stage of rescued embryos on plant obtention from crosses between seedless grape parents. Two methods for in vitro culture were compared. Method 1 (M1: seed traces were cultured 60 days in ER culture medium. Method 2 (M2: procedure of M1 followed by additional 30 days in MS culture medium. The stage of embryo growth was established at the end of this period, when the embryos were rescued and transfered to WP culture medium. Four classes of embryo stages were indentified: globular, heart, torpedo and undefined. The globular stage, the most frequently found, produced the largest quantity of recovered plants, though it had the lowest capacity of originating plants

  6. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  7. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37°C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

  8. Evidence for stage-specific modulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing components in zygotic embryo and female gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Thomas J; Wartell, Roger M; Cairney, John; Pullman, Gerald S

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate plant development, but have not been studied in gymnosperm seed tissues. The presence and characteristics of several miRNAs were examined in zygotic embryos (ZEs) and female gametophytes (FGs) of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Evidence for miRNAs was obtained using northern analyses and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mediated with poly(A) polymerase. Partial sequences of two miRNAs were verified. Three regions of putative mRNA targets were analyzed by qRT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of stage-dependent miRNA-mediated cleavage. Five miRNAs were identified in ZEs and FGs along with partial sequences of Pta-miR166 and Pta-miR167. Both miRNAs showed differing degrees of tissue-specific and stage-specific modulation. Analysis of HB15L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR166 target) suggested miRNA-guided cleavage in ZEs and FGs. Analysis of ARF8L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR167 target) implied cleavage in ZEs but not in FGs. Argonaute9-like mRNA (ptAGO9L) showed stage-specific modulation of expression in ZEs that appeared to be inverted in the corresponding FGs. MicroRNAs and argonaute genes varied spatiotemporally during seed development. The peak levels of Pta-miR166 in FGs and ptAGO9L in embryos occurred at stage 9.1, a critical transition point during embryo development and a point where somatic embryo maturation often stops. MicroRNAs identified in FG tissue may play a role in embryogenesis.

  9. Effects of harvesting stages on yield and nutritional quality of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Farmers often harvest African eggplant (Solanum Aethiopicum L.) fruits at different stages of fruit maturity. The influence of these harvesting practices on fruit productivity and nutritional quality is not known. This study was conducted to determine the effect of harvesting stages on yield and nutritional quality of ...

  10. Patient Satisfaction and Perceived Quality of Care Among Older Adults According to Activity Limitation Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Hillary R.; de Vries McClintock, Heather F.; Hennessy, Sean; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Streim, Joel E.; Xie, Dawei; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Kwong, Pui L.; Stineman, Margaret G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether patient satisfaction and perceived quality of medical care was related to stages of activity limitations among older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) for calendar years 2001-2011. PARTICIPANTS A population-based sample (n= 42,584) of persons 65 years of age and older living in the community. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) MCBS questions were categorized under 5 patient satisfaction and perceived quality dimensions: care coordination and quality, access barriers, technical skills of primary care physicians, interpersonal skills of primary care physicians, and quality of information provided by primary care physicians. Persons were classified into a stage of activity limitation (0-IV) derived from self-reported difficulty levels performing activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). RESULTS Compared to older beneficiaries with no limitations at ADL Stage 0, the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for Stage I (mild) to Stage III (severe) for satisfaction with care coordination and quality ranged from OR = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.92) to OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70-0.89). Compared to ADL Stage 0, satisfaction with access barriers ranged from OR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87) at Stage I (mild) to a minimum of OR = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.59-0.76) at Stage III (severe). Similarly, compared to older beneficiaries at ADL Stage 0, perceived quality of the technical skills of their primary care physician ranged from OR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.94) at Stage I (mild) to a minimum of OR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.91) at Stage III (severe). CONCLUSIONS Medicare beneficiaries at higher stages of activity limitation although not necessarily the highest stage of activity limitation reported less satisfaction with medical care. PMID:26119464

  11. Femtosecond laser surgery of two-cell mouse embryos: effect on viability, development, and tetraploidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osychenko, Alina A.; Zalessky, Alexandr D.; Kostrov, Andrey N.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Krivokharchenko, Alexander S.; Nadtochenko, Viktor A.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the laser pulse energy and total expose of the energy incident on the embryo blastomere fusion probability was investigated. The probability of the four different events after laser pulse was determined: the fusion of two blastomeres with the following formation of tetraploid embryo, the destruction of the first blastomere occurs, the second blastomere conservation remains intact, the destruction and the death of both cells; two blastomeres were not fused, and no morphological changes occurred. We report on viability and quality of the embryo after laser surgery as a function of the laser energy incident. To characterize embryo quality, the probability of the blastocyst stage achievement was estimated and the blastocyst cells number was calculated. Blastocoel formation is the only event of morphogenesis in the preimplantation development of mammals, so we assumed it as an indicator of the time of embryonic "clocks" and observed it among fused and control embryos. The blastocoel formation time is the same for fused and control embryos. It indicates that embryo clocks were not affected due to blastomere fusion. Thus, the analysis of the fluorescence microscopic images of nuclei in the fused embryo revealed that nuclei fusion does not occur after blastomere fusion.

  12. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess...... stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. CONCLUSIONS: Later stages...... HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland...

  13. Paternal age as an independent factor does not affect embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes of testicular sperm extraction-intracytoplasmic sperm injection in azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y S; Lee, S H; Lim, C K; Choi, H W; An, J H; Park, C W; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Seo, J T

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the independent influence of paternal age affecting embryo development and pregnancy using testicular sperm extraction (TESE)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in obstructive azoospermia (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Paternal patients were divided into the following groups: ≤30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years and ≥46 years. There were no differences in the rates of fertilisation or embryo quality according to paternal and maternal age. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower between those ≥46 years of paternal age compared with other age groups. Fertilisation rate was higher in the OA than the NOA, while embryo quality, pregnancy and delivery results were similar. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower for patients ≥46 years of paternal age compared with younger age groups. In conclusion, fertilisation using TESE in azoospermia was not affected by the independent influence of paternal age; however, as maternal age increased concomitantly with paternal age, rates of pregnancy and delivery differed between those with paternal age age ≥46 years old should be considered when applying TESE-ICSI in cases of azoospermia, and patients should be advised of the associated low pregnancy rates. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Cryopreservation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled primordial germ cells with GFP fused to the 3' untranslated region of the nanos gene by vitrification of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) somite stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Y; Ishihara, M; Saito, T; Fujimoto, T; Adachi, S; Arai, K; Yamaha, E

    2012-12-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the only cell type in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. In this study, PGC of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) were visualized by injection of mRNA synthesized from a construct carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the 3' untranslated region of the Japanese eel nanos gene. We investigated the feasibility of cryopreserving Japanese eel PGC by vitrification of dechorionated whole somite stage embryos. The GFP-labeled PGC were rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen after exposure to a pretreatment solution containing 1.5 M cryoprotectant (methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and glycerol for 10 min and ethylene glycol for 10, 20, and 30 min) and a vitrification solution containing 3 M cryoprotectant and 0.5 M sucrose for 1, 5, and 10 min. Ethylene glycerol is an effective cryoprotectant for embryonic cells and shows no evidence of ice formation after thawing. Vitrified and thawed PGC were transplanted into blastula stage embryos from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The GFP-labeled PGC migrated toward the host gonadal ridge, suggesting maintenance of their normal migration motility. These techniques may assist in achieving inter- and intraspecies germ-line chimers using donor Japanese eel PGC.

  15. Ripening stage and drying method affecting colour and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    fruits to the nearest 0.01 g. Fruit quality was assessed for darkening during the drying process. Fruits that appeared black on the surface and in the flesh were recorded as undesirable. These could not be fitted on the Munsell colour chart values. A sub sample of 50 fruits was randomly picked from each replicate and used to ...

  16. Pro-apoptotic Effect of Pifithrin-α on Preimplantation Porcine Fertilized Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Mulligan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a reported p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α, on preimplantation porcine in vitro fertilized (IVF embryo development in culture. Treatment of PFT-α was administered at both early (0 to 48 hpi, and later stages (48 to 168 hpi of preimplantation development, and its impact upon the expression of five genes related to apoptosis (p53, bak, bcl-xL, p66Shc and caspase3, was assessed in resulting d 7 blastocysts, using real-time quantitative PCR. Total cell numbers, along with the number of apoptotic nuclei, as detected by the in situ cell death detection assay, were also calculated on d 7 in treated and non-treated control embryos. The results indicate that PFT-α, when administered at both early and later stages of porcine IVF embryo development, increases the incidence of apoptosis in resulting blastocysts. When administered at early cleavage stages, PFT-α treatment was shown to reduce the developmental competence of porcine IVF embryos, as well as reducing the quality of resulting blastocysts in terms of overall cell numbers. In contrast, at later stages, PFT-α administration resulted in marginally increased blastocyst development rates amongst treated embryos, but did not affect cell numbers. However, PFT-α treatment induced apoptosis and apoptotic related gene expression, in all treated embryos, irrespective of the timing of treatment. Our results indicate that PFT-α may severely compromise the developmental potential of porcine IVF embryos, and is a potent apoptotic agent when placed into porcine embryo culture media. Thus, caution should be exercised when using PFT-α as a specific inhibitor of p53 mediated apoptosis, in the context of porcine IVF embryo culture systems.

  17. Timing of first embryonic cleavage is a positive indicator of the in vitro developmental potential of porcine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, S Clay; Li, Rong Feng; Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2012-03-01

    Evidence in many species has suggested that those embryos that cleave earliest after fertilization are more developmentally competent than those that cleave relatively later after fertilization. Herein we document this phenomenon in porcine in vitro-fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos. In vitro-matured pig oocytes were used to generate IVF, SCNT, and PA embryos. At 24 hr post-activation (or insemination; hpa/hpi), embryos were visually assessed, and cleaved embryos were moved into a new culture well. This process was repeated at 30 and 48 hpa/hpi. All embryos were allowed to develop 7 days in culture. For IVF embryos, 39.9%, 24.6%, and 10.5% of fast-, intermediate-, or slow-cleaving embryos, respectively, developed into blastocysts by day 7. For SCNT embryos, 31.8% of fast-, 5.7% of intermediate-, and 2.9% of late-cleaving embryos achieved the blastocyst stage of development. For PA embryos, the percentages of those cleaved embryos that developed to blastocyst were 59.3%, 36.7%, and 7.5% for early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, respectively. Using RNA collected from early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, real-time PCR was performed to assess the transcript levels of 14 different genes of widely varied function. The qPCR results suggest that maternal mRNA degradation may not proceed in an appropriate pattern in slow-cleaving embryos. These findings (1) confirm that, as observed in other species, earlier-cleaving porcine embryos are more successful at developing in culture than are slower-cleaving embryos, and (2) implicate mechanisms of maternal transcript destruction as potential determinants of oocyte/embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Friml, Jirí

    2008-01-01

    Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana follows a nearly invariant cell division pattern and provides an ideal system for studies of early plant development. However, experimental manipulation with embryogenesis is difficult, as the embryo develops deeply inside maternal tissues. Here, we present a method to culture zygotic Arabidopsis embryos in vitro. It enables culturing for prolonged periods of time from the first developmental stages on. The technique omits excision of the embryo by culturing the entire ovule, which facilitates the manual procedure. It allows pharmacological manipulation of embryo development and does not interfere with standard techniques for localizing gene expression and protein localization in the cultivated embryos.

  19. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were enrolled into four mutually exclusive stages of the disease: CKD stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and dialysis patients. Overall HRQoL was generally highest in patients with CKD stages 1-3, followed by transplant recipients, patients with CKD stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. Later stages of ADPKD are associated with reduced physical health. The value of early treatment interventions that can delay progression of the disease should be considered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  20. A Treatment Stage Specific Approach to Improving Quality of Life for Women with Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avis, Nancy E; Miller, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on quality of life among women with ovarian cancer. The primary objective of the study is to identify the issues that are of greatest concern to women in each of three treatment stages...

  1. Sediment quality assessment using survival and embryo malformation tests in amphipod crustaceans: The Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea AS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Evita; Jansons, Mintauts; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Berezina, Nadezhda A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of bottom sediment and to estimate the potential effects of contaminated sediment on health of benthic organisms in the Gulf of Riga (eastern Baltic Sea). Two endpoints were used: survival rate (acute toxicity test) of five crustacean amphipod species and frequency of embryo malformation (samples were collected from the field) in the two species. Toxic resistance of living animals to sediment quality was measured as survival rate (%) at 25 study sites from 2010-2012. Significant differences in the toxic resistance between species were found: 80-100% for Monoporeia affinis, 70-95% for Corophium volutator, 38-88% for Pontogammarus robustoides, 38-100% for Bathyporeia pilosa and 60-100% for Hyalella azteca. Reproductive disorders, measured as percentage (%) of malformed embryos per female, varied in the ranges of 0.0-9.5% in deep water species M. affinis and 0.3-7.5% in littoral species P. robustoides. Both the acute toxicity test and embryo malformation test (only M. affinis was used) indicated moderate and poor sediment quality at 20% and 12% accordingly in the study sites, low toxicity of sediment was estimated in 64% of cases, and no toxicity was recorded in the rest of the cases (4%). Additionally, sediment toxicity test using aquatic organisms was combined with sediment chemical analysis (trace metals) and the Benthic Quality Index (macrozoobenthos) was based on data collected from 13 sites in the Gulf of Riga in 2010 and used for triad sediment quality assessment. According to this combined approach, 23% of the bottom sediments were classified as likely impacted and 23% as possibly impacted (central and southern part of the Gulf). However, the remaining 54% was identified as likely un-impacted. The sediment quality assessment with single survival test or chemical analyses showed better sediment quality in the Gulf than the triad method. The embryo malformation test appeared to be more sensitive to pollution than

  2. Development of interspecies cloned embryos in yak and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Otoi, Takeshige; Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Agung, Budiyanto; Sambuu, Rentsenkhand; Suzuki, Tatsuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies nuclear transfer (NT) could be an alternative to replicate animals when supply of recipient oocytes is limited or in vitro embryo production systems are incomplete. In the present study, embryonic development was assessed following interspecies NT of donor cumulus cells derived from yak and dog into the recipient ooplasm of domestic cow. The percentages of fusion and subsequent embryo development to the eight-cell stage of interspecies NT embryos were comparable to those of intraspecies NT embryos (cow-cow NT embryos). The percentage of development to blastocysts was significantly lower (p dog-cow NT embryos, only one embryo (0.4%) developed to the blastocyst stage. These results indicate that interspecies NT embryos possess equally developmental competence to the eight-cell stage as intraspecies NT embryos, but the development to blastocysts is very low when dog somatic cells are used as the donor nuclei.

  3. Soluble CD146, an innovative and non-invasive biomarker of embryo selection for in vitro fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bouvier

    Full Text Available Although progress was made in in vitro fertilization (IVF techniques, the majority of embryos transferred fail to implant. Morphology embryo scoring is the standard procedure for most of IVF centres for choosing the best embryo, but remains limited since even the embryos classified as "top quality" may not implant. As it has been shown that i CD146 is involved in embryo implantation and ii membrane form is shed to generate soluble CD146 (sCD146, we propose that sCD146 in embryo supernatants may constitute a new biomarker of embryo selection. Immunocytochemical staining showed expression of CD146 in early embryo stages and sCD146 was detected by ELISA and Western-blot in embryo supernatants from D2. We retrospectively studied 126 couples who underwent IVF attempt. The embryo culture medium from each transferred embryo (n = 222 was collected for measurement of sCD146 by ELISA. Significantly higher sCD146 concentrations were present in embryo supernatants that did not implant (n = 185 as compared to those that successfully implanted (n = 37 (1310 +/- 1152 pg.mL-1 vs. 845+/- 1173 pg.mL-1, p = 0.024. Sensitivity analysis performed on single embryo transfers (n = 71 confirmed this association (p = 0.0054. The computed ROC curve established that the optimal sCD146 concentration for embryo implantation is under 1164 pg.mL-1 (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 48%, PPV: 25% and NPV: 92%. Over this sCD146 threshold, the implantation rate was significantly lower (9% with sCD146 levels >1164 pg.ml-1 vs. 22% with sCD146 levels ≤ 1164 pg.mL-1, p = 0.01. Among the embryos preselected by morphologic scoring, sCD146 determination could allow a better selection of the embryo(s, thus improving the success of elective single embryo transfer. This study establishes the proof of concept for the use of sCD146 as a biomarker for IVF by excluding the embryo with the highest sCD146 level. A multicentre prospective study will now be necessary to further establish its use in

  4. Automated microinjection of recombinant BCL-X into mouse zygotes enhances embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    Full Text Available Progression of fertilized mammalian oocytes through cleavage, blastocyst formation and implantation depends on successful implementation of the developmental program, which becomes established during oogenesis. The identification of ooplasmic factors, which are responsible for successful embryo development, is thus crucial in designing possible molecular therapies for infertility intervention. However, systematic evaluation of molecular targets has been hampered by the lack of techniques for efficient delivery of molecules into embryos. We have developed an automated robotic microinjection system for delivering cell impermeable compounds into preimplantation embryos with a high post-injection survival rate. In this paper, we report the performance of the system on microinjection of mouse embryos. Furthermore, using this system we provide the first evidence that recombinant BCL-XL (recBCL-XL protein is effective in preventing early embryo arrest imposed by suboptimal culture environment. We demonstrate that microinjection of recBCL-XL protein into early-stage embryos repairs mitochondrial bioenergetics, prevents reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, and enhances preimplantation embryo development. This approach may lead to a possible treatment option for patients with repeated in vitro fertilization (IVF failure due to poor embryo quality.

  5. Near-infrared laser irradiation improves the development of mouse pre-implantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Masaki; Mori, Miho

    2017-05-27

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx. 73 h after culture) were irradiated at 904 nm for 60 s. These embryos were cultured in a time-lapse monitoring system and the timing of blastocyst hatching was evaluated. Some of the irradiated blastocysts were transferred to the uterine horns of pseudopregnant recipients immediately after irradiation. Pregnancy rates, and offspring growth and fertility, were evaluated. Near-infrared laser irradiation increased the speed of in vitro mouse embryo development. In irradiated blastocysts, hatching was faster than in control (non-irradiated) blastocysts (18.4 vs. 28.2 h, P embryo development in vitro, and increases the live birth rate without affecting the normality of the offspring. Thus, the near-infrared laser method may enhance the quality of embryos and contribute to improvements in reproductive technologies in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Well-of-the-Well system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Korösi, Tamás; Du, Yutao; Nakata, Kumiko; Ieda, Shoko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2008-07-01

    Transfer of human embryos at the blastocyst stage may offer considerable benefits including an increased implantation rate and a decreased risk of multiple pregnancies; however, blastocyst culture requires an efficient and reliable in-vitro embryo culture system. In this study, the effect of the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species, including humans. The WOW system resulted in significant improvement when comparing the drops for culture of in-vitro-matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes, and in-vivo-derived mouse zygotes. In human embryos, using a sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW developed to the blastocyst stage in a significantly higher proportion than did embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P WOW system or in microdrops. Transferable quality blastocyst development (48.9% of cultured zygotes) was observed in the WOW system. Ninety-four blastocysts transferred to 45 patients resulted in clinical pregnancy rates of 48.9%, including nine twin pregnancies, seven single pregnancies, five miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy. The results indicate that the WOW system provides a promising alternative for microdrop culture of mammalian embryos, including human embryos.

  7. A Simple Method for Transportation of Mouse Embryos Using Microtubes and a Warm Box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Tokoro

    Full Text Available Generally, transportation of preimplantation embryos without freezing requires incubators that can maintain an optimal culture environment with a suitable gas phase, temperature, and humidity. Such incubators are expensive to transport. We reported previously that normal offspring were obtained when the gas phase and temperature could be maintained during transportation. However, that system used plastic dishes for embryo culture and is unsuitable for long-distance transport of live embryos. Here, we developed a simple low-cost embryo transportation system. Instead of plastic dishes, several types of microtubes-usually used for molecular analysis-were tested for embryo culture. When they were washed and attached to a gas-permeable film, the rate of embryo development from the 1-cell to blastocyst stage was more than 90%. The quality of these blastocysts and the rate of full-term development after embryo transfer to recipient female mice were similar to those of a dish-cultured control group. Next, we developed a small warm box powered by a battery instead of mains power, which could maintain an optimal temperature for embryo development during transport. When 1-cell embryos derived from BDF1, C57BL/6, C3H/He and ICR mouse strains were transported by a parcel-delivery service over 3 days using microtubes and the box, they developed to blastocysts with rates similar to controls. After the embryos had been transferred into recipient female mice, healthy offspring were obtained without any losses except for the C3H/He strain. Thus, transport of mouse embryos is possible using this very simple method, which might prove useful in the field of reproductive medicine.

  8. The chicken embryo and its micro environment during egg storage and early incubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2008-01-01

    When egg storage periods are prolonged (>7 days), hatchability and chick quality declines. The reason for this decline has been investigated, but is still not completely understood. At oviposition the developmental stage of the chicken embryo varies and so do the total number of viable cells.

  9. Low Light During Grain Filling Stage Deteriorates Rice Cooking Quality, but not Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng-gang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low light (LL, 50% natural light during grain filling (GF stage on rice transamination, amino acid (AA accumulation, nutritional value, and cooking quality in three different rice genotypes, transaminase activities and AA levels in grains during GF stage and the traits that significantly affected rice quality (physical appearance, cooking quality, and nutritional value were analyzed. LL did not disturb transamination in rice grains during GF stage, as minimal impact was found on alanine and aspartate transaminase activities. Nevertheless, most AAs in caryopses, including lysine and threonine, increased in response to LL, except for sulfur-containing AAs. These results suggest that AA metabolism and accumulation in rice grains were rarely suppressed by LL during GF stage. Rice nutritional ingredients at harvest, such as major protein components including glutelin and most important essential amino acids (EAAs including lysine and threonine, increased significantly in response to LL, whereas most protein and EAA ratios were rarely affected. However, LL markedly affected physical appearance of rice grains by reducing brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and 1000-grain weight and increasing the chalkiness rate. In addition, cooking qualities decreased in response to LL, while breakdown values and amylose levels decreased and setback values increased. We concluded that LL during GF stage decreased the cooking quality of rice, but could potentially improve the nutritional value of rice.

  10. Estádios de desenvolvimento embrionário e localização do embrião zigótico em sementes de citros Embryo development stage and the location of embryo zygotic in the seed of citrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o comportamento de embriões zigóticos e nucelares aos 120, 130, 140 e 150 dias após serem efetuadas hibridações controladas entre a laranjeira 'Natal' (Citrus sinensis Osb. e o parental masculino Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Em cada data, as sementes foram removidas, e os embriões excisados foram caracterizados em estádios de desenvolvimento (globular, cordiforme, torpedo e cotiledonar; coloração (clorofilado ou não; e localização na semente (próximo à micrópila ou mais interiormente. A partir dessas características, foram construídas tabelas de contingência para testar hipóteses de independência entre elas, mediante o teste exato de Fisher e chi² (qui-quadrado. Relações de dependência foram verificadas entre as características: estádios de desenvolvimento embrionário com a localização na semente; estádios de desenvolvimento embrionário com a natureza da plântula (zigótica ou nucelar; e entre natureza da plântula com a localização do embrião na semente. Verificou-se que os embriões zigóticos excisados de frutos com 130 a 150 dias da hibridação controlada, localizam-se, em grande maioria, próximos à região micropilar da semente, em estádio globular e cordiforme de desenvolvimento.Controlled hybridizations between 'Natal' orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osb. and male parent Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. were performed in order to study zygotic and nucellar embryos behaviour at 120, 130, 140 and 150 days. At very date the seeds were removed and the embryos excised to characterize: development stage (globular, cordiform, torpedo and cotyledonal; colour (with or without chlorophyll; and location in the seed (close to the micropyle or more internal in the seed. From these characteristics contingency tables were evaluated to test independency hypothesis through Fisher test and chi² (chi-square. Dependence relationships were observed between the following characteristics: stages of the

  11. Risk identification for quality on stage of pharmaceutical development of combined eye drops for glaucoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Миколайович Якубчук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the possible risks associated with critical quality attribute of combined eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma using of common risk evaluation methodologies for plannig a drug quality on the stage of pharmaceutical development. Methods: The paper used method of causal analysis. The maximal number of factors has been define to identify potential factors that provide most significant impact on the drug quality and Ishikawa diagram - graphical representation of causes and effects has been built.Results: Analysis allowed to organize the possible factors affecting the drug quality in the generalized categories: quality control methods, medicines and excipients, primary packaging, proper manufacturing conditions and the stage of the process. The most important factors that are carriers of the risk factors and may lead to negative effects have been identified for the generalized categories.Conclusions: Determined at the stage of pharmaceutical development potential critical quality attribute of AFI, excipients and primary packaging, critical parameters of the process, provide a better understanding, reduction and adoption of risk in subsequent stages of the life cycle of the drug

  12. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Xie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2 were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N content (p<0.05 of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05 and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.

  13. Role of melatonin in embryo fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Zygouropoulos, N; Zahiu, C D; Zagrean, A M

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine produced by the pineal gland and secreted in a circadian manner. In the past few decades, research over this topic has been enhanced. Melatonin has many important roles in the human physiology: regulator of the circadian rhythms, sleep inducer, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic. This paper reviews the involvement of melatonin in embryo fetal development. The pineal gland develops completely postpartum, so both the embryo and the fetus are dependent on the maternal melatonin provided transplacentally. Melatonin appears to be involved in the normal outcome of pregnancy beginning with the oocyte quality and finishing with the parturition. Its pregnancy night-time concentrations increase after 24 weeks of gestation, with significantly high levels after 32 weeks. Melatonin receptors are widespread in the embryo and fetus since early stages. There is solid evidence that melatonin is neuroprotective and has a positive effect on the outcome of the compromised pregnancies. In addition, chronodisruption leads to a reproductive dysfunction. Thus, the influence of melatonin on the developing human fetus may not be limited to the entertaining of circadian rhythmicity, but further studies are needed.

  14. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes correlate with development rate of buffalo oocytes and embryos in vitro under low oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Verma, Arpana; Kumar, Manish; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effect of low oxygen conditions (5 Vs 20%) on buffalo embryo development. Expression patterns of key glucose metabolism genes (HK, PFK, LDH, PDH, G6PDH and Glut1) were assessed in buffalo oocytes and embryos cultured at 5 and 20% oxygen and correlated with development rate. Maturation rate was observed by determining MII stages by Aceto-orcein method and blastocyst formation was observed at 7 day post insemination (dpi). Expression levels of genes were determined by real time PCR in oocytes / embryos at 5 and 20% O2. Oocyte maturation and blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 5% O2 as compared to 20% O2 (P embryos under 5% O2 tend to follow anaerobic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways to support optimum embryo development. Under 20% O2, oocytes and embryos had high expression of PDH indicating higher oxidative phosphorylation. Further, less G6PDH expression at 20% O2 was indicative of lower pentose phosphate activity. Higher expression of LDH was observed in oocytes and embryos under 20% O2 indicating sub-optimal culture conditions. High Glut1 activity was observed in the oocytes / embryos at 5% O2, indicative of high glucose uptake correlating with high expression of glycolytic genes. The expression patterns of glucose metabolism genes could be a valuable indicator of the development potential of oocytes and embryos. The study indicates the importance of reduced oxygen conditions for production of good quality embryos.

  15. The effect of follicle size and homogeneity of follicular development on the morphokinetics of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Semra; Cetinkaya, Caroline Pirkevi; Cetinkaya, Murat; Yelke, Hakan; Colakoglu, Yesim Kumtepe; Aygun, Melih; Montag, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate follicular size (large, ≥17 mm and small, development (homogenous development: follicles being present in a homogenous spread of all sizes; heterogeneous: a predominance of small and large follicles) by analysing the morphokinetics of embryo development. In this prospective cohort study, 2526 COCs belonging to 187 patients were cultured to day 5. Embryos were evaluated morphokinetically. Four subgroups were defined: large follicles from heterogeneous cycles (LHet) and homogenous cycles (LHom) and small follicles from heterogeneous cycles (SHet) and homogenous cycles (SHom). Rates of fertilization, blastocyst formation and top and good quality blastocysts were found to be significantly higher in embryos from the LHom group (p Embryos from SHet had significantly more direct cleavages (p = 0.011). Time to reach blastocyst was shorter in SHom than LHet and LHom (p = 0.002; p = 0.027, respectively). However, once the blastocyst stage was achieved, implantation rates were not significantly different between subgroups, the highest rate being observed in the LHom group. Multivariable analysis revealed that homogeneity of follicular development and follicular size had a significant effect on blastocyst development and quality (p = 0.049; p development, influence early human embryo development. Patterns of follicular growth have an impact on embryo quality and viability which is reflected in morphokinetic variables.

  16. Future aspects of micromanipualtion with embryos for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo micromanipulation techniques and their potential genetic impact in dairy cattle are discussed. In addition, some aspects of gene transfer are mentioned. Only the technique of splitting bovine embryos and the subsequent transfer of halfembryos has reached a stage which might make its application to cattle breeding ...

  17. Desempenho de diferentes estádios embrionários no cultivo in vitro de embriões de 'Pêra Rio' x 'Poncã' Perfomance of different embryo stage of sweet orange x mandarin cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar qual o melhor estádio embrionário para o cultivo de embriões imaturos oriundos de frutos provenientes de hibridação entre 'Pêra Rio' x 'Poncã' , bem como o efeito de diferentes concentrações do meio de cultura MT. Os embriões em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento (globulares, torpedo e cordiforme foram excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio MT com diferentes concentrações (0; 50; 100 e 150% da composição original e acrescido de 50 g.L-1 de sacarose. Após a inoculação, os embriões foram incubados à 27±1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 mmol.m-2.s-1. Após 90 dias, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa fresca e número de folhas das plântulas. Melhor desenvolvimento dos embriões imaturos foi obtido em estádio cotiledonar e com a concentração de 150% do meio MT.Embryos obtained from Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Pêra Rio' x Citrus reticulata Blanco 'Poncã' crossings were excised in diverse phases of development and cultivated in different medium concentrations. Embryos in globular, torped and cotiledonary stage were excised and inoculated individually in test tubes with 15 mL in distinct MT medium concentrations (0; 50; 100 and 150% of original composition and added sucrose (50 g.L-1. After inoculation, the embryos were maintained in growth room at 27±1ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 32 umol.m-2.s-1 irradiance. After 90 days, the length of the aerial part and roots system, fresh mass and number of leaves, were evaluated. The best results were obtained by incubating embryos in the cotiledonary stage, in MT medium with concentrations of 150%.

  18. A prospective randomized comparison of early embryo cleavage kinetics between two media culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Yonggen; Ye, Danna; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether early embryo cleavage kinetics were affected by type of culture media. Methods: In this prospective sibling-split study, 620 oocytes from 37 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: Cook group and Vitrolife group. Oocytes/embryos in Cook group, would be cultured with Cook sequential culture medium, while oocytes/embryos in Vitrolife group, would be cultured with Vitrolife sequential culture medium. Time-lapse imaging technology was used to calculate exact timing of early embryo cleavage events which included time to 2PN breakdown, cleavage to 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- cell and the time duration in the 2-,3-cell stage. Then these timing of early embryo cleavage events were compared between Cook group and Vitrolife group. Moreover, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, high quality embryo rate, usable blastocyst rate, pregnancy rate and implantation rate of these two groups were also analyzed. Results: The results showed there were no differences in all timing of early embryo cleavage events between the two groups. In addition, the two groups were similar in fertilization rate (Cook 71.0% vs. Vitrolife 71.3%, P>0.05), cleavage rate (Cook 98.1% vs. Vitrolife 98.2%, P>0.05), high quality embryo rate (Cook 52.1% vs. Vitrolife 52.7%, P>0.05), usable blastocyst rate (Cook 29.7% vs. Vitrolife 28.0%, P>0.05), pregnancy rate (Cook 46.7% VS. Vitrolife 50.0%, P>0.05) and implantation rate (Cook 30.3% VS. Vitrolife 29.0%, P>0.05). Conclusions: Morphokinetics used for embryo selection are not affected by the two different culture media. PMID:28083029

  19. Clinical approach to quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Min Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life in addition to various medical problems in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) should be objectively assessed to accomplish normal growth and development during childhood. However, unfortunately, studies of quality of life (QoL) in children with ESRD have been not popular yet and there are only fewer suitable assessment tools compared with adults. Recently, disease-specific modules to evaluate QoL in children with chronic disease such as ESRD have been developed. This...

  20. Timing embryo biopsy for PGD - before or after cryopreservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, S; Kornecki, N; Schwartz, T; Mey-Raz, N; Amir, H; Almog, B; Shavit, T; Hasson, J

    2016-09-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is required in order to screen and diagnose embryos of patients at risk of having a genetically affected offspring. A biopsy to diagnose the genetic profile of the embryo may be performed either before or after cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to determine which biopsy timing yields higher embryo survival rates. Retrospective cohort study of all PGD patients in a public IVF unit between 2010 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were patients with good-quality embryos available for cryopreservation by the slow freezing method. Embryos were divided into two groups: biopsy before and biopsy after cryopreservation. The primary outcome was embryo survival rates post thawing. Sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. 145 embryos were biopsied before cryopreservation and 228 embryos were cryopreserved and biopsied after thawing. Embryo survival was significantly greater in the latter group (77% vs. 68%, p Cryopreservation preceding biopsy results in better embryo survival compared to biopsy before cryopreservation.

  1. Three-stage quality control strategies for DNA re-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Quanghu; Clark, Travis; Samuels, David C

    2014-11-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have greatly improved our ability to detect genomic variants for biomedical research. In particular, NGS technologies have been recently applied with great success to the discovery of mutations associated with the growth of various tumours and in rare Mendelian diseases. The advance in NGS technologies has also created significant challenges in bioinformatics. One of the major challenges is quality control of the sequencing data. In this review, we discuss the proper quality control procedures and parameters for Illumina technology-based human DNA re-sequencing at three different stages of sequencing: raw data, alignment and variant calling. Monitoring quality control metrics at each of the three stages of NGS data provides unique and independent evaluations of data quality from differing perspectives. Properly conducting quality control protocols at all three stages and correctly interpreting the quality control results are crucial to ensure a successful and meaningful study. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of different ripening stages on walnut kernel quality: antioxidant activities, lipid characterization and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Furheen; Masoodi, F A; Baba, Waqas N; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Packing tissue between and around the kernel halves just turning brown (PTB) is a phenological indicator of kernel ripening at harvest in walnuts. The effect of three ripening stages (Pre-PTB, PTB and Post-PTB) on kernel quality characteristics, mineral composition, lipid characterization, sensory analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity were investigated in fresh kernels of indigenous numbered walnut selection of Kashmir valley "SKAU-02". Proximate composition, physical properties and sensory analysis of walnut kernels showed better results for Pre-PTB and PTB while higher mineral content was seen for kernels at Post-PTB stage in comparison to other stages of ripening. Kernels showed significantly higher levels of Omega-3 PUFA (C18:3 n3 ) and low n6/n3 ratio when harvested at Pre-PTB and PTB stages. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at the first stage of ripening and a steady decrease was observed at later stages. TBARS values increased as ripening advanced but did not show any significant difference in malonaldehyde formation during early ripening stages whereas it showed marked increase in walnut kernels at post-PTB stage. Walnut extracts inhibited growth of Gram-positive bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus ) with respective MICs of 1, 1 and 5 mg/mL and gram negative bacteria ( E. coli, P. and K. pneumonia ) with MIC of 100 mg/mL. Zone of inhibition obtained against all the bacterial strains from walnut kernel extracts increased with increase in the stage of ripening. It is concluded that Pre-PTB harvest stage with higher antioxidant activities, better fatty acid profile and consumer acceptability could be preferred harvesting stage for obtaining functionally superior walnut kernels.

  3. Cognitive adaptation theory and quality of life in late-stage cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Heidi Fowell; Weis, Jo M; Fouad, Nadya A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the question of whether using slightly illusionary, positive attributions of self, control, and meaning (e.g., cognitive adaptation theory), in the face of disconfirmatory evidence, facilitates quality of life in late-stage cancer patients was examined. Eighty late-stage cancer patients (Mean age = 59.7, SD = 12.5; 48.8% male, 51.2% female; varying cancer diagnoses) who recently failed or refused first line anti-neoplastic treatment completed questionnaires assessing meaning, control, self-esteem, and optimism, as well as physical and psychological quality of life. Findings suggest that greater self-esteem, control, and meaning predicted physical and psychological quality of life, with physical quality of life being influenced by control beliefs and psychological quality of life influenced by self-esteem. Optimism independently predicted physical quality of life and neither mediated nor moderated the relationship between cognitive adaptation and quality of life. Findings suggest that slightly positive, illusionary beliefs of self, control, and meaning predicted quality of life even in the presence of clear, disconfirmatory environmental evidence.

  4. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  5. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  6. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  7. The networked instructor: The quality of networks in different stages of professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Heldens, Henderijn; Donche, V.; van Petegem, P.; van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quality of instructional networks in different stages of professional development. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and literature on teacher interaction, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 instructors at the university level. Using qualitative

  8. The networked instructor : The quality of networks in different stages of professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Heldens, Henderijn H P F; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quality of instructional networks in different stages of professional development. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and literature on teacher interaction, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 instructors at the university level. Using qualitative

  9. Impact of ripening stage and drying on selected quality attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of ripening stage and drying on selected quality attributes of apple mango cubes and leathers. ... Analysis of total carotenoids, ascorbic acid content and colour was done for all dried samples, followed by sensory evaluation using the nine-point hedonic scale. The moisture content, crude ash and total soluble solids ...

  10. 76 FR 20910 - Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Stage I Vapor Recovery Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Engineer, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), Environmental Protection Agency, Region... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0545; FRL-9295-2] Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Stage I Vapor Recovery Rule AGENCY: Environmental...

  11. Mouse embryos cultured in amniotic fluid | Oettle | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryos were cultured for 72 hours at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide in air. Osmolarity, pH, partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure and HCO; were checked before culture and again at the end of culture. Embryos were assessed according to the stage of development, namely degenerate embryos, morulae and blastocysts.

  12. Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles as models for testing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of bio available Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the life stages of Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles was investigated. Cu and Cd were found to affect the hatching success of the embryos, with a strong negative relationship existing between the increase in Cu concentrations and the hatching of the embryos.

  13. Superovulation and embryo recovery in Boer goats treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lehloenya

    These pregnancy rates obtained were also indicative of an acceptable procedure of embryo transfer used in this trial. The differences obtained could also be attributed to the stage of development of the embryos, as in this trial blastocysts were used. In most trials transferable embryos (morulae and blastocysts) were used.

  14. Challenges and barriers to managing quality in an end-stage renal disease facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanValkenburgh, D; Snyder, S

    1994-08-01

    The End-Stage Renal Disease Program is underfunded and overregulated. Objective parameters of end points of care do not correlate to specific clinical practice patterns. We do not have consensus between payers, providers, and patients as to what the objectives of the End-Stage Renal Disease Program are or should be. This report will address the need for an integrated health care delivery system that would benefit the end-stage renal disease patient and the barriers to designing such a system. The quality improvement program of a five-unit dialysis system will be described. The deficiencies of the quality improvement program and the limitation of the facilities to improve outcome will be discussed, and constructive alternatives to achieve an integrated health care delivery system that promotes improvement in patient outcomes will be suggested.

  15. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation......, aggregation was made with HMC embryos cloned using EGFP transgenic cells; the cell contribution in the formation of the inner cell mass or trophectoderm was random in chimeric blastocysts. Finally, two blastomeres from 2-cell stage embryos were fused to construct tetraploid embryos, and when diploid...

  16. Quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients: progression markers of mild to moderate stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raissa Carla; Zonta, Marise Bueno; Araújo, Ana Paula Serra de; Israel, Vera Lúcia; Teive, Hélio A G

    2017-08-01

    To investigate which factors are associated with the quality of life decline in Parkinson's disease patients from mild to moderate stages. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 were used to evaluate clinical/functional data and the quality of life. The markers of clinical/functional worsening were drooling (p life was related to stigma (p = 0.043), greater impairment in cognition (p = 0.002), mobility (p = 0.013) and for daily living activities (p = 0.05), and was considered more significant in men, married, older individuals, and those with a longer time of disease. The quality of life worsening markers at the moderate stage were related to stigma, worsening of cognition, and to greater impairment in mobility and daily living activities.

  17. Differences in embryo quality are associated with differences in oocyte composition: a proteomic study in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin J; Taher, Leila; Drexler, Hannes; Suzuki, Yutaka; Makałowski, Wojciech; Schwarzer, Caroline; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Current models of early mouse development assign roles to stochastic processes and epigenetic regulation, which are considered to be as influential as the genetic differences that exist between strains of the species Mus musculus. The aim of this study was to test whether mouse oocytes vary from each other in the abundance of gene products that could influence, prime, or even predetermine developmental trajectories and features of derivative embryos. Using the paradigm of inbred mouse strains, we quantified 2010 protein groups (SILAC LC-MS/MS) and 15205 transcripts (RNA deep sequencing) present simultaneously in oocytes of four strains tested (129/Sv, C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeN, DBA/2J). Oocytes differed according to donor strain in the abundance of catalytic and regulatory proteins, as confirmed for a subset (bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B [BAZ1B], heme oxygenase 1 [HMOX1], estrogen related receptor, beta [ESRRB]) via immunofluorescence in situ. Given a Pearson's r correlation coefficient of 0.18-0.20, the abundance of oocytic proteins could not be predicted from that of cognate mRNAs. Our results document that a prerequisite to generate embryo diversity, namely the different abundances of maternal proteins in oocytes, can be studied in the model of inbred mouse strains. Thus, we highlight the importance of proteomic quantifications in modern embryology. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001059 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001059). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Automated synthesis of photovoltaic-quality colloidal quantum dots using separate nucleation and growth stages

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2013-11-26

    As colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronic devices continue to improve, interest grows in the scaled-up and automated synthesis of high-quality materials. Unfortunately, all reports of record-performance CQD photovoltaics have been based on small-scale batch syntheses. Here we report a strategy for flow reactor synthesis of PbS CQDs and prove that it leads to solar cells having performance similar to that of comparable batch-synthesized nanoparticles. Specifically, we find that, only when using a dual-temperature-stage flow reactor synthesis reported herein, are the CQDs of sufficient quality to achieve high performance. We use a kinetic model to explain and optimize the nucleation and growth processes in the reactor. Compared to conventional single-stage flow-synthesized CQDs, we achieve superior quality nanocrystals via the optimized dual-stage reactor, with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) and narrow full width-half-maximum. The dual-stage flow reactor approach, with its versatility and rapid screening of multiple parameters, combined with its efficient materials utilization, offers an attractive path to automated synthesis of CQDs for photovoltaics and, more broadly, active optoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.; Ramirez, E.

    2007-01-01

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [es

  20. White communicating rami in human embryos at the end of the fifth week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruska, M; Łupicka, J; Pytel, A; Woźniak, W

    2010-05-01

    White communicating rami were traced in 8 human embryos of developmental stages 14 and 15 (aged 33 and 36 postovulatory days, respectively). In embryos at stage 14 the white communicating rami were found in the spinal nerves T1 to T9. In embryos at stage 15 the white communicating rami were present at the spinal cord levels T1 to L3.

  1. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  2. Development of the Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuma; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishimaru, Daiki; Uematsu, Masayasu; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Until now, there has been no instrument to measure the quality of life (QoL) of patients with severe dementia in Japan. The purpose of this study was to translate the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version (QUALID-J). We translated the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia into Japanese with permission from the original authors. We assessed a total of 70 dementia patients (14 men, 56 women; mean age: 87.4 ± 7.9 years) with the QUALID-J. The test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the QUALID-J was significant. With regard to the criterion-related validity, the correlation coefficient for the total score between the QUALID-J and Quality of Life for Alzheimer's Disease was -0.287 (P quality of life scale for severe dementia. This scale finally enables an adequate assessment of the quality of life of patients with severe dementia in Japan, which has not been possible until now. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Changes in the nutritional quality of five Mangifera species harvested at two maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Gámez, Ignacio; Caballero Montoya, Karla P; Ledesma, Noris; Sáyago Ayerdi, Sonia G; García Magaña, María de Lourdes; Bishop von Wettberg, Eric J; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2017-11-01

    There are 69 species of edible Mangifera recognized in Southeast Asia. Most of these species have not been characterized for nutritional properties. This paper describes the nutritional quality of the pulp of several Mangifera species - Mangifera casturi, Mangifera lalijiwa, Mangifera odorata, Mangifera zeylanica and two cultivars of Mangifera indica, 'Tommy-Kent' and 'Tommy Atkins' - at two maturity stages. The results showed that nutritional quality varied with maturity stage and among species. The immature pulp of all species had higher content of total dietary fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, total soluble polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. In mature pulp, the protein, ash, fat, soluble carbohydrate and B vitamin values were higher in all species. The species with the best nutritional quality were, in order from highest to lowest, M. casturi, M. odorata, M. zeylanica, M. indica cultivars and M. lalijiwa. The fruit pulp of three species had higher nutritional quality at both maturity stages in comparison with M. indica cultivars. These other Mangifera species can be nutritionally important in communities facing food insecurity and have potential as emerging crops. The decline of these valuable species in their natural habitats is an increasing concern, and their nutritional properties justify greater efforts to protect them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  5. Embryo quality of mice (“Mus musculus” fed royal jelly Qualidade embrionária de camundongos ("Mus musculus" suplementados com geléia real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Edésio dos Santos Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to verify the effect of feeding royal jelly associated to follicle growth induction on number and quality of mice (Mus musculus embryos. Sixty Swiss females ageing from eight to ten weeks were distributed into three treatments: the first one, composed by animals fed 0.2 mL of physiological solution intraperitoneal (control group, n=20; the second and third ones, composed by females fed 0.5 and 1.0 mg of royal jelly diluted in 0.2 mL of physiological solution (n=20, respectively. Royal jelly was administered during 15 days, followed by the follicular growth induction process. Embryos were collected 68 hours after mating, by uterine flushing. No treatment effects on the number of females that answered to superovulatory process, the number of total recovery structures, the number of viable and non viable structures and the morphological quality of viable embryos (P>0.05 were observed. Therefore, royal jelly doses used were not efficient to increase the number of embryos and to improve the quality recovery from superovulated mice.Objetivou-se verificar a influência da geléia real, associada ao tratamento de indução de crescimento folicular, no número e na qualidade de embriões de camundongos (Mus musculus. Foram utilizadas 60 fêmeas da linhagem Suíço albino com idade entre oito e dez semanas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: o primeiro, composto por animais que receberam 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica, via intraperitonial (grupo controle, n=20; o segundo e terceiro, compostos de fêmeas que receberam 0,5 e 1 mg de geléia real diluídos em 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica via intraperitonial (n=20, respectivamente. Foi administrada geléia real por um período de 15 dias, segundo o processo de indução do crescimento folicular. As coletas dos embriões ocorreram 68 horas após a cobertura, utilizando-se o método da lavagem uterina. Não houve diferença no número de fêmeas que responderam ao tratamento

  6. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne

    2007-01-01

    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  7. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kempisty

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and quality of embryos (r=0.22, P=0.076. We suggest that fertilin beta and

  8. Quality of life of cancer patients - definition, stages of survival and factors of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the review is to represent the state of assessment of quality of life of cancer patients in the investigation of different authors. It is important to know the basic ideas of quality of life during the complex treatment of cancer patients, in order to choose such methods that will lead to an improvement of their living. The definition of the concept 'quality of life', the stages that patients pass and the influencing factors should be familiar to the therapists. Today patients live longer after a complex treatment - it is important how and what challenges they are facing together with their relatives and the medical staff. The attempts to define and measure the quality of life of cancer patients date from the last ten years. This is a social demand to get such medical care, which should be at a certain level leading not only to a longer survival but this life to be of a higher quality. The patients' perceptions and preferences concerning quality of life must be given greater emphasis in cancer treatment decision making which will better his state after a competent explanation of therapists. A quality of life of every patient is as an individual problem as a part of the social health. A classification of the problem of quality of life will enlarge the oncological therapeutic concept

  9. To delay or not to delay a frozen embryo transfer after a failed fresh embryo transfer attempt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Siffain, Johannie; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; van de Vijver, Arne; van Landuyt, Lisbet; Stoop, Dominic; Tournaye, Herman; Blockeel, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate if increasing the interval between a failed fresh embryo transfer and a subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle has any effect on clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based tertiary referral center. Women who underwent at least one FET after ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and a failed fresh embryo transfer attempt from January 2010 to November 2014. We divided our sample according to the "timing" of the first FET (TF-FET), defined by the interval between oocyte retrieval and the FET cycle start date. The start of the FET was classified as either immediate (≤22 days after oocyte retrieval) or delayed (>22 days after oocyte retrieval). None. CPR after the first FET. A total of 1,183 FET cycles (performed in 1,087 women) were included in our study. No significant differences were found between the immediate and delayed FET groups regarding age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of good-quality embryos produced, embryo developmental stage at FET, and number of frozen embryos transferred. Most importantly, the CPRs of the first FET did not differ significantly according to the TF-FET (32.5% after immediate FET vs. 31.7% after delayed FET), even after adjusting for potential confounding with the use of multivariable logistic regression. FETs performed immediately after fresh IVF cycles had CPRs similar to those postponed to a later time. Therefore, deferring FETs may unnecessarily prolong time to pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment.

  11. Clinical approach to quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Quality of life in addition to various medical problems in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) should be objectively assessed to accomplish normal growth and development during childhood. However, unfortunately, studies of quality of life (QoL) in children with ESRD have been not popular yet and there are only fewer suitable assessment tools compared with adults. Recently, disease-specific modules to evaluate QoL in children with chronic disease such as ESRD have been developed. This review was made to introduce these QoL instruments for children and help the clinical application of them.

  12. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  13. Modelling quality of fresh-cut tomato based on stage of maturity and storage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Lana, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed vegetables are those which have been trimmed and/or peeled and/or cut into 100% usable product and still maintain freshness. Contrary to other processing methods (freezing, canning and drying for example) the minimal processing operations reduce the shelf life in relation to the raw material (intact product).In this thesis the changes in quality of tomato fruits after cutting into transversal slices were analysed and quantified in relation to the stage of matu...

  14. One-stage breast reconstruction techniques in elderly patients to preserve quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccia, M; Mazzocchi, M; Dessy, L A; Onesti, M G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review one-stage breast reconstruction techniques performed in elderly patients at our institution to identify the criteria of selection of each in terms of outcomes and quality of life. Patients older than 65 years who underwent one-stage breast reconstruction between January 2004 and July 2014 at our hospital were included. Patients and procedure-related data were collected from the medical records. In particular, patient's age, comorbidities and related ASA physical status, type of one-stage breast reconstruction technique, and criteria of selection were analyzed. Outcomes and results were also evaluated in terms of quality of life using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and -BR23 questionnaires 1 year after surgery. A total of 840 women underwent breast reconstruction, of whom 138 elderly women received one-stage breast reconstruction. There were 118 cases (85.5%) of monolateral reconstructions and 20 cases (14.5%) of bilateral reconstructions, resulting in 138 breast reconstructions. These were performed with permanent inflatable expanders in the sub-muscular position (Group A, n= 50), with acellular dermal matrix and partial sub-muscular anatomic implant (Group B, n= 50), and with Braxon® acellular dermal matrix and anatomic implant with muscle-sparing technique (Group C, n= 38). The EORTC questionnaires showed the best results in Group C regarding the quality of life. The elderly population is rapidly increasing, and 50% of all breast cancers occur in women older than 65 years; among them, only 2% undergo breast reconstruction. A major aspect of breast cancer treatment and subsequent quality of life is the opportunity for a post-mastectomy reconstructive surgery. As survival rates are improving, a larger proportion of patients live with the long-term consequences of their treatment, and breast reconstruction ensures a better quality of life. To increase the reconstruction rates, surgery should be one-stage, less invasive as possible, allowing

  15. Nutrition and maternal metabolic health in relation to oocyte and embryo quality: critical views on what we learned from the dairy cow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jo L M R; Valckx, Sara D M; Jordaens, Lies; De Bie, Jessie; Desmet, Karolien L J; Van Hoeck, Veerle; Britt, Jack H; Marei, Waleed F; Bols, Peter E J

    2015-05-01

    Although fragmented and sometimes inconsistent, the proof of a vital link between the importance of the physiological status of the mother and her subsequent reproductive success is building up. High-yielding dairy cows are suffering from a substantial decline in fertility outcome over past decades. For many years, this decrease in reproductive output has correctly been considered multifactorial, with factors including farm management, feed ratios, breed and genetics and, last, but not least, ever-rising milk production. Because the problem is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach, it is hard to formulate straightforward conclusions leading to improvements on the 'work floor'. However, based on remarkable similarities on the preimplantation reproductive side between cattle and humans, there is a growing tendency to consider the dairy cow's negative energy balance and accompanying fat mobilisation as an interesting model to study the impact of maternal metabolic disorders on human fertility and, more specifically, on oocyte and preimplantation embryo quality. Considering the mutual interest of human and animal scientists studying common reproductive problems, this review has several aims. First, we briefly introduce the 'dairy cow case' by describing the state of the art of research into metabolic imbalances and their possible effects on dairy cow reproduction. Second, we try to define relevant in vitro models that can clarify certain mechanisms by which aberrant metabolite levels may influence embryonic health. We report on recent advances in the assessment of embryo metabolism and meantime critically elaborate on advantages and major limitations of in vitro models used so far. Finally, we discuss hurdles to be overcome to successfully translate the scientific data to the field.

  16. Mouse embryos cultured In amnIotIc fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouse embryos are used as a monitor of human in vicro fertilisation (IVF) culture conditions. Embryo culture media are often complicated solutions requiring careful monitoring to ensure uniformity for successful embryo culture.1-3 Much of the quality control is outside the scope of the IVF laboratory, for example the source of ...

  17. Medicaid Stage 1 Meaningful Use EHR Incentive Payments Are Associated With Higher Quality but Not Improvements in Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspan, Zachary M; Bao, Yuhua; Edwards, Alison; Johnson, Phyllis; Kaushal, Rainu; Kern, Lisa M

    This was a retrospective cohort study of ambulatory care quality by physicians who received payment for Medicaid Stage 1 Meaningful Use (MU) in 2012 using New York State Medicaid Claims (2010-2013). Eight quality measures were used to compare performance of physicians who received payments to Adopt, Implement, or Use (AIU) an electronic health record in 2011 but not for MU in 2012 (AIU-only group) and physicians who cared for Medicaid patients but received no payments (no-incentive group), using propensity score-weighted difference-in-difference logistic regression analyses, clustering by physician. In all, 13 697 physicians and 913 476 patients were studied. In 2010, the MU group scored higher than both groups (vs AIU-only in 3 of 8 measures, 0.8-1.3 adjusted percentage points; vs no-incentive, 2 of 8 measures, 0.9-2.0 adjusted percentage points). The difference-in-difference analysis found no additional improvements in quality over time relative to either control group. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the effects of Stage 2 MU.

  18. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies of the chorion, plasma membrane and syncytial layers of the gastrula-stage embryo of the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio : a consideration of the structural and functional relationships with respect to cryoprotectant penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawson, DM; Zhang, T; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    The structure of the chorion and plasma membranes of gastrula-stage zebrafish Brachydanio rerio embryos were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These studies confirm the outer chorion membrane complex to be 1.5-2.5 mu m in

  19. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients: progression markers of mild to moderate stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Carla Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate which factors are associated with the quality of life decline in Parkinson’s disease patients from mild to moderate stages. Methods The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 were used to evaluate clinical/functional data and the quality of life. Results The markers of clinical/functional worsening were drooling (p < 0.004, need for assistance with hygiene (p = 0.02, greater freezing frequency (p = 0.042, bradykinesia (p = 0.031, greater intensity of the resting tremor (p = 0.035 and “pill rolling” (p = 0.001. The decline in quality of life was related to stigma (p = 0.043, greater impairment in cognition (p = 0.002, mobility (p = 0.013 and for daily living activities (p = 0.05, and was considered more significant in men, married, older individuals, and those with a longer time of disease. Conclusions The quality of life worsening markers at the moderate stage were related to stigma, worsening of cognition, and to greater impairment in mobility and daily living activities.

  1. Retinoic acid signalling in the zebrafish embryo is necessary during pre-segmentation stages to pattern the anterior-posterior axis of the CNS and to induce a pectoral fin bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Lun, Klaus; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Rhinn, Muriel; Piotrowski, Tatjana; Houart, Corinne; Sordino, Paolo; Küchler, Axel M; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Geisler, Robert; Holder, Nigel; Wilson, Stephen W; Brand, Michael

    2002-06-01

    A number of studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) is an important signal for patterning the hindbrain, the branchial arches and the limb bud. Retinoic acid is thought to act on the posterior hindbrain and the limb buds at somitogenesis stages in chick and mouse embryos. Here we report a much earlier requirement for RA signalling during pre-segmentation stages for proper development of these structures in zebrafish. We present evidence that a RA signal is necessary during pre-segmentation stages for proper expression of the spinal cord markers hoxb5a and hoxb6b, suggesting an influence of RA on anteroposterior patterning of the neural plate posterior to the hindbrain. We report the identification and expression pattern of the zebrafish retinaldehyde dehydrogenase2 (raldh2/aldh1a2) gene. Raldh2 synthesises retinoic acid (RA) from its immediate precursor retinal. It is expressed in a highly ordered spatial and temporal fashion during gastrulation in the involuting mesoderm and during later embryogenesis in paraxial mesoderm, branchial arches, eyes and fin buds, suggesting the involvement of RA at different times of development in different functional contexts. Mapping of the raldh2 gene reveals close linkage to no-fin (nof), a newly discovered mutant lacking pectoral fins and cartilaginous gill arches. Cloning and functional tests of the wild-type and nof alleles of raldh2 reveal that nof is a raldh2 mutant. By treating nof mutants with RA during different time windows and by making use of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist, we show that RA signalling during pre-segmentation stages is necessary for anteroposterior patterning in the CNS and for fin induction to occur.

  2. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  3. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  4. Influence of irrigation during the growth stage on yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Guoyin; Liu, Debing; Chen, Yeyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65-70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency.

  5. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  6. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Ma, Fei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN), were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  7. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  8. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Holt, Bronno van der; Braat, Cora; Klaveren, Robertus J. van; Pattynama, Peter M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

  9. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Survival of embryo irradiated with gamma rays by embryo culture in Brassica pekinensis Rupr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moue, T.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the survival rates and embryonic development of Brassica pekinensis RUPR. (Varieties; Kashin, Kohai 65 nichi and kairyochitose) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to seek ways of increasing the survival rates of embryos such as B.oleracea obtained through embryo culture techniques after irradiation doses affecting seed fertility and germination, for the purpose of increasing mutation rates. Embryos at different developmental stages ranging from the globular to the early heart stages were irradiated with 20 KR of gamma rays at the daily rate 0L 20 KR or 10 KR (Fig.1 and Table 1). The embryos were excised from ovules 4 to 10 days after irradiation and cultured on White's medium. The shooting and rooting rates on the 34th day of culture were higher at the dose of 10 KR/day than 20 KR/day and were lower when the materials were irradiated at the young embryonic stage (Table 3). Varietal differences in the shooting and rooting rates were also observed. The irradiated embryos survived mainly in the state of callus. It was concluded that the embryo culture technique was successful when applied to irradiated embryos excised at the young embryonic stage and that the technique affected B.pekinensis less than B.oleracea

  11. Characteristics of pregnancies and offspring following transfer of bovine in vivo embryos assessed by nanorespirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Ana Sofia; Madsen, S E; Greve, Torben

    2008-01-01

    .05), with quality I embryos associated with heavier calves when compared to quality III embryos. Furthermore, light traction was more frequently used to retrieve heavier animals (P male calves were 3.2 kg heavier than females (P

  12. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes in relation to development rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Rajput, Sandeep; Verma, Arpana; De, Sachinandan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2013-11-01

    The expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH]) were studied in buffalo in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos cultured under different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 1.5 mM, 5.6 mM, and 10 mM) during in vitro maturation of oocytes and culture of IVF produced embryos. The expression of the genes varied significantly over the cleavage stages under different glucose concentrations. Developmental rate of embryos was highest under a constant glucose level (5.6 mM) throughout during maturation of oocytes and embryo culture. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes under optimum glucose level (5.6 mM) indicated that glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryonic stages (pre-maternal to zygotic transition [MZT]) and shifts to oxidative phosphorylation during post-MZT stages in buffalo embryos. Higher glucose level (10 mM) caused abrupt changes in gene expression and resulted in shifting toward anaerobic metabolism of glucose during post-MZT stages. This resulted in decreased development rate of embryos during post-MZT stages. High expression of LDH and PDH in the control groups (0 mM glucose) indicated that in absence of glucose, embryos try to use available pyruvate and lactate sources, but succumb to handle the post-MZT energy requirement, resulting to poor development rate. Expression pattern of G6PDH during oocyte maturation as well early embryonic development was found predictive of quality and development competence of oocytes/ embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stages of change and health-related quality of life among employees of an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2013-06-01

    Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. To examine the relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) was used to gather information on participants' HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro-Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. One way ANOVA and its non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF-12 scores with the stages of change. A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF-12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF-12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF-12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Stages of change and health‐related quality of life among employees of an institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. Objective  To examine the relationships between health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. Design  This was a cross‐sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Main variables studied: Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form‐12 health survey (SF‐12) was used to gather information on participants’ HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro‐Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. Statistical analysis: One way ANOVA and its non‐parametric equivalent Kruskal‐Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF‐12 scores with the stages of change. Results  A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF‐12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF‐12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. Conclusions  There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF‐12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. PMID:21645189

  15. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  16. Omics as a window to view embryo viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisher, Rebecca L; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2015-02-01

    The advent of advanced omics technologies and the application of these techniques to the analysis of extremely limited material have opened the door to the investigation of embryo physiology in a focused, in-depth approach never before possible. The application of noninvasive metabolomic and proteomic platforms to understanding embryo viability permits the characterization of individual embryos in culture. Initial clinical data have highlighted the promise of these technologies for the development of noninvasive embryo selection criteria. In this way, a complex view of embryo function can be compiled and related to embryo development, quality, and outcome. Application of knowledge gained from omics will transform both our understanding of embryo physiology as well as our ability to select viable embryos for transfer in assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengtong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’. At the mature stage, 26.1% of the ovules were abnormal. Most of the hybrid embryos could develop normally. Abortions mainly occurred at the zygote (9.5% and 2-4-celled embryo (15.1% stages. No germination was observed at 90 and 105 days after pollination (DAP, when the embryo was at the early globular stage, with abundant organelles but no storage materials. During 110-130 DAP, the globular embryo was formed and the starch grains began to accumulate in plastids. The hybrid seeds collected at 120 DAP showed initiation of germination. Germination significantly increased at 135 DAP and was maximal at 150 DAP, during which period the hybrid embryos developed into the late globular stage. The storage materials, i.e. lipid and protein bodies, began to accumulate and the filamentary structures derived from suspensor cells still persisted. After the seeds matured (160 DAP, the germination percentage declined sharply. Safranin staining revealed that the outer seed coat was totally cuticularized and the inner seed coat appeared as a cuticle layer enclosing the embryo proper tightly, which may be the main factor inhibiting the subsequent germination of hybrid seeds. In conclusion, 150 DAP should be the opportune time for the in vitro germination of C. faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’ hybrid seeds.

  18. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2004-01-01

     The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2003 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003 is called "water year 2003."

  19. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.L.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The location of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 1999 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999 is called "water year 1999."

  20. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    lead by Rose, W. J.; Elder, J.F.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Mergener, E.A.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2001 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001 is called "water year 2001."

  1. Water-quality and lake stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2000 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000 is called "water year 2000."

  2. The Well of the Well (WOW) system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, G; Korösi, T; Du, Y

    2008-01-01

    (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species including humans. The WOW system has resulted in significant improvement compared the drops for culture of in vitro matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes or in vivo......-derived mouse zygotes. In human, using sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW have developed in a significantly higher proportion to the blastocyst stage than embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P... patients with a cumulative 214 unsuccessful previous IVF cycles were selected for the trials. In subsequent ICSI cycle, oocytes/embryos were cultured individually in the WOW system or in microdrops. Transferable quality blastocyst development (48.9% of zygotes) was observed in the WOWs. Ninety...

  3. [Symptom Distress, Depression, and Quality of Life in Colorectal Cancer Patients at Different Disease Stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Fen; Ching, Ching-Yun; Lee, Hui-Yen; Tung, Hong-Yi; Juan, Chien-Wei; Chao, Tung-Bo

    2015-12-01

    imply that healthcare professionals must provide appropriate emotional support in order to decrease depression tendency at different stages. Thus, these patients should receive nursing interventions that effectively decrease depression and symptom distress and enhance quality of life at different disease stages.

  4. Assessment of human embryo development using morphological criteria in an era of time-lapse, algorithms and 'OMICS': is looking good still important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Balaban, Basak

    2016-10-01

    With the worldwide move towards single embryo transfer there has been a renewed focus on the requirement for reliable means of assessing embryo viability. In an era of 'OMICS' technologies, and algorithms created through the use of time-lapse microscopy, the actual appearance of the human embryo as it progresses through each successive developmental stage to the blastocyst appears to have been somewhat neglected in recent years. Here we review the key features of the human preimplantation embryo and consider the relationship between morphological characteristics and developmental potential. Further, the impact of the culture environment on morphological traits, how key morphological qualities reflect aspects of embryo physiology, and how computer-assisted analysis of embryo morphology may facilitate a more quantitative approach to selection are discussed. The clinical introduction of time-lapse systems has reopened our eyes and given us a new vantage point from which to view the beauty of the initial stages of human life. Rather than a future in which the morphology of the embryo is deemed irrelevant, we propose that key features, such as multinucleation, cell size and blastocyst differentiation should be included in future iterations of selection/deselection algorithms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

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    Sumar, Julio B

    2013-01-10

    Intraspecific and interspecific embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids is developing into a well-established technique. Reports reveal many benefits of using reproductive biotechnologies to allow rapid propagation of alpacas and llamas of high genetic merit (e.g., high fiber quality, preserve color variation). The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Specific information is provided on criteria for male selection, donor and recipient synchronization, the practice of single- vs. super-ovulation protocols, embryo recovery and transfer techniques, advances in cryopreservation of embryos, results of intra- and inter-specific transfer, and the future of the embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Miniaturized embryo array for automated trapping, immobilization and microperfusion of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Akagi

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP. The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale.

  7. Multiple-embryo transfer for studying very early maternal-embryo interactions in cattle.

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    Gómez, E; Muñoz, M

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, we highlight the need to study very early maternal-embryo interactions and discuss how these interactions can be addressed. Bovine species normally carry one or, less frequently, two embryos to term; there are very rare cases of triplets or higher-order multiple pregnancies in which all the offspring are born alive. Multiple-embryo transfer (MET) in cattle allows for the detection of endometrial responses in scenarios where single-embryo transfer would not. Although MET is non-physiological, the present study shows that at the very early embryonic stages, a uterus carrying zona-enclosed embryos does not exhibit non-physiological reactions. On the contrary, MET should be considered the sum of multiple individual effects triggered by developing embryos. We provide arguments to support our hypothesis that describe a rationale for current work with MET, and we discuss alternative hypotheses. Using cattle as a model, we describe how technical approaches to analyzing zona-enclosed early embryo-maternal interactions (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, and endometrial cell culture) can help identify molecular changes that may be difficult to observe when only a single embryo is present. We conclude that MET can be used for studying very early maternal-embryo interactions in vivo in monotocous species. Free Spanish abstract: A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/150/2/R35/suppl/DC1. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  9. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: problems & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi H

    2014-11-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been 'discarded' or 'spare' fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to 'cryopreserve' their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered 'spare' or if a couple is no longer in need of the 'cryopreserved' embryos then these also can be considered as 'spare'. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about 'slightly' over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to 'discarded' embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of 'discarding' embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential 'use' of ESC derived from the 'abnormal appearing' embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  10. Treatment of Donor Cells and Reconstructed Embryos with a Combination of Trichostatin-A and 5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Improves the Developmental Competence and Quality of Buffalo Embryos Produced by Handmade Cloning and Alters Their Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Monika; Selokar, Naresh L; Agrawal, Himanshu; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham S; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    The application of cloning technology on a large scale is limited by very low offspring rate primarily due to aberrant or incomplete epigenetic reprogramming. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, are widely used for altering the epigenetic status of cloned embryos. We optimized the doses of these epigenetic modifiers for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning and examined whether combined treatment with these epigenetic modifiers offered any advantage over treatment with the individual epigenetic modifier. Irrespective of whether donor cells or reconstructed embryos or both were treated with 50 nM TSA +7.5 nM 5-aza-dC, (1) the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (71.6 ± 3.5, 68.3 ± 2.6, and 71.8 ± 2.4, respectively, vs. 43.1 ± 3.4 for controls, p < 0.05); (2) the apoptotic index was lower (5.4 ± 1.1, 9.5 ± 1.0, and 7.4 ± 1.3, respectively, vs. 19.5 ± 2.1 for controls, p < 0.05) and was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts (6.0 ± 0.8); (3) the global level of H3K18ac was higher (p < 0.01) and that of H3K27me3 lower (p < 0.05) than in controls and was similar among all treatment groups; and (4) the expression level of epigenetic-(HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3a), pluripotency-(OCT4 and NANOG), and development-related (FGF4) genes, but not that of SOX2 and CDX2, was similar among all treatment groups. These results demonstrate that similar levels of beneficial effects can be obtained following treatment of either donor cells or reconstructed embryos or both with the combination of TSA +5-aza-dC. Therefore, there is no advantage in treating both donor cells and reconstructed embryos when the combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC is used.

  11. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  12. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H K; Jain, D; Pawar, S; Yadav, R K

    2016-11-01

    Improved survival of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has led to an increased focus on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for evaluating treatment effectiveness and assessing health outcomes of these patients. To evaluate HRQoL in patients in different stages of CKD and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 200 patients from India in CKD stages 1-5 assessed for HRQoL through 36-item short-form together with biomarkers. Patients were divided into four groups according to their estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); group A with GFR range > 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group B with GFR range 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group C with GFR range 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and group D with GFR stages. A statistically significant decreasing trend in physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores was found in patients from group A to D (Plife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MATURATION STAGES OF FRUITS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SEED QUALITY OF Physalis ixocarpa BROT. EX HORMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA DOS SANTOS BARROSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis is represented by species that produce fruits with relevant potential for national and international marketing. The species are normally grown from seeds, so maturation studies are important to assist the point of harvest, as well as seeds with a high physiological potential, since the fruits remain enclosed within a cup throughout their development. Despite the nutraceutical importance of fruits and medicinal potential of many species of Physalisinformation on the physiological seeds quality are scarce. This study aimed to monitor the physical and physiological changes of maturation and the viability of seeds during fruit development stages. The fruits of P. ixocarpa were collected in 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 days after anthesis (DAA. Length, diameter, fresh weight, skin and cup coloring characterization, TSS content, number and weight of seeds per fruit were obtained at each development stage. We also evaluated and correlated the coloring and pigment content of the cup (chlorophyll a and b. Water content, dry matter weight and germination rate were measured from fresh and dry seeds (room conditions, 72 hours. The main physical and physiological changes during maturation occurred within 35 DAA. The maximum physiological seeds quality was achieved within 45 DAA when the cup is completely or partially broken with coloring between yellowish-green and light-yellowish-brown and the ripe fruit in dark-green.

  14. Water-Quality and Lake-Stage Data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2006 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 is called 'water year 2006.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2006.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available through the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  15. Water-quality and Llake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2004 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 is called 'water year 2004.' The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published in another volume: 'Water Resources Data-Wisconsin, 2004.' Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin Water Science Center's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the

  16. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  17. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  18. Activities of daily living and quality of life across different stages of dementia: a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2015-01-01

    People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.

  19. Cooling strategies for brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, A S; Cardoso, T F; Fernandes E Silva, E; Goularte, K L; Okamoto, M H; Sampaio, L A; Jardim, R D; Corcini, C D

    Paralichthys orbignyanus is the species of the greatest potential for marine and estuarine fish farming in southern Brazil. Consequently, embryo cryopreservation becomes an important tool for increasing their production. To evaluate the effects of cooling protocols on the viability of embryos of P. orbignyanus at two stages of development (neurula and early differentiation of the tail). Control embryos were maintained at 23 degree C and treated embryos were cooled to 15 degree C, 10 degree C and 5 degree C at rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates. Then embryos were maintained at these different temperatures for 30, 60 and 90 min and the loss of viability assessed as hatching rates (HR) and morphologically normal larvae (MNL). The average HR for embryos following cooling was higher for those at the tail stage compared to the neurula stage (Pcooling. Also for tail stage embryos, there was no difference between MNL of control and rapidly cooled embryos. As first steps in the development of cryopreservation methods for P. orbignyanus embryos, the use of a rapid cooling and holding at 5 degree C for 30 min are recommended.

  20. Classification of embryo sacs in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Vorster

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available At each of 17 collecting points between Johannesburg and Brits in the Transvaal, three plants which belong to the  Eragrostis curvula Complex were collected and studied. A total o f 3 902 embryo sacs was examined in this sample. Of the embryo sacs examined, 3 306 were apomictic by means of diplospory, whereas 99 were sexual monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One hundred and nineteen embryo sacs were abnormal or divergent, and 378 were degenerated. There are indications that seasonal climatic fluctuations may be responsible for embryo sacs developing abnormally or degenerating. Simple and multiple correlations confirmed that sexual embryo sacs usually do not develop abnormally or degenerate during the later developmental stages. This finding lends credence to both the system of classification of individual embryo sacs and to the validity of the estimate of the proportion of sexuality of the plants sampled at each sampling point.

  1. A comparative study of mouse embryo freeze-preservation including the examination of a thermoelectric freezing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Wildt, D E

    1987-06-01

    In Study 1 over 2000 4- to 8-cell mouse embryos were randomly pooled and assigned to 1 of 12 treatment groups. A 2 X 2 X 3 factorial design was used to analyze two types of cryoprotectant/post-thaw (PT) dilutions (dimethyl sulfoxide [Me2SO]/stepwise dilution versus glycerol/sucrose dilution), two storage containers (glass ampoules versus plastic straws), and three cooling treatments. Two commercial, controlled-rate freezing machines were examined, employing either nitrogen gas (Planer) or thermoelectric (Glacier) cooling. Embryos were cooled slowly (0.5 degrees C/min) to -35 or -80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly by transfer into liquid nitrogen (LN2). Thawed embryos were cultured for 24 hr after which developmental stage, post-thaw survival (PTS), embryo degeneration rate (EDR), quality grade (QG), and fluorescein diacetate viability grade (VG) were assessed. Overall, PTS and EDR were similar (P greater than 0.05) among the three freezing unit/plunge temperature treatments. Cumulative results of container and cryoprotectant/PT dilution treatments consistently demonstrated greater PTS, QG, and VG ratings and lower EDR values when embryos were frozen in ampoules using glycerol/sucrose dilution. Embryos treated with Me2SO/stepwise dilution were particularly sensitive to freezing damage when stored in plastic straws and plunged into LN2 at -35 degrees C. Study 2 was directed at determining whether Study 1 methods for diluting Me2SO-protected embryos markedly affected PTS rates. Post-thaw culture percentages were no different (P greater than 0.05) for four- to eight-cell Me2SO-treated embryos frozen in ampoules (using the forced-LN2 device), thawed, and diluted either conventionally in reduced concentrations of Me2SO or in the sucrose treatment normally accorded glycerolated embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Trajectories of quality of life in early-stage dementia: individual variations and predictors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Whitaker, Christopher J; Morris, Robin G

    2014-06-01

    Little evidence is available about how quality of life (QoL) changes as dementia progresses. We explored QoL trajectories over a 20-month period and examined what predicted change in QoL. Fifty-one individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia (people with dementia (PwD)) participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness Study rated their QoL using the QoL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale at baseline and at 20-month follow-up. PwD also rated their mood and quality of relationship with the carer. In each case, the carer rated his or her level of stress and perceived quality of relationship with the PwD. There was no change in mean QoL score. Nearly one-third of PwD rated QoL more positively at 20-month follow-up and nearly one-third rated QoL more negatively. These changes could be regarded as reliable in one-quarter of the sample. Participants taking acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication at baseline were more likely to show a decline in QoL score. There were no other significant differences between those whose scores increased, decreased or stayed the same on any demographic or disease-related variables, or in mood or perceived quality of relationship with the carer. Whereas baseline QoL score was the strongest predictor of QoL at 20 months, the quality of relationship with the carer as perceived by the PwD was also independently a significant predictor. There is a degree of individual variation in QoL trajectories. Use of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication appears linked to decline in QoL score, whereas positive relationships with carers play an important role in maintaining QoL in early-stage dementia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Quality of life after organ transplantation in type 1 diabetics with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Patel, Bhavesh M; Markatos, Angelo; Nghiem, Dai D; Marcus, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) should be an important consideration while choosing therapeutic options for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) including dialysis, cadaver (CKT) or living kidney transplant (LKT) or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant. QOL was assessed in four groups of patients with history of type 1 DM and ESRD: recipients of SPK (n = 43), CKT (n = 43), LKT (n = 11) and wait listed (WL) patients (n = 23). Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL), Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Quality of Well-Being (QWB) questionnaires were utilized. A subset of SPK (n = 19) and CKT (n = 12) recipients underwent longitudinal QOL evaluation. On DQOL questionnaire, SPK group had better satisfaction subscore compared with CKT (1.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.6, p diabetics with ESRD following transplantation when compared with remaining on WL. SPK transplantation had significant positive effect on diabetes-related QOL which was sustained longitudinally but it was difficult to show an overall improvement in general QOL.

  4. Prediction of syngas quality for two-stage gasification of selected waste feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Paolo; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino; Pochetti, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the syngas produced from methane with the syngas obtained from the gasification, in a two-stage reactor, of various waste feedstocks. The syngas composition and the gasification conditions were simulated using a simple thermodynamic model. The waste feedstocks considered are: landfill gas, waste oil, municipal solid waste (MSW) typical of a low-income country, the same MSW blended with landfill gas, refuse derived fuel (RDF) made from the same MSW, the same RDF blended with waste oil and a MSW typical of a high-income country. Energy content, the sum of H2 and CO gas percentages, and the ratio of H2 to CO are considered as measures of syngas quality. The simulation shows that landfill gas gives the best results in terms of both H2+CO and H2/CO, and that the MSW of low-income countries can be expected to provide inferior syngas on all three quality measures. Co-gasification of the MSW from low-income countries with landfill gas, and the mixture of waste oil with RDF from low-income MSW are considered as options to improve gas quality.

  5. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  6. Different physiological stages and breeding systems related to the variability of meat quality of indigenous Pantaneiro sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteschio, Jéssica de Oliveira; Burin, Poliana Campos; Leonardo, Ariadne Patricia; Fausto, Daiane Aparecido; da Silva, Adrielly Lais Alves; Ricardo, Hélio de Almeida; Corrêa da Silva, Marcelo; de Souza, Márcio Rodrigues; de Vargas Junior, Fernando Miranda

    2018-01-01

    This study configures a first report regarding the variability of meat quality of locally adapted Pantaneiro sheep depending on different physiological stages and breeding systems. Pantaneiro sheep are raised in Brazil under a tropical wetland ecosystem denominated Pantanal. Twenty-nine Pantaneiro sheep from different sex and physiological stages were sorted into three groups, simulating three of the most representative ovine meat products commercialized by South American industries: a) non castrated male lambs (n = 11); b) wethers (n = 9); c) cull ewes (n = 9). Animals from each physiological stage were submitted to different breeding systems, resembling farming strategies adopted in several developing countries of South America. The effect of physiological stages on the quality of meat was accessed using 16 variables measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LM) and the semimembranosus (SM) muscles. The variables were related to brightness, color, physical aspects, soluble and total collagen as well as chemical traits. The physiological stage was defined as a classification variable in order to proceed ANOVA tests and comparison of means (Pmeat quality varies according to different physiological stages, especially between lambs (a) and cull ewes (c). As a consequence, the physiological stage at slaughter should be taken into consideration to cote the quality of meat from indigenous sheep raised in tropical regions. The results contribute towards sensorial evaluation and the characterization of potential food products derived from indigenous sheep bred under tropical climate in developing countries.

  7. Live embryo imaging to follow cell cycle and chromosomes stability after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Sebastian T; Boiani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) into mouse oocytes yields a transcriptionally and functionally heterogeneous population of cloned embryos. Most studies of NT embryos consider only embryos at predefined key stages (e.g., morula or blastocyst), that is, after the bulk of reprogramming has taken place. These retrospective approaches are of limited use to elucidate mechanisms of reprogramming and to predict developmental success. Observing cloned embryo development using live embryo cinematography has the potential to reveal otherwise undetectable embryo features. However, light exposure necessary for live cell cinematography is highly toxic to cloned embryos. Here we describe a protocol for combined bright-field and fluorescence live-cell imaging of histone H2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This protocol, which can be adapted to observe other reporters such as Oct4-GFP or Nanog-GFP, allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos.

  8. Sperm quality before treatment in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma enrolled in EORTC-GELA Lymphoma Group trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaalj, Marleen A. E.; Heutte, Natacha; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Carde, Patrice; Noordijk, Evert M.; Ferme, Christophe; Thomas, Jose; Eghbali, Houchingue; Brice, Pauline; Bonmati, Caroline; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although widely recommended, cryopreservation of sperm is sometimes not performed for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma because of presumed poor sperm quality related to the disease. We investigated sperm quality and factors determining it in untreated patients with early stage Hodgkin's

  9. Sperm quality before treatment in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma enrolled in EORTC-GELA Lymphoma Group trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Echten-Arends, J. van; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Carde, P.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Eghbali, H.; Brice, P.; Bonmati, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although widely recommended, cryopreservation of sperm is sometimes not performed for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma because of presumed poor sperm quality related to the disease. We investigated sperm quality and factors determining it in untreated patients with early stage Hodgkin's

  10. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  11. Water deficit effects on tomato quality depend on fruit developmental stage and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Brunel, Béatrice; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-15

    Many studies have advocated that water deficit (WD) may exert beneficial effects on fruit quality. However, the fruit response to WD at specific developmental stages was seldom investigated, although different mechanisms could be involved at each stage and lead to different effects on final fruit quality. In the present study, a moderate WD (-60% of water supply compared to control) was applied during each of the three major phases of fruit development, namely cell division (CD), cell expansion (CE) and maturation (MT). Two cocktail tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes were studied, one producing poor quality fruits (LA1420), and the other one producing tasty fruits (PlovdivXXIVa named Plovdiv). Contrasted responses were observed between the two genotypes. For both of them, fruit fresh mass and size were not significantly reduced by WD, whatever the developmental phase affected. Osmotic regulations were likely involved in the CD treatment for LA1420 fruits, which accumulated more sugars (both on a dry and fresh matter basis) and less acids (on a dry matter basis). In the CE treatment, other adaptive strategies involving sugar metabolism and sub-cellular compartmentation were suggested. In contrast, the composition of Plovdiv fruits changed only under the MT treatment, with less sugars, acids and carotenoids compared to control fruits (both on a dry and fresh matter basis). Total ascorbic acid (AsA) was not significantly influenced by treatments in both genotypes. On their whole, results suggest that, depending on genotypes, fruits are sweeter and less acidic under WD, but that the nutritive value related to vitamin and carotenoid contents may be lessened. The sensitivity of each developmental phase highly depends on the genotype. All phases were sensitive to WD for LA1420, but only the ripening phase for Plovdiv. Interestingly, major changes in fruit composition were observed in LA1420 which presents poor fruit quality under control conditions. This suggests

  12. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by vitamin K₂ supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoceda-Baldeon, Luis Manuel; Gagné, Dominic; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria play an important role during early development in mammalian embryos. It has been shown that properly controlled follicular preparation increases the likelihood of in-vitro-produced bovine embryos reaching the blastocyst stage and that competent embryos exhibit heightened expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that apparently incompetent embryos could be rescued by restoring mitochondrial function. It has been shown that vitamin K2 (a membrane-bound electron carrier similar to ubiquinone) can restore mitochondrial dysfunction in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of vitamin K2 on bovine embryonic development in vitro. The vitamin was found most effective when added 72 h after fertilization. It produced a significant (Pembryos of better morphological quality. It improved the mitochondrial activity significantly and had a measurable impact on gene expression. This is the first demonstration that current standard conditions of in vitro production of bovine embryos may be inadequate due to the lack of support for mitochondrial function and may be improved significantly by supplementing the culture medium with vitamin K2. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. A study of the impact of disease burden in quality of life of people with pre-End-Stage and End-Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Georgiadou; Theodora Kafkia; Eugenia Minasidou; Kyriakos Kazakos; Alexandra Dimitriadou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disease accompanied by severe complications. It is the leading cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) requiring management either by haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). The chronicity of the disease, and its complications, affects the psychological, family and social life of the patients and their Quality of Life (QoL). Aim: of the present study was to estimate the disease burden of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) d...

  14. A study of the impact of disease burden in quality of life of people with pre-End-Stage and End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Georgiadou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common chronic disease accompanied by severe complications. It is the leading cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD requiring management either by haemodialysis (HD or peritoneal dialysis (PD. The chronicity of the disease, and its complications, affects the psychological, family and social life of the patients and their Quality of Life (QoL. Aim: of the present study was to estimate the disease burden of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN during pre-ESRD and during End-Stage Renal Disease. Methods: A sample of 103 patients with DN treated at the General Hospital of Veria were studied during May and June 2016. The study was conducted using the Dialysis Symptoms Index (DSI for the assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD symptom load and the European Quality of Life (EuroQol questionnaire for assessing the QoL of patients in the Renal Outpatient Clinic, Haemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Unit. Results: It was found that the Renal Replacement Method (HD or PD, the presence of DM and CKD’s stage affect significantly the patients’ self-assessment regarding painful symptoms of DN. Furthermore, the above factors have major impact on some aspects of patients’ QoL, such as mobility and self-care. Conclusions: Pre-End Stage patients experience more severe painful symptoms of DN compared to patients on Renal Replacement Therapies.

  15. Quality of life after curative radiotherapy in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Jong, Jos M.A. de; Velde, Guul P.M. ten; Muller, Martin J.; Slotman, Ben J.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in quality of life (QOL) among medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with curative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: The study sample was composed of 46 patients irradiated for Stage I NSCLC. Quality of life was assessed before, during, and after radiotherapy using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13. Changes in symptom and QOL scores over time were evaluated with a repeated measurement analysis of variance using the mixed effect modeling procedure, SAS Proc Mixed. Twenty-seven patients were treated only at the primary site, whereas for 19 patients, the regional lymph nodes were included in the target volume as well. Results: The median follow-up time of patients alive was 34 months. The median survival was 19.0 months. None of the locally treated patients developed regional recurrence. A significant, gradual increase over time was observed for dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss. A significant, gradual deterioration was observed also for role functioning. No significant changes were noted for the other symptoms or the functioning scales. Significantly higher levels of dysphagia, which persisted up to 12 months, were observed in those in which the regional lymph nodes were treated, as compared to the locally treated patients. Radiation-induced pulmonary changes assessed with chest radiograph were more pronounced in the group treated with locoregional radiotherapy. Conclusions: After curative radiotherapy for Stage I medically inoperable NSCLC, a gradual increase in dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss, together with a significant deterioration of role functioning, was observed, possibly because of pre-existing, slowly progressive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and radiation-induced pulmonary changes. Taking into account the low incidence of regional recurrences after local irradiation, the higher incidence

  16. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein slow embryo development1 is essential for embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Chunying; Lu, Wenwen; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen, E-mail: sodmergn@pku.edu.cn

    2016-05-27

    The plant seeds formation are crucial parts in reproductive process in seed plants as well as food source for humans. Proper embryo development ensure viable seed formation. Here, we showed an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant slow embryo development1 (sed1) which exhibited retarded embryogenesis, led to aborted seeds. Embryo without SED1 developed slower compared to normal one and could be recognized at early globular stage by its white appearance. In later development stage, storage accumulated poorly with less protein and lipid body production. In vitro culture did not rescue albino embryo. SED1 encoded a protein targeted to mitochondria. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria developed abnormally, and more strikingly plastid failed to construct grana in time in sed1/sed1 embryo. These data indicated that SED1 is indispensable for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, and the mitochondria may be involved in the regulation of many aspects of seed development. -- Highlights: •Arabidopsis SED1 is essential for embryo development. •The sed1 embryo accumulates less storage and has abnormal ultrastructure. •SED1 localizes to the mitochondrion.

  17. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein slow embryo development1 is essential for embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Chunying; Lu, Wenwen; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2016-01-01

    The plant seeds formation are crucial parts in reproductive process in seed plants as well as food source for humans. Proper embryo development ensure viable seed formation. Here, we showed an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant slow embryo development1 (sed1) which exhibited retarded embryogenesis, led to aborted seeds. Embryo without SED1 developed slower compared to normal one and could be recognized at early globular stage by its white appearance. In later development stage, storage accumulated poorly with less protein and lipid body production. In vitro culture did not rescue albino embryo. SED1 encoded a protein targeted to mitochondria. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria developed abnormally, and more strikingly plastid failed to construct grana in time in sed1/sed1 embryo. These data indicated that SED1 is indispensable for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, and the mitochondria may be involved in the regulation of many aspects of seed development. -- Highlights: •Arabidopsis SED1 is essential for embryo development. •The sed1 embryo accumulates less storage and has abnormal ultrastructure. •SED1 localizes to the mitochondrion.

  18. State-of-the-art production, conservation and transfer of in-vitro-produced embryos in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognié, Yves; Poulin, Nati; Locatelli, Yann; Mermillod, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Today, although not efficient enough to replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production for small ruminants is a platform for new reproductive technologies, such as embryo sexing, transgenesis and cloning. The in vitro embryo-production system developed for sheep and goats is more efficient now than 15 years ago, but could still be improved. Laparoscopic collection of oocytes in live animals treated with gonadotrophin indicates a promising future for the application of this technology to genetic improvement programmes. Oocyte maturation in defined medium with epidermal growth factor and cysteamine appears as efficient as oocyte maturation in follicular fluid-supplemented medium and allows future study of the effect of other factors involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from these species. Further efforts have to be made to standardise the semen-capacitating process and to improve the quality and freezability of in-vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The optimisation of IVP procedures for deer species has required the study of the seasonal variation of oocyte competence and the development of a specific methodology to allow the culture of embryos up to the blastocyst stage.

  19. Early maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) levels and sex-related growth difference of IVF embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esh-Broder, Efrat; Oron, Galia; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-10-01

    Maternal serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) represents the trophoblastic cell mass and is an indirect measurement of embryo development at early implantation stage. Studies in animals and human embryos detected sex-related growth differences (SRGD) in favour of male embryos during the pre-implantation period. The purpose of our study was to correlate SRGD and maternal serum ß-hCG at 16 days after embryo transfer. We retrospectively analysed all (fresh and frozen) non-donor, single embryo transfers (SET), elective and not elective, that were performed between December 2008 and December 2013. We included ß-hCG values from day 16 after oocyte collection of pregnancies resulting in live birth. Neonatal gender was retrieved from patient files. Male and female embryos were further grouped to cleavage and blastocyst stage transfers. Regression analysis for confounding variables included maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), use of micromanipulation (ICSI), embryo quality (grade), assisted hatching, day of transfer and fresh or frozen embryo transfer. Seven hundred eighty-six non-donor SETs resulted in live birth. After including only day 16 serum ß-hCG results, 525 SETs were analysed. Neonatal gender was available for 522 cases. Mean maternal serum ß-hCG levels were similar, 347 ± 191 IU/L in the male newborn group and 371 ± 200 IU/L in the female group. The difference between ß-hCG levels remained insignificant after adjusting for confounding variables. Early maternal ß-hCG levels after embryo transfers did not represent SRGD in our study.

  20. Quality of life and pain in dogs with early-stage mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Larissa; Lallo, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Quality of life (QOL) was evaluated in bitches with mammary tumours (MTs) by applying a scale to assess QOL in dogs with pain secondary to cancer. Two groups were constituted: Group 1 with 80 bitches with MT, oncologically classified as stage I (mean age ± SD = 9.9 ± 3.8 years), and Group 2 consisting of 80 healthy bitches without MT (mean age: 7.7 ± 1.8 years). The results were based on responses from owners using a standardised, internationally accepted pain-scale questionnaire. This prospective and descriptive study showed that 63% of the dogs in Group 1 had a change in QOL due to the presence of MT. The risk of QOL impairment was 2.1 times higher in Group 1 animals than in bitches without MT. Mammary tumour increased the presence of pain 8.3 times and defecation difficulties 10 times. It can be concluded that even small MTs can elicit pain in dogs, which interferes with their quality of life.

  1. Quality of life in end stage renal disease: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Julie Emelie; Dubé, Anik

    2014-01-01

    This concept analysis examines quality of life (QOL) in the context of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Quality of life is a multidimensional concept historically used by governmental bodies to measure society's satisfaction of economic and social outcomes. However, health care researchers have demonstrated that the concept of QOL relates to a deeper meaning of an individual's experience of life and health. Walker and Avant's (2010) framework of concept analysis was chosen to provide conceptual clarity for nephrology nurses and allied health care professionals. The CINHAL, EBSCO, ERIC, Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases were searched for the period of 1998-2013 for literature published in English and French with a focus of peer-reviewed journals from disciplines of health sciences and psychology. Consequent to this concept analysis, QOL has been defined by three defining attributes, such as the ability to engage in vigorous activities, the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the ability to engage in family, social, and occupational roles. These findings enable a clear and functional definition of the concept of QOL in the context of ESRD, therefore facilitating the ability of nephrology nurses and allied health care professionals to assess clients' needs and improve their health care outcomes through their lived experience.

  2. Assessment of Quality of Life of Family Members of Inpatients with End-Stage Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, Radka; Kozáková, Radka; Sikorová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of palliative care is to ensure the highest possible quality of life (QoL) for the family members of patients. We aimed to determine the QoL of family members of hospitalized patients with end-stage disease, as well as differences in QoL based on socio-demographic characteristics and the patient's functional status, psychological distress, and QoL. Study participants were 292 family members of terminally ill patients at University Hospital, Ostrava, Czech Republic. To evaluate family members' QoL, we used the Quality of Life in Life-Threatening Illness--Family Carer Version (QOLLTI-F). We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) Scale to assess patients' functional status and psychological distress. A statistically significant difference was found in QoL evaluation based on family members' socio-demographic characteristics in education, employment, and age. A significantly lower QoL score was observed for patients' life partners in six domains. A correlation was found between patients' poorer functional status and family members' lower QoL. We found lower global QoL in family members of patients with depression. Family support is a cornerstone of palliative care. Palliative care professionals should focus on at-risk family members--the life partners of patients, the unemployed, younger people, and those whose ill loved one has a poor functional status.

  3. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  4. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu (Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fbn

    concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis ... Citrus. The successful performance of all the stages of somatic embryogenesis has been reported, from the growth of embryogenic cells to embryo maturation in ..... line I and Cleopatra, line II and C. limonia L. Osbeck, cv.

  5. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  6. Early embryo loss, morphology, and effect of previous immunization against androstenedione in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Anne R; Demmers, Kristina J; Smaill, Bronwyn; Reader, Karen L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-09-15

    In a naturally mated cycle, ova and viable embryo number as well as embryo size were assessed on Day 4, 10, 14, 18, and 30 of gestation in Romney ewes (n = 38-44 per gestational group). For Days 4-18 of gestation, embryos were recovered by flushing the reproductive tract after slaughtering of the ewe. Ovulation rate was determined by counting the number of corpora lutea present on both ovaries. For the Day 30 group, number of ovulations was measured by laparoscopic examination of the ovaries at Day 9-12 of the cycle, and number of embryos present was determined by ultrasound examination at approximately Day 30 of pregnancy. Most of embryo loss occurred before Day 14 of gestation with 6% loss before Day 4, and 12% loss between Day 4 and 14 of gestation. A similar proportion of viable embryos per number of ova ovulated were recovered on Day 14 and 18 (82%) and Day 30 (81%) of gestation. Fertilization failure was estimated at 1%. Conceptus and embryo size was most variable on Day 14, representing a period of rapid growth (conceptus length ± standard deviation); Day 4 (169 ± 8 μm), Day 10 (379 ± 93 μm), Day 14 (23 ± 32 mm), Day 18 (embryo length ± standard deviation; 5.0 ± 0.7 mm). Vaccination with commercially available fertility vaccines targeting androstenedione (Androvax and Ovastim) in previous seasons resulted in reduced conceptus size compared with controls. However, no difference in the proportion of viable embryos was observed between treatments, signifying maternal tolerance for considerable variation at this stage of development. Furthermore, the finding that most of loss occurs within the first 14 days of gestation highlights the importance of both oocyte quality and the uterine environment for the embryo to successfully overcome the challenges leading up to and including pregnancy recognition in the ewe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Evaluation of the quality of life in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages after standardized treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Huang, Yuan; Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P stage breast cancer is better than those at late stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL of breast cancer patients. Chinese version of EQ-5D can well detect the differences of QOL among patients with different TNM stages, which can be used for evaluating QOL in Chinese

  8. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET of Cipelang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cece Sumantri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken from cows that have been superovulated Angus, Brahman, HF, Limousin and Simmental. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR using specific primers for GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 gene. PCR product was cut with restriction enzyme MspI, AluI, HaeIII and HinfI and electrophoresed on agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr. Superovulation is done by injecting a totally of 20 ml FSH for 4 days. Injecting the prostaglandin hormone (PGF2α was performed on the eleventh day of CIDR implantation. Artificial insemination (AI performed two or three days after the injection of PGF2α and Flushing was done on the seventh day after the AI. The results showed that the Angus, Limousin, Brahman and Simental GH loci diversity of GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR|AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI was not associated with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryo rate. In HF dairy cattle, genotype on Pit-1|HinfI AA has higher percentage of superovulation response (P < 0.05 when compared to AB genotype, but did not differ to BB genotype. Dairy cattle HF AA genotype also had higher ovulation rate (P < 0.05 when compared to AB and BB genotypes, but AB and BB have the same ovulation rate.

  9. An iTRAQ-based proteomics approach to clarify the molecular physiology of somatic embryo development in Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    Full Text Available Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM, globular embryo (GE, and cotyledon embryo (CE stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge.

  10. An iTRAQ-based proteomics approach to clarify the molecular physiology of somatic embryo development in Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Hui; Fu, Shuangbin; Chen, Bo; Sun, Wenting; Zhang, Junqi; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr) is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM), globular embryo (GE), and cotyledon embryo (CE) stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge.

  11. In vitro bovine embryo production in a synthetic medium: embryo development, cryosurvival, and establishment of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, D; Neira, A; Dubreil, L; Liegeois, L; Destrumelle, S; Michaud, S; Thorin, C; Briand-Amirat, L; Bencharif, D; Tainturier, D

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro embryo culture medium without either fetal calf serum or BSA, using various growth factors and cytokines (GFs-CYKs; IGF-I, IGF-II, bFGF, LIF, GM-CSF, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB), and other molecules with surfactant and embryotrophic properties, such as recombinant albumin (RA) and hyaluronan (HA). The first part of the study was dedicated to define the best combination of GFs-CYKs + RA + HA for optimal embryonic development. Next, we compared development rates and embryo quality (inner cell mass [ICM]-to-total cell number [TCN] ratio), and postthaw survival and hatching rates using this synthetic medium (T1) and a control medium: synthetic oviduct fluid + BSA + ITS (insulin, transferrin, and selenium). The blastocyst rates were significantly higher with T1 than those with the control at 7 and 8 days after fertilization. There was no significant difference in TCN or the ICM/TCN ratio between the two treatments. Survival and hatching rates 48 hours after thawing were similar for both treatments. Finally, nine embryo transfers were conducted using fresh and previously frozen Day-7 blastocysts to evaluate the in vivo viability of embryos produced in this synthetic medium; four gestations were obtained from six fresh embryos and one gestation from three frozen embryos. In conclusion, the fetal calf serum and BSA-free medium, supplemented with GFs-CYKs + RA + HA, improved embryo development and gave comparable ICM/TCN ratios and postthaw survival rates to the control with BSA. Fresh and frozen embryos produced in this medium are viable for embryo transfer. This fully synthetic method of embryo culture is a useful means of reducing the risk of disease transmission via embryo transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  13. Different physiological stages and breeding systems related to the variability of meat quality of indigenous Pantaneiro sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio

    Full Text Available This study configures a first report regarding the variability of meat quality of locally adapted Pantaneiro sheep depending on different physiological stages and breeding systems. Pantaneiro sheep are raised in Brazil under a tropical wetland ecosystem denominated Pantanal. Twenty-nine Pantaneiro sheep from different sex and physiological stages were sorted into three groups, simulating three of the most representative ovine meat products commercialized by South American industries: a non castrated male lambs (n = 11; b wethers (n = 9; c cull ewes (n = 9. Animals from each physiological stage were submitted to different breeding systems, resembling farming strategies adopted in several developing countries of South America. The effect of physiological stages on the quality of meat was accessed using 16 variables measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LM and the semimembranosus (SM muscles. The variables were related to brightness, color, physical aspects, soluble and total collagen as well as chemical traits. The physiological stage was defined as a classification variable in order to proceed ANOVA tests and comparison of means (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis was used to identify patterns of similarity and differentiation between samples of different physiological stages (a, b, c. The results revealed that meat quality varies according to different physiological stages, especially between lambs (a and cull ewes (c. As a consequence, the physiological stage at slaughter should be taken into consideration to cote the quality of meat from indigenous sheep raised in tropical regions. The results contribute towards sensorial evaluation and the characterization of potential food products derived from indigenous sheep bred under tropical climate in developing countries.

  14. Effect of embryo density on in vitro developmental characteristics of bovine preimplantative embryos with respect to micro and macroenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelker, M; Rings, F; Lund, Q; Phatsara, C; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D

    2010-10-01

    To overcome developmental problems as a consequence of single embryo culture, the Well of the Well (WOW) culture system has been developed. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of embryo densities with respect to both microenvironment and macroenvironment on developmental rates and embryo quality to get a deeper insight into developmentally important mechanisms. WOW diameter and depth significantly affected developmental rates (p WOWs with diameter of 500 μm reached significantly higher blastocyst rates (32.5 vs 21.1% vs 20.3%) compared to embryos cultured in WOWs of 300 μm diameter or plain cultured controls. Embryos cultured in WOWs with 700 μm depth reached significant higher developmental rates compared with embryos cultured in WOWs of 300 μm depth and control embryos (30.6 vs 22.6% vs 20.3%). Correlation of the embryo per WOW volume with developmental rates was higher (r(2) = 0.92, p = 0.0004) than correlation of WOW diameter or WOW depth with developmental rates. However, the embryo per WOW volume did not affect differential cell counts. An embryo per culture dish volume of 1 : 30 μl was identified to be optimal when the embryo per WOW volume was 1 : 0.27 μl increasing developmental rates up to the level of mass embryo production. Giving the opportunity to track each embryo over the complete culture period while keeping high developmental rates with normal mitotic dynamics, the results of this work will provide benefit for the single culture of embryos in human assisted reproduction, mammalian embryos with high economic interest as well as for scientific purpose. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Learning to segment mouse embryo cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan; Pardo, Alejandro; Arbeláez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in microscopy enable the capture of temporal sequences during cell development stages. However, the study of such sequences is a complex task and time consuming task. In this paper we propose an automatic strategy to adders the problem of semantic and instance segmentation of mouse embryos using NYU's Mouse Embryo Tracking Database. We obtain our instance proposals as refined predictions from the generalized hough transform, using prior knowledge of the embryo's locations and their current cell stage. We use two main approaches to learn the priors: Hand crafted features and automatic learned features. Our strategy increases the baseline jaccard index from 0.12 up to 0.24 using hand crafted features and 0.28 by using automatic learned ones.

  16. Oocytes selected using BCB staining enhance nuclear reprogramming and the in vivo development of SCNT embryos in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianmin; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Ruizhe; Peng, Hui; Hua, Song; Li, Qian; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The selection of good quality oocytes is crucial for in vitro fertilization and somatic cloning. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining has been used for selection of oocytes from several mammalian species. However, the effects of differential oocyte selection by BCB staining on nuclear reprogramming and in vivo development of SCNT embryos are not well understood. Immature compact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into control (not exposed to BCB), BCB+ (blue cytoplasm) and BCB- (colorless cytoplasm) groups. We found that BCB+ oocytes yielded a significantly higher somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) blastocyst rate and full term development rate of bovine SCNT embryos than the BCB- and control oocytes. BCB+ embryos (embryos developed from BCB+ oocytes) showed increased acetylation levels of histone H3 at K9 and K18 (AcH3K9, AcH3K18), and methylation levels of histone H3 at K4 (H3K4me2) than BCB- embryos (embryos developed from BCB- oocytes) at the two-cell stage. Furthermore, BCB+ embryos generated more total cells, trophectoderm (TE) cells, and inner cell mass (ICM) cells, and fewer apoptotic cells than BCB- embryos. The expression of SOX2, CDX2, and anti-apoptotic microRNA-21 were up-regulated in the BCB+ blastocysts compared with BCB- blastocysts, whereas the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax was down-regulated in BCB+ blastocysts. These results strongly suggest that BCB+ oocytes have a higher nuclear reprogramming capacity, and that BCB staining can be used to select developmentally competent oocytes for nuclear transfer.

  17. Oocytes selected using BCB staining enhance nuclear reprogramming and the in vivo development of SCNT embryos in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Su

    Full Text Available The selection of good quality oocytes is crucial for in vitro fertilization and somatic cloning. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB staining has been used for selection of oocytes from several mammalian species. However, the effects of differential oocyte selection by BCB staining on nuclear reprogramming and in vivo development of SCNT embryos are not well understood. Immature compact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were divided into control (not exposed to BCB, BCB+ (blue cytoplasm and BCB- (colorless cytoplasm groups. We found that BCB+ oocytes yielded a significantly higher somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT blastocyst rate and full term development rate of bovine SCNT embryos than the BCB- and control oocytes. BCB+ embryos (embryos developed from BCB+ oocytes showed increased acetylation levels of histone H3 at K9 and K18 (AcH3K9, AcH3K18, and methylation levels of histone H3 at K4 (H3K4me2 than BCB- embryos (embryos developed from BCB- oocytes at the two-cell stage. Furthermore, BCB+ embryos generated more total cells, trophectoderm (TE cells, and inner cell mass (ICM cells, and fewer apoptotic cells than BCB- embryos. The expression of SOX2, CDX2, and anti-apoptotic microRNA-21 were up-regulated in the BCB+ blastocysts compared with BCB- blastocysts, whereas the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax was down-regulated in BCB+ blastocysts. These results strongly suggest that BCB+ oocytes have a higher nuclear reprogramming capacity, and that BCB staining can be used to select developmentally competent oocytes for nuclear transfer.

  18. Inter-laboratory agreement on embryo classification and clinical decision: Conventional morphological assessment vs. time lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Granados, Luis; Serrano, María; González-Utor, Antonio; Ortíz, Nereyda; Badajoz, Vicente; Olaya, Enrique; Prados, Nicolás; Boada, Montse; Castilla, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine inter-laboratory variability on embryo assessment using time-lapse platform and conventional morphological assessment. This study compares the data obtained from a pilot study of external quality control (EQC) of time lapse, performed in 2014, with the classical EQC of the Spanish Society for the Study of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR) performed in 2013 and 2014. In total, 24 laboratories (8 using EmbryoScope™, 15 using Primo Vision™ and one with both platforms) took part in the pilot study. The clinics that used EmbryoScope™ analysed 31 embryos and those using Primo Vision™ analysed 35. The classical EQC was implemented by 39 clinics, based on an analysis of 25 embryos per year. Both groups were required to evaluate various qualitative morphological variables (cell fragmentation, the presence of vacuoles, blastomere asymmetry and multinucleation), to classify the embryos in accordance with ASEBIR criteria and to stipulate the clinical decision taken. In the EQC time-lapse pilot study, the groups were asked to determine, as well as the above characteristics, the embryo development times, the number, opposition and size of pronuclei, the direct division of 1 into 3 cells and/or of 3 into 5 cells and false divisions. The degree of agreement was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients and the coefficient of variation for the quantitative variables and the Gwet index for the qualitative variables. For both EmbryoScope™ and Primo Vision™, two periods of greater inter-laboratory variability were observed in the times of embryo development events. One peak of variability was recorded among the laboratories addressing the first embryo events (extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of pronuclei); the second peak took place between the times corresponding to the 8-cell and morula stages. In most of the qualitative variables analysed regarding embryo development, there was almost

  19. Metabolite profiling of somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum in comparison to zygotic embryos, endosperm and testa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traud eWinkelmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system for many crops such as the important ornamental plant Cyclamen persicum, for which this regeneration pathway of somatic embryogenesis is of interest for the vegetative propagation of parental lines as well as elite plants. However, somatic embryogenesis is not commercially used in many crops due to several unsolved problems, such as malformations, asynchronous development, deficiencies in maturation and germination of somatic embryos. In contrast, zygotic embryos in seeds develop and germinate without abnormalities in most cases. Instead of time-consuming and labor-intensive experiments involving tests of different in vitro culture conditions and plant growth regulator supplements, we follow a more directed approach. Zygotic embryos served as a reference and were compared to somatic embryos in metabolomic analyses allowing the future optimization of the in vitro system. The aims of this study were to detect differences in the metabolite profiles of torpedo stage somatic and zygotic embryos of C. persicum. Moreover, major metabolites in endosperm and testa were identified and quantified.Two sets of extracts of two to four biological replicates each were analyzed. In total 52 metabolites were identified and quantified in the different tissues. One of the most significant differences between somatic and zygotic embryos was that the proline concentration in the zygotic embryos was about 40 times higher than that found in somatic embryos. Epicatechin, a scavenger for reactive oxygen species, was found in highest abundance in the testa. Sucrose, the most abundant metabolite was detected in significantly higher concentrations in zygotic embryos. Also, a yet unknown trisaccharide, was significantly enriched in zygotic embryos.

  20. The changes in quality ingredients of Qi chrysanthemum flowers treated with elevated UV-B radiation at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jianzhou; He, Xueli; Ma, Chunhui; Han, Chao; Shen, Haiyu

    2015-05-01

    The paper mainly reported the changes in quality ingredients of Qi chrysanthemum flowers treated with elevated UV-B radiation at different growth stages. The experiment included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient UV-B, a 10% increase in ambient UV-B). Elevated UV-B radiation was carried out for 10-days during seedling, vigorous growth, bud and flower stages of Qi chrysanthemum, respectively. Elevated UV-B treatments applied during four development stages did not significantly affect flower yield, the rate of superoxide radical production and malondialdehyde concentration in flowers, while increased free amino acid concentration. The amino acid concentration induced by elevated UV-B radiation applied during bud stage was higher than that during the other stages. Elevated UV-B radiation applied during vigorous growth (except for flavone), bud and flower stages of chrysanthemum significantly increased hydrogen peroxide concentration, phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme activity, vitamin C, chlorogenic acid and flavone concentrations in flowers. These results suggested that active and nutritional ingredients in flowers of chrysanthemum could be increased by elevated UV-B radiation applied during the later growth stages of chrysanthemum. The paper supplied a simple and environmental-friendly method to improve quality of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of culture medium volume and embryo density on early mouse embryonic development: tracking the development of the individual embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shan-Jun; Xu, Chang-Long; Wang, Jeffrey; Sun, Ying-Pu; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    To determine the optimal volume or density of embryos for the well-of-the-well (WOW) system in order to track the development of individual embryos and to determine whether the WOW system can reverse the negative impact of culturing embryos singly. (1) Mouse embryos (groups of nine at the 2-cell stage) were cultured in 6.25 μl, 12.50 μl, 25.00 μl and 50.00 μl of droplets of culture medium under paraffin oil; (2) Groups of three, six, nine and twelve embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil; (3) Groups of nine embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet under paraffin oil with or without nine micro-wells made on the bottom of the Petri dish into each of which were placed one of the nine embryos (WOW system). Also single 2-cell stage embryos was cultured individually in 5.5 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil with or without a single micro-well made on the bottom of the Petri dish (WOW system for single culture). At the end of culture, the percentages of blastocyst development, hatching and hatched blastocysts were compared in each group. The blastocysts were fixed for differential staining. The blastocyst development was significantly higher (P WOW system. The blastocyst development was not improved when single embryo cultured individually in a micro-well was compared to single embryo cultured individually without micro-well. The total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher in group embryo culture than single embryo culture regardless of whether the WOW system was used. In addition, the total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher (P WOW system than without. Group embryo culture is superior to single embryo culture for blastocyst development. The WOW system with 50 μl of droplet of culture medium can be used to track the individual development of embryo cultured in groups while preserving good embryonic development. The reduced

  2. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  3. In vivo assay for the developmental competence of embryo-derived zebrafish cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, JE; Hage, WJ; Lanser, PH; Collodi, P; Zivkovic, D

    We have produced chimeric zebrafish embryos by transplanting permanent embryo-derived cell lines into blastula-stage embryos. Furthermore, we have established a fluorescent in vivo assay to monitor the developmental effects and fate of such transplanted cells using confocal laser scanning

  4. Polyamines and their biosynthetic enzymes during somatic embryo development in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Stephanie Long

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine if the observed changes in polyamines and their biosynthetic enzymes during somatic embryo development were specifically related to either the stage of the embryo development or to the duration of time spent on the maturation medium. Somatic embryos of red spruce (Picea rubens) at different...

  5. Efficacy of biofeedback on quality of life in stages I and II pelvic organ prolapse: A Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Taghvadoost, Neda; Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Forogh, Bijan; Bazazbehbahani, Roxana; Raissi, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent disorder which seriously affects the sufferer's quality of life. The main goal of this study was to evaluate biofeedback impact on quality of life in women with mild to moderate POP. 40 females in stages I and II POP were allocated into 2 groups. One group received pelvic floor muscle exercise and lifestyle advice in addition to biofeedback twice a week for 4 weeks, while the other received a lifestyle advice sheet and pelvic floor muscle exercise without biofeedback. A valid Persian version of P-QOL questionnaire was applied to assess the patients̕ quality of life at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 weeks follow up. Pressure biofeedback and Physical examination were also performed in order to determine pelvic floor muscle strength and staging of the prolapse, respectively. Collected data were analyzed by mixed ANOVA test using SPSS 22. Biofeedback improved the quality of life in seven of nine P-QOL domains. However, it had no significant impact either on pelvic floor muscle strength or on the stage of the prolapse. Biofeedback could be considered as a non-invasive treatment leading to quality of life promotion in women with stages I and II POP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig

    2007-01-01

    equal proportions of transcriptionally active and inactive embryos and essentially all embryos that developed to the 16-cell stage (n = 21) and further to the blastocyst stage (n = 19) contained only transcriptionally active cells. In conclusion, porcine embryos produced in vitro had an asynchronous...

  7. Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffery M; Gardner, David K

    2002-10-01

    Embryo development following cryopreservation is reduced compared with fresh embryos. One of the traumas that cryopreservation imparts on embryos is an increase in oxidative stress. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the addition of the antioxidant ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions on subsequent embryo development. Mouse embryos at the 2-cell and blastocyst stages were either slow-frozen or vitrified in solutions containing either no ascorbate or 0.1 or 0.5 mmol/l ascorbate. The effects on the levels of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent embryo development and physiology were assessed. Addition of ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions reduced the levels of hydrogen peroxide in embryos. Furthermore, addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate significantly enhanced inner cell mass development in blastocysts. Embryos cryopreserved with ascorbate had significantly lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and increased rates of metabolism compared with those cryopreserved in the absence of ascorbate. The benefits of ascorbate were significantly greater in embryos that were slow-frozen compared with those that were vitrified. These data indicate that the addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions for the mammalian embryo would be of significant value.

  8. Improved Murine Blastocyst Quality and Development in a Single Culture Medium Compared to Sequential Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Justin M; Zimmer, Randall L; Nabli, Henda; Davis, J Wade; Sutovsky, Peter; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L

    2016-03-01

    Validate single versus sequential culture media for murine embryo development. Prospective laboratory experiment. Assisted Reproduction Laboratory. Murine embryos. Thawed murine zygotes cultured for 3 or 5 days (d3 or d5) in single or sequential embryo culture media developed for human in vitro fertilization. On d3, zygotes developing to the 8 cell (8C) stage or greater were quantified using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and quality was assessed by morphological analysis. On d5, the number of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was counted. DAPI was used to quantify total nuclei and inner cell mass nuclei. Localization of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) was reference points for evaluating cell quality. Comparing outcomes in single versus to sequential media, the odds of embryos developing to the 8C stage on d3 were 2.34 time greater (P = .06). On d5, more embryos reached the blastocyst stage (P = culture. Human embryo studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The Effect of Angiotensin on the Quality of In Vitro Produced (IVP) Sheep Embryos and Expression of Na+/K+/ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Borjian Boroujeni, Sara; Sarvari, Ali; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of rennin-angiotensin components in mammalian ovaries and their involvement in ovarian physiology have been established. In the present study, effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+/ATPase) expression and development of sheep embryos was evaluated. Methods: The abattoir-derived Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COC) were randomly allocated into three experimental groups; group I) in vitro Maturation (IVM) of oocytes in the presence of Ang II followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF)/in vitro Culture (IVC) (IVM group), group II) IVM/IVF of oocytes followed by IVC wherein the embryos were exposed to Ang II on day 4 of IVC (D4 group), and group III) IVM/IVF and IVC of oocytes without any angiotensin (Control). The blastocyst and hatching rates were recorded on days 6 to 8. Day 8 embryos were immunostained with primary and secondary antibodies against Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits. Results: Addition of Ang II during IVM and IVC significantly increased the hatching rate of blastocysts on day 8 compared to the control. The trophectoderm and total blastocyst cells’ numbers were significantly increased by addition of Ang II to the IVM and IVC media, though the expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits were positively influenced by the addition of Ang II on day 4 (D4 group). Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems Ang II through positive effects on embryos, expressed as the greater hatching rate and blastocyst cell number, could increase the sheep embryo developmental rate. These improvements might be partly related to the greater expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits when Ang II was added during IVC. PMID:26855730

  10. [Chapter 10. The embryo, a particular thing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Astrid

    2018-03-07

    By allowing a woman to terminate the life of the embryo, the law of 17 January 1975 leads us to ask the question about how to qualify the embryo. Is it a thing or a person ? Subordinate to the birth of a viable, living being, the embryo can have no acknowledged legal personality. Its particularity must nevertheless be noted : it is the only thing in law that is likely to become a person. So, conjugated in the present (The reality of the present : the embryo is a thing), the embryo is without doubt a thing.This qualification is implicit and results from an a contrario interpretation of article 16 CC. By not qualifying the human being from the start of his life as a person, the legislator treats him as a thing. That explains why the term homicide cannot be used against someone whose fault has provoked the termination of the pregnancy of a pregnant woman.The qualification as a thing does not prevent the protection of the embryo, attached to its quality as a human being. This protection is different from that applied to a person. In fact, it does not present an obstacle to the destruction of the embryo. It only consists in providing a framework for any violations that the embryo might suffer. The protection is variable according to whether it applies to the embryo in vitro or in utero and increases as the parental project progresses.Conjugated in the future, the embryo will become a person (The fiction taken from the future : the embryo is a person). This perspective allows us to qualify it fictitiously as a person, from conception, by means of an analysis, either retrospective or prospective.The retrospective analysis allows, once the child is born alive, a ?return to the future? by recognising that the embryo has rights, from conception, by applying the adage infans conceptus.The prospective analysis leads to anticipating the future and the quality as a person that will be acknowledged for the embryo at birth. Inspired by the law of goods and in particular the notion

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi embryo using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... SignalP/) (Nielsen et al. 1997). All ESTs are submitted in NCBI GenBank database ..... 2001). Expression of these genes hint at conserved pathways of epigenetic regulation associated with. GBR stage embryos. Developmental timing of gene expres- sion is regulated by a set of evolutionarily conserved.

  12. [Assisted reproductive technologies and the embryo status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Y

    The status of the human embryo has always be a subject of philosophical and theological thoughts with major social consequences, but, until the 19th century, it has been mainly an abstraction. The arrival of the human embryo in vitro, materialized by Louise Brown's birth in 1978 and above all by the supernumerary embryos produced by the Australian team of Trounson and Wood following the introduction of ovarian stimulation, will turn theoretical thoughts into a reality. Nobody may ignore the hidden intentions behind the debate, as to recognise a status to a few days old embryo will immediately have a major impact on the status of a few weeks old foetus and therefore on the abortion rights. We will see that the embryo status, essentially based as well on a vision on the good and evil as on social order, cannot be based on a scientific analysis of the reproduction process but comes from a society's choice, by essence " arbitrary " and always disputable. This does not preclude the collectivity right and legitimacy to give a precise status and it is remarkable to observe the law is careful not to specify which status to give to the human embryo. It is more thru handling procedures and functioning rules that the law designed the embryo position, neither with a status of a person, nor of a thing. It nevertheless remains true that there is a constant risk that the legislation gives the embryo a status that would call into question it's unique characteristic of early reproductive stage, jeopardizing at once the hard-won reproductive freedom (reproductive choice) as well as freedom of research on embryonic stem cells, one of the most promising field of medical research.

  13. Characterization of the onset of embryonic control and early development in the bovine embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine embryos were used to determine if morphological and molecular features of early development are similar to in vivo recovered bovine embryos and to determine at what level early bovine development is regulated. Radiolabeling of IVP embryos and in vivo recovered embryos with 35 S-methionine for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that these embryos are equivalent. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between late 8-cells and morulae. This transition is α-amanitin sensitive therefore due to de novo embryonic transcription. Embryonic transcription is partially responsible for terminating the post-transcriptionally regulated period of early bovine development. Argentophillic nucleolar organizing regions (Ag-NORs) indicate onset of nucleolar activation. Ag-NORs were absent in 2- and 4-cell IVP embryos and rarely occurred in 8-cell IVP embryos cultured in vitro. IVP 1- and 2-cell embryos cultured to blastocysts in sheep oviducts demonstrated Ag-NORs. Thus the lack of nucleolar activation of IVP embryos cultured in vitro is culture induced between the 2- and 8-cell stage

  14. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  15. Siberian Sturgeon Oocyte Extract Induces Epigenetic Modifications of Porcine Somatic Cells and Improves Developmental Competence of SCNT Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has generally demonstrated that a differentiated cell can convert into a undifferentiated or pluripotent state. In the SCNT experiment, nuclear reprogramming is induced by exposure of introduced donor nuclei to the recipient cytoplasm of matured oocytes. However, because the efficiency of SCNT still remains low, a combination of SCNT technique with the ex-ovo method may improve the normal development of SCNT embryos. Here we hypothesized that treatment of somatic cells with extracts prepared from the germinal vesicle (GV stage Siberian sturgeon oocytes prior to their use as nuclear donor for SCNT would improve in vitro development. A reversible permeability protocol with 4 μg/mL of digitonin for 2 min at 4°C in order to deliver Siberian sturgeon oocyte extract (SOE to porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs was carried out. As results, the intensity of H3K9ac staining in PFFs following treatment of SOE for 7 h at 18°C was significantly increased but the intensity of H3K9me3 staining in PFFs was significantly decreased as compared with the control (p<0.05. Additionally, the level of histone acetylation in SCNT embryos at the zygote stage was significantly increased when reconstructed using SOE-treated cells (p<0.05, similar to that of IVF embryos at the zygote stage. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly decreased and pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 were highly expressed in the blastocyst stage of SCNT embryos reconstructed using SOE-treated cells as nuclear donor (p<0.05. And there was observed a better development to the blastocyst stage in the SOE-treated group (p<0.05. Our results suggested that pre-treatment of cells with SOE could improve epigenetic reprogramming and the quality of porcine SCNT embryos.

  16. Quality of life, urogynecological morbidity, and lymphedema after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøding, Ligita Paskeviciute; Ottosen, Christian; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers a possibility for future childbearing for young women with early-stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life and self-reported morbidity in patients undergoing RVT is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively...

  17. The impact of delayed development on the quality of life of adults with end-stage renal disease since childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra; Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the course of life of children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on their quality of life in adulthood. We therefore assessed the course of life of adult patients with onset of ESRD at an age of <15 years between 1972 and 1992 and compared it with that of the

  18. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.

    2001-01-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  19. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  20. Quality of life after radiotherapy for early-stage testicular seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffo, Orazio; Amichetti, Maurizio; Tomio, Luigi; Galligioni, Enzo

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Standard therapy in early-stage testicular seminoma (TS) includes inguinal orchiectomy followed by irradiation (XRT) of the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Since this treatment is highly effective in controlling the disease and leads to many long survivors, the quality of life (QL) may be impaired by treatment-induced side-effects. The aim of this study was to provide a QL evaluation of patients treated with XRT after orchiectomy for TS. Materials and methods: We used a validated self-completed questionnaire based on a series of 44 items covering all QL fields. The items were grouped into six subscales with standardized scores. The questionnaire was mailed to a consecutive series of 143 patients treated between 1961 and 1995 for TS with no evidence of disease after primary treatment. Results: Ninety-eight questionnaires (68.5%) were returned and are assessable. The median age of the patients was 48 years (range, 26-85 years) at the time of completing the questionnaire, with a median follow-up after completion of treatment of 123 months (range, 15-432 months). The physical and autonomy subscale standardized scores were ≥1 in 83 and 95% of the cases, respectively. Psychological problems were reported by a small percentage of patients, ranging from 13, who reported a depressive condition, to 16%, who declared feeling tense. Of the patients, 86 and 89% have regularly met relatives and friends. The urinary score was above the central point in 99% of the patients. Only 6% of the patients perceived their body image as worsened by treatment. The patients who were more informed about the disease and therapy had a better physical and psychological adjustment. Conclusions: The QL in our patients resulted as satisfactory, with a maintained body image and few side-effects. The information given to the patients about their disease and its treatment influenced the post-treatment QL adjustment

  1. Effect of β-mercaptoetanol and cysteine on post-thawing quality and oxidative activity of ram sperm and on the viability of vitrified sheep embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pradieé

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of β-mercaptoethanol (BME and cysteine on the viability and oxidative activity of ram sperm after thawing and on development in vitro and viability of vitrified sheep embryos were evaluated. Ejaculates from four rams were pooled and extended, composing six treatments: no antioxidants; 2mM BME; 5mM BME; 2mM BME and 5mM cysteine; 5mM BME and 5mM cysteine; and 5mM cysteine. Sperm motility, membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial functionality, production of reactive oxygen species and total antioxidant capacity were similar across treatments (P>0.05. A medium with no antioxidant presented cleavage and blastocyst development rates (60.3% and 33.6%, respectively similar (P>0.05 to those of a medium with 50μM BME and 600μM cysteine (64.3% and 36.6%, respectively. Post-thawing viability of vitrified embryos was similar between media (P>0.05. Cysteine and BME had no influence on the post-thawing viability and oxidative activity of ram sperm and on the viability of vitrified sheep embryos.

  2. Factors affecting conception rates in cattle following embryo transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) plays an important role in improving productivity of dairy cattle (Bos indicus). Embryo Transfer Technology allows top quality female livestock to improve a herd or flock in much the same way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires. The technology hastens ...

  3. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  4. Effects of harvesting stages on yield and nutritional quality of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... harvesting stage 2 (mature fruits) was characterized by fruits with shinny peel and harvesting stage 3 (over- mature fruits) was characterized by .... NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was applied two times during the experimental duration. The first ..... production and ripening of banana fruit. Brazilian. Journal of Plant ...

  5. 76 FR 41731 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... required to have ORVR, including motorcycles and incomplete heavy-duty gasoline powered truck chassis... Stage II provisions from a SIP. B. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems When an automobile or other vehicle... from the automobile fill pipe into the underground storage tank. An advantage of this type of system is...

  6. Interaction between maturity stages and temperature on quality of ‘Guarani’ blackberries stored under controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the interaction between maturity stages and temperature on fruit quality of ‘Guarani’ blackberries stored under controlled atmosphere (CA. The experiment was conducted in a factorial scheme (2x2, evaluating two ripening stages (E1: red-color and E2: black-color of fruits and two temperatures (1°C and 5°C. The fruit were stored in CA (10.0kPa O2+15.0kPa CO2 and 98±1% of relative humidity (RH. Results showed that the principal component 1 (PC I and principal component 2 (PC II corresponded to 92.84% of the overall variation of the evaluated variables. Harvest should not be performed in the early maturity stage, because ‘Guarani’ blackberries do not develop all quality of consumer. ‘Guarani’ blackberries must be stored at 1°C. The maturity stage showed the major importance in the overall variability of quality parameters when compared to storage temperature.

  7. Somatic embryogenesis, scanning electron microscopy, histology and biochemical analysis at different developing stages of embryogenesis in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Junaid; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Pershad; Srivastava, Prem Shanker

    2011-01-01

    An efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in six date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhee, Zardai, Khalasah, Muzati, Shishi and Zart). Somatic embryogenesis (SE) was growth regulators and cultivars dependent. Friable embryogenic callus was induced from excised shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with various auxins particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1.5 mg 1−l). Suspension culture increased embryogenesis potentiality. Only a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg 1−1) produced somatic embryos in culture. Somatic embryos germinated and converted into plantlets in N6-benzyladenine (BAP, 0.75 mg 1−l) added medium following a treatment with thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 mg 1−l) for maturation. Scanning electron microscopy showed early stages of somatic embryo particularly, globular types, and was in masses. Different developing stages of embryogenesis (heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) were observed under histological preparation of embryogenic callus. Biochemical screening at various stages of somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, matured, germinated embryos and converted plantlets) of date palm cultivars has been conducted and discussed in detail. The result discussed in this paper indicates that somatic embryos were produced in numbers and converted plantlets can be used as a good source of alternative propagation. Genetic modification to the embryo precursor cell may improve the fruit quality and yield further. PMID:23961149

  8. Comparison of health-related quality of life between patients with end-stage ankle and hip arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Mark; Daniels, Tim; Younger, Alastair; Foote, C J; Penner, Murray; Wing, Kevin; Lau, Johnny; Leighton, Ross; Dunbar, Michael

    2008-03-01

    End-stage ankle arthrosis is one of the leading causes of chronic disability in North America. Information on this condition is limited. The amount of pain and the reduction in health-related quality of life and function have not been quantified with use of universal outcome measures. The purpose of the present study was to compare the extent of pain, loss of function, and health-related quality of life in two cohorts of patients waiting for the surgical treatment of end-stage ankle or hip arthrosis. One hundred and thirty patients with end-stage ankle arthrosis who were awaiting total ankle arthroplasty or ankle arthrodesis were recruited through a Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society multicenter study. All patients prospectively completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) generic outcome instrument. This cohort was compared with a similar cohort of 130 patients with end-stage hip arthrosis, randomly selected from an existing prospective joint replacement database, who had completed an SF-36 questionnaire prospectively from 2000 to 2005. In both groups, the scores for all SF-36 subscales were approximately two standard deviations below normal population scores. Patients with ankle arthrosis had significantly worse mental component summary scores (p hip arthrosis reported significantly lower physical function scores (p arthrosis is at least as severe as that associated with end-stage hip arthrosis.

  9. The dynamics of patients' life quality indices under the conditions of two-stage knee joint replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpinyak S.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim: to analyze the changes in the life quality indices of the patients with deep periprosthetic joint infection of the knee under the two-stage surgical treatment. Material and Methods. 57 patients who underwent two-stage revision-ary treatment in Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery were interviewed with life quality questionnaire Short Form Medical Outcomes Study (SF 36 v.1. Interview results were compared with standardized population indices of SF-36 scales for males and females. Results. In all groups regardless of sex there was a general tendency for an increase in physical and psychological health component up to mean population values after the first stage of surgery and further growth after the second stage. Rehabilitation potential of psychomotor health was higher in women than in men. The ability to handle stress was lower in direct ratio with the patients' age. Conclusion. Two-stage reendoprosthetic treatment with articulating antimicrobial spacer implantation having high grade of fixation is an effective treatment method for deep periprosthetic infection which increases physical health and improves social functioning of patients.

  10. Embryo fossilization is a biological process mediated by microbial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Schollaert, Kaila L; Nelson, David E; Donoghue, Philip C J; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Turner, F Rudolf; Stein, Barry D; Dong, Xiping; Bengtson, Stefan; Huldtgren, Therese; Stampanoni, Marco; Chongyu, Yin; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-12-09

    Fossilized embryos with extraordinary cellular preservation appear in the Late Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, coincident with the appearance of animal body fossils. It has been hypothesized that microbial processes are responsible for preservation and mineralization of organic tissues. However, the actions of microbes in preservation of embryos have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we show that bacterial biofilms assemble rapidly in dead marine embryos and form remarkable pseudomorphs in which the bacterial biofilm replaces and exquisitely models details of cellular organization and structure. The experimental model was the decay of cleavage stage embryos similar in size and morphology to fossil embryos. The data show that embryo preservation takes place in 3 distinct steps: (i) blockage of autolysis by reducing or anaerobic conditions, (ii) rapid formation of microbial biofilms that consume the embryo but form a replica that retains cell organization and morphology, and (iii) bacterially catalyzed mineralization. Major bacterial taxa in embryo decay biofilms were identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing. Decay processes were similar in different taphonomic conditions, but the composition of bacterial populations depended on specific conditions. Experimental taphonomy generates preservation states similar to those in fossil embryos. The data show how fossilization of soft tissues in sediments can be mediated by bacterial replacement and mineralization, providing a foundation for experimentally creating biofilms from defined microbial species to model fossilization as a biological process.

  11. Improving initiation, genotype capture, and family representation in somatic embryogenesis of Pinus radiata by a combination of zygotic embryo maturity, media, and explant preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Cathy; Find, Jens; Reeves, Cathie

    2009-01-01

    . Optimum stage of cone maturity for initiation success was tested by five collections made at 1 week intervals, spanning the developmental period from pro-embryo to cotyledonary embryos. Two media were compared; embryo-development media (EDM6) and a modified Litvay medium (Glitz). Two zygotic embryo...

  12. Preliminary study of factors affecting the superovulatory response of high producing dairy cows superstimulated regardless of the stage of estrous cycle in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted as a first time commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows using multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET technology in Egypt. We studied factors affecting the superovulatory response (SR in superovulated cows and effects of propylene glycol (PG on embryo quality. Daily milk production at flushing had significantly negative effects on SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. In addition, Brown Swiss cows had better SR than Holstein cows. Moreover, cows having more than 3 parities yielded better response, compared to cows in the first three parities. However, factors such as body weight at flushing, body condition score (BCS at flushing and days in milk (DIM at flushing did not have any association with SR in cows. In addition, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR (Right CL number, P < 0.05; Left CL number, P < 0.05, total embryos per flush (P < 0.05, first grade embryos per flush (P < 0.01 and tended to improve transferable embryos (P = 0.13 and second grade embryos per flush (P = 0.11. However, it tended to increase the number of degenerated embryos per flush (0.06. In conclusion, commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows regardless of stage of estrous cycle by MOET proved successful under Egyptian conditions. Milk yield was negatively associated with SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. Moreover, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR and embryo yields.

  13. A manufacturing quality assessment model based-on two stages interval type-2 fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Helmi Shintya Dewi, Intan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an assessment models for manufacturing quality using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2-FL). The proposed model is developed based on one of building block in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), which is benefit of SCM, and focuses more on quality. The proposed model can be used to predict the quality level of production chain in a company. The quality of production will affect to the quality of product. Practically, quality of production is unique for every type of production system. Hence, experts opinion will play major role in developing the assessment model. The model will become more complicated when the data contains ambiguity and uncertainty. In this study, IT2-FL is used to model the ambiguity and uncertainty. A case study taken from a company in Yogyakarta shows that the proposed manufacturing quality assessment model can work well in determining the quality level of production.

  14. Adhering to Quality Measures in Esophagectomy Is Associated with Improved Survival in All Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Pamela; Puri, Varun; Broderick, Stephen; Patterson, G. Alexander; Meyers, Bryan; Crabtree, Traves

    2017-01-01

    Background Quality measures for early and locally advanced esophageal cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy have been made by national organizations. The rate of adherence to these measures as well as their association with overall survival are unknown. Methods Esophagectomy patients were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. As neoadjuvant status was available since 2006, the analysis of locally advanced patients began at this time point. Selected measures included: R0 resection, evaluation of ≥15 lymph nodes, and induction therapy for locally advanced tumors. Multivariate models identified variables associated with achieving quality measures. A Cox proportional hazards model evaluated factors associated with mortality. Results From 1998–2012, 4,908/16,040 (30.6%) early stage esophageal cancer patients (clinical T1A-T2N0 20 cases/year) was independently associated with meeting both measures (OR OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9–2.5). From 2006–2012, 7,747/20,437 (37.9%) locally advanced patients (clinical Stage IIB-IIIB) received esophagectomy. 5,977/6,966 (85.8%) received induction therapy, 6,394/6,966 (91.8%) had R0 resection, and 2,852/6,966 (40.9%) had ≥15 lymph nodes sampled. High volume center type was again associated with increased likelihood of meeting all quality measures (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.92–2.46). Meeting all quality measures was associated with the largest decrease in mortality for both early stage (HR 0.27, 0.18–0.39) and locally advanced (HR 0.54, 0.40–0.73) esophageal cancer patients. Conclusions Adherence to recommended quality measures is independently associated with improved overall survival in both early and locally advanced stages of esophageal cancer. Currently, few patients are receiving care in accordance with these recommendations. PMID:28109569

  15. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  16. The integration of the quality assurance approach into the regulatory review stages in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniori, D.

    1979-01-01

    The control activities of CNEN, the Italian Regulatory Body on Nuclear Power Plant Installations, are carried out on the basis of two main lines of action. These are a thorough and detailed examination of the project at different stages of its development, and a careful assessment of the reliability of the organizations involved in respect of their capability to perform their duties correctly. The paper illustrates in some detail the different stages in which the project examinations are carried out, the documents pertinent to each stage, and the way in which the organizational requirements match the different steps. The regulatory guides and documents prepared on this subject are also briefly presented. (author)

  17. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfers in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai Mee; van Wely, Madelon; Mol, Femke; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2017-03-28

    In general, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) implies a single fresh and one or more frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Alternatively, the 'freeze-all' strategy implies transfer of frozen-thawed embryos only, with no fresh embryo transfers. In practice, both strategies can vary technically including differences in freezing techniques and timing of transfer of cryopreservation, that is vitrification versus slow freezing, freezing of two pro-nucleate (2pn) versus cleavage-stage embryos versus blastocysts, and transfer of cleavage-stage embryos versus blastocysts.In the freeze-all strategy, embryo transfers are disengaged from ovarian stimulation in the initial treatment cycle. This could avoid a negative effect of ovarian hyperstimulation on the endometrium and thereby improve embryo implantation. It could also reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the ovarian stimulation cycle by avoiding a pregnancy.We compared the benefits and risks of the two treatment strategies. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the freeze-all strategy compared to the conventional IVF/ICSI strategy in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and two registers of ongoing trials in November 2016 together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomised clinical trials comparing a freeze-all strategy with a conventional IVF/ICSI strategy which includes fresh transfer of embryos in women undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were cumulative live birth and OHSS. Secondary outcomes included other adverse effects (miscarriage rate). We included four randomised clinical trials analysing a total

  18. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  20. Label-free Quantification of Proteins in Single Embryonic Cells with Neural Fate in the Cleavage-Stage Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryo using Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (CE-ESI-HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Banek, Camille; Reddy, Sushma; Moody, Sally A; Nemes, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of protein expression in single cells promises to advance a systems-level understanding of normal development. Using a bottom-up proteomic workflow and multiplexing quantification by tandem mass tags, we recently demonstrated relative quantification between single embryonic cells (blastomeres) in the frog (Xenopus laevis) embryo. In this study, we minimize derivatization steps to enhance analytical sensitivity and use label-free quantification (LFQ) for single Xenopus cells. The technology builds on a custom-designed capillary electrophoresis microflow-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry platform and LFQ by MaxLFQ (MaxQuant). By judiciously tailoring performance to peptide separation, ionization, and data-dependent acquisition, we demonstrate an ∼75-amol (∼11 nm) lower limit of detection and quantification for proteins in complex cell digests. The platform enabled the identification of 438 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 16 ng of protein digest, or embryo. LFQ intensity was validated as a quantitative proxy for protein abundance. Correlation analysis was performed to compare protein quantities between the embryo and n = 3 different single D11 blastomeres, which are fated to develop into the nervous system. A total of 335 nonredundant protein groups were quantified in union between the single D11 cells spanning a 4 log-order concentration range. LFQ and correlation analysis detected expected proteomic differences between the whole embryo and blastomeres, and also found translational differences between individual D11 cells. LFQ on single cells raises exciting possibilities to study gene expression in other cells and models to help better understand cell processes on a systems biology level. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Label-free Quantification of Proteins in Single Embryonic Cells with Neural Fate in the Cleavage-Stage Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryo using Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (CE-ESI-HRMS)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Banek, Camille; Reddy, Sushma; Moody, Sally A.; Nemes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of protein expression in single cells promises to advance a systems-level understanding of normal development. Using a bottom-up proteomic workflow and multiplexing quantification by tandem mass tags, we recently demonstrated relative quantification between single embryonic cells (blastomeres) in the frog (Xenopus laevis) embryo. In this study, we minimize derivatization steps to enhance analytical sensitivity and use label-free quantification (LFQ) for single Xenopus cells. The technology builds on a custom-designed capillary electrophoresis microflow-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry platform and LFQ by MaxLFQ (MaxQuant). By judiciously tailoring performance to peptide separation, ionization, and data-dependent acquisition, we demonstrate an ∼75-amol (∼11 nm) lower limit of detection and quantification for proteins in complex cell digests. The platform enabled the identification of 438 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 16 ng of protein digest, or embryo. LFQ intensity was validated as a quantitative proxy for protein abundance. Correlation analysis was performed to compare protein quantities between the embryo and n = 3 different single D11 blastomeres, which are fated to develop into the nervous system. A total of 335 nonredundant protein groups were quantified in union between the single D11 cells spanning a 4 log-order concentration range. LFQ and correlation analysis detected expected proteomic differences between the whole embryo and blastomeres, and also found translational differences between individual D11 cells. LFQ on single cells raises exciting possibilities to study gene expression in other cells and models to help better understand cell processes on a systems biology level. PMID:27317400

  2. Long-term quality of life after conservative treatment versus surgery for different stages of acute sigmoid diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlhuber, Martina; Genzinger, Christian; Brandlhuber, Bernhard; Sommer, Wieland H; Müller, Mario H; Kreis, Martin E

    2018-03-01

    It is controversial whether patients fare better with conservative or surgical treatment in certain stages of acute diverticulitis (AD), in particular when phlegmonous inflammation or covered micro- or macro-perforation are present. The aim of this study was to determine long-term quality of life (QoL) for AD patients who received either surgery or conservative treatment in different stages. We included patients treated for AD at the University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Patients were classified by the Hansen and Stock (HS) classification, the modified Hinchey classification, and the German classification of diverticular disease (CDD). Pre-therapeutic staging was based on multidetector computed tomography. Long-term QoL was assessed by the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Data are mean ± SEM. Patients with phlegmonous AD (HS type 2a, Hinchey Ia and CDD 1b, respectively) had a better long-term QoL on the GIQLI when they were operated (78.5 ± 2.5 vs. 70.7 ± 2.1; p life, patients fare better after elective sigmoid colectomy when abscess size exceeds 1 cm.

  3. A cutin fluorescence pattern in developing embryos of some angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuticle visualized by auramine O fluorescence appears on the developing embryos of 9 species belonging to Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantaginaceae, Linaceae and Papilionaceae. In the investigated species the formation and extent of fluorescing and non-fluorescing embryonic areas follow a similar pattern. At first the cutin fluorescing layer is formed on the apical part of the proembryo without delimited protoderm. This layer extends and at the late globular stage envelops the embryo proper, except for a cell adjoining the suspensor. Fluorescing cutin persists during the heart stage but disappears from the torpedo embryo. During these stages there is no cutine fluorescence on suspensorial cells. Continuous cutin fluorescence appears again on the surface of the whole embryo by the late torpedo stage. Then fluorescence disappears from the radicular part of U-shaped embryos, but persists on the shoot apex, cotyledons and at least on the upper part of hypocotyl. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by cuticular changes.

  4. Selfed embryo death in Pinus taeda: a phenotypic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G

    2008-01-01

    Selective elimination of selfed embryos, or inbreeding depression, is shared among many members of the Pinaceae but it has not been fully characterized at the phenotypic level. Here, two death pattern model hypotheses are tested using 10 621 Pinus taeda embryos sampled in two cohorts. Cones from a single pedigree based on selfed, outbred, parent-offspring and offspring-parent matings were destructively sampled weekly before, during and after fertilization. Selfed embryo deaths adhered to two patterns over the course of development: death was linear with respect to days from fertilization; and a stage-specific death peak occurred during the early embryogeny stage. This death peak occurred from 23 to 36 d after fertilization in the 2004 cohort and from 27 to 34 d after fertilization in the 2006 cohort. Of those selfed embryos that died, 64-83% died at stages where a single dominant embryo was elongating inside the female gametophyte. Additional genetic models are needed to account for the stage-specific death component of selfed P. taeda embryos.

  5. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  6. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  7. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  8. Experimental taphonomy shows the feasibility of fossil embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Villinski, Jeffrey T; Turner, F Rudolf; Donoghue, Philip C J; Raff, Rudolf A

    2006-04-11

    The recent discovery of apparent fossils of embryos contemporaneous with the earliest animal remains may provide vital insights into the metazoan radiation. However, although the putative fossil remains are similar to modern marine animal embryos or larvae, their simple geometric forms also resemble other organic and inorganic structures. The potential for fossilization of animals at such developmental stages and the taphonomic processes that might affect preservation before mineralization have not been examined. Here, we report experimental taphonomy of marine embryos and larvae similar in size and inferred cleavage mode to presumptive fossil embryos. Under conditions that prevent autolysis, embryos within the fertilization envelope can be preserved with good morphology for sufficiently long periods for mineralization to occur. The reported fossil record exhibits size bias, but we show that embryo size is unlikely to be a major factor in preservation. Under some conditions of death, fossilized remains will not accurately reflect the cell structure of the living organism. Although embryos within the fertilization envelope have high preservation potential, primary larvae have negligible preservation potential. Thus the paleo-embryological record may have strong biases on developmental stages preserved. Our data provide a predictive basis for interpreting the fossil record to unravel the evolution of ontogeny in the origin of metazoans.

  9. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Ethical Challenges of Embryo Donation in Embryo Donors and Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Bahrami, Reyhane; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Embryo donation, as one of the novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART), has remained a controversial issue. This is due to this methods' need for individuals from outside the family circle. Their presence can cause many ethical issues and complicate the designing and planning of the embryo donation process. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the ethical challenges of embryo donation from the view point of embryo donors and recipients. Material and Method...

  11. Synthetic seed production from somatic embryos of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquea, Felipe; Poupin, María Josefina; Matus, José Tomás; Gebauer, Marlene; Medina, Consuelo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-10-01

    Pinus radiata is one of the most important forestry species in the southern hemisphere. This work describes the regeneration of this plant via somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos. To improve this process, somatic embryogenic cell suspensions were established in liquid media for the generation of material for embryo maturation. Each developmental stage of these suspensions was characterized by microscopy and their growth phases quantified. An alginate-containing medium was used as an encapsulation method for the somatic embryos that were then germinated as artificial seeds in vitro. The protocols described in this work are both useful and reliable for industrial purposes.

  12. Make or buy decision model with multi-stage manufacturing process and supplier imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mega Aria; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This research develops an make or buy decision model considering supplier imperfect quality. This model can be used to help companies make the right decision in case of make or buy component with the best quality and the least cost in multistage manufacturing process. The imperfect quality is one of the cost component that must be minimizing in this model. Component with imperfect quality, not necessarily defective. It still can be rework and used for assembly. This research also provide a numerical example and sensitivity analysis to show how the model work. We use simulation and help by crystal ball to solve the numerical problem. The sensitivity analysis result show that percentage of imperfect generally not affect to the model significantly, and the model is not sensitive to changes in these parameters. This is because the imperfect cost are smaller than overall total cost components.

  13. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Williamon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1. This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2; the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3; the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4; the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5. The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105 who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the “inappropriate” stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the “appropriate” entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of

  14. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, George; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other "non-musical" features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1). This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2); the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3); the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4); the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5). The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians ( N = 105) who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the "inappropriate" stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the "appropriate" entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of visual information in

  15. Experimental taphonomy shows the feasibility of fossil embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Elizabeth C.; Villinski, Jeffrey T.; Turner, F. Rudolf; Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Raff, Rudolf A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent discovery of apparent fossils of embryos contemporaneous with the earliest animal remains may provide vital insights into the metazoan radiation. However, although the putative fossil remains are similar to modern marine animal embryos or larvae, their simple geometric forms also resemble other organic and inorganic structures. The potential for fossilization of animals at such developmental stages and the taphonomic processes that might affect preservation before mineralization ha...

  16. A Two-Stage Taguchi Design ExampleImage Quality Promotion in Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, practical manufacturing process, integrating manufacturing capability-oriented design (MCOD philosophy and Taguchi’s method, is presented to tackle the high resolution miniature camera/cell phone lens issues at the manufacturing phase. Meanwhile, we also use optical software to create an analytical simulation model to investigate the quality characteristics due to lens’ thickness, eccentricity, surface profile, and air lens’ gap; a single quality characteristics expressed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF is defined. Optimal combination of process parameters in experimental scenario using Taguchi’s method is performed, and the results are judged and analyzed by the indices of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The key idea of the two-stage design is to utilize optical software to conduct the sensitivity analysis of MTF first; an analytical model, dependent on actual process parameters at manufacturing stage, is constructed next; and finally by substituting these outputs from the analytical model back to the optical software to verify the design criterion and do the modifications. By minimizing both the theoretical errors at design stage and the complexity in the manufacturing process, we are able to seeking for the most economical solution, simultaneously attain the optimal/suboptimal combination of process parameters or control factors in lens manufacturing issue.

  17. Patient-reported quality of life and hip function after 2-stage revision of chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ninna R; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very limited information is available regarding patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hip function following treatment for chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection (PJI). Patient-reported outcome measures provide essential information to clinicians of the imp......INTRODUCTION: Very limited information is available regarding patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hip function following treatment for chronic periprosthetic hip joint infection (PJI). Patient-reported outcome measures provide essential information to clinicians...... to complete the questionnaires EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS) in November 2014. Results were compared to normative population data for EQ-5Dindex. Patients re-infected after a completed 2-stage revision were compared with not re-infected. RESULTS: 45 patients completed the questionnaires. Mean...... time since re-implantation was 8.2 years (95% CI [confidence interval], 7.7-0.87). The EQ-5D index mean for the 2-stage group was 0.71 (0.64; 0.77) whereas the general population mean is 0.85 (0.84-0.85), p = 0.0004. The 2-stage revision patients scored significantly lower on every EQ-5D dimension...

  18. Storabelity of melon for different ripeness stages at harvest. Selection of instrumental procedures for quality assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Agulheiro Santos, Ana Cristina; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of melon (Cucumis melo L.) has been, until several years ago, regional, seasonal and without commercial interest. Recent commercial changes and world wide transportation have changed this situation. Melons from 3 different ripeness stages at harvest and 7 cold storage periods have been analysed by destructive and non destructive tests. Chemical, physical, mechanical (non destructive impact, compression, skin puncture and Magness- Taylor) and sensory tests were carried out in o...

  19. Buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning from oocytes selected using brilliant cresyl blue staining have better developmental competence and quality and are closer to embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in terms of their epigenetic status and gene expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sushil K; Sandhu, Anjit; Neerukattu, Venkata S; Singh, Karn P; Selokar, Naresh L; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-04-01

    We compared handmade cloned (HMC) buffalo blastocysts produced from oocytes stained with Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) and classified into those with blue (BCB+) or colorless cytoplasm (BCB-). The blastocyst rate was higher (p<0.001) for BCB+ than for BCB- oocytes (43.41 ± 2.54 vs. 22.74 ± 1.76%). BCB+ blastocysts had inner cell mass (ICM) cell number, ICM-to-trophectoderm ratio, global level of H3K18ac, apoptotic index, and expression level of BCL-XL, but not that of CASPASE-3, similar to that of blastocysts produced through in vitro fertilization (IVF), which was higher (p<0.05) than that of BCB- blastocysts. The global level of H3K9me2, which was similar in BCB+ and BCB- blastocysts, was higher (p<0.01) than that in IVF blastocysts. The expression level of OCT4 and SOX2 was higher (p<0.05) and that of GATA2 was lower (p<0.05) in BCB+ than that in BCB- blastocysts, whereas that of DNMT1, DNMT3a, NANOG, and CDX2 was not significantly different between the two groups. The expression level of DNMT1, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 was lower (p<0.05) and that of CDX2 was higher (p<0.05) in BCB+ than in IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, because BCB+ blastocysts have better developmental competence and are closer to IVF blastocysts in terms of quality, epigenetic status, and gene expression than BCB- blastocysts, BCB staining can be used effectively for selection of developmentally competent oocytes for HMC.

  20. In vitro development of embryos from experimentally Kerack-addicted Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal drug exposure, as a common public health concern, is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on early embryo development. Objective: To investigate the in vitro development of - embryo from experimentally Kerack-addicted mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five female mice were studied in five groups: control, vehicle, and three experimental groups of Kerack-dependent mice (I, II, and III which received different doses of Kerack for 14 days. After the establishment of addiction model (7 days, experimental groups I, II, and III were given Kerack intraperitoneally at the doses of 5, 35, and 70 mg/kg, twice a day for a period of 7 days, respectively. The vehicle group received normal saline and lemon juice whilst the control group just received water and food. Morulae were obtained through oviduct flashing. The survived embryos were cultured in T6+ 5mg/ml bovine serum albumin. The developmental rates up to hatched stage daily and embryo quality (differential staining and Tunnel staining were also assessed Results: The developmental potential of embryos obtained from the addicted mother was significantly decreased in comparison with control group. There was a significant reduction in the rate of blastocyst formation in the high dose Kerack dependent group. However, in addicted mice there was reduction in the total cell number (40.92% vs. 65.08% in control and, inner cell mass percentage (17.17% vs. 26.15% in control while apoptotic cells numbers were increased (7.17 vs. 1.46 in control (p<0.05. Conclusion: The Kerack addiction during pregnancy retards preimplantation development and induces apoptosis.

  1. Implementation of quality management in early stages of research and development projects at a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehe, Sandra; Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Rosefort, Christiane; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Knipp, Peter; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate objective of university research and development projects is usually to create knowledge, but also to successfully transfer results to industry for subsequent marketing. We hypothesized that the university technology transfer requires efficient measures to improve this important step. Besides good scientific practice, foresighted and industry-specific adapted documentation of research processes in terms of a quality management system might improve the technology transfer. In order to bridge the gap between research institute and cooperating industry, a model project has been accompanied by a project specific amount of quality management. However, such a system had to remain manageable and must not constrain the researchers' creativity. Moreover, topics and research team are strongly interdisciplinary, which entails difficulties regarding communication because of different perspectives and terminology. In parallel to the technical work of the model project, an adaptable quality management system with a quality manual, defined procedures, and forms and documents accompanying the research, development and validation was implemented. After process acquisition and analysis the appropriate amount of management for the model project was identified by a self-developed rating system considering project characteristics like size, innovation, stakeholders, interdisciplinarity, etc. Employees were trained according to their needs. The management was supported and the technical documentation was optimized. Finally, the quality management system has been transferred successfully to further projects.

  2. Diet quality in patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lauren A; Lambert, Kelly; Holt, Jane L; Meyer, Barbara J

    2017-12-01

    People on haemodialysis (HD) are at risk of consuming a poor quality diet. This includes inadequate intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). This study aims to investigate diet quality, with a particular focus on n-3 LCPUFA intake, in a population of incentre HD patients. Dietary intake was measured using three 24 hour recalls; the Polyunsaturated food frequency questionnaire (PUFA FFQ) and the Total Diet Score (TDS). Dietary intake was also compared to evidence based practice guidelines (EBPG). Nutritional status was assessed using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG SGA). A total of 32 dialysis patients were recruited, from two regional HD centres in New South Wales, Australia. Diet quality was the main outcome measure. Diet quality of study participants was poor, with the majority not meeting the EBPG for energy, protein and potassium. All participants exceeded the recommended amount of saturated fat. The mean TDS of the dialysis cohort was 10.2, which was significantly higher than the TDS of 9.3 of a healthy disease free cohort (p patients in this study had suboptimal diet quality. Improvements are required for better adherence to the EBPG. Increased consumption of n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids may also be of benefit. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  3. Comparing 36.5°C with 37°C for human embryo culture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Emad, Mai; Gad, Mostafa A; Sabry, Mohamed; Kasem, Hesham; Mahmoud, Manar; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A

    2018-03-27

    This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a culture temperature of 36.5°C versus 37°C on human embryo development in vitro. A total of 412 women undergoing IVF were randomized to two groups: the oocytes and embryos of the intervention group were cultured at 36.5°C; those of the control group were cultured at 37°C. Although no significant effect of culture temperature was observed on pregnancy or implantation rates, differences were found in embryo development. Embryo culture at 36.5°C was associated with a significantly higher cleavage rate (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.51), but a lower fertilization rate, fewer high-quality embryos on day 3, a lower blastocyst formation rate on day 5, and fewer high-quality and cryopreserved blastocysts (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.69), (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.97), (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.56) and (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.88), respectively, compared with 37°C. On the basis of these results, and in the absence of data on the optimal temperature for each stage of embryo development in vitro, we recommend continuation of the use of 37°C for human embryo culture. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  5. The techniques of quality operations computational and experimental researches of the launch vehicles in the drawing-board stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhaeva, K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the researchis the quality operations of the design process at the stage of research works on the development of active on-Board system of the launch vehicles spent stages descent with liquid propellant rocket engines by simulating the gasification process of undeveloped residues of fuel in the tanks. The design techniques of the gasification process of liquid rocket propellant components residues in the tank to the expense of finding and fixing errors in the algorithm calculation to increase the accuracy of calculation results is proposed. Experimental modelling of the model liquid evaporation in a limited reservoir of the experimental stand, allowing due to the false measurements rejection based on given criteria and detected faults to enhance the results reliability of the experimental studies; to reduce the experiments cost.

  6. Effect of Medium Salt Concentration on Differentiation and Maturation of Somatic Embryos of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    GROLL, J.; MYCOCK, D. J.; GRAY, V. M.

    2002-01-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro‐ and micro‐nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter‐, half‐, full‐ or double‐strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half‐ or full‐strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full‐strength...

  7. L- carnitine and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on in vitro bovine embryo production and cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zolini, Adriana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    High lipid content in embryo is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine and trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on in-vitro development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos when added during different stages of in vitro production of embryos. For all experiments, embryos were produced in vitro using slaughterhouse cows oocytes. Cleavage rates on Day 3, blastocyst and advanced blastocyst (hatching/hatched blastocyst...

  8. Radiation effects on cultured mouse embryos in relation to cell division cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domon, M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have worked with mouse embryos in vitro asking first, what are the suitable parameters to define the radiation sensitivity of embryos, and second what is a major factor determining it. The LD 50 was adopted as a parameter of the radiation sensitivity of a population in a mouse embryo system in culture. The fertilized ova were collected into Whitten's medium at various times during the pronuclear and 2-cell stages of development. They were irradiated in chambers with X-rays at doses of 0 to 800 rads. After the embryos were cultured, a set of the lethal fractions for various X-ray doses were obtained. Regarding the radiation sensitivity variation of the embryos, the LD 50 varied from 100 to 200 rads during the pronuclear stage and from 100 to 600 rads during the 2-cell stage. The embryos during the pronuclear stage were most radioresistant at early G 2 phase, followed by an increase in the sensitivity. The embryos during the 2-cell stage were also most radioresistant at early G 2 phase and were more sensitive when they got close to either the first or the second cleavage division. Furthermore, it seems that the factor 6 of the large variation was due to the extremely long G 2 period, 14 hrs for the 2-cell embryos. That is, the pooled 2-cell embryos were in a relative sense well synchronized with G 2 phase. In contrast, the synchrony was poor during the pronuclear stage, which led to less variation of the LD 50 for the pronuclear embryos. It is concluded that during the early cleavage stages of mice, radiosensitivity is mainly governed by the content of cells of various cell cycle ages in the embryo. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P life (P = 0.07), but no impact on comfort with food (P = 0.13) or on the dieting experience (P = 0.13), two dimensions evaluating attitudes toward food. In obese/overweight individuals, the HRQoL varies with the SOC, with those in the more advanced behavioural stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm capable of predicting the implantation potential of embryos transferred on Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Boel, Mikkel; Montag, Markus; Gardner, David K.

    2016-01-01

    curve (AUC) to establish the predictive strength of the algorithm. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE By applying the here developed algorithm (KIDScore), which was based on six annotations (the number of pronuclei equals 2 at the 1-cell stage, time from insemination to pronuclei fading at the 1-cell stage, time from insemination to the 2-cell stage, time from insemination to the 3-cell stage, time from insemination to the 5-cell stage and time from insemination to the 8-cell stage) and ranking the embryos in five groups, the implantation potential of the embryos was predicted with an AUC of 0.650. On Day 3 the KIDScore algorithm was capable of predicting blastocyst development with an AUC of 0.745 and blastocyst quality with an AUC of 0.679. In a comparison of blastocyst prediction including six other published algorithms and KIDScore, only KIDScore and one more algorithm surpassed an algorithm constructed on conventional Alpha/ESHRE consensus timings in terms of predictive power. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Some morphological assessments were not available and consequently three of the algorithms in the comparison were not used in full and may therefore have been put at a disadvantage. Algorithms based on implantation data from Day 3 embryo transfers require adjustments to be capable of predicting the implantation potential of Day 5 embryo transfers. The current study is restricted by its retrospective nature and absence of live birth information. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trials should be used in future studies to establish the value of time-lapse technology and morphokinetic evaluation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Algorithms applicable to different culture conditions can be developed if based on large data sets of heterogeneous origin. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by Vitrolife A/S, Denmark and Vitrolife AB, Sweden. B.M.P.’s company BMP Analytics is performing consultancy for Vitrolife A/S. M.B. is employed at

  11. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo, I. Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10,15,20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality was the parameter used to evaluated the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Susceptibility decreased with increasing embryo age and with decreased radiation dose. Estimated LD 50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). The survival curves obtained for each embryo stage are discussed on the basis of the multitarget theory. (author) [pt

  12. Quality of care and monitoring in paediatric end stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis quality of care and monitoring of chronic kidney disease - mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is assessed. Practices and policies with regards to transplantation, growth hormone and hypertension are inventories and compared with current guidelines and

  13. 76 FR 70227 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... specified co-morbidities. A home or self-care dialysis training payment adjustment of $33.44 per treatment... (NHSN) Dialysis Event Reporting Measure viii. Patient Experience of Care Survey Usage Measure ix... Productivity NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network NQF National Quality Forum PD Peritoneal Dialysis PFS...

  14. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagels Agneta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Methods Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2–5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. Results All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in ‘physical functioning’, ‘role physical’, ‘general health’ and in physical summary scores (PCS. The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2–3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES ≥ .80 - in ‘general health’ and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in ‘physical function’, ‘general health’ and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2–3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 – 0.79 in ‘role emotional’ and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate Conclusions Having CKD implies impaired HRQoL, also in earlier stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  15. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderkvist, Birgitta Klang; Medin, Charlotte; Hylander, Britta; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-06-18

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2-5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in 'physical functioning', 'role physical', 'general health' and in physical summary scores (PCS). The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2-3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES) ≥ .80 - in 'general health' and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in 'physical function', 'general health' and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2-3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 - 0.79) in 'role emotional' and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need to be developed.

  16. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF OIL-CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER, MEANT FOR INJECTION INTO FORMATION, USING TWO-STAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Golubev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with water conditioning issues in oil-field development using water-flooding. It is common knowledge that injected water contains oil residues and mechanical impurities, which affect permeability of geological horizon. It has been shown that these water impurities could intensify rock colmatation up to a full clogging of pores and fractures. Hence, issues of improving quality of injected water, aimed to ensure enhancement of reservoir properties, have been studied from a variety of new angles. There are given results of conducted test experiments as well as detailed description of elaborated equipment design. It has been established that two-stage treatment technology proposed in the paper, by making use of magnetic treatment device and sewage tank with liquid hydrophobic layer, will allow to considerably improve quality of injected water. Suggested water treatment unit appears to be highly applicable, providing a maximum effect at a minimum material cost.

  17. Developmental competence and epigenetic profile of porcine embryos produced by two different cloning methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Bjoern

    2017-01-01

    on conventionally produced embryos. The goal of this study was to unravel putative differences between two cloning methods, with regard to developmental competence, expression profile of a panel of developmentally important genes and epigenetic profile of porcine cloned embryos produced by either CNT or HMC, either...... affect porcine embryo development and epigenetic profile. The two cloning methods essentially produce embryos of similar quality on D0 and after 5 days in vitro culture, but thereafter both histone acetylation and gene expression differ between the two types of cloned embryos....

  18. In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (≤ 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (≥ 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

  19. Effects of embryo-derived exosomes on the development of bovine cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengxiang; Qing, Suzhu; Liu, Ruiqi; Qin, Hongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Qiao, Fang; Ge, Hui; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Cui, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC) embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE), as well as following development to term. Existence and function of SCNT embryo-derived exosomes were then investigated to reveal the cause of impaired development induced by culture medium replacement. Exosomes were successfully isolated through differential centrifugation and identified by both electron microscopy and immunostaining against exosomal membrane marker CD9. Supplementation of extracted exosomes into freshly renewed medium significantly rescued not only blastocyst formation and quality (in vitro development), but also following growth to term (in vivo development). Notably, ratio of ICM/TE and calving rate were enhanced to a similar level as that in nonrenewal group. In conclusion, our results for the first time indicate that 1: bovine SCNT embryos can secrete exosomes into chemically defined culture medium during IVC; 2: secreted exosomes are essential for SCNT blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality, and following development to term; 3: removal of exosomes induced by culture medium replacement impairs SCNT embryo development, which can be avoided by nonrenewal culture procedure or markedly recovered by exosome supplementation.

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-04-05

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken.

  1. HSPC117 deficiency in cloned embryos causes placental abnormality and fetal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yingying [Department of Reproduction and Development, Kunming Institute of Zoology and Kunming Primate Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hai, Tang; Liu, Zichuan; Zhou, Shuya; Lv, Zhuo [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ding, Chenhui; Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Niu, Yuyu [Department of Reproduction and Development, Kunming Institute of Zoology and Kunming Primate Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Zhao, Xiaoyang; Tong, Man [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Liu [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Jouneau, Alice [INRA, UMR 1198, ENVA, CNRS, FRE 2857, Biologie du Developpement et Reproduction, Jouy en Josas F-78350 (France); Zhang, Xun [Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Ji, Weizhi, E-mail: wji@mail.kiz.ac.cn [Department of Reproduction and Development, Kunming Institute of Zoology and Kunming Primate Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Zhou, Qi, E-mail: qzhou@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-07-02

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used in many species to produce live cloned offspring, albeit with low efficiency. The low frequency of successful development has usually been ascribed to incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming of the transferred nuclear genome. Elucidating the genetic differences between normal fertilized and cloned embryos is key to understand the low efficiency of SCNT. Here, we show that expression of HSPC117, which encodes a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was absent or very low in cloned mouse blastocysts. To investigate the role of HSPC117 in embryo development, we knocked-down this gene in normal fertilized embryos using RNA interference. We assessed the post-implantation survival of HSPC117 knock-down embryos at 3 stages: E9 (prior to placenta formation); E12 (after the placenta was fully functional) and E19 (post-natal). Our results show that, although siRNA-treated in vivo fertilized/produced (IVP) embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage and implanted without any difference from control embryos, the knock-down embryos showed substantial fetal death, accompanied by placental blood clotting, at E12. Furthermore, comparison of HSPC117 expression in placentas of nuclear transfer (NT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVP embryos confirmed that HSPC117 deficiency correlates well with failures in embryo development: all NT embryos with a fetus, as well as IVP and ICSI embryos, had normal placental HSPC117 expression while those NT embryos showing reduced or no expression of HSPC117 failed to form a fetus. In conclusion, we show that HSPC117 is an important gene for post-implantation development of embryos, and that HSPC117 deficiency leads to fetal abnormalities after implantation, especially following placental formation. We suggest that defects in HSPC117 expression may be an important contributing factor to loss of cloned NT embryos in vivo.

  2. HSPC117 deficiency in cloned embryos causes placental abnormality and fetal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingying; Hai, Tang; Liu, Zichuan; Zhou, Shuya; Lv, Zhuo; Ding, Chenhui; Liu, Lei; Niu, Yuyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhang, Xun; Ji, Weizhi; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used in many species to produce live cloned offspring, albeit with low efficiency. The low frequency of successful development has usually been ascribed to incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming of the transferred nuclear genome. Elucidating the genetic differences between normal fertilized and cloned embryos is key to understand the low efficiency of SCNT. Here, we show that expression of HSPC117, which encodes a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was absent or very low in cloned mouse blastocysts. To investigate the role of HSPC117 in embryo development, we knocked-down this gene in normal fertilized embryos using RNA interference. We assessed the post-implantation survival of HSPC117 knock-down embryos at 3 stages: E9 (prior to placenta formation); E12 (after the placenta was fully functional) and E19 (post-natal). Our results show that, although siRNA-treated in vivo fertilized/produced (IVP) embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage and implanted without any difference from control embryos, the knock-down embryos showed substantial fetal death, accompanied by placental blood clotting, at E12. Furthermore, comparison of HSPC117 expression in placentas of nuclear transfer (NT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVP embryos confirmed that HSPC117 deficiency correlates well with failures in embryo development: all NT embryos with a fetus, as well as IVP and ICSI embryos, had normal placental HSPC117 expression while those NT embryos showing reduced or no expression of HSPC117 failed to form a fetus. In conclusion, we show that HSPC117 is an important gene for post-implantation development of embryos, and that HSPC117 deficiency leads to fetal abnormalities after implantation, especially following placental formation. We suggest that defects in HSPC117 expression may be an important contributing factor to loss of cloned NT embryos in vivo.

  3. Fully integrated high quality factor GmC bandpass filter stage with highly linear operational transconductance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briem, Jochen; Mader, Marco; Reiter, Daniel; Amirpour, Raul; Grözing, Markus; Berroth, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an electrical, fully integrated, high quality (Q) factor GmC bandpass filter (BPF) stage for a wireless 27 MHz direct conversion receiver for a bendable sensor system-in-foil (Briem et al., 2016). The core of the BPF with a Q factor of more than 200 is an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with a high linearity at an input range of up to 300 mVpp, diff. The OTA's signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR) of more than 80 dB in the mentioned range is achieved by stabilizing its transconductance Gm with a respective feedback loop and a source degeneration resistors RDG. The filter stage can be tuned and is tolerant to global and local process variations due to offset and common-mode feedback (CMFB) control circuits. The results are determined by periodic steady state (PSS) simulations at more than 200 global and local process variation parameter and temperature points and corner simulations. It is expected, that the parasitic elements of the layout have no significant influence on the filter behaviour. The current consumption of the whole filter stage is less than 600 µA.

  4. Assessing the quality of pain care in ambulatory patients with advanced stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Cleary, Angela; Stuver, Sherri O; Lynch, Maureen; Brandoff, Douglas; Schaefer, Kristen G; Zhu, Junya; Berry, Donna L; Block, Susan; Weeks, Jane C

    2012-06-01

    Pain is common among patients with advanced cancer despite the dissemination of clinical pain care guidelines. We sought to assess the quality of pain care among patients with advanced disease. We reviewed the records of 85 adult ambulatory patients with advanced breast, lung, and gastrointestinal cancer treated in 2004-2006. Patients' screening pain intensity scores were at least 7 of 10. Nurse reviewers completed medical record reviews of care rendered at the index visit and over the subsequent 30 days based on the 2004 National Comprehensive Cancer Network pain guideline. An expert panel then rated the quality of the evaluation, treatment, and overall pain care. We used a multivariable model to analyze guideline compliance and resolution of severe pain. Among advanced cancer patients with severe pain, clinicians adjusted pain medications only half the time and made few timely referrals for pain-related consultations. By 30 days after the index visit, 34% of patients continued to report severe pain. The expert panel judged the overall quality of pain care as "fair" or "poor" in about two-thirds of cases because more timely and effective intervention could have reduced the severity and duration of pain. Resolution of severe pain was associated with adjustment of pain medications at the index visit (adjusted odds ratio 3.8, 95% CI 1.3-10.6). There is room for improvement in the pain care of patients with advanced cancer. Additional research is needed to understand the reasons for poor performance. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  6. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Maren C; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-02-06

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out.

  7. Quality of life during 5 years after stereotactic radiotherapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubels, Rutger J; Mokhles, Sahar; Andrinopoulou, Eleni R; Braat, Cornelia; Voort van Zyp, Noëlle C van der; Aluwini, Shafak; Aerts, Joachim G J V; Nuyttens, Joost J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the long-term impact of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) on the quality of life (QoL) of inoperable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 2006 to February 2008, 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were treated with SRT. QoL, overall survival and local tumor control were assessed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ)-C30 and the lung cancer-specific questionnaire QLQ-LC13 were used to investigate changes in QoL. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, every 2–3 months during the first two years, and then every 6 months until 5 years after the treatment or death or progressive disease. The median follow up was 38 months. During the 5 years after treatment with SRT for stage I NSCLC, the level of QoL was maintained: There was a slow decline (slope: −0.015) of the global health status over the 5 years (p < 0.0001). The physical functioning and the role functioning improved slowly (slope: 0.006 and 0.004, resp.) over the years and this was also significant (p < 0.0001). The emotional functioning (EF) improved significantly at 1 year compared to the baseline. Two years after the treatment dyspnea slowly increased (slope: 0.005, p = 0.006). The actuarial overall survival was 62% at 2 years and 31% at 5-years. QoL was maintained 5 years after SRT for stage I NSCLC and EF improved significantly. Dyspnea slowly increased 2 years after the treatment

  8. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , but rather choosing and prioritising between the available embryos. Data suggest that only approximately 5% of aspirated human oocytes have the competence to implant and develop into a child and that, in most treatment cycles, there is no oocyte capable of implanting. The most likely outcome is a negative...... pregnancy test, no matter what we choose in the laboratory. Still, both with the increasing complexity of infertile patients treated today and the important focus on reducing multiple pregnancies, it becomes increasingly important to improve our ability to predict the developmental competence of each embryo......Morphometric and morphokinetic approaches toward embryo quality assessment have for many years been difficult due to technical limitations. Today, with improvements in laboratory techniques and subsequent quality, we have a better understanding of the morphometric and kinetics of embryo development...

  9. Embryo wastage rates remain high in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a look at the trends from 2004-2013 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Sanaz; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2017-02-01

    This work examined the trend in "embryo wastage" rates after ART in USA and its relationship to the number of embryos transferred, live born infants delivered across patient age, and the yearly percentage of embryos wasted. The data were obtained from the US-clinics SART databank for the years 2004-2013. A total of 1,808,082 non-donor embryos were transferred in 748,394 fresh cycles resulting in 358,214 liveborn. During the years of analysis, the mean number of embryos transferred has progressively decreased leading to an overall significant decrease in Embryo Wastage rates (83.2 to 76.5%, p ART cycle are competent. The overall "Embryo Wastage" rates have consistently decreased from a high of 90% in 1995 to a rate of 76.5% in 2013. Transferring fewer embryos particularly at the blastocyst-stage and improved methods of embryo selection may further decrease "Embryo Wastage" rates.

  10. Vascular dysfunction across the stages of the menopausal transition is associated with menopausal symptoms and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Kerry L; Ozemek, Cemal; Kohrt, Wendy M; Blatchford, Patrick J; Moreau, Kerrie L

    2018-04-09

    The menopausal transition is associated with somatic symptoms and increased rates of depression, which can impair quality of life (QOL) and increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This period is also associated with accelerated vascular aging (arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction), an antecedent to CVD. This secondary analysis sought to explore associations between depression, menopausal symptoms and QOL, and vascular aging across menopause stages. Arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance), endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), menopausal symptoms (Menopausal Symptom List [MSL]), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), and QOL (Utian QOL Scale [UQOL]) were measured in 138 women (19-70 years) classified as premenopausal (n = 41, 34 ± 8 years; mean ± SD), early (n = 25, 49 ± 3 years), or late perimenopausal (n = 26, 50 ± 4 years), or early (n = 22, 55 ± 4 years) or late postmenopausal (n = 24, 61 ± 5 years). Differences across menopause stages were determined using one-way analysis of variance; associations between vascular measures and MSL, CES-D, and UQOL were tested using Pearson's correlation analyses. Menopausal symptoms, depression, and QOL worsened across menopause stages, particularly in late perimenopausal women. Vasosomatic symptom frequency, and general somatic symptom frequency and severity were inversely correlated with carotid artery compliance and FMD (r = -0.27 to -0.18, all P stages of menopause was associated with greater frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms, and lower QOL, but not depression. Mechanisms underlying these associations (eg, inflammation, oxidative stress) should be explored.

  11. The sensitivity of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, embryos to organophosphate pesticide induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund; Fulton; Key

    2000-03-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are common inhabitants of salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. Grass shrimp embryos are brooded externally on the abdomen of adult females for about 2 weeks prior to hatching. In South Carolina, the spring spawning period for grass shrimp coincides with the period of peak pesticide application on crops grown along the South Carolina coast. Thus, grass shrimp of all developmental stages are at risk of exposure to pesticides present in nonpoint source agricultural runoff. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are commonly applied agricultural chemicals which produce toxicity by inhibiting the nervous system enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The purpose of this study was to examine the development of AChE activity in grass shrimp embryos and to assess their sensitivity to OP-induced AChE inhibition. Embryos were exposed for 24 h to either chlorpyrifos or malathion. All exposure concentrations were nominal and ranged from 0 to 2.00 µg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos and from 0 to 120.00 µg l(-1) for malathion. Quantifiable levels of AChE activity first appeared at Stage V of development and increased as embryonic development progressed. AChE inhibition by the OPs was assessed in Stage VI and Stage VII embryos. Both stages of embryos were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos than malathion. The 24-h Effective Concentration (EC(50)) values for chlorpyrifos were 0.49 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=0.33-0.77 µg l(-1)) and 0.36 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=0.33-0.38 µg l(-1)) for Stage VI and Stage VII embryos, respectively. In comparison, malathion 24-h EC(50) values were 55.53 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=22.08-80.73 µg l(-1)) for Stage VI embryos and 29.93 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=25.22-44.22 µg l(-1)) for Stage VII embryos. For both OPs, there were no significant differences in the EC(50) values calculated for Stage VI and Stage VII embryos; however, AChE inhibition was significantly (Pinsecticide. A comparison of the results of these embryo tests

  12. Parental contributions to early embryo development: influences of urinary phthalate and phthalate alternatives among couples undergoing IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Ashcraft, Lisa; Whitcomb, Brian W; Rahil, Tayyab; Tougias, Ellen; Sites, Cynthia K; Pilsner, J Richard

    2017-01-01

    Are preconception urinary concentrations of phthalates and phthalate alternatives associated with diminished early stage embryo quality in couples undergoing IVF? Male, but not female, urinary concentrations of select metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with diminished blastocyst quality. Although phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive health, they are in widespread use across the world. Male and female preconception exposures to select phthalates have been previously associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in both the general population and in those undergoing IVF. This prospective cohort included 50 subfertile couples undergoing IVF in western Massachusetts. This study includes the first 50 couples recruited from the Baystate Medical Center's Fertility Center in Springfield, MA, as part of the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study (SEEDS). Relevant data from both partners, including embryo quality at the cleavage (Day 3) and blastocyst (Day 5) stages, were collected by clinic personnel during the normal course of an IVF cycle. A spot urine sample was collected from both male and female partners on the same day as semen sample procurement and oocyte retrieval. Concentrations of 17 urinary metabolite were quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and normalized via specific gravity. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI, with urinary phthalates and phthalate alternatives fitted as continuous variables and embryo quality as a binary variable. The 50 couples contributed 761 oocytes, of which 423 progressed to the cleavage stage, 261 were high-quality cleavage stage embryos, 137 were transferrable quality blastocysts and 47 were high-quality blastocysts. At the cleavage stage, male urinary monoethyl phthalate concentrations were positively associated with high-quality cleavage stage embryos (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1

  13. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadomo, Danilo; Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Scarica, Catello; Palagiano, Antonio; Canipari, Rita; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS) for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  14. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cimadomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  15. Cells, embryos and development in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Work continues to focus on the demonstrable totipotency of cultured somatic cells of various higher plants and has examined the conditions which regulate this propensity to be controllably released. This was done with special reference to cells obtained from cultured explants of daylily and carrot. For purposes of identifying the variables in question, work was carried out almost exclusively in liquid media. The events that intervene between the aseptic isolation of tissue explants, the culture of small derived units and free cells and the propagation in large numbers of adventive or somatic embryos to plantlets were traced and certain definitive stages at which control is exercised were identified. In daylily, morphologically competent units are now propagated with a high degree of precision in rotated liquid cultures in bulk, and under the conditions of continuous neutralized gravity, the development progresses so that embryo-plantlets are obtained.

  16. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  17. Action of uranium on pre implanted mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Miriam S.

    2001-01-01

    The cultured preimplantation embryos are normally employed to evaluate the effects of environmental pollutants specially metals. Embryos were obtained from hybrid females CBA x C57 Bl following induction of super ovulation. They were incubated from 1 cell stage during 120 hs. in M16 cultured medium. Three different experiments were carried out: A, B and C using uranyl nitrate UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O as source of uranium. In experiment 'A' the embryos were cultivated in the same culture dish containing final U concentrations of 13, 26, 52, 104 and 208 μgU/ml. In experiment 'B' embryos in a one cell stage were placed in culture medium with uranyl nitrate with final U concentrations of 26, 52, 104 μgU/ml. After 24 hours those embryos which had reached the two-cell stage were transferred to another culture dish to which fresh solutions of uranyl nitrate were added, maintaining the same concentrations of the previous one. In experiment 'C' the embryos were cultivated containing final U concentrations of 26, 52 and 104 μgU/ml and they were transferred to another culture dish every day to which fresh solutions of uranyl nitrate were added. Different embryos parameters were analyzed: 1) Development grade; 2) Number of cell per embryo and metaphases index; and 3) Embryo ploidy. 1) Embryos were observed each 24 hs. to evaluate development grade: 2, 4 and 8 cell stage, morula, early -expanded- hatched blastocysts and atresic embryos. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of embryos arrested either in the one-cell or in the two cell stages in control culture medium regarding different concentrations of U, in a total of 4388 embryos analyzed. From 2 cell stage, moment that the embryo begins to synthesize its own ARNm, the delay in embryonic development increased dose dependent. On the other hand, the toxicological effects in the same concentration are increase from 'A' treatment to 'C' treatment. Embriotoxicology effects are evidenced by an increment in

  18. Different effectiveness of closed embryo culture system with time-lapse imaging (EmbryoScope(TM)) in comparison to standard manual embryology in good and poor prognosis patients: a prospectively randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Guang; Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-08-24

    Previously manual human embryology in many in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers is rapidly being replaced by closed embryo incubation systems with time-lapse imaging. Whether such systems perform comparably to manual embryology in different IVF patient populations has, however, never before been investigated. We, therefore, prospectively compared embryo quality following closed system culture with time-lapse photography (EmbryoScope™) and standard embryology. We performed a two-part prospectively randomized study in IVF (clinical trial # NCT92256309). Part A involved 31 infertile poor prognosis patients prospectively randomized to EmbryoScope™ and standard embryology. Part B involved embryos from 17 egg donor-recipient cycles resulting in large egg/embryo numbers, thus permitting prospectively alternative embryo assignments to EmbryoScope™ and standard embryology. We then compared pregnancy rates and embryo quality on day-3 after fertilization and embryologist time utilized per processed embryo. Part A revealed in poor prognosis patients no differences in day-3 embryo scores, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates between EmbryoScope™ and standard embryology. The EmbryoScope™, however, more than doubled embryology staff time (P embryology. Appropriately designed and powered prospectively randomized studies appear urgently needed in well-defined patient populations before the uncontrolled utilization of these instruments further expands. NCT02246309 Registered September 18, 2014.

  19. Silver nanoparticles incite size- and dose-dependent developmental phenotypes and nanotoxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren M; Lee, Kerry J; Nallathamby, Prakash D; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2013-10-21

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties and promise a wide range of applications, from advanced technology to leading-edge medicine. However, their effects on living organisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that the purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (97 ± 13 nm) incite specific developmental stage embryonic phenotypes and nanotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, upon acute exposure of given stage embryos to the NPs (0-24 pM) for only 2 h. The critical concentrations of the NPs that cause 50% of embryos to develop normally for cleavage, early gastrula, early segmentation, late segmentation, and hatching stage zebrafish embryos are 3.5, 4, 6, 6, and 8 pM, respectively, showing that the earlier developmental stage embryos are much more sensitive to the effects of the NPs than the later stage embryos. Interestingly, distinctive phenotypes (head abnormality and no eyes) are observed only in cleavage and early gastrula stage embryos treated with the NPs, showing the stage-specific effects of the NPs. By comparing these Ag NPs with smaller Ag NPs (13.1 ± 2.5 nm), we found that the embryonic phenotypes strikingly depend upon the sizes of Ag NPs and embryonic developmental stages. These notable findings suggest that the Ag NPs are unlike any conventional chemicals or ions. They can potentially enable target-specific study and therapy for early embryonic development in size-, stage-, dose-, and exposure duration-dependent manners.

  20. In vitro regeneration and morphogenesis of somatic embryos of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádila Melo Vidal

    Full Text Available In this study, the somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of Cigana Preta plants from shoot apices and immature leaves taken from plants cultivated in vitro were examined. To embryo induction the explants were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D or 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (Picloram at concentrations of 8.0 and 12 mg L-1. To development of embryos two media cultures with different concentration of BAP (D1 or D2 were evaluated. Embryos in the cotyledonary stage were incubated in germination medium containing MS salts and vitamins, 2.0 µM copper sulfate, 2.4 g L-1 of Phytagel® and 1.77 µM BAP. The highest frequency of calluses and the greatest number of embryos per explant were obtained using the auxin picloram at a concentration of 8.0 mg L-1. The plants regenerated in the picloram treatment exhibited normal development and were transferred to a multiplication medium after a minimum of four weeks. The histological sections of the malformed embryos from foliar explants cultured in the presence of 2,4-D demonstrated that the origin of the cotyledonary structures was independent of the formation of the shoot apical meristem, which was not formed in the embryos, and the majority of the embryos were classified as cornet-shaped. This study demonstrates that in cassava, the use of different auxins provides different conditions for the formation of somatic embryos, and the low rate of conversion into plants results from abnormalities in the embryos.

  1. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo. II. Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Biomphalaria glabrata embryos irradiated in the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages with 5 to 25 Gy doses of 60 CO gamma radiation. The number of malformed embryos rapidly increased with increasing radiation dose, reaching a maximum between 5th to 8th day after irradiation in all stages analyzed. Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher the younger than the age of the irradiated embryo. However, for the cleavage stage the frequency of malformed embryos was inversely proportional to radiation dose for the same radiation dose. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were obtained, among then cephalic malformations, exogastrula, shell malformations and embryos with everted stomodeum, unspecific malformations being the most frequent. The results show that the types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied [pt

  2. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  3. Developmental toxicity of cartap on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengli; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Li, Shaonan; Guo, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Guonian

    2009-12-13

    Cartap is a widely used insecticide which belongs to a member of nereistoxin derivatives and acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor site. Its effects on aquatic species are of grave concern. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of cartap, zebrafish embryos were continually exposed, from 0.5 to 144h post-fertilization, to a range of concentrations of 25-1000microg/l. Results of the experiment indicated that cartap concentrations of 100microg/l and above negatively affected embryo survival and hatching success. Morphological analysis uncovered a large suite of abnormalities such as less melanin pigmentation, wavy notochord, crooked trunk, fuzzy somites, neurogenesis defects and vasculature defects. The most sensitive organ was proved to be the notochord which displayed defects at concentrations as low as 25microg/l. Both sensitivity towards exposure and localization of the defect were stage specific. To elucidate mechanisms concerning notochord, pigmentation, and hatching defects, enzyme assay, RT Q-PCR, and different exposure strategies were performed. For embryos with hatching failure, chorion was verified not to be digested, while removing cartap from exposure at early pre-hatching stage could significantly increase the hatching success. However, cartap was proved, via vitro assay, to have no effect on proteolytic activity of hatching enzyme. These findings implied that the secretion of hatching enzyme might be blocked. We also revealed that cartap inhibited the activity of melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase and matrix enzyme lysyl oxidase and induced expression of their genes. These suggested that cartap could impaired melanin pigmentation of zebrafish embryos through inhibiting tyrosinase activity, while inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was responsible for notochord undulation, which subsequently caused somite defect, and at least partially responsible for defects in vasculature and neurogenesis.

  4. Effect of somatic cell count and lactation stage on sheep milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Duranti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of mammary health status and lactation phase on the qualitative parameters of ovinemilk, 213 individual milk samples were repeatedly collected from 40 primiparous Sarda ewes on a monthly basis. Yield,physico-chemical characteristics, casein fractions quantitative distribution, somatic cell count (SCC, cheese making propertiesand plasmin-plasminogen activity were determined on each sample. Repeated individual milk SCC were used as amarker of udder health status, allowing the definition of three classes: “Healthy” (H, “Infected” (I or “Doubtful” (D.Samples were grouped into 4 classes of days in milk (DIM. To evaluate the influence of mammary health status andphase of lactation, a mixed model was performed using the ewe as random effect. Milk physico-chemical parameters wereinfluenced both by the udder health status and by lactation phase. In particular, the udder health status adversely affectedαs1 and β1-casein fractions (Pand 64.60% in “H”, “D” and “I,” respectively. Lactation phase influenced the overall milk composition and technologicalcharacteristics. Plasmin activity was higher in the “I” group than in the others (16.1 vs 11.8 and 11.2 U/ml; Pit significantly (Pexert a detrimental effect on milk quality since they enhance its endogenous proteolytic activity.

  5. Ethical Challenges of Embryo Donation in Embryo Donors and Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Bahrami, Reyhane; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Embryo donation, as one of the novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART), has remained a controversial issue. This is due to this methods' need for individuals from outside the family circle. Their presence can cause many ethical issues and complicate the designing and planning of the embryo donation process. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the ethical challenges of embryo donation from the view point of embryo donors and recipients. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 couples (96 embryo donators and 96 embryo recipients) referring to Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center and Royan Institute, Iran. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tool was the researcher-made Ethical Challenges Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS software. Embryo donors and recipients expresses the most important ethical challenges of embryo donation in the principle of justice (70.20%) and respect for autonomy (42.57%), respectively. The four ethical principles are important in the view of embryo donors and recipients; however, they highlighted the importance of the principle of respect for autonomy considering the existing barriers in the services of infertility centers. Legislators and relevant authorities must take measures toward the development of guidelines for this treatment method in the framework of ethics principles and incorporate all four principles independently.

  6. Ethical challenges of embryo donation in embryo donors and recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taebi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo donation, as one of the novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART, has remained a controversial issue. This is due to this methods' need for individuals from outside the family circle. Their presence can cause many ethical issues and complicate the designing and planning of the embryo donation process. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the ethical challenges of embryo donation from the view point of embryo donors and recipients. Material and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 couples (96 embryo donators and 96 embryo recipients referring to Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center and Royan Institute, Iran. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tool was the researcher-made Ethical Challenges Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results: Embryo donors and recipients expresses the most important ethical challenges of embryo donation in the principle of justice (70.20% and respect for autonomy (42.57%, respectively. Conclusions: The four ethical principles are important in the view of embryo donors and recipients; however, they highlighted the importance of the principle of respect for autonomy considering the existing barriers in the services of infertility centers. Legislators and relevant authorities must take measures toward the development of guidelines for this treatment method in the framework of ethics principles and incorporate all four principles independently.

  7. Non-destructive monitoring of mouse embryo development and its qualitative evaluation at the molecular level using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Sato, Hidetoshi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    Current research focuses on embryonic development and quality not only by considering fundamental biology, but also by aiming to improve assisted reproduction technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. In this study, we explored the development of mouse embryo and its quality based on molecular information, obtained nondestructively using Raman spectroscopy. The detailed analysis of Raman spectra measured in situ during embryonic development revealed a temporary increase in protein content after fertilization. Proteins with a β-sheet structure—present in the early stages of embryonic development—are derived from maternal oocytes, while α-helical proteins are additionally generated by switching on a gene after fertilization. The transition from maternal to embryonic control during development can be non-destructively profiled, thus facilitating the in situ assessment of structural changes and component variation in proteins generated by metabolic activity. Furthermore, it was indicated that embryos with low-grade morphology had high concentrations of lipids and hydroxyapatite. This technique could be used for embryo quality testing in the future.

  8. Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfang Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes after fresh embryo transfer remains unclear because of conflicting results reported in the studies on this subject. In addition, the influence of the quality of the embryos transferred is usually neglected. The objective of this study is to assess the relationships of the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the prospects of pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: The data on 3131 infertile women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle between January 2009 and December 2010 were collected retrospectively. Restricted cubic splines and stratified analyses were used to explore the relationships between the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the IVF outcomes. RESULTS: When stratified by the number and quality of transferred embryos, no significant differences in the chances for clinical pregnancy and live birth were found in three groups of oocytes yielded (≤6, 7-14, or ≥15. The relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy is nearly a reflection of the pattern of the relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and the probability of having two good-quality embryos transferred. The patients with the "optimal" number of oocytes were not only younger but also had the highest probability of having two good-quality embryos replaced. CONCLUSIONS: Similarly aged patients have similar pregnancy prospects after fresh embryo transfer when the same number and quality of embryos are replaced, irrespective of their number of oocytes. Selecting the desired number of good-quality embryos for transfer is the key to IVF success. Thus, aiming at retrieving an optimal number of oocytes to maximize IVF outcomes in a fresh cycle could place undue stress on the patients and may not be the best medical decision.

  9. Toxicity of potassium chloride to veliger and byssal stage dreissenid mussels related to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Stockton-Fiti, Kelly A.; Claudi, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking appropriate chemical eradication and control protocols for infestations of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1769), and quagga mussels. D. rostiformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) that have limited effect on non-target species. Applications of low concentrations of potassium salt (as potash) have shown promise for use where the infestation and treatment can be contained or isolated. To further our understanding of such applications and obtain data that could support a pesticide registration, we conducted studies of the acute and chronic toxicity of potassium chloride to dreissenid mussels in four different water sources from infested and non-infested locations (ground water from northern Idaho, surface water from the Snake River, Idaho, USA, surface water from Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, and surface water from the Colorado River, Arizona, USA). We found short term exposure of veligers (mussels in chronic exposures (>29 d) at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L KCl. Rapid mortality occurred within 10 d of exposure to concentrations of 200 mg/L KCl, regardless of water source. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean survival of byssal mussels in 100 mg/L KCl prepared in surface water from Idaho and Lake Ontario were 4.9 or 6.9 d, respectively; however, mean survival of mussels tested in the Colorado River water was > 23 d. The sodium content of the Colorado River water was nearly three times that measured in waters from the other locations, and we hypothesized sodium concentrations may affect mussel survival. To test our hypothesis, we supplemented Snake River and Lake Ontario water with NaCl to equivalent conductivity as the Colorado River, and found mussel survival increased to levels observed in tests of veliger and byssal mussels in Colorado River water. We recommend KCl disinfection and eradication protocols must be developed to carefully consider the water quality characteristics of treatment locations.

  10. Proteomic analysis of embryo development in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Zhang, Weiping; Gao, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Guo, Lin; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-04-01

    Although embryo development is a major subject in plant growth and development research, a number of aspects of the mechanism of this development process remain unknown. Rice (Oryza sativa) is an excellent monocot plant model for studying embryogenesis with a known genome sequence. Here, we conducted proteomic analysis of embryo development in rice (O. sativa L. ssp. indica cv. 9311). The aim was to investigate and characterize the changes in the protein expression profile during embryo development. For this purpose, the proteome of developing embryos was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Proteomic analyses identified 275 differentially expressed proteins throughout the 5 sequential developmental stages from 5 to 30 days after pollination. Most of these proteins were classified into eight functional categories: metabolism, protein synthesis/destination, disease and defense, transporter, transcription, signal transduction, cell growth/division, and storage proteins, which were involved in different cellular and metabolic processes. Hierarchical clustering analyses of protein expression profiles showed that highly expressed proteins in early stages were involved in metabolism, protein synthesis/destination, and most of the other cellular functions, whereas the proteins highly expressed in later stages functioned in the desiccation and dormancy of the embryo.

  11. Improving loblolly pine somatic embryo maturation: comparison of somatic and zygotic embryo morphology, germination, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, G S; Johnson, S; Peter, G; Cairney, J; Xu, N

    2003-04-01

    Clonal production of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) through somatic embryogenesis has the potential to meet the increasing industrial demands for high-quality uniform raw materials. A major barrier to the commercialization of this technology is the low quality of the resulting embryos. Twenty-five newly initiated loblolly pine genotypes were followed through the process of liquid culture establishment, embryo maturation, germination, and retrieval from cryogenic storage. A maturation medium, capable of promoting the development of loblolly pine somatic embryos that can germinate, is presented that combines 1/2 P6 modified salts, 2% maltose, 13% polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG), 5 mg/l abscisic acid (ABA), and 2.5 g/l Gelrite. A procedure for converting and acclimating germinants to growth in soil and greenhouse conditions is also described. A set of somatic seedlings, produced from the maturation medium, showed 100% survival when planted in a field setting. Somatic seedlings showed normal yearly growth relative to standard seedlings from natural seed. The quality of the resulting embryos was examined and compared to that of zygotic embryos using such parameters as morphology, dry weight, germination performance, and gene expression. All of the observations that were made support the conclusion that even with the new maturation medium somatic embryos grow approximately only halfway through the normal sequence of development and then prematurely discontinue growth.

  12. Development of sheep androgenetic embryos is boosted following transfer of male pronuclei into androgenetic hemizygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Turco, Margherita Yayoi; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Reynolds, Lawrence; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2007-01-01

    Androgenetic embryos are useful model for investigating the contribution of the paternal genome to embryonic development. Little work has been done with androgenetic embryo production in domestic animals. The aim of this study was the production of diploid androgenetic sheep embryos. In vitro matured sheep oocytes were enucleated and fertilized in vitro; parthenogenetic and normally fertilized embryos were also produced as a control. Fifteen hours after in vitro fertilization (IVF), presumptive zygotes were centrifuged and scored for the number of pronucleus. IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos (haploid, diploid, and triploid) were cultured in SOFaa medium with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proportion of oocytes with polyspermic fertilization increased linearly with increasing sperm concentration. After IVF, there was no significant difference in early cleavage and morula formation rates between the groups, while there was a significant difference on blastocyst development between IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos, the last ones displaying poor developmental potential (IVF, parthenogenetic, and haploid, diploid, and triploid androgenetic embryos: 43%, 38%, 0%, 2%, and 2%, respectively). In order to boost androgenetic embryonic development, we produced diploid androgenetic embryos through pronuclear transfer. Single pronuclei were aspirated with a bevelled pipette from haploid or diploid embryos and transferred into the perivitelline space of other haploid embryos, and the zygotes were reconstructed by electrofusion. Fusion rates approached 100%. Pronuclear transfer significantly increased blastocyst development (IVF, parthenogenetic, androgenetic: Diploid into Haploid, and Haploid into Haploid: 42%, 42%, 19%, and 3%, respectively); intriguingly, the Haploid + Diploid group showed the highest development to blastocyst stage. The main findings of our study are: (1) sheep androgenetic embryos display poor developmental ability compared with

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MICE AND HAMSTER EMBRYOS IN KSOMAA AND HECM-6 MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rosadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the viability of mice and hamster embryos developed in Kalium Simplex Optimized Medium amino acid (KSOMaa and Hamster Embryo Culture Medium-6 (HECM-6 medium. Female DDY mice were superovulated by injection i.p. of 5 IU Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine (PMSG and 5 IU Human Chorionic Gonadotropine (hCG in 48 h interval, hamster (Phodopus campbelli injected by 2.5 IU PMSG and 2.5 IU hCG 48 h later. Then females were mated with fertile males. Eight-cell embryos were recovered at day 3 after natural mating. The mice embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (New Born Calf Serum (T1 and HECM-6+5% NBCS (T2, the hamster embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (T3 and HECM-6 + 5% NBCS (T4 for further development at 37oC in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 48 h. The examinations were replicated five times. The T1 embryos developed to compact morulla and early blastocyst 100% (140/140, 92.1% (129/140 to blastocyst and expanded blastocyst, and 22.9% (32/140 became hatching/hatched. The T3 reached 100% (60/60 to compact morulla and early blastocyst, 85.0% (51/60 blastocyst, and 48.3% (29/60 expanded blastocyst, no embryo observed hatching/hatced. The T2 embryos had more expanded blastocyst than T3 (P<0.05, hatching/hatched rate higher than T1 and T3 but lower than T4 (P<0.05. Shortly, KSOMaa enable to support 8-cell stage mice and hamster embryo, but the hamster embryo developed lower at expanded blastocyst stage. HECM-6 is more appropriate than KSOMaa to support 8-cell mice embryos development and suitable to develop 8-cell stage hamster embryos.

  14. Activity involvement and quality of life of people at different stages of dementia in long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in activities is assumed to positively influence the quality of life of people with dementia, yet activity provision in long-term care remains limited. This study aims to provide more insight into the value of activity involvement for domains of the quality of life of long-term dementia care residents, taking resident characteristics and cognitive status into account. Data were derived from 144 long-term care facilities participating in the second measurement (2010/2011) of the living arrangements for dementia study. Amongst 1144 residents, the relationship between time involved in activities (activity pursuit patterns; RAI-MDS) and quality of life (Qualidem) was studied using multilevel linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for residents' age, gender, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ADL dependency and cognition. To check for effect modification of cognition, interactions terms of the variables activity involvement and cognitive status were added to the analyses. Despite resident's cognitive status, their activity involvement was significantly related to better scores on care relationship, positive affect, restless tense behaviour, social relations, and having something to do. A negative relationship existed between the activity involvement and positive self-image. The explained variance in the quality of life between residents caused by the activity involvement was small. Activity involvement seems to be a small yet important contributor to higher well-being in long-term care resident at all stages of dementia. Adjusting activities to individual preferences and capabilities might enlarge this relationship. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis, using measurement instruments less sensitive to recall bias and differentiating between the active and passive activity involvement.

  15. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  16. A Formal Palliative Care Service Improves the Quality of Care in Patients with Stage IV Cancer and Bowel Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Emmanuel; Kukar, Moshim; Groman, Adrienne; Alvarez-Perez, Amy; Schneider, Jaclyn; Francescutti, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Patients with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction present a complicated management problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the palliative care service (PC) in the management of this complex disease process. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients admitted to Roswell Park Cancer Institute with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction from 2009 to 2012 after the institution of a formal PC. This cohort was matched to similar patients from 2005 to 2008 (no palliative care service or NPC). Patient characteristics and outcomes included baseline demographics, comorbid conditions, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status, laboratory parameters, medical and surgical management, length of stay, symptom relief, and disposition status. A total of 19 patients were identified in the PC group. Based on the PC group baseline characteristics, 19 patients were identified for the NPC group using matched values. Regarding outcomes, there were significant differences in the medication regimens (narcotics, octreotide, and Decadron) between the 2 groups. In the PC group, 14 of 19 patients showed improvement compared to 9 of 19 in the NPC group. Nearly 60% of patients in the PC group had a formal DNR order versus 10.5% in NPC ( P = .002). A significantly higher percentage of patients were discharged to hospice in the PC group (47.4% vs 0.0%, P = .006). Palliative care consultation improves the quality of care for patients with stage IV cancer and bowel obstruction, with particular benefits in symptom management, end-of-life discussion, and disposition to hospice.

  17. Quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease based on a PedsQL ESRD module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Soo; Hwang, Young Ju; Cho, Min Hyun; Ko, Cheol Woo; Ha, Il Soo; Kang, Hee Gyung; Cheong, Hae Il; Park, Young Seo; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lee, Joo Hoon; Cho, Hee Yeon

    2012-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential subject for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their families. We performed a cross-sectional investigation of HRQOL in children undergoing renal replacement therapies, such as dialysis and renal transplantation, using the 34-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 End-Stage Renal Disease (PedsQL 3.0 ESRD) module. We assessed 92 ESRD patients aged 2-18 from four Korean university hospitals. The male:female ratio was 44:48, and the most common cause of ESRD was chronic glomerulonephritis. Fifty-five children were treated by dialysis, and 37 received renal transplantation. Transplant patients had better HRQOL than dialysis patients in two domains in parent proxy reports: "About my kidney disease" and "Worry." In child self-reports, transplant patients had better HRQOL than dialysis patients in one domain: Treatment problems. However, there were no significant differences in total QOL scores between peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplant patients in child self-reports. In addition, there were differences in the ESRD module scores between child self- and parent proxy reports. Children usually reported better QOL than their parents. Child self-reports showed significantly higher QOL scores than parent proxy reports in the domains of General fatigue, Family & peer interaction, and Worry. Children on PD self-reported a significantly higher QOL than children on hemodialysis (HD). The PedsQL 3.0 ESRD module may be useful as an ESRD-specific instrument to evaluate HRQOL in children; however, a larger, longitudinal prospective study is warranted.

  18. Theory of Mind and its neuropsychological and Quality of Life correlates in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Trojsi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM (i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioural and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT, Advanced Test of ToM (ATT and Eyes Task (ET.ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances and Mental Health scores among QoL items.Our results suggest that not only cognitive but also affective subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients' Mental Health.

  19. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between symptom clusters and quality of life in patients at stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Jeon, JaeHee

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify the relationship between symptom clusters and quality of life (QOL) in patients with stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korea. Using self-reported questionnaires, data were collected from 143 patients who underwent treatment for CKD at one hospital in Korea. The 17-item Patient Outcome Scale was used to measure symptoms, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Instrument Version 2 (SF-36v2) was used to measure the QOL. Data were analyzed using factor analysis to draw symptom clusters. Among five symptom clusters, the energy insufficiency and pain cluster was found to have the highest prevalence and greatest severity. The severity of symptom clusters showed negative correlations with both physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores. Elderly patients scored low on PCS, whereas younger patients in their 30s and 40s scored low on MCS. Negative correlations were found between symptom clusters and PCS as well as MCS. The severity of symptoms and QOL had stronger relationships with subjective perception of symptoms and psychological factors than with objective clinical indicators. As the effects of physical and psychological symptoms on the QOL in patients with stages 2 to 4 CKD were identified in this study, nurses should develop strategic nursing plans focused on symptom clusters and patients' subjective perception of symptoms rather than objective clinical indicators in order to improve the QOL in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of embryo and endosperm reveals central differential expression proteins involved in wheat seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Chong; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Zhiwei; Li, Jiarui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-04-08

    Wheat seeds provide a staple food and an important protein source for the world's population. Seed germination is vital to wheat growth and development and directly affects grain yield and quality. In this study, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis of wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination. The proteomic changes in embryo and endosperm during the four different seed germination stages of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhengmai 9023 were first investigated. In total, 74 and 34 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 63 and 26 unique proteins were identified in embryo and endosperm, respectively. Eight common DEP were present in both tissues, and 55 and 18 DEP were specific to embryo and endosperm, respectively. These identified DEP spots could be sorted into 13 functional groups, in which the main group was involved in different metabolism pathways, particularly in the reserves necessary for mobilization in preparation for seed germination. The DEPs from the embryo were mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism, proteometabolism, amino acid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, and stress-related proteins, whereas those from the endosperm were mainly involved in protein storage, carbohydrate metabolism, inhibitors, stress response, and protein synthesis. During seed germination, both embryo and endosperm had a basic pattern of oxygen consumption, so the proteins related to respiration and energy metabolism were up-regulated or down-regulated along with respiration of wheat seeds. When germination was complete, most storage proteins from the endosperm began to be mobilized, but only a small amount was degraded during germination. Transcription expression of six representative DEP genes at the mRNA level was consistent with their protein expression changes. Wheat seed germination is a complex process with imbibition, stirring, and germination stages, which involve a series of physiological, morphological, and

  2. Impact of the IVF laboratory environment on human preimplantation embryo phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D K; Kelley, R L

    2017-08-01

    The phenotype of the human embryo conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), that is its morphology, developmental kinetics, physiology and metabolism, can be affected by numerous components of the laboratory and embryo culture system (which comprise the laboratory environment). The culture media formulation is important in determining embryo phenotype, but this exists within a culture system that includes oxygen, temperature, pH and whether an embryo is cultured individually or in a group, all of which can influence embryo development. Significantly, exposure of an embryo to one suboptimal component of the culture system of laboratory typically predisposes the embryo to become more vulnerable to a second stressor, as has been well documented for atmospheric oxygen and individual culture, as well as for oxygen and ammonium. Furthermore, the inherent viability of the human embryo is derived from the quality of the gametes from which it is created. Patient age, aetiology, genetics, lifestyle (as well as ovarian stimulation in women) are all known to affect the developmental potential of gametes and hence the embryo. Thus, as well as considering the impact of the IVF laboratory environment, one needs to be aware of the status of the infertile couple, as this impacts how their gametes and embryos will respond to an in vitro environment. Although far from straight forward, analysing the interactions that exist between the human embryo and its environment will facilitate the creation of more effective and safer treatments for the infertile couple.

  3. Symptoms and quality of life in late stage Parkinson syndromes: a longitudinal community study of predictive factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene J Higginson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palliative care is increasingly offered earlier in the cancer trajectory but rarely in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease(IPD, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy(PSP or Multiple System Atrophy(MSA. There is little longitudinal data of people with late stage disease to understand levels of need. We aimed to determine how symptoms and quality of life of these patients change over time; and what demographic and clinical factors predicted changes. METHODS: We recruited 82 patients into a longitudinal study, consenting patients with a diagnosis of IPD, MSA or PSP, stages 3-5 Hoehn and Yahr(H&Y. At baseline and then on up to 3 occasions over one year, we collected self-reported demographic, clinical, symptom, palliative and quality of life data, using Parkinson's specific and generic validated scales, including the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS. We tested for predictors using multivariable analysis, adjusting for confounders. FINDINGS: Over two thirds of patients had severe disability, over one third being wheelchair-bound/bedridden. Symptoms were highly prevalent in all conditions - mean (SD of 10.6(4.0 symptoms. More than 50% of the MSA and PSP patients died over the year. Over the year, half of the patients showed either an upward (worsening, 24/60 or fluctuant (8/60 trajectory for POS and symptoms. The strongest predictors of higher levels of symptoms at the end of follow-up were initial scores on POS (AOR 1.30; 95%CI:1.05-1.60 and being male (AOR 5.18; 95% CI 1.17 to 22.92, both were more predictive than initial H&Y scores. INTERPRETATION: The findings point to profound and complex mix of non-motor and motor symptoms in patients with late stage IPD, MSA and PSP. Symptoms are not resolved and half of the patients deteriorate. Palliative problems are predictive of future symptoms, suggesting that an early palliative assessment might help screen for those in need of earlier intervention.

  4. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  5. Effects of fruit maturity stages and seed extraction time on the seed quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is a vegetable from Solanaceae family and its fruit is used in human consumption. It is produced from seedlings in the Republic of Serbia and quantity of seed used for seedlings depends on germination and 1000 seed mass, and ranges from 250 to 350 g ha-1. The aim of this paper was to determine effect of fruit maturity stages and storage duration of harvested fruit on eggplant seed quality. Seed was extracted from technologically mature, semi-mature and botanically mature fruit. Germination energy, germination and 1000 seed mass were tested after seed extraction. Part of harvested fruit was stored for 10 and 20 days, after which seed was extracted and the same seed qualities were tested. It was determined that seed from technologically mature fruit had germination around 25%. In semi-mature fruit, germination abruptly increased from 2% (seed extracted after harvest to 88% (seed extracted 20 days after harvest. Seed obtained from botanically mature fruit had maximum germination after storing for 20 days after harvest and amounted to 99%. In all tested variants, 1000 seed mass increased with storage life, and it reached 5.48 g in botanically mature fruit.

  6. Quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and caregivers: Impact of assistive communication from early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londral, Ana; Pinto, Anabela; Pinto, Susana; Azevedo, Luis; De Carvalho, Mamede

    2015-12-01

    In this study we performed a longitudinal investigation to assess the impact of early introduction of assistive communication devices (ACDs) on quality of life (QoL) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and their caregivers. Patients were followed for 7-10 months (3 evaluation periods). Bulbar-onset ALS patients (N = 27) and paired caregivers (N = 17) were included. Fifteen randomly selected patients received early support in ACD use. Patients were assessed using the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), the McGill QoL (MQoL), the Communication Effectiveness Index (CETI), and performance in writing; and caregivers were assessed with the MQoL and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Patients with early support had higher MQoL Psychological and MQoL Existential well-being domains; caregivers had higher MQoL Support domain and their MQoL Psychological domain positively associated with patient CETI. Most patients could communicate using a touchscreen keyboard to write, even when handwriting and speech were not possible. Early intervention with an ACD seems to have a positive impact on QoL and gives patients the opportunity to improve skills for communication in later disease stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  8. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    and survival rates were analysed by chi-squared test. Exp. 1: after activation, 42 blastocysts formed on Day 6, during which the timing of development was monitored (Table 1). PAZF embryos developed faster than PAZI, especially during the first 3 cell cycles. Exp. 2: after activation, 212 and 197 blastocysts......The need for zona pellucida (ZP) during pre-implantation embryo development is still debated. In porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, we have previously shown a different distribution in cell numbers on Day 6 blastocysts cultured with or without ZP (Li et al. 2010 Reprod. Fertil. Dev....... 22, 234). In the present study, we expanded this study to include also the timing of early development and the resulting quality and robustness (for vitrification) of porcine PA embryos. Parthenogenetic activation was made first by an electric pulse (1.26 kV cm–1, 80 μs) and then by incubation with 5...

  9. Developmental Competence and Epigenetic Profile of Porcine Embryos Produced by Two Different Cloning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Bjoern; Li, Rong; Hermann, Doris; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Larsen, Knud; Niemann, Heiner; Callesen, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    The "Dolly" based cloning (classical nuclear transfer, [CNT]) and the handmade cloning (HMC) are methods that are nowadays routinely used for somatic cloning of large domestic species. Both cloning protocols share several similarities, but differ with regard to the required in vitro culture, which in turn results in different time intervals until embryo transfer. It is not yet known whether the differences between cloned embryos from the two protocols are due to the cloning methods themselves or the in vitro culture, as some studies have shown detrimental effects of in vitro culture on conventionally produced embryos. The goal of this study was to unravel putative differences between two cloning methods, with regard to developmental competence, expression profile of a panel of developmentally important genes and epigenetic profile of porcine cloned embryos produced by either CNT or HMC, either with (D5 or D6) or without (D0) in vitro culture. Embryos cloned by these two methods had a similar morphological appearance on D0, but displayed different cleavage rates and different quality of blastocysts, with HMC embryos showing higher blastocyst rates (HMC vs. CNT: 35% vs. 10%, p cloned embryos were similar on D0, but differed on D6. In conclusion, both cloning methods and the in vitro culture may affect porcine embryo development and epigenetic profile. The two cloning methods essentially produce embryos of similar quality on D0 and after 5 days in vitro culture, but thereafter both histone acetylation and gene expression differ between the two types of cloned embryos.

  10. Evaluation of relationship between sexual functions, depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Bennur; Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Ozgen, Gulten; Okumus, Muhammed Masuk; Seyahi, Nurhan; Sit, Dede; Kadioglu, Pınar

    2015-03-01

    The relation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with metabolic, psychiatric and endocrinologic disorder is well-known. Depressive mood and sexual dysfunction are frequently observed as renal functions deteriorate. We aimed to analyze the relationship of sexual dysfunction, depressive mood and life quality in patients with CKD at predialysis stage. Fifty-three patients; 27 female and 26 male with CKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 90 mL/min and followed up in the Nephrology Department, Bursa Sevket Yılmaz Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched 20 female and 20 male healthy control subjects were assigned to the control group. Detailed medical and sexual history was obtained by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Erectile Function International Evaluation Form (IEFF), Short form (SF) 36 Form and Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI). Biochemical and hormonal parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, total testosterone, DHEA-S, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol and prolactin were analyzed. Depression was observed in 12 male (46%) and 14 female (51%) patients. The frequency of depression among male patients and control subjects was similar, however, significantly higher in female patients than female controls (p=0.036). Physical function score, physical role score and pain score in SF 36 of entire patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001, respectively). The frequency of depression was similar between patients and controls (p>0.05). When SF 36 tests of male and female patients were compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status were significantly better in male patients (p=0.005, 0.016, 0.035, respectively). SF 36 scores of female patients were significantly lower than female controls (p=0.0001). The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was similar between male patients (84%) and controls (75%) (p=0.62). On the

  11. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  12. Quality of Life, Perceptions, and Health Satisfaction of Older Adults with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Seki A; Balogun, Rasheed; Philbrick, John; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad

    2017-04-01

    To explore the quality of life (QOL), perceptions, and health satisfaction of older adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT). Systematic review of literature. Individuals with ESRD undergoing RRT aged 65 and older. Articles identified from PubMed database search from January 1994 to December 2014. The methodological quality of each of the selected articles was assessed using eight standards adapted from well-established research quality review criteria. Of the initial 1,401 articles identified, 23 met the inclusion criteria. The age range of study participants examined was 65 to 90. Seventy-eight percent of the studies met six or more of the methodological standards; 47% found overall health-related and mental component summary QOL scores in elderly adults with ESRD to be similar to or higher than those of age-matched controls or younger individuals, although the physical component summary QOL scores tended to be lower in older adults. Only six studies addressed health satisfaction and perceptions of elderly adults with ESRD, with widely variable findings. Few studies specifically examine QOL in elderly adults with ESRD undergoing RRT and even fewer address issues of perceptions and health satisfaction. However, the limited data from the QOL studies looks promising with a significant proportion showing similar or higher overall health-related and mental component summary QOL scores in elderly adults with ESRD. The very limited data on perceptions and health satisfaction of elderly adults with ESRD undergoing RRT makes it difficult to make any generalizable conclusions. Overall, more research is needed to examine these factors in elderly adults with ESRD. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Datten