WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage developed lessons

  1. Lessons Learned from the Early Stages of Development of the Guardrail Common Sensor for the Radical Reduction of Cycle Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, J

    2003-01-01

    .... In addition to in-depth interviews U.S. Army Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM) historical documents unclassified government reports and other public sources were reviewed for information regarding the system development...

  2. Telecentres, Access and Development : Experience and Lessons ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telecentres, Access and Development : Experience and Lessons from Uganda and South Africa. Couverture du livre Telecentres, Access and Development : Experience and Lessons from Uganda and South. Auteur(s) : Sarah Parkinson. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, Fountain, CRDI. 1 janvier 2005.

  3. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  4. Trials and tribulations of third world petroleum development: lessons and advice for prospective producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadman, H.G.; Wilson, E.J. III

    1987-08-01

    A variety of lessons for governments of developing countries about how to begin to operate as new oil producers in the world petroleum market are presented. Lessons, drawn from the recent experiences of currently producing LDCs, are identified for each stage of the industry from exploration and development through procurement and supply to refining and marketing.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation into Communication in the Special Needs Classroom during Key Stage 3 English Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Karen; Ellis, Martina

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the communicative roles performed by teacher and pupil during Key Stage 3 (KS3) English lessons. Two classes of a special school were involved in the study. Data collection employed video capture of teacher-pupil communication during timetabled English lessons. The data were transcribed and analysed…

  6. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  7. Professional Development through Lesson Study: Teaching the Derivative Using Geogebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Nellie C.; Coenders, Fer; Pieters, Jules M.; van Smaalen, Daan; Tall, David O.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on mathematics teachers' professional development through elements of Japanese lesson study. The teachers designed a research lesson with regard to sense-making of the derivative using the integration of GeoGebra. In the second year of the four-year lesson study project, seven secondary school teachers--from different Dutch…

  8. Lessons in Public Touchscreen Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K. Orphanides

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, the NCSU Libraries debuted its first public touchscreen information kiosk, designed to provide on-demand access to useful and commonly consulted real-time displays of library information. This article presents a description of the hardware and software development process, as well as the rationale behind a variety of design and implementation decisions. This article also provides an analysis of usage of the touchscreen since its debut, including a numerical analysis of most popular content areas, and a heatmap-based analysis of user interaction patterns with the kiosk's interface components.

  9. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  10. Lessons from the Edge of the Stage: The Tintamarre Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fancy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La conférence plénière (en anglais du professeur Alex Fancy prononcée le 2 avril 2013 à l'université de Guelph dans le cadre du deuxième colloque international en didactique des langues secondes. Foundateur et directeur de la compagnie de théâtre Tintamarre, Alex Fancy propose 15 leçons apprises par le biais d’une méthode singulière: la création annuelle d’une pièce de théâtre bilingue avec un groupe d’étudiant(es de l’université Mount Allison au Nouveau Brunswick, Canada.  Professor Alex Fancy's keynote address at the Second International Conference on Second-language Pedagogy at the University of Guelph. Founder and director of the Tintamarre theatre company, Alex Fancy shares 15 lessons learned by way of a unique method: the creation of an annual play with a group of students from Mount Allison University in New Brunswick, Canada.

  11. Stages of educational development? Beeby revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    1980-12-01

    Beeby's model of stages of educational change in developing countries has been accepted into the educational literature with remarkably little critical analysis. Though valuable for a large number of experiential insights, the author argues that the model has certain weaknesses which should restrict its application. The stages have a teleological bias and are not sufficiently distinct, nor do the labels used for them meet the formal requirements of measuring scales. Furthermore, the model overgeneralizes from the experience of British-tradition South Pacific school systems, and the equation of western teaching with good teaching is an unsupported view which may not be valid in many countries. The most fundamental problem is the lack of clear distinction between empirical issues and the ethical judgements implicit in the formulation. However, the model has a number of positive features well worth building upon, such as its focus on the qualitative aspects of teaching and on qualitative change, the realistic emphasis on the gradualism of such change in practice, and the identification of the teacher as the key change agent in the classroom — a fundamental point often overlooked by innovators. The continua of general and professional education which underlie the teaching styles provide useful hypotheses for empirical analysis of the relationship between teacher education and classroom teaching style, but the association of this education with certain types of teaching style needs careful examination. Stripped of its evaluative connotations, Beeby's interest in qualitative change was a valuable early attempt to move attention in developing countries from linear, quantitative expansion of existing systems to a consideration of what was actually being taught and how. The real lesson to be learned from his work is that education should be paying closer attention to its theoretical propositions.

  12. Lessons Learned on Stage: How Improv Can Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Kohn, C.; McPeek, M. A.; Serrell, N.

    2014-12-01

    A challenge facing STEM graduate students is the daunting task of communicating their research to a non-specialist audience. Strategies that work well in lab group meetings, such as using acronyms and jargon, do not work in the real world. Ideally, scientists should directly connect with any audience, responding spontaneously and actively, distilling their messages into conversational morsels that resonate with that audience. Scientists should listen. This presentation highlights a 10-week, interdisciplinary graduate course at Dartmouth College that teaches methods for communicating science with clarity, vividness, and emotion. The course was developed in partnership with Stony Brook University's Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science, and emphasizes story-telling, two-way communication, active listening, and so much more. Effective message development and communication skills - spontaneity, authenticity, and connectivity - are honed through improvisational theater exercises. One might ask, "why improv?" As a co-developer/co-instructor of this graduate course and a Ph.D. candidate in Earth Sciences, my response is, "why not improv?" Improv is acting without a script. It is also underground rap battles, baking from scratch, and playing jazz flute. Improv is Macguyver. Improv is not any one particular thing so much as it is a process through which we do things. Improv can teach us a lot: how to play, how to feel comfortable and present even while flailing, and how to truly listen.

  13. Development of Lesson Plans and Student Worksheets Based Socio-Scientific Issues on Pollution Environmental Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, S.; Meyliana, M.; Arlingga, A.; Reny, R.; Siahaan, P.; Hernani, H.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution environmental topic for seventh-grade junior high school students. Environmental pollution topic split into several subtopics namely air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. The composing of lesson plans were developed based on socio-scientific issues with five stages, namely (1) Motivate; (2) Challenge; (3) Collect scientific evidence; (4) Analyse the evidence; (5) Build knowledge and make connections; and (6) Use evidence. While student worksheets contain articles on socio-scientific issues, practice, and there are a few questions to determine students’ reasoning. The method that is used in this research is research and development (R & D method). Development model used in this study is a model of Plomp that consists of four stages, namely: (1) Initial Research; (2) Design; (3) Realization or Construction; (4) Testing, evaluation and revision; (5) Implementation, while the research was limited to the fourth stage. Lesson plans and student worksheets based on socio-scientific issues was validated through an expert validation. The result showed that lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution theme have a very decent and be able to apply in science classroom.

  14. Development of short Indonesian lesson plan to improve teacher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, B.; Kamidjan; Ahmadi, A.; Asteria, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The developmental research was motivated by the results of preliminary study through interviews, which revealed almost all of the teachers did not create lesson plan themselves. As a result of this load, the performance of the real learning in the classroom becomes inadequate. Moreover, when lesson plan was not made by teachers themselves, the learning process becomes ineffective. Therefore, this study designed to develop a prototype of the short lesson plan, in particular, Indonesian language teaching, and to investigate its effectiveness. The participants in the study were teachers who were trained through lesson study group to design short model’s lesson plan. Questionnaires and open-ended questions were used, and the quantitative and qualitative data obtained were analyzed accordingly. The analysis of the quantitative data, aided with SPSS, were frequency, percentage, and means, whereas the qualitative data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the teachers liked the model, and they were willing to design their own lesson plan. The observation data revealed that the classroom learning process became more interactive, and classroom atmosphere was more engaging and natural because the teachers did not stick to the lesson plan made by other teachers.

  15. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 2 - The Later Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poole, S.; Simon, M; Sweatman, A.

    1999-01-01

    , Central Europe, and the USA are carrying out ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures that compnies have experienced and the lessons learned along the way. Part 1 of this two-part paper focuses on the early stages of the product development process. It shows how products can...

  16. Theory of Economic Development (Secondary Stage)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.

  17. Worldwide market developments : lessons for Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A review of competitive retail electricity markets in Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and California were discussed, highlighting lessons for Alberta policy makers, market designers and electricity retailers. Some of the emerging strategies in the retail electricity marketplace such as horizontal integration, generation retailing, defensive retailing and virtual vertical integration were explored. Emphasis was on showing that electricity retailing is not an easy business. It is a business for large and existing players, and although horizontal and vertical integration have growth and profit potential, there are also risks

  18. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  19. Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.

  20. SMART-1: Development and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsman, Peter; Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Foing, Bernard; Stagnaro, Luca

    2005-07-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the small missions for advanced research and technology as part of ESA's science programme “Cosmic vision”. It was successfully launched on September 27, 2003 and is presently traveling towards its destination, the Moon. The main objective of the mission, to demonstrate solar electric primary propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo), has already been achieved. At the time of writing the electric propulsion system has been working already for more than 3400 h and has provided a Delta-V to the spacecraft of more than 2500 m/s. The other technology objectives are also being fulfilled by the verification of the proper functioning of such on-board experiments like the X-Ka band transponder, the X-ray spectrometer, the near IR spectrometer, the laser link, etc. The scientific objectives are related to lunar science and will be fulfilled once the spacecraft enters its operational lunar orbit, currently expected for January 2005. SMART-1 lunar science investigations will include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes, environment and high-resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. SMART-1 has been an innovative mission in many aspects and we are now drawing some preliminary conclusions about the lessons to be learnt. The paper describes the spacecraft and the technology elements with particular emphasis to the technology nature of the mission. The on-board avionics employs many novel designs for spacecraft, including a serial CAN bus for data communication, autonomous star trackers and extensive use of auto-code generation for implementing the attitude control system and the failure, detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Finally, the orbital operation phase currently ongoing, including the routine electric propulsion operations and the instrument commissioning, is providing a wealth of data and lesson-learnt useful for future autonomous planetary missions.

  1. Thailand's National Nutritional Program : Lessons in Management and Capacity Development

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Richard; Kachondam, Yongyout

    2002-01-01

    Thailand's community nutrition program has been the most successful in Asia. This paper looks at what made it work from a management and capacity development point of view. Key lessons are identified in the following areas: Building a strong consensus at national and local levels about the importance of nutrition as an investment in the country's future, rather than as a welfare expenditur...

  2. Development of a Self-Efficacy Scale toward Piano Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtuldu, M. Kayhan; Bulut, Damla

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine students' levels of self-efficacy toward piano lessons. The sample consisted of 456 university-level piano students enrolled in Music Education programs. Experts in language and the field of music were consulted to establish content validity of the items included in the scalar…

  3. Engineering our Own Futures: Lessons on Holistic Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engineering our Own Futures: Lessons on Holistic Development from. Muslim Women's Civil Society Groups in Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. Adryan Wallace*. Abstract. Muslim women's organizations in East and West Africa have cultivated successful strategies to mitigate the varied domestic economic and political.

  4. Lessons from photovoltaic policies in China for future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Mo-lin; Zhang, Dan-wei

    2012-01-01

    The paper first provides an overview of the current status of PV industry development in China, including the penetration speed, the market segments and the value chain. Further, it reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market incentives and manufacturing policies for lessons learning. After the Renewable Energy Law took effect in 2006, PV penetration was accelerated. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, which were still in a trial stage, public bidding and the cooperation among relevant Ministries played important roles. A series of public R and D projects provided elemental technologies and meanwhile the preferential tax policies encouraged PV R and D nationwide. Then the paper looks into the future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national indicative targets in 2020, and the energy planning considering the governmental targets of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. Consequently we analyze problems impeding the future development based on evidences. For instance, there was no predetermined degression of the capital subsidy to push cost reduction; the budget and the organization of public PV R and D were insufficient. Finally, we propose some recommendations on improving policy interventions. - Highlights: ► Surveys the current status of PV industry in China, including the market trend, the installation distribution and the value chain. ► Reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market policies and manufacturing policies. ► Looks into future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national targets of 2020, policies of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. ► Analyzes barriers of future development, and proposes some recommendations on improving policy interventions.

  5. Developing Managers and Leaders: Experiences and Lessons from International NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawickrama, Sherine S

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the context, practice and lessons related to management and leadership development in a handful of large international NGOs (INGOs) focused on humanitarian and development efforts. The paper is based on eighteen semi-structured interviews with senior managers of human resources or organizational development at INGOs including ActionAid, CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Habitat for Humanity, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mercy Corps, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision. I...

  6. South Korea's Development Success: Lessons for Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a least developed and aid receiving country to a developed and donor country within six decades, South Korea represents one of the unprecedented world's phenomenal and remarkable development experience. A combination of political and economic elements has been the key driver behind Korea's development ...

  7. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  8. Professional development through lesson study: teaching the derivative using GeoGebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie; van Smaalen, Daan; Tall, David O.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on mathematics teachers’ professional development through elements of Japanese lesson study. The teachers designed a research lesson with regard to sense-making of the derivative using the integration of GeoGebra. In the second year of the four-year lesson study project, seven

  9. Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The selection of countries for case studies was motivated by an interest in shedding light on the experience of a wide range of developing economies, including such relatively advanced developing countries as South Korea, Brazil, Peru, Thailand and South Africa, and such small least developed country economies as ...

  10. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Hieftje; Lynn E. Fiellin; Tyra Pendergrass; Lindsay R Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process...

  11. Applying lessons in evaluation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) sponsored 11 people from organizations in Palestine, Jamaica, Senegal, Mexico, Ecuador, and Uruguay to attend the third annual International Program for Development Evaluation Training (IPDET) in Ottawa. Researchers are now applying the ...

  12. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  13. Electricity reform in Argentina: Lessons for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis

  14. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corley, Courtney D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  15. Implementing change: lessons from five development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, J. O.; Hildebrandt, S.; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is firstly to report on what we have observed by following major improvement and development projects in five industrial enterprises. In particular, the authors shall focus on issues which have often been addressed in Danish enterprises, namely the participation of employees...... with organizational changes. Thirdly, four paradoxes for managing development projects are presented; they may serve as guidelines for coping with the complexity and uncertainty of change processes...

  16. Developing Mental Toughness: Lessons from Paralympians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Powell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental toughness (MT is a key psychological variable related to perseverance and success in performance domains. MT and its development has been explored across a range of contexts and across different sports, but no research to date has examined MT in relation to Paralympic athletes. We sought to understand the lived-experiences of mentally tough Paralympians, aiming to conceptualize MT in a Paralympic context and investigate its development. Ten Paralympic athletes were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The verbatim transcripts of the interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three broad themes and several subthemes emerged in conceptualizing Paralympian MT: characteristics (determination, defiance, pragmatic, optimistic, resilient, self-belief and independence and autonomy, cognitions (normalization, sense of escape, non-acceptance of constraints, influence perception and connection and cognitive strategies (rational thinking, goal setting, pain management and control. In understanding MT development, two broad themes and several subthemes emerged: formative experiences (challenge, classification, setbacks, critical incident, trauma and recovery, sustained commitment, development of mind-set and perspective during challenge, failure, and acceptance, and support and coping resources (social support and significant others, external shaping, social support, overcoming problems, social comparison and reflective practice. The findings suggest that Paralympians benefited from exposure to highly demanding situations in a supportive environment and this helped develop mentally tough characteristics and behaviors and individualized cognitive coping strategies. Our findings highlight the association between the adaptive development of personal characteristics by overcoming physical and mental setbacks over a sustained time period. Overall, the findings suggest that to develop mentally tough

  17. Developing Mental Toughness: Lessons from Paralympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Alexander J; Myers, Tony D

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is a key psychological variable related to perseverance and success in performance domains. MT and its development has been explored across a range of contexts and across different sports, but no research to date has examined MT in relation to Paralympic athletes. We sought to understand the lived-experiences of mentally tough Paralympians, aiming to conceptualize MT in a Paralympic context and investigate its development. Ten Paralympic athletes were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The verbatim transcripts of the interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three broad themes and several subthemes emerged in conceptualizing Paralympian MT: characteristics (determination, defiance, pragmatic, optimistic, resilient, self-belief and independence and autonomy), cognitions (normalization, sense of escape, non-acceptance of constraints, influence perception and connection) and cognitive strategies (rational thinking, goal setting, pain management and control). In understanding MT development, two broad themes and several subthemes emerged: formative experiences (challenge, classification, setbacks, critical incident, trauma and recovery, sustained commitment, development of mind-set and perspective during challenge, failure, and acceptance), and support and coping resources (social support and significant others, external shaping, social support, overcoming problems, social comparison and reflective practice). The findings suggest that Paralympians benefited from exposure to highly demanding situations in a supportive environment and this helped develop mentally tough characteristics and behaviors and individualized cognitive coping strategies. Our findings highlight the association between the adaptive development of personal characteristics by overcoming physical and mental setbacks over a sustained time period. Overall, the findings suggest that to develop mentally tough characteristics

  18. Politics and Development: Lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Boschi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the conditions for the adoption of development strategies in Latin America in the aftermath of the neoliberal reforms, focusing specifically on the role of political institutions as a component of the productive regimes in selected countries. Development is treated as an endogenous process, which is shaped over time in terms of trajectories that are continuously redefined according to specific political conjunctures. Having moved from restricted democracies or authoritarian regimes and autarchic economies to mass democracies operating in the context of open economies after the market-oriented reforms, persistent structural inequalities presently constitute the major axis framing the definition of development policies. More so than in advanced countries where the State is treated as epiphenomenon of their respective productive regimes, in the case of the Latin American semi-periphery the State is the crucial actor for the reversal of vicious circles and negative complementarities stemming from the extreme structural and social inequalities within and between countries in the region. Following a brief discussion on development and economic growth in the definition of the post-neoliberal agenda, the article examines institutional indicators for economic performance of contemporary governmental coalitions in selected countries, focusing on State policies favouring development such as financing, technological innovation, training of labour and social policies. Next, we concentrate on the analysis of political institutions and the role of political elites capable of generating national projects for sustainable development strategies, showing some of the differences between these countries. We conclude with a brief discussion on the adequacy of contemporary political economy approaches to understand processes of capitalist transformation in the periphery, calling attention to the need for a redefined regional perspective

  19. Development practices and lessons learned in developing SimPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Kang, S.; Rosenkjaer, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions in the subsurface that are consistent with the data collected in geophysical surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but additionally the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non­ reproducible, or inefficient. SimPEG is an open-source, multi-university effort aimed at providing a generalized framework for solving forward and inverse problems. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and visualization routines. The SimPEG package (http://simpeg.xyz) supports an ecosystem of forward and inverse modelling applications, including electromagnetics, vadose zone flow, seismic, and potential­ fields, that are all written with a common interface and toolbox. The goal of SimPEG is to support a community of researchers with well-tested, extensible tools, and encourage transparency and reproducibility both of the SimPEG software and the geoscientific research it is applied to. In this presentation, we will share some of the lessons we have learned in designing the modular infrastructure, testing and development practices of SimPEG. We will discuss our use of version control, extensive unit-testing, continuous integration, documentation, issue tracking, and resources that facilitate communication between existing team members and allows new researchers to get involved. These practices have enabled the use of SimPEG in research, industry, and education as well as the ability to support a growing number of dependent repositories and applications. We hope that sharing our

  20. Challenges and considerations for planning toward sustainable biodiesel development in developing countries: Lessons from the Greater Mekong Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukkasi, Sittha; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Ellis, Wyn; Grimley, Simon; Jai-In, Samai

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development. Nonetheless, the complex nature of biodiesel development makes it susceptible to exogenous problems that could hinder sustainable development. To ensure that biodiesel development actually leads to a sustainable path, all possible issues and challenges need to be identified and analyzed up front, so that they can be prepared for and handled in the planning and management stages. Building upon lessons learned from biodiesel developments in the Greater Mekong Subregion, this work examines biodiesel development in developing countries in the aspects of policy, governance, management, infrastructure, technology, feedstock, impacts on the rural poor and local livelihood, climate change, and the environment. Issues within each aspect are also analyzed in the context of developing countries. As a result, this review can serve as a guideline for ensuring that biodiesel development contributes toward sustainable development in developing countries. (author)

  1. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requirement, liquidity ratio, minimum rediscount rate, parity charges and selective credit policies. A Review of .... workers salaries and companies' profits were to be compulsorily deducted and paid to government. However, the ... Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Deregulated Monetary Policy on Economic. Development in ...

  2. Implementing change: lessons from five development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, J. O.; Hildebrandt, S.; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is firstly to report on what we have observed by following major improvement and development projects in five industrial enterprises. In particular, the authors shall focus on issues which have often been addressed in Danish enterprises, namely the participation of employees...... with organizational changes. Thirdly, four paradoxes for managing development projects are presented; they may serve as guidelines for coping with the complexity and uncertainty of change processes......The aim of this paper is firstly to report on what we have observed by following major improvement and development projects in five industrial enterprises. In particular, the authors shall focus on issues which have often been addressed in Danish enterprises, namely the participation of employees...... in the change process, the role of a vision of the future company; and organizational learning processes taking place during the development project. Secondly, different interpretation models will be employed in an effort to broaden the understanding of the many facets and viewpoints associated...

  3. Size control in development: lessons from Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    animals are differences in size, but for some reason the zoologists have paid singularly little attention to them” (Haldane 1927). Almost three quarters of a century later, one of the most important and fundamental aspects of development – how the size of a multicellular organism is determined – remains as mysterious as ever ...

  4. National Health Accounts development: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Laixuthai, A; Vasavit, J; Tantigate, N A; Prajuabmoh-Ruffolo, W; Vimolkit, D; Lertiendumrong, J

    1999-12-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) are an important tool to demonstrate how a country's health resources are spent, on what services, and who pays for them. NHA are used by policy-makers for monitoring health expenditure patterns; policy instruments to re-orientate the pattern can then be further introduced. The National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) of Thailand produces aggregate health expenditure data but its estimation methods have several limitations. This has led to the research and development of an NHA prototype in 1994, through an agreed definition of health expenditure and methodology, in consultation with peer and other stakeholders. This is an initiative by local researchers without external support, with an emphasis on putting the system into place. It involves two steps: firstly, the flow of funds from ultimate sources of finance to financing agencies; and secondly, the use of funds by financing agencies. Five ultimate sources and 12 financing agencies (seven public and five private) were identified. Use of consumption expenditures was listed under four main categories and 32 sub-categories. Using 1994 figures, we estimated a total health expenditure of 128,305.11 million Baht; 84.07% consumption and 15.93% capital formation. Of total consumption expenditure, 36.14% was spent on purchasing care from public providers, with 32.35% on private providers, 5.93% on administration and 9.65% on all other public health programmes. Public sources of finance were responsible for 48.79% and private 51.21% of the total 1994 health expenditure. Total health expenditure accounted for 3.56% of GDP (consumption expenditure at 3.00% of GDP and capital formation at 0.57% of GDP). The NESDB consumption expenditure estimate in 1994 was 180,516 million Baht or 5.01% of GDP, of which private sources were dominant (82.17%) and public sources played a minor role (17.83%). The discrepancy of consumption expenditure between the two estimates is 2.01% of GDP. There

  5. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Hieftje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process of developing the risk reduction and HIV prevention videogame intervention for young adolescents, PlayForward: Elm City Stories. 

  6. Job task analysis: lessons learned from application in course development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Those at Public Service Electric and Gas Company are committed to a systematic approach to training known as Instructional System Design. Our performance-based training emphasizes the ISD process to have trainees do or perform the task whenever and wherever it is possible for the jobs for which they are being trained. Included is a brief description of our process for conducting and validating job analyses. The major thrust of this paper is primarily on the lessons that we have learned in the design and development of training programs based upon job analysis results

  7. LENS: Science Scope and Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) experiment will resolve the solar metallicity question via measurement of the CNO neutrino flux, as well as test the predicted equivalence of solar luminosity as measured by photon versus neutrinos. The LENS detector uses charged-current interaction of neutrinos on Indium-115 (loaded in a scintillator, InLS) to reveal the complete solar neutrino spectrum. LENS's optically segmented 3D lattice geometry achieves precise time and spatial resolution and unprecedented background rejection and sensitivity for low-energy neutrino events. This first-of-a-kind lattice design is also suited for a range of other applications where high segmentation and large light collection are required (eg: sterile neutrinos with sources, double beta decay, and surface detection of reactor neutrinos). The physics scope, detector design, and logic driving the microLENS and miniLENS prototyping stages will be presented. The collaboration is actively running programs; building, operating, developing, and simulating these prototypes using the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). New members are welcome to the LENS Collaboration, and interested parties should contact R. Bruce Vogelaar.

  8. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  9. Development of a public health reporting data warehouse: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizi, Seyed Ali Mussavi; Roudsari, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Data warehouse projects are perceived to be risky and prone to failure due to many organizational and technical challenges. However, often iterative and lengthy processes of implementation of data warehouses at an enterprise level provide an opportunity for formative evaluation of these solutions. This paper describes lessons learned from successful development and implementation of the first phase of an enterprise data warehouse to support public health surveillance at British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. Iterative and prototyping approach to development, overcoming technical challenges of extraction and integration of data from large scale clinical and ancillary systems, a novel approach to record linkage, flexible and reusable modeling of clinical data, and securing senior management support at the right time were the main factors that contributed to the success of the data warehousing project.

  10. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2010-01-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  11. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bagno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330 h , several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  12. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  13. Lessons Learned from Developing and Operating the Kepler Science Pipeline and Building the TESS Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.

  14. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  15. Robotics program development: Applicable lessons learned from TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, F.L.

    1989-09-01

    The nuclear industry is becoming increasingly aware of the benefits that can result from the use of robotics technology to augment plant maintenance and monitoring programs. This awareness is growing as a result of various utility successes in deploying robotics tools and realizing benefits to plant operations. These benefits include: (1) reducing occupational exposure risks associated with performing tasks in high radiation zones; (2) reducing fatigue associated with physically demanding tasks; and (3) minimizing human error associated with repetitive tasks. This EPRI-sponsored report addresses the programmatic issues faced by GPU Nuclear in developing a program that extensively employed robotics and remotely controlled equipment. Many of the lessons learned can be applied to an operating plant. This report has been prepared to present generally applicable experiences that a utility may wish to consider when developing a robotics program. Issues addressed within this report can serve as a preliminary guide to: (1) establishing equipment requirements; (2) preparing personnel to implement a robotics program; and (3) determining the impacts on the administrative aspects of operations related to procedures, licensing, and reliability. The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident created a unique situation within industry; i.e., remotely controlled equipment provided the only viable option for accomplishing a number of recovery tasks. This impetus accelerated the development of practical robotics tooling for specific tasks. 16 refs., 35 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Networking Skills as a Career Development Practice: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Adams, A. S.; de Boer, A. M.; Staudt, A. C.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Professional networking is often cited as an important component of scientific career development, yet there are few resources for early career scientists to develop and build networks. Personal networks can provide opportunities to learn about organizational culture and procedures, expectations, advancement opportunities, and best practices. They provide access to mentors and job placement opportunities, new scientific collaborations, speaker and conference invitations, increased scientific visibility, reduced isolation, and a stronger feeling of community. There is evidence in the literature that a sense of community positively affects the engagement and retention of underrepresented groups, including women, in science. Thus women scientists may particularly benefit from becoming part of a network. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) began in 2002 as an informal peer-to-peer mentoring initiative among a few recent Ph.D.s. The network has grown exponentially to include over 1000 women scientists across the globe. Surveys of our membership about ESWN report positive impacts on the careers of women in Earth sciences, particularly those in early career stages. Through ESWN, women share both professional and personal advice, establish research collaborations, communicate strategies on work/life balance, connect with women at various stages of their careers, and provide perspectives from cultures across the globe. We present lessons learned through the formal and informal activities promoted by ESWN in support of the career development of women Earth scientists.

  18. Outsourcing technical services : Stages of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, T.; Baven, Geert

    1994-01-01

    This article is based on an investigation of the development of two service functions, software development and engineering, in the automobile industry. The inquiry revealed the importance of 'learning and leverage', and the need for a successful combination of functional and application

  19. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  20. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...

  1. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  2. Stages of growth in economic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2003), s. 771-800 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

  3. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  4. Life Skills Developed on the Camp "Stage."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research concerning the components of sense of place, the rootedness of college students to their hometowns, and categories of environmental competence. Offer insights to camp staff into fostering sense of place and the emotional attachments to camp that comprise place attachment, and to developing environmental competence among campers…

  5. Cross-stage immunity for malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-12-22

    A vaccine against malaria is urgently needed for control and eventual eradication. Different approaches are pursued to induce either sterile immunity directed against pre-erythrocytic parasites or to mimic naturally acquired immunity by controlling blood-stage parasite densities and disease severity. Pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines are often seen as opposing tactics, but it is likely that they have to be combined into a multi-stage malaria vaccine to be optimally safe and effective. Since many antigenic targets are shared between liver- and blood-stage parasites, malaria vaccines have the potential to elicit cross-stage protection with immune mechanisms against both stages complementing and enhancing each other. Here we discuss evidence from pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage subunit and whole parasite vaccination approaches that show that protection against malaria is not necessarily stage-specific. Parasites arresting at late liver-stages especially, can induce powerful blood-stage immunity, and similarly exposure to blood-stage parasites can afford pre-erythrocytic immunity. The incorporation of a blood-stage component into a multi-stage malaria vaccine would hence not only combat breakthrough infections in the blood should the pre-erythrocytic component fail to induce sterile protection, but would also actively enhance the pre-erythrocytic potency of this vaccine. We therefore advocate that future studies should concentrate on the identification of cross-stage protective malaria antigens, which can empower multi-stage malaria vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong

    2001-01-01

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  7. KML-based teaching lessons developed by Google in partnership with the University of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, E. J.; Bailey, J.; Bishop, A.; Cain, J.; Goddard, M.; Hurowitz, K.; Kennedy, K.; Ornduff, T.; Sfraga, M.; Wernecke, J.

    2008-12-01

    The focus of Google's Geo Education outreach efforts (http://www.google.com/educators/geo.html) is on helping primary, secondary, and post-secondary educators incorporate Google Earth and Sky, Google Maps, and SketchUp into their classroom lessons. In this poster and demonstration, we will show our KML-based science lessons that were developed in partnership with the University of Alaska and used in classroom teachings by our team to Alaskan high-school students.

  8. Stages of Change in Relationship Status Questionnaire: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Handsel, Vanessa; Moore, Todd

    2016-01-01

    This study involved the development of the Stages of Change in Relationship Status (SOCRS) measure in 2 samples of college students. This scale is designed to measure how individuals progress through stages of change when terminating violent and nonviolent intimate relationships. Results indicated that the SOCRS is a reliable and valid tool to…

  9. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 1 - Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All soil ultimately forms from rocks or their weathering products. Geologists classify rocks according to their origins. General rock types can weather to give soils with distinctive properties. The objectives of this lesson are: 1. To be able to classify rocks based on visual characteristics accord...

  10. Collaborative Lesson Planning as Professional Development for Beginning Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes how one beginning primary grade teacher benefited from collaborative lesson-planning meetings with her grade-level colleagues. The teacher accumulated knowledge of curriculum, pedagogy, and professional contexts as she participated in planning meetings each week during her first year of teaching. Furthermore,…

  11. Development of two-stage grain grinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important task in the development of the diet of farm animals feeding is a selection of the most balanced in its composition and most nutritious feeds, which are safe and meet all the necessary requirements at the same time. To evaluate the productive value of feeds and their effectiveness the rate of food productive action η was proposed. This ratio reflects the productive part of the total value of the exchange energy of the daily feed ration and is an essential criterion of the feed quality indicators. In the feed rations of animals the most expensive, but energy-rich feed is a mixed fodder, a mixture of grinded seeds of agricultural crops and protein, mineral and vitamin additives. In the diet for its nutritional value, this feed product is for cattle – 50, pigs – 60… 100 and birds – 100%. The basic operation in the production of mixed fodder is seeds grinding, i.e. their destruction under the influence of external forces, exceeding the forces of molecular adhesion of the grains particles. To grind the grain different ways are used: chopping, grinding, impact «in flight», crushing, etc. In the production of mixed fodder on the existing production equipment, there is the problem of getting the grain mixed fodder the necessary degree of grinding and uniform in its particle size distribution at the same time. When receiving too coarse grinding there is a problem of difficult digestibility of mixed fodder by farm animals. Moreover grinding process is accompanied by a high energy consumption. Grain grinder, the principle of which is based on the implementation of two ways of grinding grain: splitting and impact «in flight» is proposed. The proposed constructive solutions allow to obtain a high-performance technical means for crushing seeds of crops, as well as reduce energy costs that arise during the course of the process of obtaining of mixed fodder. The methodology justification of degree of grain grinding by

  12. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  13. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  14. Developing a PLC-friendly state machine model: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    Modern Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have become an attractive platform for controlling real-time aspects of astronomical telescopes and instruments due to their increased versatility, performance and standardization. Likewise, vendor-neutral middleware technologies such as OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) have recently demonstrated that they can greatly facilitate the integration of these industrial platforms into the overall control system. Many practical questions arise, however, when building multi-tiered control systems that consist of PLCs for low level control, and conventional software and platforms for higher level control. How should the PLC software be structured, so that it can rely on well-known programming paradigms on the one hand, and be mapped to a well-organized OPC UA interface on the other hand? Which programming languages of the IEC 61131-3 standard closely match the problem domains of the abstraction levels within this structure? How can the recent additions to the standard (such as the support for namespaces and object-oriented extensions) facilitate a model based development approach? To what degree can our applications already take advantage of the more advanced parts of the OPC UA standard, such as the high expressiveness of the semantic modeling language that it defines, or the support for events, aggregation of data, automatic discovery, ... ? What are the timing and concurrency problems to be expected for the higher level tiers of the control system due to the cyclic execution of control and communication tasks by the PLCs? We try to answer these questions by demonstrating a semantic state machine model that can readily be implemented using IEC 61131 and OPC UA. One that does not aim to capture all possible states of a system, but rather one that attempts to organize the course-grained structure and behaviour of a system. In this paper we focus on the intricacies of this seemingly simple task, and on the lessons that we

  15. Young children's understanding of stages of human development

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 祥子; 杉村, 伸一郎

    2010-01-01

    The self-concept is composed through the interaction with others (Mead,1934). As selfconceptual study in early childhood, most targets the same age others. However, it is thought that the existence of the others at other stages of development brings the influence to the self-concept if the self-concept is composed by the interaction with others. The present study aimed to search for children's understanding of stages of human development and children's self-concept by the comparisons between ...

  16. Stages of Teachers' Careers: Implications for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Judith; And Others

    This monograph on the development of teachers' careers synthesizes researchers' prescriptions for early-, mid-, and late-career professional development; and describes successful programs that demonstrate sensitivity to the stages of teachers' growth. The first chapter, "Teachers' Career Development," reviews current adult- and career-stage…

  17. HLA-B8 association with late-stage melanoma – an immunological lesson?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Mads

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in HLA allele frequencies between the diseased and healthy populations may signify efficient immune responses, a notion that has been successfully tested for infectious diseases or for association with genetic elements involved in a distinct type of immunity. This retrospective study is intended to detect differences in MHC class I carrier frequencies of advanced melanoma patients compared to healthy bone marrow donors. Methods The HLA-A and -B carrier frequencies of 748 stage IV melanoma patients retrieved from serotyping at 6 different centers in Germany were compared using a chi-square test to 13,386 fully HLA typed bone marrow donors registered in the German national bone marrow donor registry. Results The comparison of HLA carrier frequencies in advanced cancer patients with healthy bone marrow donors revealed a significant decrease in HLA-B8 carrier frequencies, which was also apparent in patients with advanced disease compared to patients with loco-regional disease. Conclusion The data suggest that protective immune responses restricted to distinct MHC class I molecules may be operational in a subset of melanoma patients, which is the prerequisite for a large scale screen for the corresponding epitopes. Alternatively, the known association of the ancestral haplotype HLA-A1, -B8 and -DR3 with genetic elements such as distinct TNF-α alleles might have a protective effect on disease progression. In any case, identification of the cause of protection within this patient subset might lead to a significant improvement in the efficacy of current immunotherapeutic approaches.

  18. Innovation by design lessons from post box design & development

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Battula Kalyana

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an in-depth knowledge on how a product is designed and developed by Product Designers. This has been achieved through a case study of one product – the Post Box. This product was chosen for the study primarily due to its simple and non-technical nature as that would make it easy for the readers to comprehend the design process. At the same time the Post Box posed all the challenges a designer would face while creating a new product. Through a step by step process the book gradually takes the reader through the design and development journey – right from understanding the product, identifying the user need through market research, comprehending client’s brief, generating product ideas and concepts to development of prototype, manufacturing and final performance of the product. The book illustrates the stages in the design process that lead to innovation which is applicable to all types of products. To make the book more stimulating, interesting facts, figures and pictures on related iss...

  19. RDF technology development: from R and D to commercial scale - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is still negotiating for the best strategies to manage her 17,000 ton/day MSW in the best manner - politically, economically and environmentally. A National Solid Waste Strategic Plan has been established since 2003, advocating and adopting the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (IWMS). Recently, MINT launched the Waste to Wealth (W2W) blue print to spearhead the idea at National level, of treating waste as resource, thus could be translated to a profitable venture. In this respect, MINT role is very much focused to technology development. However, choosing the right mix of the waste management hierarchy, and thus technology, is not simple. We believed that, a technology that embraced all aspect of waste hierarchy and meet the Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC) or Best Available Technology Suiting Socio Economic Standing (BATSSES) concept will give good promise, thus certainly answers the above cry. In the above pursuit, we developed a commercial and R and D strategies concurrently to arrive at the best compromise. The technology selected, based on RDF, was not a rocket science but innovatively developed to match the waste characteristics, local cultures and social habit, national industrial strength and business opportunities, commercial packaging and institutional support at all levels - politically, socially, commercially, technically and even among government officials. The success of the project lies also in the trusts developed between the government organization conducting R and D and the private sector as the main technology developer, which transcends beyond the normal project contract agreement-manifesting the success of smart partnership model. This paper will share some success, challenges and experience, and lessons learned, in developing the RDF technology from the R and D stage to a full 700 t/day commercial plant in Semenyih, Malaysia. Also highlighted is the impact of this project on the current thinking

  20. Lessons learned: Managing the development of a corporate Ada training project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Linda F.

    1986-01-01

    The management lessons learned during the implementation of a corporate mandate to develop and deliver an effective Ada training program to all divisions are discussed. The management process involved in obtaining cooperation from all levels in the development of a corporate-wide project is described. The problem areas are identified along with some possible solutions.

  1. Lessons Learned Developing an Extension-Based Training Program for Farm Labor Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Fritz M.; Thissen, Carlene A.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Morera, Maria C.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines a four-step model for developing a training program for farm labor supervisors. The model draws on key lessons learned during the development of the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Farm Labor Supervisor Training program. The program is designed to educate farm supervisors on farm labor laws…

  2. Managing Information for Rural Development: Lessons from Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 379.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboeck, Guido; Kinsey, Bill

    The study summarizes discussions and conclusions of the Regional Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 1979), whose purpose was to share lessons learned from field experiences in managing information for rural development. An initial section summarizes information in papers…

  3. Development and Applications of a Stage Stacking Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of multistage axial compressors in gas turbine engines is typically accomplished with mean-line methods. These methods, which rely on empirical correlations, estimate compressor performance well near the design point, but may become less reliable off-design. For land-based applications of gas turbine engines, off-design performance estimates are becoming increasingly important, as turbine plant operators desire peaking or load-following capabilities and hot-day operability. The current work develops a one-dimensional stage stacking procedure, including a newly defined blockage term, which is used to estimate the off-design performance and operability range of a 13-stage axial compressor used in a power generating gas turbine engine. The new blockage term is defined to give mathematical closure on static pressure, and values of blockage are shown to collapse to curves as a function of stage inlet flow coefficient and corrected shaft speed. In addition to these blockage curves, the stage stacking procedure utilizes stage characteristics of ideal work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These curves are constructed using flow information extracted from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of groups of stages within the compressor. Performance estimates resulting from the stage stacking procedure are shown to match the results of CFD simulations of the entire compressor to within 1.6% in overall total pressure ratio and within 0.3 points in overall adiabatic efficiency. Utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated by estimation of the minimum corrected speed which allows stable operation of the compressor. Further utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated with a bleed sensitivity study, which estimates a bleed schedule to expand the compressors operating range.

  4. Lesson study: Professional development and its impact on science teacher self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Rae

    This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal

  5. Design and Development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Guernsey, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully landed the largest interplanetary rover ever built, Curiosity, on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of this mission was by far the most complex landing ever attempted on a planetary body. The Descent Stage Propulsion System played an integral and critical role during Curiosity's EDL. The Descent Stage Propulsion System was a one of a kind hydrazine propulsion system designed specifically for the EDL phase of the MSL mission. It was designed, built, and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the design and development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System. Driving requirements, system design, component selection, operational sequence of the system at Mars, new developments, and key challenges will be discussed.

  6. The Malemute development program. [rocket upper stage engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, W. J.; Hoekstra, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Malemute vehicle systems are two-stage systems based on utilizing a new high performance upper stage motor with two existing military boosters. The Malmute development program is described relative to program structure, preliminary design, vehicle subsystems, and the Malemute motor. Two vehicle systems, the Nike-Malemute and Terrier-Malemute, were developed which are capable of transporting comparatively large diameter (16 in.) 200-lb payloads to altitudes of 500 and 700 km, respectively. These vehicles provide relatively low-cost transportation with two-stage reliability and launch simplicity. Flight tests of both vehicle systems revealed their performance capabilities, with the Terrier-Malemute system involving a unique Malemute motor spin sensitivity problem. It is suggested that the vehicles can be successfully flown by lowering the burnout spin rate.

  7. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  8. Fine structure of endogenous stages of Eimeria turcicus developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    May 6, 1988 ... Transmission electron microscopic study of endogenous development of Eimeria turcicus Upton, McAllister and Freed, 1988 (Eimeriorina, Apicomplexa), in the gall bladder epithelium of the gecko Hemidactylus turcicus from Israel, revealed merogony and gamogony stages which induce hypertrophy and ...

  9. Community-based Adaptation: Lessons from the Development Marketplace 2009 on Adaptation to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmus Heltberg; Radhika Prabhu; Habiba Gitay

    2010-01-01

    The Development Marketplace 2009 focused on adaptation to climate change. This paper identifies lessons from the Marketplace and assesses their implications for adaptation support. The findings are based on: statistical tabulation of all proposals; in-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 346 semi-finalists; and interviews with finalists and assessors. Proposals were fuelled b...

  10. The Curriculum Development for Science Teachers' Training: The Action Lesson Focusing on Science Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayotha, Jesda; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop innovation curriculum and study the effect of curriculum usage in science teachers' training in establishing the supplementary subject curriculum for action lesson. It focuses on science process skills with 10 teachers for 4 days, and 236 Grade 9 students from 10 schools during the first semester of…

  11. How to learn and develop from both good and bad lessons- the 2011Tohoku tsunami case -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Megumi; Okazumi, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    have a tendency to judge based on own experience. 4. It is difficult for human being to make use of lessons from different countries because human being would not like to think own self suffer victim for a self-preservation mind. 5. It is usual for experts not to pay attention to other fields even if similar case occurs in different fields. We started collecting 18 hazards of such historical living lessons all over the world before the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. We adapted to this project collecting lessons from Tohoku tsunami and will publish for small children in developing countries in March 2013. This will be translated in at least 10 languages. This disaster lessons guide books are free. We will introduce some lessons in the presentations. We believe education is one of useful countermeasures to prevent from repeating same mistakes and transfer directly living lessons to new generations.

  12. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development has been suggested as a framework for integrating development and climate change policies in developing countries. Mainstreaming climate change into sustainable development policies would allow these countries to achieve their development goals while addressing climate cha...

  13. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Status of Developing Afghan Governance and Lessons for Future Endeavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Sternlieb

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Building the capacity of and reforming Afghan governance is widely viewed as the key to success in Afghanistan. Assessing progress, however, is hampered by limited data outside the Afghan security ministries – the Ministries of Defense and Interior – and by the lack of a common definition of governance. Available reporting suggests building governance capacity is far from complete. Varying definitions of governance, coupled with the use of the term by numerous organizations without defining it, results in addressing too broad a range of issues. It would be more useful to concentrate on the core of governance – providing the services the Afghan government has committed to provide to its citizens. This, in turn, requires that Afghan ministries have the functional capacity to carry out their responsibilities, including financial management, budget formulation and execution, policy and strategic planning, and service delivery. However, time is growing short. The Afghan experience provides some important lessons that could guide future endeavors for the international community. First, this paper discusses progress in building ministerial capacity. Second, it discusses recent efforts to link continued financial assistance to Afghanistan with improved governance. Third, it describes how the lack of a commonly accepted definition of governance complicates assessing progress. Finally, it offers conclusions and observations about the failure to establish an autonomous Afghan governance capacity. For more than a decade, improving governance has been recognized as the most difficult and critical challenge involving Afghan reconstruction. The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR reports that U.S. policymakers have consistently identified building the capacity of and reforming Afghan governance as the key to success in Afghanistan (SIGAR 2012, 22.

  15. Development of Taenia asiatica cysticerci to infective stage and adult stage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S L; Ooi, H K; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M; Oku, Y

    2006-09-01

    The development of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia asiatica in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were observed. Cysticerci were recovered from gerbils subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres. The recovery rate ranged from 0.1 to 3.2%. No cysticerci were recovered from the orally inoculated gerbils. The infectivity of the cysticerci recovered at 48 weeks post-infection was evaluated. Tapeworms were recovered on day 14 post-infection from the small intestine of 5 of 11 gerbils, with a recovery rate of 27% (6 worms recovered/22 worms inoculated). Three and four adult worms were recovered from two human volunteers who ingested five cysticerci after 4 months post-infection. In worms recovered from gerbils, segmentation and genital primordia in the posterior proglottids and hooklets in the residual rostellum were observed. The results indicate that gerbils can serve as an alternative intermediate host and that partial development of the adult worm stage occurs in gerbils.

  16. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  17. Development of Motorized Slewing Mirror Stage for the UFFO Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, J.; Ahn, K.B.; Cho, M.

    2013-01-01

    redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3...... kg of mass and 3 Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15 deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in ~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop control with high precision...

  18. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    inextricably linked for women scientists, who still perform a disproportionate share of domestic and parenting duties, as our data show. ESWN members of all career stages cited work/life balance as among their top career obstacles. Here the intimate tone of ESWN discussion list proves helpful once again: women feel safe to exchange their experiences and suggestions for handling a variety of work/life dilemmas. Our data offer a snapshot of the population that is not well documented by researchers so far - young women scientists at various early-career stages, ranging from graduate students and postdocs to young faculty. We will offer a glimpse of their career needs and present the strategies that have enabled ESWN to provide them with relevant career resources through establishing a supportive community, as well as suggest future directions for the Network to develop. These lessons learned from ESWN should be helpful to all interested in supporting young scientists through critical career junctures.

  19. The East Asian Development Experience: Policy Lessons, Implications, and Recommendations for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Global Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford C. Chea

    2012-01-01

    The paper looks at the development experience of East Asia and draws lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa in building global competitiveness. It starts with a historical perspective of both regions’ developmental trajectories. This is followed by an analysis of the causes of East Asia’s superior economic performance and development and SSA underdevelopment. The article also draws policy lessons from East Asia development strategies for SSA global competitiveness. The paper ends with a presentation ...

  20. Historical problem areas: Lessons learned for expendable and reusable vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: expendable launch vehicle lessons learned, upper stage/transfer vehicle lessons learned, shuttle systems - reuse, and reusable system issues and lessons learned.

  1. How do professionals develop? Lessons for the effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Skills Development and Skills Development Levies Acts, passed in 1998 and 1999, and the subsequent National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS), have been initiatives to develop the people of South Africa and to provide educational and economic opportunities for all. In order to implement NSDS, 25 Sector ...

  2. [Stages of development of flight medical expertise in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplyuk, A L; Vovkodav, V S; Churilov, Yu K; Klepikov, A N

    2015-07-01

    Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis. At the present stage FME development is determined by the needs of medical, technical and psycho-physiological support of supersonic aircraft, the need to adjust to the requirements of aircrew health, advanced diagnostics of the functional state and the search for means to improve the stability of his body to flight factors. The main principles of the FME remains the complexity of the study of the human body in terms of its professional and individual approach to a medical examination, a thorough clinical, clinical and physiological and psychological examinations, regular medical supervision of the health of flight crews.

  3. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. NASA Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicle Development Approach Builds on Lessons from Past and Present Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) Toward the end of the next decade, a heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will deliver the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) carrying the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), where it will rendezvous with the CEV launched on the CLV and return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in over 30 years. This paper outlines how NASA is building these new space transportation systems on a foundation of legacy technical and management knowledge, using extensive experience gained from past and ongoing launch vehicle programs to maximize its design and development approach, with the objective of reducing total life cycle costs through operational efficiencies such as hardware commonality. For example, the CLV in-line configuration is composed of a 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB), which is an upgrade of the current Space Shuttle 4- segment RSRB, and a new upper stage powered by the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X engine, which is an evolution of the J-2 engine that powered the Apollo Program s Saturn V second and third stages in the 1960s and 1970s. The CaLV configuration consists of a propulsion system composed of two 5-segment RSRBs and a 33- foot core stage that will provide the LOX/LED needed for five commercially available RS-68 main engines. The J-2X also will power the EDS. The Exploration Launch Projects, managed by the Exploration Launch Office located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is leading the design

  5. Sustainable Development or Eco-Collapse: Lessons for Tourism and Development from Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Figueroa B.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While tourism brings many benefits to islands, it can also cause negative effects, especially when tourism development is a disorganised process, with significant environmental impacts. This has been the case of Easter Island: the recent, uncontrolled growth in tourist numbers together with social and political tensions, are signs of a socioeconomic process pursuing development that has neglected the institutional, environmental, social, and economic imperatives of sustainability for tourism management. The study initially presents the environmental impacts of tourism growth, including waste disposal and management issues, problems with sewage system, threats to water quality, and biodiversity loss. Next, using data from in situ fieldwork, interviews and surveys, it focuses on residents’ perceptions regarding environmental consequences of the vast tourism growth, as well as on the serious governance issues that Easter Island is currently facing and that complicate even further its sustainable development. Overall, our results indicate that—while acknowledging the negative impacts that uncontrolled tourism development has brought to the island and the need for it to become more sustainable—residents are in favour of tourism since it is the island’s main source of income and employment. The paper draws lessons for islands involved in the “development-through-tourism” model regarding the difficulties these islands will face in attaining their goals if they are not able to build and implement cooperative agreements among stakeholders to properly manage the common-pool resources involved. This is a warning sign for islands that enthusiastically promote tourism without implementing sound sustainability criteria to guide the management of their tourism sector.

  6. 13 Factors Limiting Women's Involvement in Development: Lesson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    countries lives in rural areas, where they play the role of food producers. Women in rural areas can also contribute to development in the same manner as those in urban areas, if they are initiated and guided in the development processes of their choice (Cartledge 1995). Development is not an isolated activity and it implies ...

  7. The effects of geography lessons with geospatial technologies on the development of high school students' relational thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favier, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33811534X; van der Schee, Joop|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072719575

    Geospatial technologies offer access to geospatial information via digital representations, such as digital maps, and tools for interaction with those representations. The question is whether geography lessons with geospatial technologies really contribute to the development of students' geospatial

  8. The effects of geography lessons with geospatial technologies on the development of high school students' relational thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favier, T.T.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial technologies offer access to geospatial information via digital representations, such as digital maps, and tools for interaction with those representations. The question is whether geography lessons with geospatial technologies really contribute to the development of students' geospatial

  9. [Stages in the development of instruments for determining subjective refraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisselmann, L; Forchmann, J; Duis, W

    1991-01-01

    By the equipments constructed from the J. D. Möller Company in Wedel during the last 40 years the different stages of development of the phoropter are shown. There was a big step from the simple technology of the VISUTEST-A to the VISUTEST-C-Phoropter, which in connection with the inclination apparatus according to Reiner is one of the most successful equipments of German output. VISUTRON, which is the first motor-operated phoropter, started a new era. Concerning VISUTRON-Plus, the latest product of this series, great importance was especially set to efficient and easy operation.

  10. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...... the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...

  11. Informal roles and the stages of interdisciplinary team development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M P; Schmitt, M H; Heinemann, G D

    2001-08-01

    After presenting a theory of team development, we propose that the informal role structure of a team is dependent upon the degree of anomie in the team culture, and we provide measures of anomie and informal roles that can be used in field settings. Then we test hypotheses on a national sample of 111 interdisciplinary health care teams in geriatrics in US Veterans Affairs medical centers. We find evidence that as teams develop from early to later stages, the interpersonal behavior of members becomes less differentiated on three dimensions: prominence, sociability, and task-orientation. In addition, we find that images of each member come into clearer focus, as evidenced by reduced variation in how each member is seen by other team members. Finally, we find that regardless of stage of team development, the more education the team members have, the more prominent and task-oriented they are. In general, physicians score highest in prominence and task-orientation, but relatively low in sociability.

  12. Watershed management and sustainable development: Lessons learned and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlyn Eckman; Hans M. Gregerson; Allen L. Lundgren

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental belief underlying the direction and content of this paper is that the paradigms of land and water management evolving into the 21st century increasingly favor a watershed focused approach. Underlying that approach is an appreciation of the processes of sustainable development and resource use. The increasing recognition that sustainable development and...

  13. The Management of innovation: Lessons from a Danish Development Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lennie

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports from an ongoing Danish development programme entitled "Process and Product Development in the Building Industry". The programme is a joint initiatvie, initiated by the Ministry of Housing and Building and the Ministry of Busines and Industry. In a competition in 1994 four consor...

  14. Identity and Development: Lessons Learned from a Blind Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junefelt, Karin

    2004-01-01

    This article uses an analysis of speech to qualitatively examine the relationship between a blind child and his environment, his use of semiotic signs, and his identity development. A brief overview of development in blind children is followed by a case study. The theoretical construct of this article, which is interactionism, is infused into the…

  15. European Vaccine Initiative: lessons from developing malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Mark J; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Imbault, Nathalie; van Schooten, Harry; McWade, Terry; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Dobbelaer, Roland; Craig, Alister G; Leroy, Odile

    2011-12-01

    For over 10 years, the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI; European Malaria Vaccine Initiative until 2009) has contributed to the development of 24 malaria candidate vaccine antigens with 13 vaccine candidates being advanced into Phase I clinical trials, two of which have been transitioned for further clinical development in sub-Saharan Africa. Since its inception the EVI organization has operated as a funding agency, but with a clear service-oriented strategy. The scientific successes and difficulties encountered during these years and how these efforts have led to standardization and harmonization in vaccine development through large-scale European consortia are discussed. In the future, the EVI will remain instrumental in the pharmaceutical and clinical development of vaccines against 'diseases of poverty' with a continued focus on malaria. EVI will continue to focus on funding and managing preclinical evaluation up to Phase I/II clinical trials and strengthening the vaccine-development infrastructure in Europe, albeit with a global orientation.

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER): Development, implementation, and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J.D. [CH2M Hill Richland, WA (United States); Amaya, J.P. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) effort during FY 1992, FY 1993, and the first quarter of FY 1994. The report comprises three sections: Introduction, Activities Summary, and Lessons Learned and Related Activities. This section provides context for the report by briefly reviewing the development of SAFER and its operational assumptions. Section 2 describes SAFER workshops and site-specific SAFER implementation support. Additionally, Section 2 provides an update on the status of sites that initially received support from either Observational Approach or SAFER teams and subsequently implemented either of these two related approaches to site restoration streamlining. Section 3 describes lessons learned and upcoming SAFER activities.

  17. Organisational development in general practice: lessons from practice and professional development plans (PPDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocking Paul

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development and education (self-directed adult learning theories and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4 where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of

  18. Organisational development in general practice: lessons from practice and professional development plans (PPDPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Hocking, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices) that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development) and education (self-directed adult learning theories) and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4) where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of introducing expert external

  19. Update on the Fukushima accident and technical lessons learned for water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Katsumi; Harper, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March 2011 initiated accident conditions at several nuclear power stations on the northeast coast of Japan, and it developed into a very serious nuclear accident at Units 1-3 of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). As a result, the IAEA set out a comprehensive program of work, called Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, in order to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide in 12 major areas. One of the action items is “Effectively utilize research and development”. To assist relevant stakeholders in conducting necessary research and development in nuclear safety, technology and engineering, the IAEA has been identifying and organizing lessons learned from the accident, and has assimilated them into a comprehensive and concise set of lessons learned with emphasis on technical issues. This paper summarizes the event sequences during the Fukushima accident, taking into account recently published new information, and discusses technical lessons learned from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations. (author)

  20. Brain Activity at the Embryonic Stages of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Akhmetshina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main function of our brain is to run internal models of the external world. These models enable us to analyze complex sensory inputs from the outside and our bodies, as well as to generate a system of commands underlying our behavior. This is implemented by a complex network, which is built out of billions of interconnected neurons. The network is formed during the ontogeny with the most intense phase of synaptogenesis starting during second half of gestation in the utero. So, the neonate is born with a remarkably developed frame of the central nervous system capable of receiving, processing, and memorizing information from the external world. This review discusses how the brain operates during the fetal stages of development and how the early activities expressed in the fetal brain contribute to the prenatal assembly of the nervous system.

  1. Peridigm summary report : lessons learned in development with agile components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Mitchell, John Anthony; Littlewood, David John; Parks, Michael L.

    2011-09-01

    This report details efforts to deploy Agile Components for rapid development of a peridynamics code, Peridigm. The goal of Agile Components is to enable the efficient development of production-quality software by providing a well-defined, unifying interface to a powerful set of component-based software. Specifically, Agile Components facilitate interoperability among packages within the Trilinos Project, including data management, time integration, uncertainty quantification, and optimization. Development of the Peridigm code served as a testbed for Agile Components and resulted in a number of recommendations for future development. Agile Components successfully enabled rapid integration of Trilinos packages into Peridigm. A cost of this approach, however, was a set of restrictions on Peridigm's architecture which impacted the ability to track history-dependent material data, dynamically modify the model discretization, and interject user-defined routines into the time integration algorithm. These restrictions resulted in modifications to the Agile Components approach, as implemented in Peridigm, and in a set of recommendations for future Agile Components development. Specific recommendations include improved handling of material states, a more flexible flow control model, and improved documentation. A demonstration mini-application, SimpleODE, was developed at the onset of this project and is offered as a potential supplement to Agile Components documentation.

  2. Key lessons for designing health literacy professional development courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Murphy, Bernice

    2018-02-01

    Health literacy courses for health professionals have emerged in response to health professionals' perceived lack of understanding of health literacy issues, and their failure to routinely adopt health literacy practices. Since 2013 in Victoria, Australia, the Centre for Culture, Ethnicity and Health has delivered an annual health literacy demonstration training course that it developed. Course development and delivery partners included HealthWest Partnership and cohealth. The courses are designed to develop the health literacy knowledge, skills and organisational capacity of the health and community services sector in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne. This study presents key learnings from evaluation data from three health literacy courses using Wenger's professional educational learning design framework. The framework has three educational learning architecture components (engagement, imagination and alignment) and four educational learning architecture dimensions (participation, emergent, local/global, identification). Participatory realist evaluation approaches and qualitative methods were used. The evaluations revealed that the health literacy courses are developing leadership in health literacy, building partnerships among course participants, developing health literacy workforce knowledge and skills, developing ways to use and apply health literacy resources and are serving as a catalyst for building organisational infrastructure. Although the courses were not explicitly developed or implemented using Wenger's educational learning design pedagogic features, the course structure (i.e. facilitation role of course coordinators, providing safe learning environments, encouraging small group work amongst participants, requiring participants to conduct mini-projects and sponsor organisation buy-in) provided opportunities for engagement, imagination and alignment. Wenger's educational learning design framework can inform the design of future key

  3. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.

  4. Open data in drug discovery and development: lessons from malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul; Burrows, Jeremy N; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing consensus that drug discovery thrives in an open environment. Here, we describe how the malaria community has embraced four levels of open data - open science, open innovation, open access and open source - to catalyse the development of new medicines, and consider principles that could enable open data approaches to be applied to other disease areas.

  5. Integrated agricultural research for development: lessons learnt and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Changing the ways of doing business – business unusual – will require innovative approaches to building the required capacities in Integrated ... agricultural research and development strategies and activities that respond to the ... individual, team and institutional capacity building, market- driven approaches, natural ...

  6. ACTEX flight experiment: development issues and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S. R.

    1993-09-01

    The ACTEX flight experiment is scheduled for launch and to begin its on orbit operations in early 1994. The objective of the ACTEX experiment is to demonstrate active vibration control in space, using the smart structure technology. This paper discusses primarily the hardware development and program management issues associated with delivering low cost flight experiments.

  7. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  8. Flexibility mechanisms and sustainable development: Lessons from five AIJ projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; van Asselt, H.D.; Brander, L.M.; Hess, S.M.; van der Leeuw, K.

    2008-01-01

    Do 'Activities Implemented Jointly' (AIJ) projects contribute to sustainable development in the host countries? Which factors have contributed to the success or failure of the projects? Five AIJ projects were examined, accounting for 90% of the total AIJ expenditure of the Dutch government. The

  9. Lesson Study: Developing a Knowledge Base for Elementary Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuitty, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Concern about students' writing skills has led to recommendations that elementary teachers receive more professional development in how to teach writing (National Commission on Writing, 2006). However, there is currently little evidence about the knowledge teachers need to teach writing well, and it is therefore difficult for teacher…

  10. SCaN Testbed Software Development and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Varga, Denise M.

    2012-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an on-orbit, adaptable, Software Defined Radio (SDR)Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS)-based testbed facility to conduct a suite of experiments to advance technologies, reduce risk, and enable future mission capabilities on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCAN Testbed Project will provide NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop and field communications, navigation, and networking technologies in the laboratory and space environment based on reconfigurable, SDR platforms and the STRS Architecture.The SDRs are a new technology for NASA, and the support infrastructure they require is different from legacy, fixed function radios. SDRs offer the ability to reconfigure on-orbit communications by changing software for new waveforms and operating systems to enable new capabilities or fix any anomalies, which was not a previous option. They are not stand alone devices, but required a new approach to effectively control them and flow data. This requires extensive software to be developed to utilize the full potential of these reconfigurable platforms. The paper focuses on development, integration and testing as related to the avionics processor system, and the software required to command, control, monitor, and interact with the SDRs, as well as the other communication payload elements. An extensive effort was required to develop the flight software and meet the NASA requirements for software quality and safety. The flight avionics must be radiation tolerant, and these processors have limited capability in comparison to terrestrial counterparts. A big challenge was that there are three SDRs onboard, and interfacing with multiple SDRs simultaneously complicatesd the effort. The effort also includes ground software, which is a key element for both the command of the payload, and displaying data created by the payload. The verification of

  11. Developing Written Information for Cancer Survivors from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds: Lessons Learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Georgina; Piper, Amanda; Phyllis Butow, A M; Schofield, Penny; Douglas, Fiona; Roy, Jane; Nolte, Linda; Jefford, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1) community engagement and consultation; (2) culturally sensitive data collection; (3) focus group facilitators (recruitment and training); (4) content development; (5) translation and review process; (6) design; and (7) sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  12. NLV Upper Stage Development and Flight Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the design during Phase I of a high performance upper stage for a two-stage "20 / 450" Nanosat Launch Vehicle (NLV) that is...

  13. Green electricity market development: Lessons from Europe and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Lin; Eskeland, Gunnar S.; Kolshus, Hans H.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares the development and implementation of green electricity policies in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States, a set of countries applying a range of policy instruments to encourage electricity from renewable energy sources. A general tendency is identified that policies shift emphasis from R and D stimulation towards dissemination and market application of renewable energy technologies. We argue that in light of the long term nature of policy goals on energy security, mitigation of climate change, and environmental protection, the applied range of policy instruments may be lacking in providing incentives for the long term development of new technologies. Clarifying policy objectives would allow careful selection of policy instruments, including support for R and D. Improved capacity building for policy implementation is also important

  14. Developing a Scenario for widespread use: Best practices, lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is probably the most widely known and used earthquake scenario created to date. Much of the credit for its widespread dissemination and application lies with scenario development criteria that focused on the needs and involvement of end users and with a suite of products that tailored communication of the results to varied end users, who ranged from emergency managers to the general public, from corporations to grassroots organizations. Products were most effective when they were highly visual, when they emphasized the findings of social scientists, and when they communicated the experience of living through the earthquake. This paper summarizes the development criteria and the products that made the ShakeOut Scenario so widely known and used, and it provides some suggestions for future improvements. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. Development in Chile 1990 - 2005: Lessons from a positive experience

    OpenAIRE

    García Hurtado, Álvaro

    2006-01-01

    Chile, in the last 15 years, has shown remarkable results in terms of growth, poverty reduction and democratic governance. This paper reviews the structural changes that were behind these positive outcomes, as well as the pending challenges for Chile’s development. Also shows that Chile did better in terms of growth than social integration and that this is related to the weak representation and participation of a wide majority in the national debate and decision making process. It also draws ...

  16. EUnetHTA information management system: development and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalon, Patrice X; Kraemer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the techniques used in achieving consensus on common standards to be implemented in the EUnetHTA Information Management System (IMS); and to describe how interoperability between tools was explored. Three face to face meetings were organized to identify and agree on common standards to the development of online tools. Two tools were created to demonstrate the added value of implementing interoperability standards at local levels. Developers of tools outside EUnetHTA were identified and contacted. Four common standards have been agreed on by consensus; and consequently all EUnetHTA tools have been modified or designed accordingly. RDF Site Summary (RSS) has demonstrated a good potential to support rapid dissemination of HTA information. Contacts outside EUnetHTA resulted in direct collaboration (HTA glossary, HTAi Vortal), evaluation of options for interoperability between tools (CRD HTA database) or a formal framework to prepare cooperation on concrete projects (INAHTA projects database). While being entitled a project on IT infrastructure, the work program was also about people. When having to agree on complex topics, fostering a cohesive group dynamic and hosting face to face meetings brings added value and enhances understanding between partners. The adoption of widespread standards enhanced the homogeneity of the EUnetHTA tools and should thus contribute to their wider use, therefore, to the general objective of EUnetHTA. The initiatives on interoperability of systems need to be developed further to support a general interoperable information system that could benefit the whole HTA community.

  17. Lessons learned from developing online training for humanitarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpius Istrate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive online learning programme with more than 200 courses was built by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies between starting with 2009 and 2015, offering development opportunities to the Red Cross and Red Crescent (RCRC volunteers and staff to broaden their understanding, to strengthen their organisations, and to be better prepared in providing humanitarian aid. While it is difficult to say to what extent factors such as training, job mentoring, and induction programmes contribute to job performance and to an organisation’s efficiency, it is certain that staff and volunteers willing to undertake courses are more open to transformative and creative approaches, more prepared to tackle with new challenges, more likely to have a stock of knowledge and competencies broader than their own specialisation. Learning and “knowing to learn” are conditions for competitiveness and high performance. Over time, generally speaking, implementation of training as a priority personnel policy proved to have the most significant effects on productivity growth, therefore, efforts towards building a learning culture and delivering quality (online learning are key for developing organisations, their staff, and the quality of services provided. An online training would make a significant difference in learners’ behaviour if it follows several practical guidelines in development, accompanied by thorough checklists to ensure relevance, consistency, alignment and to assist training programmes’ lifecycle.

  18. Migration dynamics, entrepreneurship, and African development: Lessons from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A; Inkpen, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Using data from Malawi, this study situates the discourse on migration, entrepreneurship, and development within the context of Africa's social realities. It examines self-employment differences among three groups of migrants and corresponding group differences in agricultural and non-agricultural self-employment. International migrants are found to be more engaged in self-employment than internal-migrants. However, our results suggest that previous findings on the development-related contributions of returning migrants from the West need to be appropriately contextualized. When returnees from the West invest in self-employment, they typically shy away from Africa's largest economic sector - agriculture. In contrast, levels of self-employment, especially in agricultural self-employment, are highest among returning migrants and immigrants from other African countries, especially from those nearby. We also underscore the gendered dimensions of migrants' contribution to African development by demonstrating that female migrants are more likely to be self-employed in agriculture than male migrants. Furthermore, as human-capital increases, migrants are more likely to concentrate their self-employment activities in non-agricultural activities and not in the agricultural sector. The study concludes by using these findings to discuss key implications for policy and future research.

  19. Modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.; Pietsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge was performed by solving numerically the coupled continuity, the Poisson and Townsend ionization equations and taking into account the ionization, attachment and detachment processes. The potential distribution at the dielectric surface and at the boundaries which surround the integration region have been calculated with the charge-image method in a 3D approach. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion effects, the solution of the continuity equation was corrected using a flux correction transport routine. At the positive voltage the development of the discharge channel is determined mainly by the shape of the electrode tip. At the negative voltage the following phases of the discharge may be distinguished: the initial phase, the cathode directed streamer phase resulting in the cathode layer formation, and the propagating phase. The physical processes governing each discharge phase are described in detail. (J.U.)

  20. Development of RLV-TD Stage Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ganesh; Rao, Y. Naga Sreenivasa; Prakash, P.; Subramanian, U. A.; Purushothaman, P.; Premdas, M.; Abraham, Baby; Kishorenath, V.; Jayachandran, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hyper Sonic Experiment (HEX-01), with main focus on the aero thermodynamic characterization and end to end autonomous mission management, is the first in a series of demonstrators planned by ISRO for the development of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). This paper gives the evolution of the split collet based separation system used in the separation of the spent booster stage from the RLV-Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (TDV). The separation mechanism is very compact, yet has a very high load bearing capacity. The design details and the challenges faced during flight qualification of the system are discussed in this paper. There are a lot of promising areas where this system can be used.

  1. Genetic regulation of human brain development: lessons from Mendelian diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Salazar, Tracy J; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2010-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals in human genetics is to link gene function to phenotype, yet the function of the majority of the genes in the human body is still poorly understood. This is especially true for the developing human brain. The study of human phenotypes that result from inherited, mutated alleles is the most direct evidence for the requirement of a gene in human physiology. Thus, the study of Mendelian central nervous system (CNS) diseases can be an extremely powerful approach to elucidate such phenotypic/genotypic links and to increase our understanding of the key components required for development of the human brain. In this review, we highlight examples of how the study of inherited neurodevelopmental disorders contributes to our knowledge of both the "normal" and diseased human brain, as well as elaborate on the future of this type of research. Mendelian disease research has been, and will continue to be, key to understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie human brain function, and will ultimately form a basis for the design of intelligent, mechanism-specific treatments for nervous system disorders. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Lessons learnt from RUTF development relevant for MAM management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Collins, Steve; Bahwere, Paluku; Manary; Mark; Ryan, Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    RUTF was developed by changing the formulation of an existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by WHO for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition. The objective was to obtain a solid diet which met specifications for the treatment of SAM but would be safe to store and use at home. For this, about half of the dried skimmed milk used in the F-100 formulation was replaced by peanut butter. The resulting product proved highly effective to promote rapid weight gain both in malnourished children and wasted adults including those infected with HIV, but the high milk content resulted in an expensive product that was difficult to manufacture in developing countries. However, there are uncertainties re. its formulation, as the product is used in outpatient settings, often by children and adults who take other foods in addition to RUTF. Also, the impact of RUTF on micronutrient status after nutritional rehabilitation in home settings has never been assessed. For the last 10 years, attempts have been made to lower the quantity of milk present in the RUTF and to use ingredients that enable local production while supporting the local economy. Results of these attempts will be presented and research gaps highlighted. (author)

  3. Lessons learned from small space systems development using magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matunaga, S.; Sawada, H. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Furuya, H. [Dept. of Built Environment, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Kanagawa (Japan); Kogiso, N. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Osaka Prefecture Univ. (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effectiveness of magnesium alloys through practical space applications in which we have developed a few small-sized space systems and have used magnesium alloys in order to reduce the total mass of the systems. We introduce three examples of our developed systems. The first one is a CanSat whose is a pico-satellite sized of 350 ml can, less than 350 g in mass, and the second one is a small docking mechanism in order to grasp and guide a micro satellite for a small mothership-daughtership satellites formation flying in orbit. The last one is a CubeSat whose is a pico-satellite sized of 10 cm{sup *}10 cm{sup *}10 cm, less than 1 kg in mass and is planned to launch into a Low Earth orbit. Outline description of the systems is given, and design restrictions against magnesium alloys and the mass reduction effect compared with aluminum alloys are discussed. Also, issues of manufacturing, processing and surface treatment for the elaborate magnesium parts are explored. (orig.)

  4. Developing inclusive employment: lessons from Telenor Open Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalef, Laura; Barrera, Magda; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant gains in legal rights for people with disabilities, the employment rate for individuals with disabilities in many countries remains extremely low. Programs to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in the workforce can have an important impact on individuals' economic and social prospects, as well as societal benefits. This article aims to explore Telenor Open Mind, a job training program at Norway's largest telecommunications company with financial support from Norway's Labor and Welfare Organization (NAV), which acts as a springboard for individuals with disabilities into the workplace. A qualitative case study design was utilized to explore the Telenor Open Mind Program. Drawing on field research conducted in Oslo during 2011, this article explores subjective experiences of individuals involved with the program, through interviews and program observations. Telenor Open Mind's two-year program is comprised of a three month training period, in which individuals participate in computer and self-development courses followed by a 21-month paid internship where participants gain hands-on experience. The program has an average 75% rate of employment upon completion and a high rate of participant satisfaction. Participation in the program led to increased self-confidence and social development. The company experienced benefits from greater workplace satisfaction and reductions in sick leave rates. The Telenor Open Mind program has provided benefits for participants, the company, and society as a whole. Participants gain training, work experience, and increased employability. Telenor gains dedicated and trained employees, in addition to reducing sick leave absences among all employees. Finally, society benefits from the Open Mind program as the individuals who gain employment become tax-payers, and no longer need to receive benefits from the government.

  5. Experiences and Lessons Learned in Information Fusion Development Collaboratives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Percivall, G.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of this paper, fusion is defined as the process of combining data and information to improve detection, identification, and characterization of entities. Observations and measurements of the real world can be processed and combined with other related data to create more meaningful units of knowledge and understanding. Measurement, modeling, and other analysis processes can create additional objects which may be useful to integrate. Figure 1 shows a range of types of fusion (sensor or observation fusion, feature or object fusion, and decision fusion), each of which involves combining various forms of knowledge to achieve greater understanding about a domain of interest. By applying key encoding and web service standards, such information can be more readily integrated with data sets from other science and knowledge domains, often resulting in unanticipated discoveries, emergent patterns, and new methodologies. When the source data has to do with physical location on the earth’s surface, it is not just important but essential to consider standards for encoding and exchange of the spatial and temporal coordinates, in order for these values to align properly with spatial and temporal data from other sources. Achieving real synergies in large-scale, collaborative, inter-disciplinary projects is not easy. Institutional barriers, competitive pressures, incompatible formats and other factors can impede the flow and value of information. It is important to anticipate these issues and organize the project to address or even preclude them. The purpose of this paper is to describe the approaches developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium, an international standards organization, to create and evolve a set of seminal standards for encoding, exchanging, and integrating location-based information, whether it is related to the oceans, glaciers, land masses, or atmosphere. It is increasingly urgent to bring together cross-disciplinary data sources, processing

  6. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    for alternative national development policies for infrastructure and water supply that provide resilience against climate variability and climate change. Le développement durable a été proposé comme cadre pour intégrer les politiques sur le développement et le changement climatique dans les pays en développement....... L'intégration du changement climatique aux politiques de développement durable permettrait à ces pays d'accomplir leurs objectifs de développement tout en abordant le changement climatique. Un nombre de programmes de recherche ont étudié la manière de réaliser les synergies potentielles au niveau...... national et les concessions entre les différents aspects du développement durable qui doivent être abordés. Les secteurs de l'énergie et du transport sont couverts dans maintes études, et un certain degré d'attention est aussi porté au secteur de l'infrastructure et de l'approvisionnement en eau. La...

  7. Incorporating palliative care into undergraduate curricula: lessons for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Jane; McCoubrie, Rachel; Maher, Jane; Forbes, Karen

    2009-08-01

    It is well recognised that teaching about palliative care, death and dying should begin at undergraduate level. The General Medical Council in the UK has issued clear recommendations for core teaching on the relieving of pain and distress, and care for the terminally ill. However, whereas some medical schools have incorporated comprehensive teaching programmes, others provide very little. The reasons underpinning such variability are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that help or hinder the incorporation of palliative care teaching at undergraduate level in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of coordinators of palliative care teaching in 14 medical schools in the UK. Transcribed interviews were analysed using principles of grounded theory and respondent validation. There are several factors promoting or inhibiting palliative care teaching at undergraduate level that are common to the development of teaching about any specialty. However, this study also revealed several factors that are distinctive to palliative care. Emergent themes were 'need for an individual lead or champion', 'the curriculum', 'patient characteristics and exposure', 'local colleagues and set-up of service', 'university support' and 'the influence of students'. The incorporation of palliative care into the medical undergraduate curriculum involves a complex process of individual, institutional, clinical, patient and curricular factors. These new findings could help medical schools to incorporate or improve such teaching.

  8. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  9. Lessons learned from the development of health applications in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Guna; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Hye-Won; Kwon, Tae-Wan; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of smart devices for hospital use has been increasing with the development of health applications (apps) for patient point-of-care and hospital management. To promote the use of health apps, we describe the lessons learned from developing 12 health apps in the largest tertiary hospital in Korea. We reviewed and analyzed 12 routinely used apps in three categories-Smart Clinic, Smart Patient, and Smart Hospital-based on target users and functions. The log data for each app were collected from the date of release up until December 2012. Medical personnel accessed a mobile electronic medical record app classified as Smart Clinic an average of 452 times per day. Smart Hospital apps are actively used to communicate with each other. Patients logged on to a mobile personal health record app categorized as Smart Patient an average of 222 times per day. As the mobile trend, the choice of supporting operating system (OS) is more difficult. By developing these apps, a monitoring system is needed for evaluation. We described the lessons learned regarding OS support, device choice, and developmental strategy. The OS can be chosen according to market share or hospital strategic plan. Smartphones were favored compared with tablets. Alliance with an information technology company can be the best way to develop apps. Health apps designed for smart devices can be used to improve healthcare. However, to develop health apps, hospitals must define their future goals and carefully consider all the aspects.

  10. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  11. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  12. Developing public health regulations for marijuana: lessons from alcohol and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Chaloupka, Frank J; Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2014-06-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes-not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century.

  13. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and third trimester stages of the gestational ages. Radiographic observations made in this study revealed that the onset of mineralization was recognizable even at the first trimester stage through the radio-opaque appearances of ...

  14. Relationship Marketing Stage of Development in Romanian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Filip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the relationship marketing stage of development within the banking industry in Romania, by identifying the extent to which business objectives and marketing strategies of companies are customer oriented. In order to achieve this aim a qualitative marketing research was conducted, by applying in-depth semi-structured interviews. The target group of the research consisted of nine banking companies, selected according to the market share, while the research participants were employees responsible for marketing, sales and customer relationship management activities. Due to respondents’ expertise, during the interviews could be applied mixed research methods in the process of data collection and subsequently, in data analysis. According to research objectives and results, although there is an increase in the importance of customer orientation within banking policies, the integration of relationship marketing optics at the institutional management level is facing a number of deficiencies, especially with regard to the concerns about employees’ satisfaction and loyalty or to the development of relationships with other stakeholders. The degree of satisfaction with the adoption of customer relationship management technology is relatively high among banks, being appreciated mainly those banking performance achieved in terms of retention rate, cross-selling and customer satisfaction. Most banks use the gross customer retention index as the main indicator of customer portfolio stability, although retention objectives tend to be set differently depending on customer value. Internal marketing strategies are developed around staff training processes, while performance evaluation criteria are rather specific to a transactional marketing approach. Results of the research provide clues on the relationship marketing processes and activities that need to be improved, in order to strengthen the current customer base and the competitive

  15. Lesson Plans for Beekeeping in the Philippines. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, Diana

    This set of lesson plans, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers in the Philippines, has been designed as a step-by-step guide to teaching beekeeping. Each of the eight lesson plans contained in the manual consists of an objective, time requirements, materials needed, and information about various aspects of beekeeping. Lessons are illustrated…

  16. It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of talk and conceptual understanding in mechanics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincke, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students develop an understanding of the concept of force and how they use and understand the term 'force'. Therefore, we make relation to the research field of students' preconceptions and the field of second language learning. Two classes of students (N = 47) were videotaped during a time period of nine lessons, each transcribed and analysed using a category system. Additional data were obtained via written tasks, logs kept by the students, and tests. The detailed analysis of the talk and the results of the tests indicate that students face difficulties in using the term 'force' scientifically similar to those in a foreign language instruction. Vygotsky already recognised a relationship between learning in science and learning a language. In this paper, important aspects of this relationship are discussed based upon empirical data. We conclude that in some respects it might be useful to make reference to the research related to language learning when thinking about improving science education. In particular, according to Selinker's concept of interlanguage describing language-learning processes within language instruction, the language used by the students during physics lessons can be viewed as a 'scientific interlanguage'.

  17. Development of a hybrid mode linear transformer driver stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Liangji; Tian, Qing; Guo, Fan; Wang, Lingyun; Qing, Yanling; Zhao, Yue; Dai, Yingmin; Han, Wenhui; Chen, Lin; Xie, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    At present, the mainstream technologies of primary power sources of large pulse power devices adopt Marx or linear transformer driver (LTD) designs. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of these two types of circuit topologies, the concept of a hybrid mode LTD stage based on Marx branches is proposed. The analysis shows that the hybrid mode LTD stage can realize the following goals: (a) to reduce the energy and power handled by the basic components (switch and capacitor) to lengthen their lifetime; (b) to reduce the requirements of the multipath synchronous trigger system; and (c) to improve the maintainability of the LTD stage by using independent Marx generators instead of "traditional LTD bricks." To verify the technique, a hybrid mode LTD stage consisting of 50 branches (four-stage compact Marx generators) was designed, manufactured and tested. The stage has a radius of about 3.3 m and a height of 0.6 m. The single Marx circuit's load current is about 21 kA, with a rise time of ˜90 ns (10%-90%), under the conditions of capacitors charged to ±40 kV and a 6.9 Ω matched load. The whole stage's load current is ˜1 MA , with a rise time of ˜112 ns (10%-90%), when the capacitors are charged to ±45 kV and the matched load is 0.14 Ω .

  18. Validating a Measure of Stages of Change in Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Michael, Tony; Luke, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Research on the processes of change in career development has focused on developmental stages rather than processes. This manuscript reports on the development and validation of the stages of change-career development scale, adapted from McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer (1983) measure of stages of change in psychotherapy. Data from 875…

  19. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  20. Going open source: some lessons learned from the development of OpenRecLink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Rochel de Camargo Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Record linkage is the process of identifying and merging records across different databases belonging to the same entity. The health sector is one of the pioneering areas of record linkage techniques applications. In 1998 we began the development of a software package, called RecLink that implemented probabilistic record linkage techniques. In this article we report the development of a new, open-source version of that program, now named OpenRecLink. The aim of this article is to present the main characteristics of the new version and some of the lessons learned during its development. The new version is a total rewrite of the program, based on three goals: (1 to migrate to a free and open source software (FOSS platform; (2 to implement a multiplatform version; (3 to implement the support for internationalization. We describe the tools that we adopted, the process of development and some of the problems encountered.

  1. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  2. Development of a Multiple-Stage Differential Mobility Analyzer (MDMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da-Ren [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A new DMA column has been designed with the capability of simultaneously extracting monodisperse particles of different sizes in multiple stages. We call this design a multistage DMA, or MDMA. A prototype MDMA has been constructed and experimentally evaluated in this study. The new column enables the fast measurement of particles in a wide size range, while preserving the powerful particle classification function of a DMA. The prototype MDMA has three sampling stages, capable of classifying monodisperse particles of three different sizes simultaneously. The scanning voltage operation of a DMA can be applied to this new column. Each stage of MDMA column covers a fraction of the entire particle size range to be measured. The covered size fractions of two adjacent stages of the MDMA are designed somewhat overlapped. The arrangement leads to the reduction of scanning voltage range and thus the cycling time of the measurement. The modular sampling stage design of the MDMA allows the flexible configuration of desired particle classification lengths and variable number of stages in the MDMA. The design of our MDMA also permits operation at high sheath flow, enabling high-resolution particle size measurement and/or reduction of the lower sizing limit. Using the tandem DMA technique, the performance of the MDMA, i.e., sizing accuracy, resolution, and transmission efficiency, was evaluated at different ratios of aerosol and sheath flowrates. Two aerosol sampling schemes were investigated. One was to extract aerosol flows at an evenly partitioned flowrate at each stage, and the other was to extract aerosol at a rate the same as the polydisperse aerosol flowrate at each stage. We detail the prototype design of the MDMA and the evaluation result on the transfer functions of the MDMA at different particle sizes and operational conditions.

  3. The Development of Learning Activities in Pronunciation Practice Class through Lesson Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magfirah Thayyib

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the development of learning activities in pronunciation practice class through lesson study. The number of sample is two passive students (student A and B obtained by using purposive sampling. The instruments of this research are observation sheet and documentation. The data are analyzed quantitatively. The result of this research shows the learning activities development of student A and B has fluctuated. The learning activities of student A has increased from 2.25 to 2.7 in the second cycle, both in fairly active category. It becomes 2.55 in the third cycle and 2.25 in the fourth cycle. While the learning activities of student B has increased from 2.35 with fairly active category to 3.05 with active category in the second cycle. In the third cycle it becomes 2.65 and in the fourth cycle it becomes 2.5. It means lesson study can improve the learning activity of passive students to be fairly active or active.

  4. Rock stress measurements. Preparatory stage of the equipment development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononen, S.; Hakala, M.; Mikkola, P.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the rock stress measurement methods used in Finland have been overcoring and hydraulic fracturing. There have been mainly two companies involved in these measurements, namely Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) and SwedPower AB. Smoy has done measurements for mines and for rock engineering projects, whereas SwedPower AB has mainly been involved in nuclear waste disposal investigations and conducted hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes. Smoy together with its partners started in February 2001 a project named JTM, which was a preliminary stage for a future project, which aims to develop a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finland. The partners in the project were HUT Rock Engineering, Posiva Oy, Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Gridpoint Finland Oy and Geopros Oy. Tekes, the National Technology Agency, provided almost half of the project funding. In the management group of the project were Pekka Mikkola (chairman) and Tero Laurila from Smoy, Pekka Saerkkae and Sakari Mononen (full-time researcher) from HUT, Aimo Hautojaervi (Posiva Oy), Erik Johansson (Saanio and Riekkola Oy), Matti Hakala (Gridpoint Finland Oy) and Heikki Haemaelaeinen (Geopros Oy). The aim of the JTM-project was to find out the needs for the development of a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finnish mines and rock engineering projects. During the project work was done to find out the range of rock stress measurement devices available, to find out the needs for measurements, and to get acquainted to the measurements done in Scandinavia. Also a report of the most suitable methods for Finnish rock conditions was done based on literature and on interviews of rock stress experts. Based on all the information collected during the project a clear picture of the needs for rock stress measurements in Finland could be formed and a preliminary plan of a future project was done. The aim of the suggested project is to build a device based on hydraulic fracturing

  5. Stages of socio-economic development: Shah Wali-Allah's concept of al-irtifaqat

    OpenAIRE

    aislahi, Abdul Azim

    1989-01-01

    The present paper introduces Shah Wali-Allah Dehlawi’s concept of the stages of socio-economic developments (al-irtifaqat). According to him, starting from simple primitive village life to an international community, the socio-economic development of human society can be divided into four stages. The first stage is dominated by simple economic struggle while the last stage is developed to maintain just political order on international level, to safeguard the socio-economic interests of differ...

  6. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  7. Development of a hybrid mode linear transformer driver stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, the mainstream technologies of primary power sources of large pulse power devices adopt Marx or linear transformer driver (LTD designs. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of these two types of circuit topologies, the concept of a hybrid mode LTD stage based on Marx branches is proposed. The analysis shows that the hybrid mode LTD stage can realize the following goals: (a to reduce the energy and power handled by the basic components (switch and capacitor to lengthen their lifetime; (b to reduce the requirements of the multipath synchronous trigger system; and (c to improve the maintainability of the LTD stage by using independent Marx generators instead of “traditional LTD bricks.” To verify the technique, a hybrid mode LTD stage consisting of 50 branches (four-stage compact Marx generators was designed, manufactured and tested. The stage has a radius of about 3.3 m and a height of 0.6 m. The single Marx circuit’s load current is about 21 kA, with a rise time of ∼90  ns (10%–90%, under the conditions of capacitors charged to ±40  kV and a 6.9  Ω matched load. The whole stage’s load current is ∼1  MA, with a rise time of ∼112  ns (10%–90%, when the capacitors are charged to ±45  kV and the matched load is 0.14  Ω.

  8. Exploring Osmosis and Diffusion in Cells: A Guided-Inquiry Activity for Biology Classes, Developed through the Lesson-Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Lauren; Myerowitz, Lindsay; Sampson, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Guided inquiry is an instructional technique that requires students to answer a teacher-proposed research question, design an investigation, collect and analyze data, and then develop a conclusion (Bell, Smetana, and Binns 2005; NRC 2000). In this article, the authors describe a guided-inquiry lesson developed through the lesson-study process…

  9. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  10. Assessment of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development in Two Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmama, Djilali

    1984-01-01

    Forty male and female students, ages 14 and 15, from Algeria and the United Kingdom, were interviewed on two of Kohlberg's moral dilemmas. Results support the prediction that cultural and religious values have an impact on Kohlberg's moral stages. (Author/RM)

  11. Lessons Learned through the Development and Publication of AstroImageJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen

    2018-01-01

    As lead author of the scientific image processing software package AstroImageJ (AIJ), I will discuss the reasoning behind why we decided to release AIJ to the public, and the lessons we learned related to the development, publication, distribution, and support of AIJ. I will also summarize the AIJ code language selection, code documentation and testing approaches, code distribution, update, and support facilities used, and the code citation and licensing decisions. Since AIJ was initially developed as part of my graduate research and was my first scientific open source software publication, many of my experiences and difficulties encountered may parallel those of others new to scientific software publication. Finally, I will discuss the benefits and disadvantages of releasing scientific software that I now recognize after having AIJ in the public domain for more than five years.

  12. ITER tritiated waste management by the Host state and first lessons learned for fusion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, Jérôme, E-mail: jerome.pamela@cea.fr [CEA, Agence ITER-France, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bottereau, Jean-Michel [CEA, Agence ITER-France, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, Daniel [CEA, DEN/DADN, centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Decanis, Christelle; Liger, Karine; Gaune, Frédéric [CEA, DEN, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    This paper summarises the present status of the ITER tritiated waste management strategy under development in France. This paper describes the specific challenges posed by this radioactive waste containing tritium as well as the solutions planned for the various waste categories and the implementation expected for the ITER tritiated waste, including the features of the future interim storage facility called INTERMED. Several options to reduce temporary storage duration as well as to minimise out-gassing rates and tritium discharges into the environment are under study, the related issues and the preliminary results obtained are shown. The first lessons learned for fusion development and their extrapolation to future reactors are outlined based on four parameters: materials, operating temperature, fuel cycle efficiency and tritium removal technologies.

  13. Developing a quality and safety curriculum for fellows: lessons learned from a neonatology fellowship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Munish; Ringer, Steve; Tess, Anjala; Hansen, Anne; Zupancic, John

    2014-01-01

    Formal training in health care quality and safety has become an important component of medical education at all levels, and quality and safety are core concepts within the practice-based learning and system-based practice medical education competencies. Residency and fellowship programs are rapidly attempting to incorporate quality and safety curriculum into their training programs but have encountered numerous challenges and barriers. Many program directors have questioned the feasibility and utility of quality and safety education during this stage of training. In 2010, we adopted a quality and safety educational module in our neonatal fellowship program that sought to provide a robust and practical introduction to quality improvement and patient safety through a combination of didactic and experiential activities. Our module has been successfully integrated into the fellowship program's curriculum and has been beneficial to trainees, faculty, and our clinical services, and our experience suggests that fellowship may be particularly well suited to incorporation of quality and safety training. We describe our module and share tools and lessons learned during our experience; we believe these resources will be useful to other fellowship programs seeking to improve the quality and safety education of their trainees. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the "aerothermodynamic chain," the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing. The period corresponding to the development of X-33 and X-34 aerothermodynamic data bases was challenging, since a number of other such programs (e.g., X-38, X-43) competed for resources at a time of downsizing of personnel, facilities, etc., outsourcing, and role changes as NASA Centers served as subcontractors to industry. The impact of this changing environment is embedded in the lessons learned. From a technical perspective, the relatively long times to design and fabricate metallic force and moment models, delays in delivery of models, and a lack of quality assurance to determine the fidelity of model outer mold lines (OML) prior to wind tunnel testing had a major negative impact on the programs. On the positive side, the application of phosphor thermography to obtain global, quantitative heating distributions on rapidly fabricated ceramic models revolutionized the aerothermodynamic optimization of vehicle OMLs, control surfaces, etc. Vehicle designers were provided with aeroheating information prior to, or in conjunction with, aerodynamic information early in the program, thereby allowing trades to be made with both sets of input; in the past only aerodynamic data were available as input. Programmatically, failure to include transonic aerodynamic wind tunnel tests early in the assessment phase

  15. Lessons Learned from Developing a New Distance-Learning Masters Course in the Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that for the green economy to develop successfully, new educational curricula will be required to help professionals develop appropriate knowledge and skills. Relatively few university courses have been developed to date that explicitly focus on the green economy, reflecting its recent origins. Here we present the lessons learned from developing and implementing a new Masters course in the green economy, at Bournemouth University in the UK. The most significant challenges were institutional barriers, such as different departmental policies and procedures and decentralised budget strategies, which inhibited the cross-departmental collaboration desired for interdisciplinarity. Uncertainty about the future development of the green economy and its value as a concept, among both teaching staff and prospective students, presented a further challenge. In addition, the development of an appropriate curriculum for green economy courses has received little attention previously. Here, we present an overview of the curriculum developed for this Masters-level course, and, based on our experience, we demonstrate how the challenges in developing such a course can successfully be overcome.

  16. Promoting energy-efficient products: GEF experience and lessons for market transformation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, Sabrina; Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has allocated more than $90 million over the past 10 years to eight projects promoting energy-efficient products in developing and transition countries. We review the early experience from these projects and suggest lessons relevant to market transformation programs. Based on GEF project designs, we also propose a menu of generic supply-side and demand-side interventions useful for designing and analyzing market transformation programs. Experience suggests that institutional and policy changes, leading to sustained price reductions and higher market volumes, are important outcomes for market transformation; that market impacts can appear early in programs due to increased expectations and awareness; and that projects can have a catalytic effect. We recommend eight principles for designers of future projects but caution that no single approach guarantees success

  17. Aging and the Arts Online: Lessons Learned From Course Development and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    With the recent move toward competency-based gerontology education, incorporating humanities and arts will be necessary for accreditation. This article describes the pedagogical approaches and lessons learned during 5 years of development and implementation of an asynchronous online course in Aging and the Arts. Fifty graduate and undergraduate students participated in the course over five semesters. Discipline diversity increased subsequent to designation as a fine arts general education course. Students expressed appreciation for multimedia resources, an initial fear of creating a wiki, and online redundancy was reduced through increased community engagement that also augmented application in real-world settings. The visual nature of arts and aging lends itself to a compelling and interactive online course experience that can be adapted to synchronous, hybrid, and face-to-face formats. Opportunities for community engaged learning will increase as art programs for older adults become more prevalent.

  18. Lessons in AIDS vaccine development learned from studies of equine infectious, anemia virus infection and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2013-12-02

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env) proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine.

  19. Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi K. Craigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA, identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine.

  20. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  1. Developing prospective mathematics teachers in Mexico: a lesson on the relationship between integration and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Mexican authorities and universities are actively working to improve mathematics teaching and learning across the education system. Thus, efforts are underway to raise the historically low performance in mathematics, which include theoretically grounded pedagogy and curriculum development to raise mathematical knowledge in teacher education programmes. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, I give an overview of the educational system in Mexico by outlining the evolution of the mathematics curriculum and teacher preparation programmes. Secondly, I describe and discuss, from my own practice, a lesson using dynamic tools for helping prospective teachers to understand the relationship between integration and differentiation within the context of the current literature from Mexico and abroad. While Mexico faces distinct issues within its educational system, challenges in how future mathematics teachers understand mathematical content appear universal. Thus, teaching mathematical content while modelling effective mathematical pedagogical practices is of relevance to all of us striving to enhance the quality of future mathematics teachers.

  2. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  3. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  4. Reflections from the Lesson Study for the Development of Techno-Pedagogical Competencies in Teaching Fractal Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Avni; Baltaci, Serdal

    2017-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a model that explains how teachers use technology more effectively in the context of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Teachers' TPACK competencies play great importance in this regard. Lesson study has also been playing significant roles in the development of teachers'…

  5. Embedding Language Support in Developmental Mathematics Lessons: Exploring the Value of Design as Professional Development for Community College Mathematics Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley; Gomez, Louis M.; Rodela, Katherine C.; Horton, Emily S.; Cunningham, Jahneille; Ambrocio, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Three community college faculty members used improvement science techniques to design, develop, and refine contextualized developmental mathematics lessons, where language and literacy pedagogy and related supports figured prominently in these instructional materials. This article reports on the role that their design experiences played in…

  6. DEVELOPING ENGLISH LESSON PLANS FOR THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA 18 MAKASSAR BASED ON THE 2013 CURRICULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuwairiah Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed English lesson plans based on 2013 curriculum for the first year students of SMAN 18 Makassar. The research objectivewas to develop English lesson plans based on the 2013 curriculum. It was conducted at the first year students of SMAN 18 Makassar. The research product made the students more active in the teaching learning process. Then,the producthelped teachers to make or design good lesson plans based on the 2013 curriculum. The research design was Research & Development (R&D. It applied Borg & Gall model. The procedures were researching, collecting information, planning,preliminary form of product, main product revision, final product revision, dissemination, and implementation. The research data were qualitative and quantitative data. The research instruments were expert validation and teacher feedback sheet. The research findings showed that the product was valid to be implemented in the classroom. It can be seen from the scores given by the experts and teachers. The validation score of the product was 80%indicatingvery well. Then, the score from the teacher’s feedback was 95%. Therefore, the researcher concluded that English lesson plans based on 2013 curriculum developed by the researcher was very good with the score on 80%-95%.

  7. Staged development economics and key development factors: Is deep water commercially viable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, C.D.; Wheeler, S.A.; Ruthrauff, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    If development of the deepwater Gulf is to proceed, operators must be convinced that technically and commercially viable development options exist. These solutions must be tailored to address the size of the reserve accumulations lying in the relatively deepwaters (3000-6000 feet) that are typical of the Gulf of Mexico. They must minimize operator's capital risk and maximize his ability to avoid large capital commitments prior to verification of acceptable reservoir performance. The intent of this paper is to discuss methods and parameters that will facilitate deepwater development using staged subsea solutions

  8. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  9. Development of the National Health Information Systems in Botswana: Pitfalls, prospects and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin D C; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluating development of health information systems in developing countries are limited. Most of the available studies are based on pilot projects or cross-sectional studies. We took a longitudinal approach to analysing the development of Botswana's health information systems. We aimed to: (i) trace the development of the national health information systems in Botswana (ii) identify pitfalls during development and prospects that could be maximized to strengthen the system; and (iii) draw lessons for Botswana and other countries working on establishing or improving their health information systems. This article is based on data collected through document analysis and key informant interviews with policy makers, senior managers and staff of the Ministry of Health and senior officers from various stakeholder organizations. Lack of central coordination, weak leadership, weak policy and regulatory frameworks, and inadequate resources limited development of the national health information systems in Botswana. Lack of attention to issues of organizational structure is one of the major pitfalls. The ongoing reorganization of the Ministry of Health provides opportunity to reposition the health information system function. The current efforts including development of the health information management policy and plan could enhance the health information management system.

  10. Targeting Hypertension with Valsartan: Lessons Learned from the Valsartan/HCTZ Versus Amlodipine in Stage II Hypertensive Patients (VAST Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Ruilope

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with hypertension, especially those at increased risk because of additional cardiovascular risk factors, require treatment with more than one antihypertensive agent to achieve target blood pressure (BP goals. Many different classes of antihypertensive agents are available: a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blocker and a diuretic are widely used in combination.Here we report the results of the recently completed Valsartan/HCTZ versus Amlodipine in STage II hypertensive patients (VAST trial. In this 24-week study, patients with moderate hypertension and at least one other cardiovascular risk factor were treated with a combination of valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 12.5 or 25 mg once daily (o.d., or with amlodipine monotherapy (10 mg o.d.. Overall, valsartan plus HCTZ 25 mg reduced systolic BP significantly more than amlodipine monotherapy, and with fewer adverse events. In addition, combination therapy resulted in a trend towards more favourable outcomes with respect to pro-thrombotic and proinflammatory markers than amlodipine alone.

  11. Targeting Hypertension with Valsartan: Lessons Learned from the Valsartan/HCTZ Versus Amlodipine in Stage II Hypertensive Patients (VAST Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Ruilope

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with hypertension, especially those at increased risk because of additional cardiovascular risk factors, require treatment with more than one antihypertensive agent to achieve target blood pressure (BP goals. Many different classes of antihypertensive agents are available: a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blocker and a diuretic are widely used in combination. Here we report the results of the recently completed Valsartan/HCTZ versus Amlodipine in STage II hypertensive patients (VAST trial. In this 24-week study, patients with moderate hypertension and at least one other cardiovascular risk factor were treated with a combination of valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 12.5 or 25 mg once daily (o.d., or with amlodipine monotherapy (10 mg o.d.. Overall, valsartan plus HCTZ 25 mg reduced systolic BP significantly more than amlodipine monotherapy, and with fewer adverse events. In addition, combination therapy resulted in a trend towards more favourable outcomes with respect to pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory markers than amlodipine alone.

  12. Managing customer knowledge during the concept development stage of the new food product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Bogue, Joe; Sorenson, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    New product development (NPD) is a knowledge intensive process where the generation of new ideas and concepts requires detailed knowledge of both products and customers. The high reported failure rates for innovative functional beverages suggest an inability to manage customer knowledge effectively, as well as a lack of knowledge management between functional disciplines involved in the NPD process. This research explored the concept of managing customer knowledge at the early stages of the N...

  13. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  14. Developing Student Autonomy in the One-to-One Music Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    As a practitioner in both the classroom and in the instrumental studio, I am interested in how one educational context might inform the other. Within an action research paradigm, I gave a violin lesson in front of colleagues as a means to gain feedback and to open up discussion on the concept of student autonomy within the one-to-one lesson. The…

  15. Lesson play in mathematics education a tool for research and professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This book applies years of experience in the use of lesson play to a variety of situations involving mathematics thinking and learning. Covers lesson play in pre-service teacher education, and discusses its potential for both researchers and teacher educators.

  16. How lessons learnt informed the development of an implementation framework in an ICT4D initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available the buy-in of key stakeholders and has demonstrable impact on education and quality of life in the region. After every phase the framework was adapted to accommodate the lessons learnt. The most important lesson was that it was not about the technology...

  17. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, IV, E. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doehle, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hampton, S. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); La Mothe, R. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nordquist, P. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zarzhitsky, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  18. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  19. Development and experimental validation of a thermoelectric test bench for laboratory lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration process reduces the temperature of a space or a given volume while the power generation process employs a source of thermal energy to generate electrical power. Because of the importance of these two processes, training of engineers in this area is of great interest. In engineering courses it is normally studied the vapor compression and absorption refrigeration, and power generation systems such as gas turbine and steam turbine. Another type of cooling and generation less studied within the engineering curriculum, having a great interest, it is cooling and thermal generation based on Peltier and Seebeck effects. The theoretical concepts are useful, but students have difficulties understanding the physical meaning of their possible applications. Providing students with tools to test and apply the theory in real applications, will lead to a better understanding of the subject. Engineers must have strong theoretical, computational and also experimental skills. A prototype test bench has been built and experimentally validated to perform practical lessons of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration. Using this prototype students learn the most effective way of cooling systems and thermal power generation as well as basic concepts associated with thermoelectricity. It has been proven that students learn the process of data acquisition, and the technology used in thermoelectric devices. These practical lessons are implemented for a 60 people group of students in the development of subject of Thermodynamic including in the Degree in Engineering in Industrial Technologies of Public University of Navarra. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Energy access: Lessons learned in Brazil and perspectives for replication in other developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Suani T.; Goldemberg, José

    2013-01-01

    Energy access has been singled out by the AGECC in 2010 as one of the important problems to be tackled in the next few decades in a world where 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.7 use primitive fuels – mainly fuel wood – for cooking and heating. To solve such problems, innumerous small scale projects have been implemented around the world either on the improvement of cooking stoves, biogas and others, as well as in generating electricity in decentralized systems. We discuss here the “large scale approach” to solve these problems in Brazil through the introduction of LPG (liquid petroleum gas) in Brazil 70 years ago, all over the country, as a cooking fuel that replaced significantly the use of fuel wood in rural areas. In addition to that, we describe the governmental program (Luz para Todos – LPT – Light for all) introduced more recently to extend the electricity grid to around 10 million people, reducing considerably the number of people without access to electricity in the rural areas of the country. Such experiences and the corresponding lessons learned could be replicated in other developing countries, contributing significantly to poverty alleviation. - Highlights: • Energy access is one important problem for 1.3 billion people not having access to electricity and 2.7 billion using primitive fuels for cooking-heating. • We discuss the approach introduced in Brazil through the introduction of LPG as a cooking fuel that replaced significantly the use of fuel wood in rural areas. • We describe the program introduced to supply electricity, reducing the number of people without access to electricity in rural areas. • Lessons learned could be replicated in other DCs, contributing to poverty alleviation

  1. Development of a Base Frame for the New Fire PSA Training, and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, DaeIl; Kim, Wee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and thus KAERI-KINS jointly prepared a base model for the new fire PSA training last year. In this year, as a base frame development, fire ignition frequencies and severity factors, which were assumed in developing of the base model, are calculated. The fire modeling is performed to get the severity factor. This paper describes how the base frame is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base frame of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed, and with which two days training course was provided twice for the plant engineers and regulators. Several lessons learned from the training are described. The two methods in quantification, i.e., CCDP method and initiator method are described

  2. Model Development for Atomic Force Microscope Stage Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Ralph C; Hatch, Andrew G; De, Tathagata; Salapaka, Murti V; Raye, Julie K; del Rosario, Ricardo C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop nonlinear constitutive equations and resulting system models quantifying the nonlinear and hysteretic field-displacement relations inherent to lead zirconate titanate (PZT...

  3. An overview of the development principles, stages and building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expert Systems are not suited for all types of problems. Many developers actively seek problems pliable to Expert System solution or tried to solve all problems encountered using Expert System. Experience has also shown that developers' attention has become more focused on the problems to be solved rather than on the ...

  4. Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development : Observations and Lessons from International Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, N.; Dawes, S.; Dzhusupova, Z.; Klievink, A.J.; Mkude, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a starting point for better understanding how different approaches, tools, and technologies can support effective stakeholder participation in policy development. Participatory policy making involves stakeholders in various stages of the policy process and can focus on both the

  5. Selling and Implementing Leadership Development: Chapter, Verse, and Lessons Learned from Carlson's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevette, Rick D.; Cohen, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a case study template for creating and "selling" an enterprise-wide leadership development initiative in a highly decentralized organization. Using a story-telling approach, the authors delineate the five separate but highly interdependent stages used to achieve this. Sandwiched between a prologue and epilogue are five…

  6. Sustainable urban development of metropolitan Johannesburg: The lessons learned from international practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of an overview of programmes supporting sustainable planning and management in the City of Johannesburg one of the most important social and economic hubs of the transitional Republic of South Africa. Following from this is an analysis of the experience identified as most appropriate for Johannesburg City and its metropolitan region (Gauteng. This case study is used to highlight efforts and lessons learned from the international project "Designing, Implementing and Measuring Sustainable Urban Development" (DIMSUD which have intended to contribute to new solutions for sustainable urban development through a collaborative multi-disciplinary, and participatory approach combining research, urban design, and capacity building. DIMSUD (http://sustainability.ethz.ch is carried out jointly by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden, University of Botswana, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa and the Catholic University of Santiago de Chile. Another partner was the United Nations University (UNU at Tokyo. The project has enabled a global overview of core problems, providing a synthesis of realizable strategies and offering both a scientific forum and an "urban field laboratory" for joint learning. The strategies developed will not only help improve the conditions in the case study cities (Gaborone Johannesburg, Santiago de Chile, but will also provide working examples so that other cities can learn from and adapt and adopt appropriate "best practices".

  7. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah; Akram Khalili; Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi

    2015-01-01

    The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD) housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim...

  8. Computer-assisted learning lessons in drug disposition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, L; Foster, R W; Hollingsworth, M; Morgan, C H; Smith, A

    1988-09-01

    A suite of 18 computer-assisted learning (C.A.L.) lessons has been developed in drug disposition covering processes, concepts and techniques, and pharmacokinetics. Development of lesions and implementation (using CDC's PLATO Programmerless Courseware Development authoring language (Advanced Tutorial Model) for delivery on IBM-PC clones (some also using NPL's Microtext on BBC model B microcomputers) and evaluation by questionnaire proceeded in stages. Staff assessed the authoring system and library lessons for their potential usefulness. Students assessed the importance to their own learning of the features that good quality C.A.L. lessons should display. Finally, our lessons were assessed by students for the presence of these features, comparison with other forms of presentation, their teaching performance, and integration into the curriculum. The use of a programmerless authoring language allowed the authors to concentrate on lesson subject content. The students appreciated the ability to go at their own pace and that their active involvement was required. Lessons scored well in relation to private reading and lectures but less well in comparison with practical work and tutorials. Appropriate integration of C.A.L. into the curriculum was found to be important. Evaluation by questionnaire at each stage of development was valuable.

  9. The role of competence assessment in the different stages of competence development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.; Tattersall, C.; Miao, Y.; Stefanov, K.; Aleksieva-Petrova, A.; Adelsberger, H.H.; Kinshuk,; Pawlowski, J.M.; Sampson, D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of e-assessment in the process of competence development. Its basic claim is that competence development is a process with distinct stages, and that the assessment forms and the roles taken on by those involved in the process depend on the stage in which learning

  10. Director's Corner: Professional Development Workshop Helps Early Stage Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Professional Development and Mock Review Workshop is a seminal event organized each year for CURE scholars and trainees. The event includes informative presentations, interactive discussions, a mock review, and poster session.

  11. Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) Integral Structure Development Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, Jim; Hamilton, Brent; Burton, Randy; Crockett, Dave; Taylor, Zach

    2004-01-01

    .... AFRL/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped...

  12. Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) Integral Structure Development Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, Jim; Hamilton, Brent; Burton, Randy; Crockett, Dave; Taylor, Zach

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicle Directorate (AFRL/VS) has established a customer focused Composite tankage development program that is targeted to existing and future aerospace applications...

  13. A proposed model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2017-09-01

    Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cost planning in the stage of product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total product life cycle cost can be planned based on one of the methods of global cost estimation. Also, total product life cycle cost can be planned based on cost plans and estimates by phases of the product life cycle, such as the phases of development, production, use and termination of the life cycle. By identifying the specific activities related to the relevant phases of life cycle as corresponding cost drivers, it is possible to accurately determine the total cost of individual phases using suitable methods known in the literature. This paper presents planning possibility respectively cost assessment of product development phase.

  15. Classical and post-classical stages of development of ideas on global conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Pilipenko

    2016-06-01

    Thus, in the history of the development of ideas about the nature of the conflict, it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is a classic, it representatives of which are O. Conte, K. Marx, G. Zimmel. The second stage is post-classical, represented by such scholars as P. Sztompka, G. lutsishin, N. Luhmann, M. Zelenkov, V. Zavalniuk. The third stage is multi-paradigmal, not formed yet, but actively developed by modern sociologists as I. Bekeshkina, Ye. Golovakha, A. Ruchka and other.

  16. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Norris; Sandra Dunsmuir; Oliver Duke-Williams; Emmanuel Stamatakis

    2015-01-01

    Background Children spend a large amount of their time in obligatory seated school lessons, with notable effects on health and cognitive outcomes. A common issue reported by teachers is a lack of time to incorporate physical activity into the school day alongside academic pressures. As such, emerging research is attempting to convert educational time from sedentary to active via physically active lessons. However this existing research does not utilise Behaviour Change concepts, making co...

  17. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  18. Fostering Learning in Large Programmes and Portfolios: Emerging Lessons from Climate Change and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blane Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In fields like climate and development, where the challenges being addressed can be described as “wicked”, learning is key to successful programming. Useful practical and theoretical work is being undertaken to better understand the role of reflexive learning in bringing together different knowledge to address complex problems like climate change. Through a review of practical cases and learning theories commonly used in the areas of resilience, climate change adaptation and environmental management, this article: (i reviews the theories that have shaped approaches to reflexive learning in large, highly-distributed climate change and resilience-building programmes for development; and (ii conducts a comparative learning review of key challenges and lessons emerging from early efforts to promote and integrate reflexive learning processes in programmes of this nature. Using a case study approach, the authors focus on early efforts made in four large, inter-related (or nested programmes to establish, integrate and sustain learning processes and systems. Eight themes emerged from the review and are considered from the perspective of learning programmes as emergent communities of practice. By investigating how these themes play out in the nested programming, the paper contributes to the limited existing body of evidence on learning in large climate change programmes and identifies areas where future efforts might focus.

  19. Developing novel drugs for systemic lupus erythematosus. Lessons learned from the belimumab trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pamfil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is the prototypic autoimmune disease with a broad range of clinical manifestations and a complex pathogenesis. B-cells hold a central role in its pathogenesis, not only as autoantibody producing cells, but also by producing other inflammatory mediators and by presenting autoantigens to autoreactive T cells. BlyS, a soluble ligand of the TNF cytokine family, is a key factor affecting B-cell homeostasis and survival and its blockade ameliorated the disease in animal models and preclinical studies of SLE. Following an unsuccessful phase II trial of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting BlyS, two large phase III studies in patients with mild-to-moderate disease, BLISS-52 and BLISS-76, met their primary endpoints showing better efficacy of the drug over standard of care alone. To this end, development of a novel more sensitive responder index and improvements in study designs were crucial. As a result, belimumab became the first drug to get approval for the treatment of SLE after more than 50 years. In this paper we discuss the rationale, development, indications, lessons learned, pitfalls and challenges for this novel therapy and point-out to additional issues that need to be addressed in the future.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v3i3.206

  20. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    This tendency however increased with increase in gestational age of the ... understanding the radiographical anatomy of the developing calvaria in this animal species. Keywords:Calvaria, Camel, prenatal, radiography. Introduction. Camel is an important ... need to establish morphologic and radiographic data of the fetal ...

  1. Curriculum Planning and Development in Mathematics from the Formative Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festus, Azuka Benard; Kurumeh, Mary Seraphina

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum of a school consists of all the experiences that a learner encounters under the direction of the school. The curriculum of any educational system is planned and developed according to the needs of the society. Just as the society is dynamic, the curriculum is also dynamic. Hence, curriculum is usually changed from time to time. This…

  2. A novel genetic technique in Plasmodium berghei allows liver stage analysis of genes required for mosquito stage development and demonstrates that de novo heme synthesis is essential for liver stage development in the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeksha L Rathnapala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes. The lethality of FC deletions in the mosquito stage makes it difficult to study the impact of these mutations in the subsequent liver stage. To overcome this, we combined locus-specific fluorophore expression with a genetic complementation approach to generate viable, heterozygous oocysts able to produce a mix of FC expressing and FC deficient sporozoites. These sporozoites show normal motility and can invade liver cells, where FC deficient parasites can be distinguished by fluorescence and phenotyped. Parasites lacking FC exhibit a severe growth defect within liver cells, with development failure detectable in the early to mid stages of liver development in vitro. FC deficient parasites could not complete liver stage development in vitro nor infect naïve mice, confirming liver stage arrest. These results validate the heme pathway as a potential target for prophylactic drugs targeting liver stage parasites. In addition, we demonstrate that our simple genetic approach can extend the phenotyping window beyond the insect stages, opening considerable scope for straightforward reverse genetic analysis of genes that are dispensable in blood stages but essential for completing mosquito development.

  3. A novel genetic technique in Plasmodium berghei allows liver stage analysis of genes required for mosquito stage development and demonstrates that de novo heme synthesis is essential for liver stage development in the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnapala, Upeksha L; Goodman, Christopher D; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2017-06-01

    The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes. The lethality of FC deletions in the mosquito stage makes it difficult to study the impact of these mutations in the subsequent liver stage. To overcome this, we combined locus-specific fluorophore expression with a genetic complementation approach to generate viable, heterozygous oocysts able to produce a mix of FC expressing and FC deficient sporozoites. These sporozoites show normal motility and can invade liver cells, where FC deficient parasites can be distinguished by fluorescence and phenotyped. Parasites lacking FC exhibit a severe growth defect within liver cells, with development failure detectable in the early to mid stages of liver development in vitro. FC deficient parasites could not complete liver stage development in vitro nor infect naïve mice, confirming liver stage arrest. These results validate the heme pathway as a potential target for prophylactic drugs targeting liver stage parasites. In addition, we demonstrate that our simple genetic approach can extend the phenotyping window beyond the insect stages, opening considerable scope for straightforward reverse genetic analysis of genes that are dispensable in blood stages but essential for completing mosquito development.

  4. On the Evolution of a Lesson: Group Preparation for Teaching Contest as Teacher Professional Development Activity for Chinese Elementary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaowei; Shao, Faxian

    2014-04-01

    Group preparation for teaching contest, or lesson polishing, is a teacher professional development activity unique to China. Through participant observation and discourse analysis of a typical case, this study explores how a science lesson evolved through lesson-polishing process and how such process influenced individual learning and the development of local teaching community. Our work illustrates both the values and the issues of lesson polishing as a type of teacher professional development activity. On one hand, combining professional interactions and trial lessons, lesson-polishing activity opens up space for critical yet cooperative professional interactions and tryouts of different designs and teaching strategies, providing opportunities for individual learning and development of practical rationalities within local community. On the other hand, the functions of such activities are greatly limited by the tendency of refining every detail in lesson design, the existence of overriding dispositions and authorities with overriding power, as well as the focus on practical suggestions that can be directly implemented. Suggestions for improvement are made in the final discussion.

  5. The recovery process utilizing Erikson's stages of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Scibilia, Suzanne E; McNulty, Kathryn Cohan; Baxter, Beth; Miller, Steve; Dine, Max; Frese, Frederick J

    2009-12-01

    Of current interest to the field are clinical frameworks that foster recovery. The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson's theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps. Understanding recovery in this context allows the client and the practitioner of psychiatric rehabilitation to design and implement a coherent treatment strategy.

  6. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  7. Quantitative Profiling Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Development from Dauer Stage to L4 Stage in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunhee; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Don-Ha; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-02-05

    When Caenorhabditis elegans encounters unfavorable growth conditions, it enters the dauer stage, an alternative L3 developmental period. A dauer larva resumes larval development to the normal L4 stage by uncharacterized postdauer reprogramming (PDR) when growth conditions become more favorable. During this transition period, certain heterochronic genes involved in controlling the proper sequence of developmental events are known to act, with their mutations suppressing the Muv (multivulva) phenotype in C. elegans. To identify the specific proteins in which the Muv phenotype is highly suppressed, quantitative proteomic analysis with iTRAQ labeling of samples obtained from worms at L1 + 30 h (for continuous development [CD]) and dauer recovery +3 h (for postdauer development [PD]) was carried out to detect changes in protein abundance in the CD and PD states of both N2 and lin-28(n719). Of the 1661 unique proteins identified with a proteomic approach identifies and quantitates the regulatory proteins potentially involved in PDR in C. elegans, which safeguards the overall lifecycle in response to environmental changes.

  8. Using qualitative methods to develop a contextually tailored instrument: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Kim, Minjin; Semino-Asaro, Semira; Colten, Mary Ellen; Tang, Shirley S; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-01-01

    To develop a population-specific instrument to inform hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention education and intervention based on data and evidence obtained from the targeted population of Khmer mothers reflecting their socio-cultural and health behaviors. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) guided the development of a standardized survey interview. Four stages of development and testing of the survey instrument took place in order to inform the quantitative health survey used to collect data in stage five of the project. This article reports only on Stages 1-4. This process created a new quantitative measure of HBV and HPV prevention behavior based on the revised Network Episode Model and informed by the targeted population. The CBPR method facilitated the application and translation of abstract theoretical ideas of HBV and HPV prevention behavior into culturally-relevant words and expressions of Cambodian Americans (CAs). The design of an instrument development process that accounts for distinctive socio-cultural backgrounds of CA refugee/immigrant women provides a model for use in developing future health surveys that are intended to aid minority-serving health care professionals and researchers as well as targeted minority populations.

  9. New, but slow – technical newness challenges late stage development speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    such as technical innovativeness may be a critical factor when going through the crucial late stages of development. We have limited knowledge of the relation between product newness and the speed of NPD, and how this may be related to firm size and partnering strategies during development. Combining product traits...... with firm resources relevant to late stage development speed can enrich our understanding of time-tomarket in the aim of improving this crucial measure of NPD. The research model is tested on a dataset of all new drug developments approved for the US market 2000-2010. The results show that newness...... of a product, small size of a development company and partnering for external resources all increases the speed of late stage development speed. The results show that technical innovativeness of products in late stage development has the consequence of extending this important process of NPD. Also, partnering...

  10. Lessons from a Train-the-Trainer Professional Development Program: The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Gladney, Alicia; Dalton, Heather; LaConte, Keliann; Truxillo, Jeannette; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP) is a modified train-the-trainer professional development program being conducted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). STEP has provided two cohorts of 6-8th grade science specialists and lead teachers in the Houston region with in-depth Earth and Space Science (ESS) content, activities, and pedagogy over 15 days each, aligned with Texas science standards. This project has two over-arching goals: to improve middle school ESS instruction, and to create and test an innovative model for Train-the-Trainer.This poster will share details regarding STEP’s activities and resources, program achievements, and its main findings to date. STEP is being evaluated by external evaluators at the Research Institute of Texas, part of the Harris County Department of Education. External evaluation shows an increase after one year in STEP participants’ knowledge (cohort 1 showed a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), confidence in teaching Earth and Space Science effectively (cohort 1 demonstrated a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), and confidence in preparing other teachers (cohort 1 demonstrated a 12% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase). By September 2015, STEP participants led (or assisted in leading) approximately 40 workshops for about 1800 science teachers in Texas. Surveys of teachers attending professional development conducted by STEP participants show very positive responses, with averages for conference workshop evaluations ranging from 3.6 on a 4 point scale, and other evaluations averaging from 4.1 to 5.0 on a 5 point scale.Main lessons for the team on the train-the-trainer model include: a lack of confidence by leaders in K-12 science education in presenting ESS professional development, difficulties in arranging for school or district content-specific professional development, the minimal duration of most school and district professional development sessions, and uncertainties in

  11. Renewable Energy Services For Developing Countries - In support of the millennium development goals: recommended practice and key lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Almost 1.6 billion people currently live without electricity in developing countries. These people live in either remote rural areas that have no connection to electrical power grids, or urban areas with inadequate utility systems. The demand for energy in these countries is expected to grow with increases in population and living standards. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that developing countries will need to double their electrical power output by 2020. Despite the growth in energy consumption, the number of people disadvantaged by a lack of modern energy services has remained relatively unchanged. The focus of the international donor community is clearly aimed at poverty alleviation in general, and specifically at achieving the targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Renewable energy technologies have a tremendous potential in providing energy services to developing countries and in helping achieve the MDGs. This document highlights how meeting the MDGs can be facilitated through a sustainable energy supply, and provides case studies from around the world to demonstrate that these technologies are applicable in real-life situations. Based on these cumulative experiences and in order for energy services to be delivered effectively, key lessons and recommendations are put forward with regard to policy, finance and implementation. (author)

  12. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  13. Lessons learned - development of the tritium facilities 5480.23 safety analysis report and technical safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.; Bowman, M.E.; Goff, L.

    1997-01-01

    A review was performed which identified open-quotes Lessons Learnedclose quotes from the development of the 5480.23 Tritium Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Tritium Facilities (TF). The open-quotes Lessons Learnedclose quotes were based on an evaluation of the use of the SRS procedures, processes, and work practices which contributed to the success or lack thereof. This review also identified recommendations and suggestions for improving the development of SARs and TSRs at SRS. The 5480.23 SAR describes the site for the TF, the various process systems in the process buildings, a complete hazards and accident analysis of the most significant hazards affecting the nearby offsite population, and the selection of safety systems, structures, and components to protect both the public and site workers. It also provides descriptions of important programs and processes which add defense in depth to public and worker protection

  14. Bioethics as a stage in development of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ketova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers humanistic substance of bioethics - a discipline which originated in 1960's. Bioethics has an interdisciplinary character and presents itself as a reflection on problematic situations, which can appear as a result of biomedical progress. Bioethics in a wider sense can be viewed as ethics of life, which highlights its ecological substance. This article analyses the problem of consequences of radical human transformation and also the article shows significance of leading principle of «personal autonomy of the patient». In the article functions and goals of ethical committees, existing in various countries, are highlighted. In conclusion, the article highlights specifics of bioethics as a syncretic discipline, which assists development of humanism and responds to modern civilization's challenges.

  15. Lessons Learned From Developing Three Generations of Remote Sensing Science Data Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt; Fleig, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The Biospheric Information Systems Branch at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has developed three generations of Science Investigator-led Processing Systems for use with various remote sensing instruments. The first system is used for data from the MODIS instruments flown on NASA s Earth Observing Systems @OS) Terra and Aqua Spacecraft launched in 1999 and 2002 respectively. The second generation is for the Ozone Measuring Instrument flying on the EOS Aura spacecraft launched in 2004. We are now developing a third generation of the system for evaluation science data processing for the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) to be flown by the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2006. The initial system was based on large scale proprietary hardware, operating and database systems. The current OMI system and the OMPS system being developed are based on commodity hardware, the LINUX Operating System and on PostgreSQL, an Open Source RDBMS. The new system distributes its data archive across multiple server hosts and processes jobs on multiple processor boxes. We have created several instances of this system, including one for operational processing, one for testing and reprocessing and one for applications development and scientific analysis. Prior to receiving the first data from OMI we applied the system to reprocessing information from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments flown from 1978 until now. The system was able to process 25 years (108,000 orbits) of data and produce 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and level 3 products in less than a week. We will describe the lessons we have learned and tradeoffs between system design, hardware, operating systems, operational staffing, user support and operational procedures. During each generational phase, the system has become more generic and reusable. While the system is not currently shrink wrapped we believe it is to the point where it could be readily

  16. Developing a pediatric palliative care service in a large urban hospital: challenges, lessons, and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlynn, Emily S; Derrington, Sabrina; Morgan, Helene; Murray, Jennifer; Ornelas, Beatriz; Cucchiaro, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    We report the process of creating a new palliative care service at a large, urban children's hospital. Our aim was to provide a detailed guide to developing an inpatient consultation service, along with reporting on the challenges, lessons, and evaluation. We examined the hiring process of personnel and marketing strategies, a clinical database facilitated ongoing quality review and identified trends, and a survey project assessed provider satisfaction and how referring physicians used the palliative care service. The pilot phase of service delivery laid the groundwork for a more effective service by creating documentation templates and identifying relevant data to track growth and outcomes. It also allowed time to establish a clear delineation of team members and distinction of roles. The survey of referring physicians proved a useful evaluation starting point, but conclusions could not be generalized because of the low response rate. It may be necessary to reconsider the survey technique and to expand the sample to include patients and families. Future research is needed to measure the financial benefits of a well-staffed inpatient pediatric palliative care service.

  17. Soil problems in China and its lessons for other developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Widjajanto, D. W.; Zheng, Y.

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid growth of economy in China for more than 35 years since 1980, the soils in China experienced severe chances featured in high input of chemical fertilizers indeed of organic fertilizers to pursue high yield for the ever-growing population and the increase of life style and in high input of a large amount of metals especially cadmium from manure and atmospheric deposition. The shift of fertilizer application pattern and the high-yield output greatly change the soil quality, of which soil acidification is one of the main problems. Soil acidification and high cadmium input not only caused pollution on the soil but also contaminated the food. Cadmium with high percentage based on the strict soil quality standard (cadmium 0.3 mg/kg for soil, 0.2 mg/kg for rice grain). This paper will elucidate the soil pollution process in China during this 35 years and evaluate the soil and food problem properly and it may give a lesson for other developing countries when they are pave the way of modernization.

  18. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Perry, Jay L.; Howard, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project have been developing atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring subsystem architectures suitable for enabling sustained crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Using the International Space Station state-of-the-art (SOA) as the technical basis, the ARREM Project has contributed to technical advances that improve affordability, reliability, and functional efficiency while reducing dependence on a ground-based logistics resupply model. Functional demonstrations have merged new process technologies and concepts with existing ISS developmental hardware and operate them in a controlled environment simulating various crew metabolic loads. The ARREM Project's strengths include access to a full complement of existing developmental hardware that perform all the core atmosphere revitalization functions, unique testing facilities to evaluate subsystem performance, and a coordinated partnering effort among six NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed. A project overview is provided and the project management strategies that have enabled a multidiscipinary engineering team to work efficiently across project, NASA field center, and industry boundaries to achieve the project's technical goals are discussed. Lessons learned and best practices relating to the project are presented and discussed.

  19. Clinical software development for the Web: lessons learned from the BOADICEA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Alex P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 20 years, society has witnessed the following landmark scientific advances: (i the sequencing of the human genome, (ii the distribution of software by the open source movement, and (iii the invention of the World Wide Web. Together, these advances have provided a new impetus for clinical software development: developers now translate the products of human genomic research into clinical software tools; they use open-source programs to build them; and they use the Web to deliver them. Whilst this open-source component-based approach has undoubtedly made clinical software development easier, clinical software projects are still hampered by problems that traditionally accompany the software process. This study describes the development of the BOADICEA Web Application, a computer program used by clinical geneticists to assess risks to patients with a family history of breast and ovarian cancer. The key challenge of the BOADICEA Web Application project was to deliver a program that was safe, secure and easy for healthcare professionals to use. We focus on the software process, problems faced, and lessons learned. Our key objectives are: (i to highlight key clinical software development issues; (ii to demonstrate how software engineering tools and techniques can facilitate clinical software development for the benefit of individuals who lack software engineering expertise; and (iii to provide a clinical software development case report that can be used as a basis for discussion at the start of future projects. Results We developed the BOADICEA Web Application using an evolutionary software process. Our approach to Web implementation was conservative and we used conventional software engineering tools and techniques. The principal software development activities were: requirements, design, implementation, testing, documentation and maintenance. The BOADICEA Web Application has now been widely adopted by clinical

  20. USE OF COMPUTER MEANS OF TEACHING THE LESSONS OF GEOMETRY WITH A VIEW TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GEOMETRIC SKILLS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. A. Ustadjalilova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the methods of application of learning software. Conduct research shows that using a computer on a geometry lesson develops skills of students, making the learning process more effective.

  1. IMPROVING LECTURERS’ PAEDAGOGIC COMPETENCE THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LESSON STUDY IN FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF PAKUAN UNIVERSITY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Sarimanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at improving the lecturers of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Pakuan University paedagogic competence through the implementation of lesson study which covers learning management competence including developing chapter design and lesson design, media making, teaching and learning, evaluation, post evaluation follow-up and learning supervision. This research involves four study program. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. The data are collected through documentation, observation, interview and questionnaire. The data are analyzed descriptively to investigate the improvement of the lecturers’ paedagogic competence in teaching through the implementation of lesson study. Lesson study has been implemented for two years in Indonesian and Literature Education Study Program, English Education Study Program, Biology Education Study Program, and Primary Education Study Program. The findings show that there is an improvement of the lecturers paedagogic competence in developing chapter design and lesson design, developing material and designing media for learning (plan stage; running the lesson (do stage; and observing the lesson as well as evaluating and reflecting it (see stage. Besides, it is found the lecturers develop learning innovation to create students’ active learning. The colleagality among the lecturers is also develop well through the implementation of lesson study. The questionnaire result also shows that the implementation of lesson study can make the student become autonomous learners.

  2. The newest stage of development of the White Sea depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevzerov, V. Ya.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Nikolaeva, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of materials on the geological structure and tectonics of the White Sea depression area suggests that this depression existed in the Middle Pleistocene and was connected with the World Ocean. It is still impossible to determine the exact time of its formation due to an insufficient knowledge of the depression loose cover. However it is most likely that the depression was formed in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, when after the regressive development of the continental margin the shelf subsidence began. Probably in the Holocene the divergent regime was replaced by the transform regime. This period saw the subsidence of the Kandalaksha graben to about 150 m and the formation of the Kolvitsa graben. The crystalline rocks surrounding Kandalaksha bay were involved in the subsidence which is reflected in the isobase curve of the glacioisostatic uplift of the area. The combined impact of the tectonic component and the glacioisostatic uplift led to a rise of tensions which discharge caused a high seismic activity of the Kandalaksha graben and its environs.

  3. The development of co-innovation strategies: stages and interaction patterns in interfirm innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Organizations that choose or are forced to innovate in co-operation with other organizations, go through four stages of co-innovation strategy development. The stages are successively: (1) autonomous strategy making: organizations develop strategies on their own, (2) co-operative strategy making: organizations concentrate on developing innovation strategies in close co-operation with other organizations, (3) founding an organization for co-innovation: organizations found a joint organization ...

  4. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu WK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration

  5. From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI), a self-report questionnaire, is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events. (Author/GK)

  6. The development of co-innovation strategies: stages and interaction patterns in interfirm innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Organizations that choose or are forced to innovate in co-operation withother organizations, go through four stages of co-innovation strategy development.The stages are successively: (1) autonomous strategy making: organizations developstrategies on their own, (2) co-operative strategy making:

  7. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  8. Using STEM Approach to Develop Visual Reasoning and Learning Independence for Preparatory Stage Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Rasha Al-Sayed Sabry

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed at investigating the effectiveness of STEM approach in developing visual reasoning and learning independence for preparatory stage students. To achieve this aim, the researcher designed a program based on STEM approach in light of the principles of nanotechnology. Twenty one preparatory stage students participated in the…

  9. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  10. The Lessons of East Asian Development and Alternative Development Strategies for Hainan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    1989, pp. 1645-1690. Bhagwati, Jagdish N., "Rethinking Trade Strategy," in John P. Lewis and Valeriana Kallab (eds.), Development Strategies... Valeriana Kallab (eds.), Development Strategies Rcconsidered, Transaction Books, New Brunswick, NJ, 1986, pp. 115-128. Bradshaw, Thorton F., Daniel F...Lewis, John P., "Development Fromotion: A Time for Regrouping," in John P. Lewis and Valeriana Kallab (eds.), Development Strategies Reconsidered

  11. Effects of marketing in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, by reason of ignorance of the essence of marketing, we come across numerous cases of misuse and improper understanding of word marketing. Nowadays people have more the attitude in the consciousness of the need for understanding and recognition of the right meaning of the word marketing. There are many definitions about Marketing in literature and contemporary practice, each attempt to define the term marketing can only partly be understood as successful and complete. Indeed, it is impossible to define and summarize in only a few sentences everything that has to do with marketing as a process and its roles. Marketing specialists need to identify the concerns and desires of consumers to be able to target their minds, hearts and souls. In the paradox of globalization, concern and common consumer’s desire is to make the society and the world a better place and even an ideal place to live. Some companies are doing a kind of differentiation through corporate philanthropy for social or environmental causes. Now we are witnessing the birth of Marketing 3.0. In a world full of confusion, they are looking for those companies that can complement them deeper for social justice, economic and environmental mission, vision and company values that they represent. In selecting products and services, people not only demand the fulfillment of their functional and emotional, but also the human spiritual fulfillment. The third force that gives impetus to the creation of marketing 3.0 is the emergence of creative society. People in creative society are people who have developed the activity of the right brain hemisphere and working in creative sectors such as science, arts and professional services. Based on these facts the era of marketing 3.0 is the era where marketing practices are strongly affected by changes in consumer behaviors and attitudes. It is the most sophisticated customercentric era where the customer requires more cooperative

  12. Interdisciplinary development of manual and automated product usability assessments for older adults with dementia: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Jennifer; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-10-01

    The changes in cognitive abilities that accompany dementia can make it difficult to use everyday products that are required to complete activities of daily living. Products that are inherently more usable for people with dementia could facilitate independent activity completion, thus reducing the need for caregiver assistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) gain an understanding of how water tap design impacted tap usability and (2) create an automated computerized tool that could assess tap usability. 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to advanced dementia, completed 1309 trials on five tap designs. Data were manually analyzed to investigate tap usability as well as used to develop an automated usability analysis tool. Researchers collaborated to modify existing techniques and to create novel ones to accomplish both goals. This paper presents lessons learned through the course of this research, which could be applicable in the development of other usability studies, automated vision-based assessments and the development of assistive technologies for cognitively impaired older adults. Collaborative interdisciplinary teamwork, which included older adult with dementia participants, was key to enabling innovative advances that achieved the projects' research goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Products that are implicitly familiar and usable by older adults could foster independent activity completion, potentially reducing reliance on a caregiver. The computer-based automated tool can significantly reduce the time and effort required to perform product usability analysis, making this type of analysis more feasible. Interdisciplinary collaboration can result in a more holistic understanding of assistive technology research challenges and enable innovative solutions.

  13. The Heme Biosynthesis Pathway Is Essential for Plasmodium falciparum Development in Mosquito Stage but Not in Blood Stages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hangjun; Sigala, Paul A.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Mather, Michael W.; Crowley, Jan R.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Goldberg, Daniel E.; Long, Carole A.; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for aerobic organisms. Its redox chemistry is central to a variety of biological functions mediated by hemoproteins. In blood stages, malaria parasites consume most of the hemoglobin inside the infected erythrocytes, forming nontoxic hemozoin crystals from large quantities of heme released during digestion. At the same time, the parasites possess a heme de novo biosynthetic pathway. This pathway in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been considered essential and is proposed as a potential drug target. However, we successfully disrupted the first and last genes of the pathway, individually and in combination. These knock-out parasite lines, lacking 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase and/or ferrochelatase (FC), grew normally in blood-stage culture and exhibited no changes in sensitivity to heme-related antimalarial drugs. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay to monitor stable isotope incorporation into heme from its precursor 5-[13C4]aminolevulinic acid, and this assay confirmed that de novo heme synthesis was ablated in FC knock-out parasites. Disrupting the FC gene also caused no defects in gametocyte generation or maturation but resulted in a greater than 70% reduction in male gamete formation and completely prevented oocyst formation in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that the heme biosynthesis pathway is not essential for asexual blood-stage growth of P. falciparum parasites but is required for mosquito transmission. Drug inhibition of pathway activity is therefore unlikely to provide successful antimalarial therapy. These data also suggest the existence of a parasite mechanism for scavenging host heme to meet metabolic needs. PMID:25352601

  14. Integrated Coverage of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Issues in Developing Countries- Lessons Learned and Current Development-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, D.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Lokner, V.

    1999-01-01

    The perception of the sustainable development concept is quite different in countries with a different level of development. Rather limited resources allocated for environmental problems in developing countries should be used in the most pragmatic way. Setting up and operating two separate national systems for management of radioactive and hazardous waste is not the best example to be followed by developing countries with relatively small quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. This paper reviews existing practice of radioactive and hazardous waste management in Croatia and discusses advantages of joint waste management system

  15. Effects of high temperature stress at different development stages on soybean isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Pratyusha; Seguin, Philippe; Liu, Wucheng

    2011-12-28

    Soybean contains a range of compounds with putative health benefits including isoflavones and tocopherols. A study was conducted to determine the effects on these compounds of high temperature stress imposed at specific development stages [i.e., none, pre-emergence, vegetative, early reproductive (R1-4), late-reproductive (R5-8), or all stages]. Two cultivars (AC Proteina and OAC Champion) were grown in growth chambers set at contrasting temperatures [i.e., stress conditions of 33/25 °C (day/night temperature) and control conditions of 23/15 °C] in order to generate these treatments. Isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in mature seeds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In both cultivars isoflavone response was greatest when stress occurred during the R5-8 stages and during all development stages, these treatments reducing total isoflavone concentration by an average of 85% compared to the control. Stress imposed at other stages also affected isoflavone concentration although the response was smaller. For example, stress during the vegetative stages reduced total isoflavones by 33% in OAC Champion. Stress imposed pre-emergence had an opposite effect increasing daidzein concentration by 24% in AC Proteina. Tocopherol concentrations were affected the most when stress was imposed during all stages of development, followed by stress restricted to stages R5-8; response to stress during other stages was limited. The specific response of tocopherols differed, α-tocopherol being increased by high temperature by as much as 752%, the reverse being observed for δ-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol. The present study demonstrates that while isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in soybeans are affected the most by stress occurring during seed formation, concentrations can also be affected by stress occurring at other stages including stages as early as pre-emergence.

  16. Building Capacity for Developing Statistical Literacy in a Developing Country: Lessons Learned from an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Delia; Gal, Iddo; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the emerging literature on capacity-building in statistics education by examining issues pertaining to the readiness of teachers in a developing country to teach basic statistical topics. The paper reflects on challenges and barriers to building statistics capacity at grass-roots level in a developing country,…

  17. An evaluation of a public health practitioner registration programme: lessons learned for workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Em; Wills, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the lessons learned for workforce development from an evaluation of a regional programme to support the assessment and registration of public health practitioners to the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) in England. A summative and process evaluation of the public health practitioner programme in Wessex was adopted. Data collection was by an online survey of 32 public health practitioners in the Wessex area and semi-structured interviews with 53 practitioners, programme support, employers and system leaders. All survey respondents perceived regulation of the public health workforce as very important or important. Managers and system leaders saw a register of those fit to practise and able to define themselves as a public health practitioner as a necessary assurance of quality for the public. Yet, because registration is voluntary for practitioners, less value was currently placed on this than on completing a master's qualification. The local programme supports practitioners in the compilation of a retrospective portfolio of evidence that demonstrates fitness to practise; practitioners and managers stated that this does not support current and future learning needs or the needs of those working at a senior level. One of the main purposes of statutory regulation of professionals is to protect the public by an assurance of fitness to practise where there is a potential for harm. The widening role for public health practitioners without any regulation means that there is the risk of inappropriate interventions or erroneous advice. Regulators, policy makers and system leaders need to consider how they can support the development of the public health workforce to gain professional recognition at all levels of public health, including practitioners alongside specialists, and support a professional career framework for the public health system. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  18. Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knospe, C

    2002-02-01

    Twenty-two stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat are described for intraspecies comparison in embryological studies. These are assigned to the 15 embryonal periods based on the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria to make the interspecies comparison possible.

  19. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  20. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  1. From trust on intimacy: A new inventory for examining erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Gurney, R M; Moore, S M

    1981-12-01

    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. The self-report questionnaire, developed in a pilot study of 97 adolescents and tested in a study of 622 adolescents, has 12 items for each subscale. Measures of reliability and validity are reported. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events.

  2. The embryonic development of Schistosoma mansoni eggs: proposal for a new staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurberg, Arnon D; Gonçalves, Tiana; Costa, Tatiane A; de Mattos, Ana Carolina A; Pascarelli, Bernardo M; de Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Peralta, José M; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z; Lenzi, Henrique L

    2009-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic illness caused by neoophoran trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Using classical histological techniques and whole-mount preparations, the present work describes the embryonic development of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the murine host and compares it with eggs maintained under in vitro conditions. Two pre-embryonic stages occur inside the female worm: the prezygotic stage is characterized by the release of mature oocytes from the female ovary until its fertilization. The zygotic stage encompasses the migration of the zygote through the ootype, where the eggshell is formed, to the uterus. Fully formed eggs are laid still undeveloped, without having suffered any cleavage. In the outside environment, eight embryonic stages can be defined: stage 1 refers to early cleavages and the beginning of yolk fusion. Stage 2 represents late cleavage, with the formation of a stereoblastula and the onset of outer envelope differentiation. Stage 3 is defined by the elongation of the embryonic primordium and the onset of inner envelope formation. At stage 4, the first organ primordia arise. During stages 5 to 7, tissue and organ differentiation occurs (neural mass, epidermis, terebratorium, musculature, and miracidial glands). Stage 7 is characterized by the nuclear condensation of neurons of the central neural mass. Stage 8 refers to the fully formed larva, presenting muscular contraction, cilia, and flame-cell beating. This staging system was compared to a previous classification and could underlie further studies on egg histoproteomics (morphological localizome). The differentiation of embryonic structures and their probable roles in granulomatogenesis are discussed herein.

  3. Lesson Study: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard; Weinhardt, Felix; Wyness, Gill; Rolfe, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Lesson Study is a popular approach to teacher professional development used widely in Japan. It involves a small group of teachers co-planning a series of lessons based on a shared learning goal for the pupils, with one teacher leading the co-constructed lesson and their colleagues invited to observe pupil learning in the lesson. The team then…

  4. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN: infrastructure development and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breland-Noble Alfiee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of

  5. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN): infrastructure development and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mark; Silva, Susan G; Compton, Scott; Chrisman, Allan; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Kondo, Douglas; Kirchner, Jerry; March, John S

    2009-03-25

    In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical research into routine clinical practice. Having

  6. Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons from India. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 1, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhter Hameed

    One hundred years of rural development in India is surveyed, tracing the impact of colonial administration up to and including the decades of independence--an administration built on elitism, centralism, and paternalism. Four major rural problems of famine, abuses of land tenure, peasant indebtedness, and rural disaffection and how political…

  7. Changes in psychosocial well-being during stages of gay identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Sean A; Allen, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    The current study evaluated the stage theory of Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) developed by Cass (1979), in terms of the relationship between stage of gay identity development and psychosocial well-being. Four hundred twenty-five males (12 to 64 years, M = 29.2) reporting sexual attraction to other men provided demographic information and completed psychosocial measures: the Happiness-Sadness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978), the Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982), and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (Brady & Busse, 1994). Correlation analysis and ANCOVAs controlling for age and nationality demonstrated that the 6 sequential stages of HIF were associated with a U-shaped function for the psychosocial variables. Well-being was high during the initial Confusion and Comparison stages of HIF, was reduced during the middle Tolerance and Acceptance stages, and was again high in the later Pride and Synthesis stages. Each of the psychosocial variables was significantly different according to stage of development (p <.001). Qualitative analysis of subjects' comments also revealed support for the U-shaped pattern.

  8. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    cleanup responses, has a sound approach for decontamination decision-making that has been applied several times. The anthrax contamination at the U. S. Hart Senate Office Building and numerous U. S. Post Office facilities are examples of employing novel technical responses. Decontamination of the Hart Office building required development of a new approach for high level decontamination of biological contamination as well as techniques for evaluating the technology effectiveness. The World Trade Center destruction also demonstrated the need for, and successful implementation of, appropriate cleanup methodologies. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly “package and dispose” method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination.

  9. Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

    2014-06-27

    Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.

  10. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Different Stages of Cananga odorata Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Qin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray–Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%–33.30%. Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.

  11. Culturally Responsive Education: Developing Lesson Plans for Vietnamese Students in the American Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…

  12. Developing Cultural Responsiveness While Teaching Content Standards: Lessons from a Brazilian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason Brent; Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Moor, Alexa; Aukerman, Kaitlyn; Buttil, Michael; Edwards, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how teachers can represent a different culture in their instructional planning while still meeting state-mandated content standards. It shares the lessons learned by practicing and pre-service teachers through an experience designed to help them become more culturally responsive teachers. Participants spent a month in…

  13. Know-Who? Linking Faculty's Networks to Stages of Instructional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waes, Sara; Van den Bossche, Piet; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research into faculty members' instructional development has primarily focused on individual skills and knowledge. As collegial interactions may support or constrain faculty's professional development in higher education, this study compared and contrasted the networks of faculty members in different stages of instructional development (novice,…

  14. The problems of plant control on modern stage of development of the nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the successful development of nuclear industry at the present stage of its development, the problems of control of nuclear power plants, their classes and the choices of modern science in the field of design of fast neutron reactors as one of the promising directions of development of atomic energy.

  15. Developing safe and reliable LNG supply chains in teh new global environment: experience and lessons from six continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ernst; Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Dweck, Jacob; Mareino, Vince; Eriksen, Remi

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of risk management in the context of specific recent experiences in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) business. The paper notes the overall success of the LNG business in ensuring safety and reliability, and highlights the opportunities and dangers of recent business growth. Risks are organised by theme, with focuses on politics and regulation, safety and security, environmental impact, public perception, technological innovation, cost and time management, competence and quality of assets, and harsh climates. Developers and other stakeholders are encouraged to draw lessons from these experiences when attempting to model the interplay of social, commercial and technical factors in LNG project development. (auth)

  16. Development of a health safety culture under different social and cultural conditions: lessons from the experiences of Japanese utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Taketoshi

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of the steady expansion of nuclear power in Asia, all organizations involved in operating nuclear facilities are emphasizing the importance of regional cooperation in the development and enhancement of a safety culture. This paper, based on employees' attitudinal surveys, provides some lessons learned from the experiences of Japanese electric utilities in developing and enhancing a sound safety culture within the organizations which are operating nuclear power plants and related facilities, and discusses approaches for cooperation in Asia, taking into account the different socio-cultural environments. (author)

  17. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M; O'Neill, Matthew T; Tarun, Alice S; Camargo, Nelly; Phuong, Thuan M; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2009-03-01

    Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of FabB/F, a critical enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, did not affect parasite blood stage replication, mosquito stage development and initial infection in the liver. This was confirmed by knockout of FabZ, another critical FAS II enzyme. However, FAS II-deficient Plasmodium yoelii liver stages failed to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites, the invasive stage that first initiates blood stage infection. Furthermore, deletion of FabI in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum did not show a reduction in asexual blood stage replication in vitro. Malaria parasites therefore depend on the intrinsic FAS II pathway only at one specific life cycle transition point, from liver to blood.

  18. Your Vision or My Model? Lessons from Participatory Land Use Scenario Development on a European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Henrichs, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    different perspectives. However, this task is all but easy as it requires a careful balancing of approaches and an acceptance of different levels of knowledge and trust in different methods across disciplinary boundaries. In spite of a growing body of literature we are still in the early stages of learning...... how to deal effectively with participatory scenario development. In the PRELUDE project of the European Environment Agency a relatively far-reaching participatory approach to scenario development was applied: a group of stakeholders from across Europe was given full responsibility to develop long......-term alternative land use scenarios in cooperation with experts and modellers. The scenarios have been used in a formal outreach process with key clients and stakeholders at the European and Member State level afterwards. The aim of this paper is to document the methods used, analyse their strengths and weaknesses...

  19. Identification of an AP2-family protein that is critical for malaria liver stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiroh Iwanaga

    Full Text Available Liver-stage malaria parasites are a promising target for drugs and vaccines against malaria infection. However, little is currently known about gene regulation in this stage. In this study, we used the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and showed that an AP2-family transcription factor, designated AP2-L, plays a critical role in the liver-stage development of the parasite. AP2-L-depleted parasites proliferated normally in blood and in mosquitoes. However, the ability of these parasites to infect the liver was approximately 10,000 times lower than that of wild-type parasites. In vitro assays showed that the sporozoites of these parasites invaded hepatocytes normally but that their development stopped in the middle of the liver schizont stage. Expression profiling using transgenic P. berghei showed that fluorescent protein-tagged AP2-L increased rapidly during the liver schizont stage but suddenly disappeared with the formation of the mature liver schizont. DNA microarray analysis showed that the expression of several genes, including those of parasitophorous vacuole membrane proteins, was significantly decreased in the early liver stage of AP2-L-depleted parasites. Investigation of the targets of this transcription factor should greatly promote the exploration of liver-stage antigens and the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatocyte infection by malaria parasites.

  20. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  1. Teachers' implementation of reform-oriented instructional strategies in science: Lessons from two professional development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nicole D.

    This dissertation reports findings from two studies that investigated the relationship between professional development and teachers' instructional practices in Science,Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The first program, the Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) focused on K-8 teachers and their use of inquiry-based science instruction in conjunction with curricular modules provided by the ISI program. The second program, Research Goes to School (RGS), focused on high school STEM teachers and their use of problem-based learning (PBL) as they implemented curricular units that they developed themselves at the RGS summer workshop. In-service teachers were recruited from both programs. They were observed teaching their respective curricular materials and interviewed about their experiences in order to investigate the following research questions: 1. How do teachers implement the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? 2. What are the challenges and supports that influence teachers' use of the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? To investigate these questions the fidelity of implementation was it was conceptualized by Century, Rudnick, and Freeman (2010) was used as a theoretical framework. The study of the ISI program was conducted during the program's pilot year (2010-11). Five teachers of grades 3 through 6 were recruited from three different schools. Participants were observed as they taught lessons related to the modules and they were interviewed about their experiences. Based on analysis of the data from the observations, using a modified version of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) (Bodzin & Beerer, 2003), the participants were found to exhibit partial fidelity of implementation to the model of inquiry-based instruction promoted by the ISI. Based on data from the interviews, the

  2. Sustainable development under population pressure: lessons from developed land consumption in the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekousis, George; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2015-01-01

    Population growth will result in a significant anthropogenic environmental change worldwide through increases in developed land (DL) consumption. DL consumption is an important environmental and socioeconomic process affecting humans and ecosystems. Attention has been given to DL modeling inside highly populated cities. However, modeling DL consumption should expand to non-metropolitan areas where arguably the environmental consequences are more significant. Here, we study all counties within the conterminous U.S. and based on satellite-derived product (National Land Cover Dataset 2001) we calculate the associated DL for each county. By using county population data from the 2000 census we present a comparative study on DL consumption and we propose a model linking population with expected DL consumption. Results indicate distinct geographic patterns of comparatively low and high consuming counties moving from east to west. We also demonstrate that the relationship of DL consumption with population is mostly linear, altering the notion that expected population growth will have lower DL consumption if added in counties with larger population. Added DL consumption is independent of a county's starting population and only dependent on whether the county belongs to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). In the overlapping MSA and non-MSA population range there is also a constant DL efficiency gain of approximately 20 km2 for a given population for MSA counties which suggests that transitioning from rural to urban counties has significantly higher benefits in lower populations. In addition, we analyze the socioeconomic composition of counties with extremely high or low DL consumption. High DL consumption counties have statistically lower Black/African American population, higher poverty rate and lower income per capita than average in both NMSA and MSA counties. Our analysis offers a baseline to investigate further land consumption strategies in anticipation of growing

  3. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Expert consensus-building for developing guidelines: lessons learned from a dengue economics workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna Constenla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop with 20 experts of diverse backgrounds from five countries in the Americas was convened for two-and-a-half days in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for assessing the economic cost of dengue. This article discusses a number of factors that contributed to the workshop's success, including: engaging the experts at various stages of the process; convening a multidisciplinary group to reduce expert bias and provide a more comprehensive and integrated approach; facilitating guided small- and large-group discussions; developing effective cross-cultural collectivism, trust, communication, and empathy across the expert panel; establishing clear lines of responsibilities within each group of experts; breaking down the complex issues into smaller and simpler ideas; providing ample background materials in multiple languages prior to the workshop. Challenges and areas for improvement are also covered.

  5. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  6. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR DEVELOPING CORPORATE SUKUK: LESSONS FROM AN INDONESIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasution L.Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is trying to find the issues, challenges, and strategies development of corporate sukuk in Indonesia. This objective arises because the level of supply and demand for corporate sukuk in Indonesia is still prolonged. This case in Indonesia is almost similar to cases in some countries, especially in Asian countries that are making efforts to develop sukuk market. Based on the method of mapping and root problem analysis, this study found three problem structures inhibiting the growth rate of corporate sukuk in Indonesia. The first stage of the problem is a surface issue, namely: concerns of potential double taxation; lack of understanding from investors; lack of knowledge of the issuer; unparted investor base; less liquid in the secondary market; very complex publishing documents; the contract variation remains unclear. Seven issues of this first phase are caused by five sources of the second issue, namely: there is still the required information regarding the issuance of sukuk is asymmetric; unavailability of supporting profession; unavailability of supporting industries; costly issuance costs; complex sukuk structures. The third stage of the problem causes the first and second problems, also called the root of the slow growth of corporate sukuk in Indonesia, namely: low socialization and education and the limited human resources of capital market actors concerning sukuk. On the three structures of the problem, the proposed development strategy sukuk corporations in Indonesia consist of two priority suggestions, namely: increasing socialization and education on corporate sukuk and clarify rules on corporate sukuk, related to rules on supporting institutions, contract structure, human resources, and administration. This result can be a reference to create the right strategy to encourage the growth of corporate sukuk in the long term. This research is also beneficial as a pilot development of corporate sukuk in several countries with

  7. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  8. Becoming a global citizen through nursing education: lessons learned in developing evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Freida; Bender, Amy; Hardie, Kate; Gastaldo, Denise

    2010-01-01

    While global health practica are being increasingly described in nursing education literature, course evaluation of same receives comparatively less attention. In this article, authors report on an evaluation project, undertaken to rigorously examine the existing evaluation methods for an elective global health practicum with placements in India and northern Canada. Sixteen students were interviewed and course evaluation tools were reviewed. Resulting themes include students' sense of preparedness, the centrality of the student-preceptor relationship, the importance of supported self-reflection, and the usefulness of evaluation methods. Participants viewed existing course evaluation methods as generally useful, therefore requiring only minor adjustments. There were also structural revisions to the preparation, placement, and post-placement phases of the course and broader lessons learned. Lessons include the importance of critical social perspectives and the value of past students revisiting their experiences in such a way as make conscious connections between placement experiences and their current professional practice.

  9. How to develop sex education among adolescents in high school, from the Spanish-Literature lessons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanicet Rodríguez Marrero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the treatment of sexual education for adolescents from the Spanish-Literature lessons in pr euniversity. It is based on contents that have become of paramount importance at the time of having a responsible sexuality, and in preventing risky behaviour on the STD (Sexual Transmitted Diseases. In its modelling various up-to-date concepts and appro aches that deal with this theme for its contextualization and enrichment of the educative models existing in Cuba were taken into consideration. It is considered that the formation of adolescents should be dealt with in the pedagogical context where the role of the teachers is of great significance from the point of view of the lesson.

  10. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; Katya L. LeBlanc; William phoenix; Alan R Mecham

    2010-11-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory’ s staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher’s approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  11. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, David I.; LeBlanc, Katya L.; Phoenix, William; Mecham, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory's staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher's approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  12. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ∼1  MA current pulse with a rise time of ∼100  ns into the ∼0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.

  13. Development of a XYθz 3-DOF nanopositioning stage with linear displacement amplification device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chih-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop a XYθZ 3-DOF nanopositioning stage with linear displacement amplification device. This stage is used by three groups of linear displacement amplification device to composition, and thus achieves precise XYθZ 3-DOF movement. The linear displacement amplification device makes use of a symmetrical layer mechanism, toggle amplification mechanism and parallel guiding spring to composition, and with amplification capability. Then it uses an equilateral triangle way to set the three groups of linear displacement amplification device. Overall design uses the finite element software ANSYS 12.0 to analysis the displacement, stress and dynamic response of nanopositioning stage. Experiment demonstrated takes the laser interferometer as the standard of displacement measurement. The result of experiment measurement shows that the maximum XY axis displacement and θZ rotational angle travel of the stage is 36.5 μm, 32 μm and 265 arc sec.

  14. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Ares I Vehicle First Stage Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Holland, Scott D.; Covell, Peter F.; Klopfer, Goetz, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis and database development for the first stage separation of the Ares I A106 Crew Launch Vehicle configuration. Separate databases were created for the first stage and upper stage. Each database consists of three components: isolated or free-stream coefficients, power-off proximity increments, and power-on proximity increments. The power-on database consists of three parts, all plumes firing at nominal conditions, the one booster deceleration motor out condition, and the one ullage settling motor out condition. The isolated and power-off incremental databases were developed using wind tunnel test data. The power-on proximity increments were developed using CFD solutions.

  15. Development of a harmonized approach to safety assessment of decommissioning: Lessons learned from international experience (DeSa project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, K.; Nokhamzon, J.-G.; Ferch, R.; Batandjieva, B.

    2006-01-01

    The number of nuclear facilities being or planned to be shutdown as they reach the end of their design life, due to accidents or other political and social factors has been increasing worldwide. This has led to an increase in the awareness of regulators and operators of the importance of development and implementation of adequate safety requirements and criteria for decommissioning of these facilities. A general requirement at international and national levels, even for new facilities to be commissioned, is the development of a decommissioning plan, which includes evaluation of potential radiological consequences to public and workers during planned and accidental decommissioning activities. Experience has been gained in the safety assessment of decommissioning at various sites with different complexities and hazard potentials. This experience shows that various approaches have been used in conducting safety assessments and that there is a need for harmonisation of these approaches and for transferring the good practice and lessons learned to other countries, in particular developing countries with limited financial and human resources. The IAEA launched an international project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning (DeSa) in 2004 to provide a forum for exchange of lessons learned between site operators, regulators, safety assessors and other specialists in safety assessment of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, research reactors, laboratories, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, etc. This paper presents the lessons learned through the project up to date, i.e.; (i) a common approach to safety assessment is being applied worldwide with the following steps - establishment of assessment framework; description of the facility; definition of decommissioning activities; hazard identification and analysis; calculation of consequences; and analysis of results; (ii) a deterministic approach to safety assessment is most commonly applied; (iii) a

  16. The Problem about Technology in STEM Education: Some Findings from Action Research on the Professional Development & Integrated STEM Lessons in Informal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Saito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the authors’ Japanese team in the Department of Science Education at Shizuoka University has held trials of STEM Education in informal fields as participatory action research (e.g., Science museum in Shizuoka, Lifelong Learning Center in Fujieda City, and STEM Summer camp for the preparation for implementing STEM education in public schools and for proposing science education reform in a Japanese context. Problems in preparing STEM lessons include numerous new instructional materials and programs and emerging specialized schools. In addition, while most of these initiatives address one or more of the STEM subjects separately, there are increasing calls for emphasizing connections between and among the subjects (Honey, Pearson and Schweingruber, 2014. Unfamiliar problems for Japanese teachers are, What is Engineering? What is Design? and How can they be implemented in lessons? While gathering STEM learning materials to implement in their STEM Summer Camp, the authors noticed a pattern with which to develop a STEM lesson and developed a template “T-SM-E” in reference to prior STEM studies. After the STEM Summer Camp, the authors introduced the model in the pre-service teacher preparation program. As a result, the authors received suggestions about how teachers can develop integrated STEM lessons, how undergraduate (UG teachers can implement it in their lessons, and how teachers can assess student learning in their STEM lessons. From standard based student assessments and reflections written by the UG teachers, the authors found that it was difficult for the UG teachers to include technology in their lessons, and their assessment also indicated that the students did not show performance proficiency in technology. The authors discuss this existing problem in the Japanese education system.

  17. Role development and career stages in addiction nursing: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Carmel; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Ghodse, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a study to explore factors influencing recruitment and retention in addiction nursing, and the stages and features of role acquisition and personal qualities important to that role. Specialist addiction nurses engage in a number of roles in the care of individuals with problematic use of psychoactive substances. These include assessment, outreach, prescribing, counselling, and harm reduction. In a climate of increasing demand for specialist substance misuse workers, and a trend to identify key occupational competencies, there is a need for a framework in which career progression can be supported. Studies exploring the roles of addiction nurses are minimal, and there is less comment on how these roles are developed in the context of career stages. A qualitative study using focus groups was undertaken with specialist addiction nurses between March and June 2004. The data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Burnard's six content analysis stages. Positive factors identified as influencing recruitment and retention included: prior knowledge of the working environment (as a nursing student), opportunities for autonomous practice, the client profile, and associated treatment philosophy and care approach. There was consensus that nurses choosing to work in the field of addiction needed, in addition to being non-judgmental, personal qualities including hardiness, patience and tolerance. Five role development stages, with a set of descriptors, were identified: encounter, engagement, stabilization, competency and mastery. Identification of these five role development stages for addiction nurses offers employers, nurse managers, educators and addiction nurses a starting point from which specific occupational competencies can be further explored. In addition, continuing professional development needs can be mapped to specific role development stages. Employers and nurse managers may wish to offer increased learning opportunities to student nurses to

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor behavior in different stages of tooth germ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Sberna, Maria T; Vinci, Raffaele; Iaderosa, Giovanni; Tettamanti, Lucia; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Tagliabue, Angelo; Gherlone, Enrico F

    2016-08-01

    Scientific studies show a possible influence of intercellular and intracellular proteins (VEGF) on the development of physiological and pathological tissue. VEGF, a key regulator of angiogenesis, it would seem essential to take action during the embryonic development of the dental germ. The purpose of the study is to investigate the importance of the enzymatic activity of VEGF through protein quantification at different stages of tooth germ development. The quantification of VEGF protein was performed by 3 different laboratory tests: Western-blot analysis, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) and finally immunohistochemical analysis. Cell cultures of tooth tissue examined are: endothelial cells, stellate reticulum cells, odontoblasts and ameoblast. The VEGF peptide seems to induce an intense cell proliferation, not concomitant with differentiation towards the endothelial line. The expression of VEGF in the inner enamel epithelium (ameloblasts) would seem to depend on the stage of differentiation, leading us to deduce that VEGF and its respective receptor are expressed in dental germ and that induce alterations not only on the vascularization, but also on the inner epithelium activation and then on dental enamel development, respectively on cap and bell stages of embryogenesis. In our survey, the positive expression of VEGF in all the samples examined, might suggest a fundamental role of angiogenic gene proteins during all stages of embryonic tooth development. It is also characteristic the behavior of stellate reticulum cells, with a significant reduction in VEGF action between early and late stage, which could suggest a possible role of stellate reticulum cells, which would be able to promote and maintain an adequate energy supply to the tissues during early and late stages of differentiation and proliferation.

  19. Host biotin is required for liver stage development in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellibovi-Ragheb, Teegan A; Jhun, Hugo; Goodman, Christopher D; Walters, Maroya S; Ragheb, Daniel R T; Matthews, Krista A; Rajaram, Krithika; Mishra, Satish; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Sinnis, Photini; Prigge, Sean T

    2018-03-13

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that is the target of several classes of herbicides. Malaria parasites contain a plant-like ACC, and this is the only protein predicted to be biotinylated in the parasite. We found that ACC is expressed in the apicoplast organelle in liver- and blood-stage malaria parasites; however, it is activated through biotinylation only in the liver stages. Consistent with this observation, deletion of the biotin ligase responsible for ACC biotinylation does not impede blood-stage growth, but results in late liver-stage developmental defects. Biotin depletion increases the severity of the developmental defects, demonstrating that parasite and host biotin metabolism are required for normal liver-stage progression. This finding may link the development of liver-stage malaria parasites to the nutritional status of the host, as neither the parasite nor the human host can synthesize biotin. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  1. Development of Four-Stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) for DIOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ikuya; Sugita, Satoshi; Tawara, Yuzuru; Takizawa, Shunya; Babazaki, Yasunori; Nakamichi, Ren

    2013-09-01

    A Four-stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best-fit optics for the Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) mission, a small satellite mission for mapping observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The FXT mirrors are based on a conical approximation of the Wolter-I design, fabrication technique used in the Suzaku satellite. We developed processes for fabricating a large-diameter (>= 50 cm) foil mirror and made a new full size quadrant housing 60 cm in diameter with four-stage integrated alignment plates. We made optical measurement using one set of four-stage mirrors over than diameter of more than 50 cm.

  2. Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Söderholm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  3. Sonoluminescence and acoustic emission spectra at different stages of cavitation zone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkunov, N V; Francescutto, A; Serpe, L; Canaparo, R; Cravotto, G

    2018-01-01

    The way in which a cavitation zone develops in a focused pulsed ultrasound field is studied in this work. Sonoluminescence (SL), total hydrophone output and cavitation noise spectra have been recorded across a gradual, smooth increase in applied voltage. It is shown that the cavitation zone passes through a number of stages of evolution, according to increasing ultrasound intensity, decreasing pulse period and increasing ultrasound pulse duration. Sonoluminescence is absent in the first phase and the hydrophone output spectra consists of a main line with two or three harmonics whose intensity is much lower than that of the main (fundamental) line. The second stage sees the onset of SL whose intensity increases smoothly and is accompanied by the appearance of higher harmonics and subharmonics in the cavitation noise spectra. In some cases, the wide-band (WBN) component can be seen in noise spectra during the final part of the second stage. In the third stage, SL intensity increases significantly and often quite sharply, while WBN intensity increases in the same manner. This is accompanied by a synchronous increase in the absorption of ultrasound by the cavitation zone, which is manifested in a sharp decrease in the hydrophone output. In the fourth stage, both SL and WBN intensities tend to decrease despite the increased voltage applied to the transducer. Furthermore, the fundamental line tends to decrease in strength as well, despite the increasing ultrasound intensity. The obtained results clearly identify the different stages of cavitation zone development using cavitation noise spectra analyses. We then hypothesize that three of the above stages may be responsible for three known types of ultrasound action on biological cells: damping viability, reversible cell damage (sonoporation) and irreversible damage/cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic hepatitis C on the early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zhevnerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – to assess the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC on the early stages of development and their comparison with the level of galectin3. The study included 78 patients with oligosymptomatic course of the disease and minimal liver fibrosis in the most cases. In the most patients with stages of the disease exceeding 8 years, viral load was over a million copies/ml. In 10 % of patients on the early stages of the disease, changes corresponding to severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis F3 and F4 were detected. Moderate correlation of ALT activity, viral load and low severity with the duration of the disease was identified. There is a trend towards a higher level of galectin3 in a long course of CHC in comparison with earlier stages of its development, with significantly higher average level of galectin-3 in patients with minimal liver fibrosis (F0–F1 as compared to advanced stages, suggesting its importance in the launching and initial mechanisms of fibrogenesis.

  5. Cell arrest and cell death in mammalian preimplantation development: lessons from the bovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Sandra; Boelhauve, Marc; Reichenbach, Myriam; Güngör, Tuna; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Sinowatz, Fred; Wolf, Eckhard; Habermann, Felix A

    2011-01-01

    The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM), but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine development.

  6. Cell arrest and cell death in mammalian preimplantation development: lessons from the bovine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leidenfrost

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM, but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine

  7. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  8. The networked instructor: The quality of networks in different stages of professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Heldens, Henderijn; Donche, V.; van Petegem, P.; van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quality of instructional networks in different stages of professional development. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and literature on teacher interaction, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 instructors at the university level. Using qualitative

  9. The networked instructor : The quality of networks in different stages of professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Heldens, Henderijn H P F; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quality of instructional networks in different stages of professional development. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and literature on teacher interaction, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 instructors at the university level. Using qualitative

  10. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  11. Main stages in the development of radiation immunology: from immunochemical analysis of injury to monitored radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarilin, A.A.; Kashkin, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research of the radiation action on immunity are presented. The results of immunochemical investigation of radiation tissue injuries are considered. Much attention is given to the problem of radiation injury and repair of the lymphoid system. It is shown that the next stage of development of radiation immunology is immunologic control of radiotherapy of oncologic patients

  12. Reading Skills of Students with Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…

  13. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  14. Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner: Stages of Child Development and Implications for Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Iona H.

    1982-01-01

    The views of Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner concerning children's stages of development are compared and related to present-day instructional practices used in the Waldorf schools, which employ Steiner's ideas. Educational principles and practices used at the elementary school level are discussed. (PP)

  15. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  16. Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

  17. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  18. Forensic age estimation based on development of third molars: a staging technique for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Phlypo, I; Fieuws, S; Politis, C; Verstraete, K L; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults. Using 3T MRI in three planes, all third molars were evaluated in 309 healthy Caucasian participants from 14 to 26 years old. According to the appearance of the developing third molars on MRI, descriptive criteria and schematic representations were established to define a specific staging technique. Two observers, with different levels of experience, staged all third molars independently with the developed technique. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were calculated. The data were imported in a Bayesian model for age estimation as described by Fieuws et al. (2016). This approach adequately handles correlation between age indicators and missing age indicators. It was used to calculate a point estimate and a prediction interval of the estimated age. Observed age minus predicted age was calculated, reflecting the error of the estimate. One-hundred and sixty-six third molars were agenetic. Five percent (51/1096) of upper third molars and 7% (70/1044) of lower third molars were not assessable. Kappa for inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.80. For intra-observer agreement kappa ranged from 0.80 to 0.89. However, two stage differences between observers or between staging sessions occurred in up to 2.2% (20/899) of assessments, probably due to a learning effect. Using the Bayesian model for age estimation, a mean absolute error of 2.0 years in females and 1.7 years in males was obtained. Root mean squared error equalled 2.38 years and 2.06 years respectively. The performance to

  19. LES Investigation of Wake Development in a Transonic Fan Stage for Aeroacoustic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Romeo, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Detailed development of the rotor wake and its interaction with the stator are investigated with a large eddy simulation (LES). Typical steady and unsteady Navier-Stokes approaches (RANS and URANS) do not calculate wake development accurately and do not provide all the necessary information for an aeroacoustic analysis. It is generally believed that higher fidelity analysis tools are required for an aeroacoustic investigation of transonic fan stages.

  20. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Yu, Yilan; Shi, Ruoyun; Xie, Guoyong; Zhu, Yan; Wu, Gang; Qin, Minjian

    2018-02-15

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensi s changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4'-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis .

  1. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensis changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4′-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis.

  2. Development of a Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh

    of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the evaluation of microbial load in tissues and vaccine efficacy (Article 4). Costimulation of vaccine-induced ex vivo T cells significantly increased IFN-γ levels following use of anti-CD28 and anti-CD49d antibodies (Article 2). Recombinant interleukin IL-12 (rIL-12) also...... to considerable economic losses to farming community. Paratuberculosis is a staged infection in which young calves acquire the infection in the first months of life, may progress into a prolonged asymptomatic stage of about 2-5 years and may eventually become clinically infected animals. Vaccination with whole......-cell live or inactivated vaccines prevents or delays the development of clinical stage of the disease but does not eliminate MAP and is usually accompanied by interference with bovine tuberculosis diagnostics as well as local tissue damage. Subunit vaccines with well-defined antigens in combination...

  3. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  4. Development and Testing of Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions for Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Defense (DOD) requirements, as well as those of the broader Commercial Space industry. For NASA, C-C nozzle extension technology development primarily supports the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) and NASA's Commercial Space partners. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) efforts are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases needed to enable the use of composite nozzle extensions on cryogenic upper stage engines, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing and qualifying composite nozzle extensions. Recent, on-going, and potential future work supporting NASA, DOD, and Commercial Space needs will be discussed. Information to be presented will include (a) recent and on-going mechanical, thermal, and hot-fire testing, as well as (b) potential future efforts to further develop and qualify domestic C-C nozzle extension solutions for the various upper stage engines under development.

  5. Development of a multi-stage cloud water collector. Part 1: Design and field performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.F.; Sherman, D.E.; Reilly, J.; Collett, J.L. Jr. [Colarado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Cloud chemistry can vary as a function of drop size. In order to investigate variations in chemical composition across the drop size spectrum, a new multi-stage cloud water collector was developed. The Colorado State University 5-Stage cloud water collector (CSU 5-Stage) separates drops, based upon the principles of cascade inertial impaction, into five different fractions. Its design incorporates many features to facilitate its use in the field, and maintain both consistent performance between varying atmospheric conditions and the chemical and physical integrity of the collected sample. Limited field tests indicate the CSU 5-Stage works reasonably within field measurement uncertainty, and its results are comparable to those from other cloud collectors and consistent with additional concurrent measurements. Data obtained using the CSU 5-Stage provide additional insight into drop size-dependent chemistry in fogs/clouds. These insights should result in an improved understanding of both the impact of clouds on the fate of atmospheric species, and cloud microphysics and dynamics.

  6. Sexual Violence Prevention: The Role of Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…

  7. Soil microbial community composition changes according to the tillage practice and plant development stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Dufrêne, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Taminiau, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms are abundant and diverse and can have both beneficial and adverse effects on crop growth. Some, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae, are well known to favor crop productivity and plant health. They are notably involved in key processes such as improving plant nutrient acquisition, and they also play major roles in stimulating plant growth and protecting plants against pathogens by producing bioactive substances. Conversely, both agricultural practices and the plant development stage are known to influence the physical and chemical properties of the soil and hence the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. Here we investigated the impact of both tillage practice (conventional versus reduced tillage) and plant development stage (germination versus flowering) on the microbial community composition of an agricultural soil supporting a faba bean crop. Samples were taken at a depth of 15-20 cm from a silty soil in Belgium. For bacteria, we observed significant shifts in community composition according to both factors. Some changes were strongly related to the plant development stage and others to the tillage practice. Some taxa, including Gemmatimonas, Xanthomonadaceae, and Sinobacteraceae, showed a higher relative abundance at the flowering stage than at the germination stage, but no effect of tillage practice. Other taxa, including Flovobacterium, Chitinophaga, and Luteolibacter, showed a higher relative abundance under conventional tillage than under reduced tillage, but no change according to the stage of plant development. For fungi, significant shifts in community composition were observed according to the plant development stage. No effect of tillage practice was observed. The relative abundances of certain taxa, including Chaetomium and Clavicipitaceae, were higher during germination than during flowering, whereas other taxa, including Minimedusa and Teberdinia, showed a higher relative abundance during

  8. [Development of a staging classification for leisure activities and social communication in dependent elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Jiro; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Higashi, Kentaro; Orimo, Kenichiro; Honma, Tatsuya; Nishiwaki, Keiko; Ando, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple staging classification to measure leisure activity and social communication among the elderly at geriatric health care facilities. In order to construct a staging scale for measuring the participation of the elderly subjects, we developed a list of 28 items for three domains: leisure activities, social participation and communication. Data were obtained from users of institutional and day care services at geriatric health service facilities. The Rasch model was applied to test the degree of item fit and difficulty. Simple staging scales were constructed based on 12 leisure activity and nine social communication items. The validity and reliability were tested using these newly developed scales according to the Rasch model and assessments of the test-retest reliability. The participants were 3,458 elderly persons, of whom 1,560 were currently using institutional services and 1,898 were using day care services. Among the 28 items, "traveling" was identified as the most difficult and "watching television" was identified as the easiest. Because items related to "social participation," such as volunteer activities, exhibited a low frequency, they were not used in the further analyses. Simple staging scales were constructed by analyzing the remaining items of leisure activities and social communication according to the Rasch model. The thresholds within the scales were determined in order of item difficulty. Cohen's kappa, as assessed by two different evaluators, was 0.75 for leisure activities and 0.77 for social communication. In this study, we developed staging scales for leisure activity and social communication. The construct validity and test-retest reliability were adequate for both scales. Service providers can improve service quality by using these scales for individual case management of elderly persons in conjunction with existing scales of activities of daily living.

  9. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11–12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left–right asymmetry specification. PMID:22308471

  10. PRINCIPLES, STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AT CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Valeriy Yurevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research performed in the field of innovative development of enterprises are provided, and the main principles and the content of each stage of innovative development of construction enterprises in the new economic environment are developed on the basis of the research. Actions, proposed in the article, will ensure the implementation of the strategy of innovative development with a view to effective attainment of objectives of case management and successful adaptation of construction enterprises to altering factors of the media.

  11. Science teachers' utilization of Internet and inquiry-based laboratory lessons after an Internet-delivered professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn Martell

    Much of the professional development in the past decades has been single incident experiences. The heart of inservice growth is the sustained development of current knowledge and practices, vital in science education, as reflected in the National Science Education Standards' inquiry and telecommunications components. This study was an exploration of an Internet-delivered professional development experience, utilizing multiple session interactive real-time data sources and semester-long sustained telementoring. Two groups of inservice teachers participated in the study, with only one group receiving a telementored coaching component. Measures of the dependent variable (delivery of an inquiry-based laboratory lesson sequence) were obtained by videotape, and predictive variables (self-analysis of teaching style and content delivery interviews) were administered to the forty veteran secondary school science teacher volunteers. Results showed that teachers in the group receiving semester-long coaching performed significantly better on utilizing the Internet for content research and inquiry-based lesson sequence delivery than the group not receiving the coaching. Members of the coached group were able to select a dedicated listserv, e-mail, chatline or telephone as the medium of coaching. While the members of the coached group used the listserv, the overwhelming preference was to be coached via the telephone. Qualitative analysis indicated that the telephone was selected for its efficiency of time, immediacy of response, and richer dialogue. Perceived barriers to the implementation of the Internet as a real-time data source in science classrooms included time for access, obsolesce of equipment, and logistics of computer to student ratios. These findings suggest that the group of science teachers studied (1) benefited from a sustained coaching experience for inquiry-based lesson delivery, (2) perceived the Internet as a source of content for their curriculum rather than a

  12. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Nam, Tran Hoai; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This report constitutes Stage 18 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The objective of the research program is to contribute to the strategic research goal of competence and research capacity by building up competence within the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, regarding reactor physics, reactor dynamics and noise diagnostics. The purpose is also to contribute to the research goal of giving a basis for SSM's supervision by developing methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. Results up to Stage 17 were reported in SKI and SSM reports, as listed in the report's summary

  13. A Product Analysis Method and its Staging to Develop Redesign Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2013-01-01

    Most product development work in industrial practice is incremental, i.e. the company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design an upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires that the engineering designers have competences to carry...... through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented and a technical perspective, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the upgraded variant. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign we have developed a product analysis method and a staging of it, which seems...... to be very productive. In this paper we present the product analysis method and its staging and we reflect on the students’ application of it. We conclude that the method is a valid contribution to develop the students’ redesign competences....

  14. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  15. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  16. Assessing level of development and successional stages in biological soil crusts with biological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2013-08-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) perform vital ecosystem services, but the difference in biological components or developmental level still affects the rate and type of these services. In order to differentiate crust successional stages in quantity and analyze the relationship between crust developmental level and successional stages, this work determined several biological indicators in a series of different developmental BSCs in the Shapotou region of China. The results showed that crust developmental level (level of development index) can be well indicated by crust biological indicators. Photosynthetic biomass was the most appropriate to differentiate crust successional stages, although both photosynthetic biomass and respiration intensity increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Based on of the different biological compositions, BSCs were quantificationally categorized into different successional stages including cyanobacterial crusts (lichen and moss coverages 20 % but moss coverage 20 % but 75 %). In addition, it was found that cyanobacterial and microalgal biomass first increased as cyanobacterial crusts formed, then decreased when lots of mosses emerged on the crust surface; however nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes increased in the later developmental BSCs. The structural adjustment of biological components in the different developmental BSCs may reflect the requirement of crust survival and material transition.

  17. Risk identification for quality on stage of pharmaceutical development of combined eye drops for glaucoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Миколайович Якубчук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the possible risks associated with critical quality attribute of combined eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma using of common risk evaluation methodologies for plannig a drug quality on the stage of pharmaceutical development. Methods: The paper used method of causal analysis. The maximal number of factors has been define to identify potential factors that provide most significant impact on the drug quality and Ishikawa diagram - graphical representation of causes and effects has been built.Results: Analysis allowed to organize the possible factors affecting the drug quality in the generalized categories: quality control methods, medicines and excipients, primary packaging, proper manufacturing conditions and the stage of the process. The most important factors that are carriers of the risk factors and may lead to negative effects have been identified for the generalized categories.Conclusions: Determined at the stage of pharmaceutical development potential critical quality attribute of AFI, excipients and primary packaging, critical parameters of the process, provide a better understanding, reduction and adoption of risk in subsequent stages of the life cycle of the drug

  18. Microtubule Reorganization during Mitosis and Cytokinesis: Lessons Learned from Developing Microgametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eLiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, mitosis and cytokinesis take place in the absence of structurally defined microtubule-organizing centers and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In the spindle and phragmoplast, microtubule reorganization depends on microtubule-interacting factors like the -tubulin complex. Because of their critical functions in cell division, loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes are often homozygous or sporophytic lethal. However, a number of mutations like gem1, gcp2, and nedd1 can be maintained in heterozygous mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. When mutant microspores produced by a heterozygous parent undergo pollen mitosis I, they are amenable for phenotypic characterization by fluorescence microscopy. The results would allow us to pinpoint at specific functions of particular proteins in microtubule reorganization that are characteristic to specific stages of mitosis and cytokinesis. Conclusions made in the developing microgametophytes can be extrapolated to somatic cells regarding mechanisms that regulate nuclear migration, spindle pole formation, phragmoplast assembly, and cell division plane determination.

  19. Development of a nomogram combining clinical staging with 18F-FDG PET/CT image features in non-small-cell lung cancer stage I-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desseroit, Marie-Charlotte; Visvikis, Dimitris; Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Tixier, Florent; Perdrisot, Remy; Cheze Le Rest, Catherine; Guillevin, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a nomogram by exploiting intratumour heterogeneity on CT and PET images from routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT acquisitions to identify patients with the poorest prognosis. This retrospective study included 116 patients with NSCLC stage I, II or III and with staging 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Primary tumour volumes were delineated using the FLAB algorithm and 3D Slicer trademark on PET and CT images, respectively. PET and CT heterogeneities were quantified using texture analysis. The reproducibility of the CT features was assessed on a separate test-retest dataset. The stratification power of the PET/CT features was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The best standard metric (functional volume) was combined with the least redundant and most prognostic PET/CT heterogeneity features to build the nomogram. PET entropy and CT zone percentage had the highest complementary values with clinical stage and functional volume. The nomogram improved stratification amongst patients with stage II and III disease, allowing identification of patients with the poorest prognosis (clinical stage III, large tumour volume, high PET heterogeneity and low CT heterogeneity). Intratumour heterogeneity quantified using textural features on both CT and PET images from routine staging 18 F-FDG PET/CT acquisitions can be used to create a nomogram with higher stratification power than staging alone. (orig.)

  20. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit

    2009-12-01

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  1. Lessons learned from Orinoco belt's first developments : the impact of meteoritic waters on fields' development plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, D. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dal, M.; Brousse, R.; Bois, M. [Total, Calgary, AB (Canada); Draoui, E [Petrocedeno, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Despite the huge oil accumulations in Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt, the current recoveries are below 2 per cent in all 4 areas developed thus far, which is typical of a low maturity, high stakes basin with a steep learning curve. This paper reported on a study of the Petrocedeno field in the Junin region of the oil belt to determine key parameters for development. One of the main lessons learned was the importance of contemporary low-salinity meteoritic water invasions flushing parts of the reservoir, with first-order consequences on water production profiles and oil quality. Large volumes of oil were found to be dynamically connected to the flushed zone, which can be efficiently developed through cold production. The large volumes of oil located directly above the flushed zone cannot be recovered through cold production because of lower extra heavy oil quality and because of the larger impact of unfavourable oil/water mobility ratios so close to mobile water. The flushed zone itself is hydrocarbon bearing, with oil saturation as high as 70 per cent. Continuous progress has been made in terms of understanding the nature and spatial distribution of flushed areas, and assessing their impact on natural depletion schemes. It was concluded that this study may help new developments to benefit from previously learned lessons and optimize the recovery strategy on the Orinoco basin assets. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Developing Research Collaborations in an Academic Clinical Setting: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahs, John A; Nicasio, Andel V; Storey, Joan E; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Research collaboration in "real world" practice settings may enhance the meaningfulness of the findings and reduce barriers to implementation of novel intervention strategies. This study describes an initiative to integrate research into a hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic within an academic medical center, focusing on collaborative processes across three research projects. We report on the varied outcomes of the projects and utilize data from two focus groups to identify the key elements that contributed to the challenges and successes. We identify barriers to practice-research collaborations that emerged even when the initial circumstances of the partnership were favorable. These barriers include the presence of varied agendas across clinicians and investigators, resource constraints, limited staff buy-in, and staff turnover. In highlighting the lessons learned in this collaborative process, we hope to facilitate successful partnerships in other clinical settings.

  3. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  4. A sporozoite asparagine-rich protein controls initiation of Plasmodium liver stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Silvie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium sporozoites invade host hepatocytes and develop as liver stages (LS before the onset of erythrocytic infection and malaria symptoms. LS are clinically silent, and constitute ideal targets for causal prophylactic drugs and vaccines. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying LS development remain poorly characterized. Here we describe a conserved Plasmodium asparagine-rich protein that is specifically expressed in sporozoites and liver stages. Gene disruption in Plasmodium berghei results in complete loss of sporozoite infectivity to rodents, due to early developmental arrest after invasion of hepatocytes. Mutant sporozoites productively invade host cells by forming a parasitophorous vacuole (PV, but subsequent remodelling of the membrane of the PV (PVM is impaired as a consequence of dramatic down-regulation of genes encoding PVM-resident proteins. These early arrested mutants confer only limited protective immunity in immunized animals. Our results demonstrate the role of an asparagine-rich protein as a key regulator of Plasmodium sporozoite gene expression and LS development, and suggest a requirement of partial LS maturation to induce optimal protective immune responses against malaria pre-erythrocytic stages. These findings have important implications for the development of genetically attenuated parasites as a vaccine approach.

  5. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia; Guerra, Marcelo; Colaco, Waldeciro; Meunier, Isabelle; Camara, Terezinha R.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F 1 ) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F 2 ) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 5.0 mg L -1 KIN and 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 1.0 mg L -1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  6. Lessons Learned from Cosmic Serpent, a professional development project for informal educators on science and native ways of knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Maryboy, N.; Begay, D.; Paglierani, R.

    2010-12-01

    How can one engage native communities and the public alike in understanding nature and our universe? Our approach has been to bring together practitioners at informal science centers, cultural museums, and tribal museums to develop relationships cross culturally, learn about different ways of studying and learning about nature and our universe, and start to develop informal education programs or exhibits at their institution through their new understandings and peer networks. The design of the grant has been to provide an initial week-long professional development workshop in a region in the Western U.S. with a follow-up workshop in that region the following year, culminating in a final conference for all participants. We focus on three regions: the southwest (SW - Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado); the northwest (Alaska, Washington, and Oregon); and California. We are in our fourth year of our four year grant and have in this time organized and run three regional week-long workshops and two follow-up workshops (in the SW and NW). We have learned many lessons through this work, including: the importance of incorporating workshop participants as presenters in the workshop agenda; how the content of astronomy, earth science, ecology, and health resonates with these museum professionals and can easily be discussed with different world views in this type of cross cultural science education; and how to best present different ways of knowing how nature and our universe work (science) in a manner that provides a context for science educators and museum professionals. In our poster presentation, we will share these and other lessons we have learned from the leadership perspective of bringing together such a diverse and under-represented-in-science group of educators.

  7. Stages of flower bud development in Iris pumila and between-habitat morphological differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barišić-Klisarić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity and between-population differentiation in flower morphometric traits of Iris pumila in response to environmental variability between natural shade and exposed habitats. Since these habitats differed in flowering times as well, in this work we investigated at which stages of flower bud development differences between open and shaded habitats start to appear. Our analysis detected several groups of trait development patterns through the I. pumila bud development in two contrasting habitats, with stem length being the most suitable trait for application in further analyses of so-called “shade avoidance syndrome���.

  8. APPROACHES TO DETERMINING THE STAGES OF THE LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS DEVELOPMENT IN WESTERN UKRAINE (1867-1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Labinska, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    The article under discussion focuses on scientific works, dedicated to the development of language teaching methods. We have analysed the criteria for singling out the stages of contemporary scholars’ methods of development and created our own criteria regarding language teaching methods in Western Ukraine (1867-1939). According to the selected criteria, we have determined the basic stages of development methods on a particular territory, in a specific chronological framework: stage I – 1867–...

  9. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders; Demaziere, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, in the frame of a research contract with the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), contract No. SSM 2009/2093. The present report is based on work performed by Imre Pazsit, Victor Dykin, Anders Jonsson and Christophe Demaziere, with Imre Pazsit being the project leader. This report describes the results obtained during Stage 16 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of Stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50, Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996). Results up to Stage 15 were reported in (Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Demaziere et al, 2004; Sunde et al, 2006; Pazsit et al. 2008, 2009). A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in Stage 17 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 16 consists of four parts as follows: - An overview of the present status of experience with BWR stability; - An investigation of the significance of the properties of the noise source for BWR instability; - Study of the dynamics of molten salt systems: construction of the adjoint and calculating the space dependent noise induced by propagating perturbations in the fuel; - A specific study of some novel methods of analysis of non-linear and non-stationary processes

  10. The attitudinal and cognitive effects of interdisciplinary collaboration on elementary pre-service teachers development of biological science related lesson plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jada Jamerson

    There is a need for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to be taught effectively in elementary schools. In order to achieve this, teacher preparation programs should graduate confident, content strong teachers to convey knowledge to elementary students. This study used interdisciplinary collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Liberal Arts through a Learning-by-Teaching method (LdL): Lernen durch Lernen in German. Pre-service teacher (PST) achievement levels of understanding science concepts based on pretest and posttest data, quality of lesson plans developed, and enjoyment of the class based on the collaboration with science students. The PSTs enrolled in two treatment sections of EDEL 404: Science in the Elementary Classroom collaborated with science students enrolled in BISC 327: Introductory Neuroscience to enhance their science skills and create case-based lesson plans on neurothology topics: echolocation, electrosensory reception, steroid hormones, and vocal learning. The PSTs enrolled in the single control section of EDEL 404 collaborated with fellow elementary education majors to develop lesson plans also based on the same selected topics. Qualitative interviews of education faculty, science faculty, and PSTs provided depth to the quantitative findings. Upon lesson plan completion, in-service teachers also graded the two best and two worst plans for the treatment and control sections and a science reviewer graded the plans for scientific accuracy. Statistical analyses were conducted for hypotheses, and one significant hypothesis found that PSTs who collaborated with science students had more positive science lesson plan writing attitudes than those who did not. Despite overall insignificant statistical analyses, all PSTs responded as more confident after collaboration. Additionally, interviews provided meaning and understanding to the insignificant statistical results as well as scientific accuracy of

  11. Can videogames be used to develop the infant stage educational curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Marín Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of videogames is not too common due to their consideration as an element that interferes with the educational and learning process. Thus, few teachers are ready to include videogames as didactic tools. Nevertheless, some educators who consider that they have a potential to become didactic tools are progressively adopting videogames as part of their teaching strategies. This paper presents the result of an academic experiment conducted with university students from the degree of Primary Education. The initial step in this experience consisted in determining whether videogames could be seen as another of the many tools employed to develop the infant stage educational curriculum. A survey was developed in order to achieve this goal. The interviewees answered this survey in two different stages, providing as a result that these future teachers would definitely be willing to incorporate videogames in their classrooms once they have been trained to do so.

  12. Multi-stage subunit vaccine development against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Johne’s disease in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    paratuberculosis provide only partial protection and interfere with diagnostic tests for JD and surveillance for bovine TB. In contrast, recombinant subunit vaccines can be designed to be used without compromising control of bTB and Map. Taking advantage of data from mouse TB studies, and early Map vaccination......- and field-studies we developed a vaccine with a single recombinant fusion protein comprising four acute-stage antigens (Ags) and one latent-stage Ag formulated in adjuvant (FET-vaccine). In post-exposure vaccination of calves and goats with necropsy 8-12 months post inoculation, we determined...... in macrophages. The disease progression is very slow with neonatal animals being the most susceptible to infection, but without development of detectable IFN-γ responses for months after infection and rarely with clinical disease before the second or third year of life. Available whole cell vaccines against...

  13. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  14. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, Nikolay A.; Ryzhkov, Alexander F.

    2017-10-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE) and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C) steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  15. The development of DIOS FXT (Four-stage X-ray Telescope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Kurebayashi, Yuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Sakurai, Ikuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Matsushita, Kohji

    2010-07-01

    A small satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor ) is planned to observe the warm-hot intergalactic medium ( WHIM ) of a few millions of degree, by mapping the redshifted emission lines of oxygen. FXT( Four Stage X-ray Telescope) has been developed as the best fit optics for DIOS. The X-ray measurement of the first demonstration model showed a few time larger angular resolution than designed value and compact optical measurement systems for each stage single mirror were made to clarify the reason of worse performance. We will report on the present status of the development of FXT including compact optical measurement system and reexamination of the process of replica foil mirror fabrication.

  16. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock David W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. Results We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. Conclusion We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution.

  17. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    of spatial variability of the hydraulic properties within soil layers and horizontal versus vertical anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity of soils. For the deformation zones, the same prescription for assigning transmissivities was followed as for stage 2.2, but a new method for automating the local conditioning of the deformation zone transmissivity in the vicinity of a measurement interval was used. The numerical simulations carried out in stage 2.2 demonstrated that the three geological units: deformation zones, fracture domains and regolith, can be parameterised by means of single-hole hydraulic tests and satisfactorily transformed into heterogeneous hydraulic conductor domains (HCD), hydraulic rock mass domains (HRD) and hydraulic soil domains (HSD). This means that the conceptual model developed from the interpretation of Forsmark data in stage 2.2 can be used to predict a wide range of different types of data and processes such as 1) large-scale cross-hole test responses, 2) natural point-water heads in the bedrock and the regolith, and 3) hydrochemistry profiles along the many cored boreholes drilled in close proximity to the so called target area. It is noted that a primary idea of the confirmatory testing applied in stage 2.2 is that the same groundwater flow and solute transport model is used for each type of simulation to make it transparent that a single implementation of the conceptual model could be calibrated against all three types of field observations, although it may have been possible to improve the modelling of a particular data type by refining the model around a relevant observation borehole, for example. The conceptual modelling in stage 2.2 invoked a number of hypotheses, three of which that were addressed in stage 2.3 by means of complementary field investigations (hydraulic tests). The results from these investigations do not falsify (contradict) any of the three hypotheses, hence none of them should be rejected. In fact, the three

  18. Agile Product Development Governance – On Governing the Emerging Scrum/Stage-Gate Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Anita,; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; Product Development (PD) management is changing through the emergence and implementation of agile principles into existing PD frameworks. This process changes PD governance assets, even though this aspect is not yet described in existing literature. Thus, this paper introduces PD governance of agile/stage-gate hybrid solutions through a comparative study including five case companies supported by a review of existing literature....

  19. Isoflavone and protein content in soybeans grains submitted to flooding at different stages of development

    OpenAIRE

    Fante,Camila Argenta; Goulart,Patrícia de Fátima Pereira; Alves,José Donizeti; Henrique,Paôla de Castro; Fries,Daniela Deitos

    2011-01-01

    The stress imposed on plants by soil flooding constitutes a major barrier to growth and productivity. The identification of soybean varieties that produce higher levels of isoflavones, is necessary as soybeans have been used as human food to reduce risks of chronic diseases. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective of quantifying proteins and isoflavones in soybean cultivars subjected to flooding at various stages of development. The cultivars 'BRS267', 'BRS257' and 'BRS213' were sub...

  20. Stages of recovery in early psychosis: Associations with symptoms, function, and narrative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Geneviève; Lecomte, Tania; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to explore the links between recovery stages, symptoms, function, and narrative development among individuals with a recent onset of psychosis. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted including quantitative data at baseline. Forty-seven participants were administered the Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview three times over 9 months and content analysis was performed. Participants also completed the Social Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale--Expanded, the California Verbal Learning Test, and the Trailing Making Test at baseline. Descriptive discriminant analysis was performed. Results suggested that participants were mostly in the first two stages of recovery (moratorium, awareness) and that being in the awareness, rather than moratorium, stage was associated, to a different extent, with richer narrative development, better levels of psychosocial function, less negative and positive symptoms, and more years of education. Furthermore, recovery appeared to be a stable process over the assessment period. Recovery is a complex concept including objective and subjective aspects. In the recovery path of persons recently diagnosed with psychosis, social engagement, narrative development, and occupational functioning seem to be particularly important aspects. This study is a first step, and future research is needed with larger and more diverse participant pools, and assessments conducted over longer periods of time. As greater level of social engagement was the most robust predictor of membership in the awareness versus moratorium stage, treatment of early psychosis should include interventions targeting social relations and social skills. As greater narrative development was the second most robust predictor, enhancing it via psychotherapy could be a pertinent clinical goal. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Three Global Land Cover and Use Stage considering Environmental Condition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, C.; Moon, J.; Ryu, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between around 30° - 60° latitude. This zone is a home to over more than 50% of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal regions which host most of the global problems related to development and poverty. Mid-Latitude region and its ecotone demands in-depth analysis, however, latitudinal approach has not been widely recognized, considering that many of natural resources and environment indicators, as well as social and economic indicators are based on administrative basis or by country and regional boundaries. This study sets the land cover change and use stage based on environmental condition and economic development. Because various land cover and use among the regions, form vegetated parts of East Asia and Mediterranean to deserted parts of Central Asia, the forest area was varied between countries. In addition, some nations such as North Korea, Afghanistan, Pakistan showed decreasing trends in forest area whereas some nations showed increasing trends in forest area. The economic capacity for environmental activities and policies for restoration were different among countries. By adopting the standard from IMF or World Bank, developing and developed counties were classified. Based on the classification, this study suggested the land cover and use stages as degradation, restoration, and sustainability. As the degradation stage, the nations which had decreasing forest area with less environmental restoration capacity based on economic size were selected. As the restoration stage, the nation which had increasing forest area or restoration capacity were selected. In the case of the sustainability, the nation which had enough restoration capacity with increasing forest area or small ratio in forest area decreasing were selected. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that regions of Mid-Latitudes are facing, grouping by

  2. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  3. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  4. The History of Education Institutions in Developed Countries has Lessons for the Reform of the System of Higher Education in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2007-01-01

    Universities in African countries are widely considered to be a colonial relic that is in desperate need of reform. This article argues that useful lessons for such a reform may be drawn from the developed countries' own education institution policy debates and history, especially as those relate...

  5. Interrelations in the Development of Primary School Learners' Creative Imagination and Creative Activity When Depicting a Portrait in Visual Art Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlahova, Aleksandra; Volonte, Ilze; Cacka, Maris

    2017-01-01

    Creative imagination is a psychic process of creating a new original image, idea or art work based on the acquired knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as on the experience of creative activity. The best of all primary school learners' creative imagination develops at the lessons of visual art, aimed at teaching them to understand what is…

  6. An embryonic staging table for in ovo development of Eublepharis macularius, the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Patrick A D; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Russell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    Squamates constitute a major vertebrate radiation, representing almost one-third of all known amniotes. Although speciose and morphologically diverse, they remain poorly represented in developmental studies. Here, we present an embryonic staging table of in ovo development for the basal gekkotan Eublepharis macularius (the leopard gecko) and advocate this species as a laboratory-appropriate developmental model. E. macularius, is a hardy and tractable species of relatively large body size (with concomitantly relatively large eggs and embryos), that is widely available and easy to maintain and propagate. Additionally, E. macularius displays a body plan appropriate to the study of the plesiomorphic quadrupedal condition of early pentadactylous terrestrial amniotes. Although not unexpected, it is worth noting that the morphological events characterizing limb development in E. macularius are comparable with those described for the avian Gallus gallus. Therefore, E. macularius holds great promise as a model for developmental studies focusing on pentadactyly and the formation of digits. Furthermore, it is also attractive as a developmental model because it demonstrates temperature-dependent sex determination. The staging table presented herein is based on an all-female series and represents the entire 52 day in ovo period. Overall, embryogenesis of E. macularius is similar to that of other squamates in terms of developmental stage attained at the time of oviposition, patterns of limb and pharyngeal arch development, and features of the appearance of scalation and pigmentation, indicative of a conserved developmental program. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage. PMID:22074416

  8. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  9. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-11-10

    The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  10. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  11. Scaling-up Strategy as an Appropriate Approach for Sustainable New Town Development? Lessons from Wujin, Changzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved rapid urbanization and unprecedented economic booming over the past three decades. Numerous cities and towns dreamed of cloning the miracles of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai, in terms of their international development. However, inappropriate development strategies have meant that the majority of fast expanding urban suburbs or newly developed towns suffer a high ratio of vacant dwellings in real estate markets and a massive loss of farmland. The frequent exposure of these empty cities to mass media or the public has urged urban governments to impose fiscal austerity. These unexpected and negative consequences of urban development have explicit conflicts with sustainability. This paper aims to provide a political economy view of these unsustainable outcomes of new development. To achieve this, the processes and agendas of new city or town planning in Wujin District, Changzhou City, are analyzed and evaluated from the perspective of scale theory. Extensive interviews conducted with local politicians at different levels, planners, real estate agents and local residents facilitate the interpretation of these processes and agendas. It is argued that the legends of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai originate from a modified neoliberal capitalism intervention at the right time and place, with which other peer cities are not comparable. It is concluded that the scaling-up strategy is not appropriate for the local new town development of Wujin, which has led to unsustainable outcomes—empty cities and towns—and created important lessons for the sustainable development of Chinese cities.

  12. Development of an international schedule for the assessment and staging of care for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Burns, Alistair; Djukic-Dejanovic, Slavica; Eraslan, Defne; Han, Changsu; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Lobo, Antonio; Mihai, Adriana; Morris, Julie; Palumbo, Claudia; Robert, Philippe; Stiens, Gerthild; Stoppe, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-01-01

    A reliable and valid global staging scale has been lacking within dementia care. To develop an easy-to-use multi-dimensional clinical staging schedule for dementia. The schedule was developed through: i) Two series of focus groups (40 and 48 participants, respectively) in Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and UK with a multi-disciplinary group of professionals working within dementia care, to assess the need for a dementia-staging tool and to obtain suggestions on its design and characteristics; ii) A pilot-study over three rounds to test inter-rater reliability of the newly developed schedule using written case histories, with five members of the project's steering committee and 27 of their colleagues from Netherlands, France, and Spain as participants; and iii) A field-study to test the schedule's inter-rater reliability in clinical practice in France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Turkey, South Korea, Romania, and Serbia, which included 209 dementia patients and 217 of their caregivers as participants. Focus group participants indicated a clear need for a culture-fair international dementia staging scale and reached consensus on face validity and content validity. Accordingly, the schedule has been composed of seven dimensions including behavioral, cognitive, physical, functional, social, and care aspects. Overall, the schedule showed adequate face validity, content validity, and inter-rater reliability; in the nine field-sites, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; absolute agreement) for individual dimensions ranged between 0.38 and 1.0, with 84.4% of ICCs over 0.7. ICCs for total sum scores ranged between 0.89 and 0.99 in the nine field-sites. The IDEAL schedule looks promising as tool for the clinical and social management of people with dementia globally, though further reliability and validity testing is needed.

  13. Exploring the Use of Lesson Study to Develop Elementary Preservice Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Carter, Ingrid; Galindo, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This study explored a modified version of Japanese Lesson Study to determine whether and how it influenced preservice elementary teachers in their abilities to deliver science lessons that included nature of science (NOS) to their own students. We used a case study approach that focused on one subset of a cohort of preservice elementary teachers…

  14. Common user considerations (CUC) by developing countries for future nuclear energy systems: Report of stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication collects and summarizes the opinions of experts from developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants in the near term, or are making projections for the deployment of nuclear power plants in the next 40 years (up to 2050). It is intended to establish an early dialogue between these countries (called technology users or user countries here) and the countries that already possess nuclear technology capabilities (called technology holders here). It can also be used in conjunction with other IAEA publications to address institutional and infrastructure needs, to foster the development of additional nuclear energy systems, or as the basis for discussion or domestic planning of the step by step process for the deployment of a new nuclear power plant that in some cases may be the first. The publication also provides substantial background information collected by the IAEA regarding additional characteristics and expectations of these countries. The countries addressed in this publication were selected using the World Bank's definition of developing economies. The countries included have also given an indication of interest in developing or deploying new nuclear power plants. Countries that already have a significant ongoing nuclear programme (e.g. China and India) were excluded. This publication was prepared by the IAEA with inputs from about two hundred experts from the countries that participated in this activity. The process used to develop the publication involved multiple meetings between the IAEA and experts from 35 countries. Additional input from experts from some of the countries defined as the technology holders was also included at different steps of the process. The process was intended to develop a consensus and this publication represents an agreement among the experts from the many different countries and organizations represented at the different steps. The publication incorporated lessons learned from user

  15. Links between Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Development in Land Policy and Ecosystem Restoration Projects: Lessons from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Favretto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Links between climate change adaptation, mitigation and development co-benefits in land policy and ecosystem restoration projects are hampered by limited understanding of how multi-faceted policy, institutions and projects interact. This paper explores perceptions of co-benefits produced by two community-level projects that pursue ecosystem restoration in South Africa. It develops a new analytical framework to assess the enabling and constraining factors in delivering triple wins for adaptation, mitigation and development. The aim is to investigate the potential for integrating community perspectives into policy and project development and implementation. Data collected through mixed-methods (policy analysis, semi-structured interviews, participatory site visits and focus groups are analysed using thematic analysis. We find that while the projects investigated have potential to deliver triple wins, siloed approaches presently hinder effective implementation. In particular, project focus on job creation hampers the achievement of longer-term mitigation and adaptation benefits. Operational flexibility, long-term goals, multi-sectoral cooperation and enabling frameworks are imperative to the achievement of triple wins. Findings provide valuable lessons that can be applied across sub-Saharan Africa towards achieving triple wins in climate and development policy and practice, especially those developed with job creation and ecological restoration aims.

  16. Differential expressed protein in developing stages of Nepenthes gracilis Korth. pitcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Krit; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Mokkamul, Piya

    2009-03-15

    Nepenthes gracilis Korth. is a member of carnivorous plants in family Nepenthaceae. The plants have beautiful and economically important pitchers. It is interesting to study the protein(s) correlated with the pitcher. Crude proteins were extracted from leaf, leaf with developing pitcher and developed pitcher of the same plant and analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two protein bands with molecular weights of 42.7 and 38 kDa were obtained from young leaf and leaf with developing pitcher, respectively. The 42.7 kDa protein was identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), but the 38 kDa band is an unknown protein. Both proteins were differentially expressed in each developing stage of the pitcher, thus may be powerful candidates play role in development pathway of leaf and pitcher.

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism in floral structures of Lilium pumilum in different development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Nayana de Sousa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lilium pumilum is a species that stands out in floriculture for presenting orange inflorescences that attract the consumer. This study thus aimed at characterizing the carbohydrate metabolism of floral structures of L. pumilum in different development stages. For this purpose, carbohydrate levels (total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, and starch, at different floral stages (E0 - bud with no color; E1 - bud at early coloring; E2 - orange bud; E3 - open flower; E4 - senescent flower were quantified after extraction with ethanol. Lilium pumilum flowers showed high energy potential during floral opening and senescence; total soluble sugars were the main carbohydrates present in the species, reducing with the floral development, and the same occurred with the non-reducing sugar and starch contents. The reducing-sugar content increased with the floral stages. Therefore, this species presents great mobilization of compounds, which are utilized in the production of energy that is employed in floral opening.

  18. Scrum integration in stage-gate models for collaborative product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Slavensky, Andreas; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of collaborative Product Development (PD) is rising with the decrease of product life cycles combined with growing customer demands. Industrial manufacturers now experience competition in the global market, where differentiation is necessary for survival. Hence, in order...... to differentiate from low-cost competitors and increase PD performance, some industrial manufacturers now seek competitive advantage by experimenting with new ways for collaborative PD. This includes integrating customer-focused agile process models, like Scrum, from the software industry into their existing PD...... models. Thus, instead of replacing traditional stage-gate models agile methods are currently integrated in existing PD models generating hybrid solution for collaborative PD. This paper includes a study of three industrial cases that have successfully integrated Scrum into a stage-gate process model...

  19. Development of the Four-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) for the DIOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sakurai, Ikuya; Sugita, Satoshi; Takizawa, Shunya; Babazaki, Yasunori; Nakamichi, Ren; Bandai, Ayako; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Hayashi, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    A Four-stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best-fit optics for the Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) mission, a small satellite mission for mapping observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The FXT mirrors are based on a conical approximation of the Wolter-I design, fabrication technique used in the Suzaku satellite. We made the second FXT demonstration model, in which we installed 4 sets of 4 stage mirrors with diameter of about 500 mm using alignment plate. Both optical and X-ray measurement were done to estimate FXT performance. Although angular resolution is two to three times worse than that of the requirement and the goal, the field of view and the effective area are consistent with expected performance derived by the ray tracing simulation.

  20. The development of pneumoconiosis and its final stages in miners of the Karvina district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochmon, O.; Kratochvil, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The authors studied 63 retired miners from the Ostrava- Karvina coal mines who had a complicated form of pneumoco niosis. They had been repeatedly hospitalized in the department for tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, mostly because of a complicated respiratory illness. Under conditions of the Ostrava-Karvina mines, pneumoco niosis develops rapidly in proportion to the dust pollution the miners are exposed to. In the above 63 miners pneumoconiosis was in an advanced stage (type B and C according to the Geneva classification). The disease progressed most rapidly (within 10 years) in the group of drifters. Chronic bronchitis was found in 44% of the patients, lung emphysema in 56%, cor pulmonale in 57% of cases. The gravest complications in retired miners with an advanced stage of pneumoconiosis were exacerbated chronic bronchitis and bronchopneumonia endangering the lives of the patients.

  1. Development of a Rotating Rake Array for Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Fan-Stage Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, John D.; Arend, David J.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet/Distortion Tolerant Fan wind tunnel experiment at NASA Glenn Research Center's 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) examined the performance of a novel inlet and fan stage that was designed to ingest the vehicle boundary layer in order to take advantage of a predicted overall propulsive efficiency benefit. A key piece of the experiment's instrumentation was a pair of rotating rake arrays located upstream and downstream of the fan stage. This paper examines the development of these rake arrays. Pre-test numerical solutions were sampled to determine placement and spacing for rake pressure and temperature probes. The effects of probe spacing and survey density on the repeatability of survey measurements was examined. These data were then used to estimate measurement uncertainty for the adiabatic efficiency.

  2. [Development and evolution of a balanced scorecard in primary health care: Lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé-Benito, E; Jiménez-Carramiñana, J; Sánchez-Perruca, L; Bartolomé-Casado, M S; Dominguez-Mandueño, A B; Marti-Argandoña, M; Hernández-Pascual, M; Miquel-Gómez, A

    To describe the design, implementation, and monitoring of eSOAP (Primary Health Care Balanced Scorecard) and its role in the deployment of strategic objectives and clinical management, as well as to show the lessons learned during six years of follow-up. Descriptive study areas: methodology (conceptual framework, strategic matrix, strategic map, and processes map), technology and standardisation. As of December 2014, 9,046 (78%) professionals are registered in eSOAP. A total of 381 indicators were measured from 16 data sources, of which 36% were of results (EFQM model), 39.1% of clinical management, and 20% were included in the Program Centre Contract. The Balanced Scorecard has enabled to deploy all strategic lines of Primary Health Care, and has enabled the healthcare professionals to evaluate the evolution of results over time, and at patient level (e.g. 16% increase in control of diabetic patients). A total of 295,779 reports were generated and 13,080 professionals were evaluated by goals. There was an increased use of the eSOAP application by the professionals. The Balanced Scorecard was the key in deploying Primary Health Care strategies. It has helped clinical management and improved relevant indicators (health, patient experience, and costs), such as the management models that we used as references (EFQM Kaplan and Norton), and new emerging scenarios (Triple aim). Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The IceCube Data Acquisition Software: Lessons Learned during Distributed, Collaborative, Multi-Disciplined Software Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Keith S; Beattie, Keith; Day Ph.D., Christopher; Glowacki, Dave; Hanson Ph.D., Kael; Jacobsen Ph.D., John; McParland, Charles; Patton Ph.D., Simon

    2007-09-21

    In this experiential paper we report on lessons learned during the development ofthe data acquisition software for the IceCube project - specifically, how to effectively address the unique challenges presented by a distributed, collaborative, multi-institutional, multi-disciplined project such as this. While development progress in software projects is often described solely in terms of technical issues, our experience indicates that non- and quasi-technical interactions play a substantial role in the effectiveness of large software development efforts. These include: selection and management of multiple software development methodologies, the effective useof various collaborative communication tools, project management structure and roles, and the impact and apparent importance of these elements when viewed through the differing perspectives of hardware, software, scientific and project office roles. Even in areas clearly technical in nature, success is still influenced by non-technical issues that can escape close attention. In particular we describe our experiences on software requirements specification, development methodologies and communication tools. We make observations on what tools and techniques have and have not been effective in this geographically disperse (including the South Pole) collaboration and offer suggestions on how similarly structured future projects may build upon our experiences.

  4. Can You Haiku? [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students learn the rules and conventions of haiku, study examples by Japanese masters, and create haiku of their own. Its 4 lessons seek to help students be able to: (1) describe the traditional rules and conventions of haiku; (2) interpret examples of haiku; (3) characterize the image-evoking power of haiku; (4) develop a…

  5. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  6. Implementing US Department of Energy lessons learned programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The DOE Lessons Learned Handbook is a two-volume publication developed to supplement the DOE Lessons Learned Standard (DOE-STD-7501-95) with information that will organizations in developing or improving their lessons learned programs. Volume 1 includes greater detail than the Standard in areas such as identification and documentation of lessons learned; it also contains sections on specific processes such as training and performance measurement. Volume 2 (this document) contains examples of program documents developed by existing lessons learned programs as well as communications material, functional categories, transmittal documents, sources of professional and industry lessons learned, and frequently asked questions about the Lessons Learned List Service.

  7. Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development : Lessons from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Japan celebrated the 50th anniversary of its own achievement of universal health coverage (UHC). On this occasion, the government of Japan and the World Bank conceived the idea of undertaking a multi-country study to respond to this growing demand by sharing rich and varied country experiences from countries at different stages of adopting and implementing UHC strategies, includin...

  8. [A physiological development time-based simulation model for cotton development stages and square- and boll formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyu; Cao, Weixing; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhu, Yan; Li, Shaokun; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Cundong; Xu, Lihua

    2005-04-01

    In this study, three cotton varieties (CRI 36, CRI 35 and CRI 41) were planted in Nanjing, Anyang, Baoding and Shihezi, respectively, in 2002, and the dynamic relationships between their development and environmental factors were analyzed. Based on this, a simulation model for cotton development stages and square-and boll development was built in terms of physiological development time (PDT). In calculating relative thermal effectiveness, the effect of diurnal temperature differences in different regions on cotton development was incorporated, and the enhancement of plastic mulching on air temperature was quantified. To simulate development stages, the initial fruiting node index (IFIN), sunlight duration factor (FSH), and solar radiation index on fruiting branch (IFBR) were introduced, besides earliness factor of a given genotype. The validation of the model with the data obtained from different years, ecological zones, genotypes, and cultivation practices indicated a high goodness of fitness between the simulated results and observed values. The root mean square error (RMSE) between simulated and observed days from sowing to emergence, emergence to squaring, anthesis to boll opening, and sowing to boll opening was 0.9, 2.2, 1.7, and 2.1 d, respectively, with a mean of 2.1 d, and in all plant sites, the RMSE between simulated and observed days from squaring to boll opening was 1.8-3.7 d, and that from squaring to opening was 4.6-5.8 d.

  9. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  10. Stage-related expression of mRNAs during pollen development in lily and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, J A; de Groot, P F; van Herpen, M M; van der Lee, T; Reynen, W H; Weterings, K A; Wullems, G J

    1990-09-01

    Homogeneous populations of developing microspores and pollen from anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) show a continuous production of biomass, reaching a maximum in young pollen. The rate of RNA synthesis was 460 fg · h(-1) in young binucleate cells, 138 fg · h(-1) in late binucleate cells and 56 fg · h(-1) in microspores. The mRNA population in developing pollen can be separated into three groups. In the first group, certain types of mRNAs are present at a constant level during all stages of development. A second group is characteristic of young pollen and increases quantitatively until anthesis. A third group is seen transiently; to this belong mRNAs present only before mitosis or at a distinct cell stage after mitosis. Some of the translation products of this latter group of mRNAs showed similarities between lily and tobacco on two-dimensional gels in respect of molecular weight and isolectric point, indicating that those mRNAs and proteins play a role in the regulation of pollen development.

  11. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Surviving a flood: effects of inundation period, temperature and embryonic development stage in locust eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J D

    2015-08-01

    The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest and oviposits into compacted soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions prone to irregular heavy summer rainfall. This study aimed to quantify the effects of flooding (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days) at different temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and embryonic development stages (25 and 75%) on egg viability, hatchling nymph body mass and survival to second-instar. Egg viability after flooding was dependent on temperature and flood duration. Eggs inundated at 15°C showed ≥53.5% survival regardless of flood duration and development stage compared with ≤29.6% for eggs at 25°C for ≥21 days early in development and ≥14 days late in development. Hatchling nymphs did not differ in body mass relative to temperature or flood duration, but weighed more from eggs inundated early in development rather than late. Survival to second-instar was ≤55.1% at 15 and 20°C when eggs were flooded for ≥28 days late in development, ≤35.6% at 25°C when flooded for ≥28 days early in development, and zero when flooded for ≥21 days late in development. These results suggest that prolonged flooding in summer and early autumn may cause very high egg mortality and first-instar nymph mortality of any survivors, but is likely to only ever affect a small proportion of the metapopulation. More common flash flooding for ≤14 days is unlikely to cause high mortality and have any direct effect on distribution and abundance.

  13. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  15. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  16. Oil production at different stages of leaf development in Lippia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pandeló

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze terpene oil production and terpene synthases (TPS gene expression from leaves at different developmental stages of different chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae. Hydro-distilled essential oil were used for chemical analysis and gene expression of three monoterpene synthase genes called LaTPS12, LaTPS23 and LaTPS25 were used for analyses of gene expression associated to oil production. The putative genes were associated to TPS-b gene class. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis were used to investigate the expression profile of those three putative genes in different leaf stages and different chemotypes. Additionally, total oil production and gene expression of putative TPS genes cloned from L. alba chemotype linalool were evaluated at different stages of leaf development. The expression level of those three genes was higher when the highest oil production was observed, mainly in young leaves at the fourth nodal segment for all evaluated chemotypes. Total oil production was higher at leaves that had unopened trichomes. We also observed that the 1mM of MeJA treatment increased the gene expression in all chemotypes after 24 h elicitation.

  17. Reading skills of students with speech sound disorders at three stages of literacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M; Lewis, Barbara A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Tag, Jessica; Avrich Ciesla, Allison; Stein, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years;months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children's literacy stages.

  18. Syntheses of nucleic acid and protein in somatic embryos of Fritillaria ussuriensis maxim in different development stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Tang Wei; Wang Hui

    1993-09-01

    After developing a procedure for somatic embryogenesis in Fritillaria ussuriensis, dynamics on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein during globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped, cotyledonary, and mature somatic embryo stages was demonstrated by both autoradiography and scintillation counting. The rates of syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein gradually increase between the globular and cotyledonary somatic embryos stages. DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis rates are in peak at the cotyledonary later stage, precotyledonary stage, and cotyledonary stage, respectively. It appears that more DNA, RNA, and protein are synthesized in the cotyledonary somatic embryo stage than in other stages. All these results indicate that an increased syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein is associated with the differentiation of embryogenic cells and organogenesis in somatic embryos

  19. Coordination and Governance of OneGeology: Lessons learned in developing a global data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I.; Robida, F.

    2012-12-01

    OneGeology is a global initiative which is trying to improve the accessibility of a fundamental geoscience dataset - geological map data. It is attempting to improve the interoperability of that data and last, but not least, accelerate the transfer and exchange of know-how and experience to achieve these things through state-of-the-art web services. Since its inception in 2006 OneGeology has evolved considerably. 117 nations are now participating, serving more than 250 datasets to a dynamic web map portal. Its websites are used by researchers, teachers, industry and the public. It has spawned national and regional initiatives and even been cloned in other environmental domains. But how does its progress really measure up against its original goals and aspirations? What have been its achievements actually been, and perhaps more instructive, what have been its real challenges? They were not technical - the capabilities of the software and applications. They were organisational, political, and human. On reflection it is obvious that while initiating a global scientific project is far from easy, the challenges are nothing compared to those related to sustaining the project as a service, and establishing the governance and resources to do that. The sharing concept at the core of OneGeology pervades all of its components - the science the informatics sure, but also the people. Finding a way to ensure scientists and their managers can share in harmony and without discord is central to the future of multi-disciplinary science. This presentation will provide a candid appraisal of OneGeology's performance over the last 6 years and describe the lessons learned from that.

  20. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumler, Natalie; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2012-09-14

    Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems - including coelomic cavities as functional units - among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm). Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization) with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used as a homology criterion. Because of similarities in overall

  1. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  2. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  3. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  4. The stage of soil development modulates rhizosphere effect along a High Arctic desert chronosequence

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2018-01-09

    In mature soils, plant species and soil type determine the selection of root microbiota. Which of these two factors drives rhizosphere selection in barren substrates of developing desert soils has, however, not yet been established. Chronosequences of glacier forelands provide ideal natural environments to identify primary rhizosphere selection factors along the changing edaphic conditions of a developing soil. Here, we analyze changes in bacterial diversity in bulk soils and rhizospheres of a pioneer plant across a High Arctic glacier chronosequence. We show that the developmental stage of soil strongly modulates rhizosphere community assembly, even though plant-induced selection buffers the effect of changing edaphic factors. Bulk and rhizosphere soils host distinct bacterial communities that differentially vary along the chronosequence. Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium, and metabolite concentration in the soil account for the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Although the soil fraction (bulk soil and rhizosphere) explains up to 17.2% of the variation in bacterial microbiota, the soil developmental stage explains up to 47.7% of this variation. In addition, the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) co-occurrence network of the rhizosphere, whose complexity increases along the chronosequence, is loosely structured in barren compared with mature soils, corroborating our hypothesis that soil development tunes the rhizosphere effect.

  5. Lesson in the museum as a mean of universal cognitive competence development of elder preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalikova K.K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available this article deals with the implementation of educational technologies such as an activity in the museum for the purpose of forming cognitive competence of elder preschoolers. The projection of school educational technologies on pre-school children is also a mean of creating a succession of stages of education and school readiness, as well as the adaptation of future primary school children.

  6. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... and experience of comfort and vice versa. Additionally, archetype individuals were identified for the issuing of representative user panels to be used in the comfort studies conducted at the early conceptual phase of the design process. From the findings, a methodological framework was developed summarizing all...... have been evaluated and implemented within the collaborating company of external- ear body worn products. The research has contributed towards understanding the multidimensionality of comfort and towards providing with methods to assess comfort at the early stages of conceptual development....

  7. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.

  8. Clients' Role in Attainment of Sustainability in Housing: The Case of Singapore and Lessons For Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoge Ofori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of the construction of houses and other buildings and infrastructure on the earth’s environment has been highlighted in the literature. Proposals on how the planning, designing, constructing and maintaining of residential units can be undertaken under the framework of “sustainable development” (or “sustainable housing” have also been made. Housing units built in this way would have less environmental impact. Housing is a basic human need, and most governments are committed to ensuring that all their citizens have decent standards of housing. There are currently gaps between needs and provisions in almost all countries. Large volumes of resources will be required if these gaps are to be dilled. There will also be other environment impacts from such levels of activity. This paper discusses recent developments in sustainable housing. It focuses on the role of the client. It reviews the current situation with respect to sustainable housing in Singapore, putting it in the context of the national policies and programs for sustainable development. It discusses the practices of the larger clients of housing developments in Singapore. Possible lessons for other countries are inferred. It is suggested that further education of the client is necessary. Moreover, there is the potential for and purchasers to be similarly educated in order to form them as a market force for changes.

  9. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  10. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  11. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  12. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  13. Development and evaluation of the Stages of Change in Oral Health instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Armfield, Jason M; Parker, Eleanor J; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Broughton, John; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2014-10-01

    Oral health personnel are limited in their ability to assess the readiness of patients to make changes to improve oral health. We aimed to develop and test the Stages of Change in Oral Health (SOCOH) model, a scaled index of the stages of change - pre-contemplative, contemplative or active - with particular emphasis on pregnancy. Items were collected in a self-report questionnaire conducted among a convenience sample of 446 mothers (age range: 14-43 years) pregnant with Aboriginal children in South Australia, Australia. Scales representing openness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.73), value (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), inconvenience (six items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and permissiveness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.66) were developed. Participants were categorised according to the Stages of Change model and were evaluated against key self-reported oral health outcomes. Some 11.9% of participants were classified as pre-contemplators, 46.4% as contemplators and 41.7% as active. A higher proportion of active participants had a higher education, last visited a dentist less than a year previously, had no dental fear, owned a toothbrush, brushed the previous day, used toothpaste, had no difficulties paying a $100 dental bill, self-reported their dental health as 'excellent' and in the previous 12 months did not experience dental pain, embarrassment related to their dental appearance or difficulties eating food. The SOCOH model offers an internally consistent and valid instrument for detailed assessment of the readiness for change in regarding oral health behaviours in pregnancy and has potential benefits for clinical decision making and research. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-19

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  15. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  16. Teaching strategies for using projected images to develop conceptual understanding: Exploring discussion practices in computer simulation and static image-based lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Norman T.

    The availability and sophistication of visual display images, such as simulations, for use in science classrooms has increased exponentially however, it can be difficult for teachers to use these images to encourage and engage active student thinking. There is a need to describe flexible discussion strategies that use visual media to engage active thinking. This mixed methods study analyzes teacher behavior in lessons using visual media about the particulate model of matter that were taught by three experienced middle school teachers. Each teacher taught one half of their students with lessons using static overheads and taught the other half with lessons using a projected dynamic simulation. The quantitative analysis of pre-post data found significant gain differences between the two image mode conditions, suggesting that the students who were assigned to the simulation condition learned more than students who were assigned to the overhead condition. Open coding was used to identify a set of eight image-based teaching strategies that teachers were using with visual displays. Fixed codes for this set of image-based discussion strategies were then developed and used to analyze video and transcripts of whole class discussions from 12 lessons. The image-based discussion strategies were refined over time in a set of three in-depth 2x2 comparative case studies of two teachers teaching one lesson topic with two image display modes. The comparative case study data suggest that the simulation mode may have offered greater affordances than the overhead mode for planning and enacting discussions. The 12 discussions were also coded for overall teacher student interaction patterns, such as presentation, IRE, and IRF. When teachers moved during a lesson from using no image to using either image mode, some teachers were observed asking more questions when the image was displayed while others asked many fewer questions. The changes in teacher student interaction patterns suggest

  17. Teen Choices, an Online Stage-Based Program for Healthy, Nonviolent Relationships: Development and Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Prochaska, Janice M

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical foundation, development, and feasibility testing of an online, evidence-based intervention for teen dating violence prevention designed for dissemination. Teen Choices: A Program for Healthy, Non-Violent Relationships relies on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change and expert system technology to deliver assessments and feedback matched to stage of change for using healthy relationship skills. The program also tailors feedback to dating status, risk level, and other key characteristics. Ninety-nine students from high schools in Tennessee and Rhode Island completed a Teen Choices session and 97 completed an 11-item acceptability evaluation. 100% of participants completed the intervention session as intended. Evaluations of the program were favorable. For example, 88.7% agreed the program feedback was easy to understand, and 86.7% agreed that the program could help people develop healthier relationships. Findings provide encouraging evidence of the acceptability and feasibility of this approach to dating violence prevention.

  18. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  19. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions. Some challenges were underestimated

  20. Successes and challenges of north–south partnerships – key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North–south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north–south and south–south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a ‘north–south divide’ in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner

  1. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.

    2010-05-01

    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  2. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  3. Development of the precision long-stroke 3-DOF nano-stage for the photonic crystal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jywe, Wen-Yuh; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lin, Bor-Jeng; Lee, Meng-Tse; Lee, Jeng-Dao; Teng, Yun-Feng; Hsieh, Tung-Hsien

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, it develops a precision long-stroke 3-DOF nano-stage for the nano photonic crystal process. It integrates a linear motor driven long-stroke stage, a piezoelectric driven three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) nano stage, multi-degrees-of-freedom (MDOF) laser interferometer measurement system and their control systems. The long-stroke nano-stage is a hybrid precision stage that can provide long-stroke and high precision positioning. The common focus horizon regulation system is used to keep the parallelism between writing instrument and the target while the laser direct writing instrument is used to write the nano structure needed. Furthermore, the automatic focusing and horizon control system can compensate the defocusing and angular errors that caused by machining automatically. With this precision 3-DOF nano-stage, the laser direct writing system can improve the process speed, overcome the optical limit of interference to reduce the writing spot, generate arbitrary patterns.

  4. Lessons Learned: Transfer of the High-Definition Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Platform to Development as a Commercialized Clinical Assay Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P; Keating, S M; Baxter, G T; Thomas, K; Kolatkar, A; Sigman, C C

    2017-11-01

    Planning and transfer of a new technology platform developed in an academic setting to a start-up company for medical diagnostic product development may appear daunting and costly in terms of complexity, time, and resources. In this review we outline the key steps taken and lessons learned when a technology platform developed in an academic setting was transferred to a start-up company for medical diagnostic product development in the interest of elucidating development toolkits for academic groups and small start-up companies starting on the path to commercialization and regulatory approval. © 2017, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Physico-chemical composition of native fruits of the Ceará coast at different development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigéria P. Gonçalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical composition of native fruits of the Ceará coast at different development stages. The fruits of ‘guajiru’, ‘manipuçá’, ‘murici-pitanga’ and ‘murta’ were collected during the year 2014, and the following evaluations were made: total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity ratio. A completely randomized design was used, with 5 or 6 treatments, depending on the maturation stage and 4 replicates. For total soluble solids, ‘murta’ obtained a minimum of 2.6 °Brix in stage 1 and ‘manipuçá’ obtained maximum of 24.53 °Brix in stage 5. For the total titratable acidity, ‘guajiru’ showed minimum of 0.09% in stages 3 and 4, and ‘murici-pitanga’ showed maximum of 3.29% in stage 6. ‘Murici-pitanga’ had minimum pH of 3.44 in stage 5 and ‘guajiru’, maximum pH of 5.9 in stage 2. For total soluble solids and titratable acidity ratio, ‘murici-pitanga’ exhibited a minimum of 3.25 in stages 1 and 3, and ‘guajiru’ showed maximum of 141.11 in stage 4. It was concluded that ‘guajiru’ and ‘manipuçá’ fruits reached physiological maturity in stage 3, whereas ‘murici-pitanga’ and ‘murta’ fruits reached in stage 4; thus, these are the ideal stages for fruit harvest.

  6. Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen; Wong, Carol Wing Yan; Wu, Zhongluan; He, Qiuming; Xia, Huimin; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang; Wong, Kenneth Kak Yuen; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures. To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development. We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies. Current study showed that (i) conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5) resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii) the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives. Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a) the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b) if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.

  7. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  8. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  9. SUCCESS FACTORS IN GROWING SMBs: A STUDY OF TWO INDUSTRIES AT TWO STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Jarl Trondsen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to identify factors for growing SMBs. An evolutionary phase approach has been used. The study also aims to find out if there are common and different denominators for newer and older firms that can affect their profitability. The study selects a sampling frame that isolates two groups of firms in two industries at two stages of development. A variety of organizational and structural data was collected and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions that may be drawn from the study are that it is not easy to find a common definition of success, it is important to stratify SMBs when studying them, an evolutionary stage approach helps to compare firms with roughly the same external and internal dynamics and each industry has its own set of success variables.The study has identified three success variables for older firms that reflect contemporary strategic thinking such as crafting a good strategy and changing it only incrementally, building core competencies and outsourcing the rest, and keeping up with innovation and honing competitive skills.

  10. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  11. Development of a two-stage microalgae dewatering process – A life cycle assessment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan R. Soomro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically-viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission and process cost, are presented.

  12. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  13. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development.

  14. Global analysis of protein expression and phosphorylation of three stages of Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Brittany N; Huttlin, Edward L; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Talevich, Eric; Harmon, John; Dillman, Timothy; Kannan, Natarajan; Doerig, Christian; Chakrabarti, Ratna; Gygi, Steven P; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2013-09-06

    During asexual intraerythrocytic development, Plasmodium falciparum diverges from the paradigm of the eukaryotic cell cycles by undergoing multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis. A better understanding of the molecular switches that coordinate a myriad of events for the progression of the parasite through the intraerythrocytic developmental stages will be of fundamental importance for rational design of intervention strategies. To achieve this goal, we performed isobaric tag-based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses of three developmental stages in the Plasmodium asexual cycle and identified 2767 proteins, 1337 phosphoproteins, and 6293 phosphorylation sites. Approximately 34% of identified proteins and 75% of phosphorylation sites exhibit changes in abundance as the intraerythrocytic cycle progresses. Our study identified 43 distinct phosphorylation motifs and a range of potential MAPK/CDK substrates. Further analysis of phosphorylated kinases identified 30 protein kinases with 126 phosphorylation sites within the kinase domain or in N- or C-terminal tails. Many of these phosphorylations are likely CK2-mediated. We define the constitutive and regulated expression of the Plasmodium proteome during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle, offering an insight into the dynamics of phosphorylation during asexual cycle progression. Our system-wide comprehensive analysis is a major step toward defining kinase-substrate pairs operative in various signaling networks in the parasite.

  15. Partnerships and Sustainable Development: the Lessons Learned from International Biodiversity Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, partnerships have increasingly become a popular governance instrument for sustainable development. This article aims to improve our understanding of this instrument, and its contributions to and consequences for international sustainable development politics, by providing the

  16. Mineral investment and the regulation of the environment in developing countries: Lessons from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienhaara, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between foreign direct investment in the mineral sector and environmental regulation in developing countries. It argues that two major trends in global mineral investment have emerged in recent years: increased competition amongst developing countries to

  17. Education for Sustainable Development and the Question of Balance: Lessons from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kathryn A.; Jenkins, Bertram A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the challenges for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) with respect to achieving an appropriate balance between the three pillars of sustainable development--economy, society and the environment. In order to do this, we focus on specific concerns confronting a number of developing countries in the Pacific where…

  18. Development of vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: taking lessons from naturally acquired protective immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of substantial anti-malarial protection in people naturally exposed to P. falciparum is often cited as evidence that malaria vaccines can be developed, but is rarely used to guide the development. We are pursuing the development of vaccines based on antigens and immune responses...

  19. A lesson from Japan: research and development efficiency is a key element of pharmaceutical industry consolidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hirohisa; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2014-02-01

    Scholarly attention to pharmaceutical companies' ability to sustain research and development (R&D) productivity has increased as they increasingly handle business challenges. Furthermore, the deterioration of R&D productivity has long been considered a major cause of mergers and acquisitions (M&As). This study attempts to investigate quantitatively the possible causes of the deterioration and the relationship between the deterioration and M&As by examining the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Japan from 1980 to 1997 is an ideal case because of the availability of official data, but more importantly the significant changes in its business environment at the time. Using the Malmquist Index and data envelopment analysis, we measured the deterioration of R&D productivity from 1980 to 1997 based on a sample of 15 Japanese companies. Two lessons can be learned from Japan's case. First, to sustain R&D productivity over the long term, companies should use licensing activities and focus on the dominant therapeutic franchises. Second, if a company fails significantly to catch up with the benchmark, it is likely to pursue an M&A or seek an alternative way to improve R&D productivity. These findings appear similar to the current situation of the global pharmaceutical industry, although Japan pursued more licensing activities than M&A to improve R&D productivity.

  20. Development of process and outcome measures for improvement: lessons learned in a quality improvement collaborative for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Wallace V; Boyle, Brendan M; Colletti, Richard B; Margolis, Peter A; Kappelman, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine's publications, To Err is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm, publicized the widespread deficits in healthcare quality. The quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been comprehensively evaluated, in part due to a lack of well-established IBD measures of quality. Quality can be measured for evaluation, benchmarking, or continuous quality improvement, using structural, process, and outcome measures. Measurement is an essential component of the model for improvement, necessary to determine whether changes made have resulted in improvement. Measures used for quality improvement should be based on evidence and consensus, be clear and collectable in a timely fashion, occur with sufficient frequency, and have the potential to improve outcomes. While no current IBD measures of quality are perfect, an iterative process of measure development can produce a set of measures that are feasible, relevant, and useful for performing quality improvement. This review describes the history, rationale, and methods of quality measurement and discusses the early work and lessons learned from measuring quality of care in a pediatric IBD quality improvement collaborative. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice.

  2. Fostering K-12 Inquiry-based Lesson Development on Regional Water Resource Issues in Los Angeles Urban Schools through the NSF UCLA SEE-LA GK-12 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, T. S.; Burke, M. P.; Thulsirag, V.; Daniel, J.; Moldwin, M.; Nonacs, P.

    2010-12-01

    A National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/ ) partners UCLA faculty and graduate students (fellows) with urban middle and high school science teachers and their students to foster programs of science and engineering exploration that bring the environment of Los Angeles into the classroom. UCLA graduate fellows serve as scientists-in-residence at four partner schools to integrate inquiry-based science lessons, facilitate advancements in science content teaching, and ultimately, to improve their own science communication skills. As part of their fellowship, graduate students are required to develop inquiry-based lessons in their partner classroom. During the first two years of the project, the SEE-LA fellows have developed a range of inquiry-based activities, from invertebrate observations in an urban stream system, to water and home energy consumption surveys, to a school biodiversity investigation, to a school-wide alternative energy fair, to engineering the cleanup of environmental disasters, such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of the current fellows have dissertation research in water resource related fields and are specifically integrating lessons specific to their research into their partner classrooms, including urban stream water quality, post-fire watershed behavior, beach water quality assessment and E. coli source tracking. This presentation will provide an overview of goals of the SEE-LA GK-12 program, development of inquiry-based water resource lessons and resulting engagement in the partner classrooms. University and local pre-college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication and teaching skills while also contributing significantly to the integration of science education into K-12 curriculum.

  3. Design and Development of a Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Thomas K.; Polsgrove, Tara; Turpin, Jason; Alexander, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently working on the Evolvabe Mars Campaign (EMC) study to outline transportation and mission options for human exploration of Mars. One of the key aspects of the EMC is leveraging current and planned near-term technology investments to build an affordable and evolvable approach to Mars exploration. This leveraging of investments includes the use of high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) systems, evolved from those currently under development in support of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), to deliver payloads to Mars. The EMC is considering several transportation options that combine solar electric and chemical propulsion technologies to deliver crew and cargo to Mars. In one primary architecture option, the SEP propulsion system is used to pre-deploy mission elements to Mars while a high-thrust chemical propulsion system is used to send crew on faster ballistic transfers between Earth and Mars. This high-thrust chemical system uses liquid oxygen - liquid methane main propulsion and reaction control systems integrated into the Methane Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (MCPS). Over the past year, there have been several studies completed to provide critical design and development information related to the MCPS. This paper is intended to provide a summary of these efforts. A summary of the current point of departure design for the MCPS is provided as well as an overview of the mission architecture and concept of operations that the MCPS is intended to support. To leverage the capabilities of solar electric propulsion to the greatest extent possible, the EMC architecture pre-deploys to Mars orbit the stages required for returning crew from Mars. While this changes the risk posture of the architecture, it can provide some mass savings by using higher-efficiency systems for interplanetary transfer. However, this does introduce significantly longer flight times to Mars which, in turn, increases the overall lifetime of the stages to as long as 2500 days. This

  4. Fostering values: four stages towards developing professional ethics for future accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zaleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The many accounting scandals occurred in the last three decades have change the perspective of accountant globally. As such, the higher institutions have to play their role in nurturing professional ethics in order to change the misconception towards the profession. Our observation of the literature indicates that incorporating professional ethics in higher institutions is a way forward towards developing future accountants with values. Henceforth, we conducted a generic inquiry study to explore how higher institutions could inculcate accounting graduates with professional ethics. Our findings show a conceptual framework which depicted four stages towards incorporating professional ethics at tertiary level education there are: 1 value development, 2 ethics maturation, 3 professionalism development and 4 ownership through effective implementation and enforcement. Consequently, the findings contribute to expanding the current knowledge in our conceptualisation of the professional ethics concept. In addition, the findings support the development of ethics education for accounting graduates in higher institutions in Malaysia. We consider that this study provides evidence to educators and policy makers that teaching methods and pedagogical policies should ensure professional ethics education in business schools in Malaysia is treated as a pervasive element of curricula rather than an optional choice.

  5. Embryotoxicity of poorly soluble nanoparticles at various stages of Zebrafish development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaleva, Tamara; Morgalev, Yuri; Gosteva, Irina; Morgalev, Sergey; Nesterenya, Daria

    2017-11-01

    The biological effects of the poorly soluble nanoparticles (NPs) of different chemical nature and structural characteristics were evaluated. It was established that the Zebrafish test response to contamination of aqueous medium with nickel NPs (nNi), platinum (nPt), zinc oxide (nZnO) and cerium oxide (nCeO2) depends on the physicochemical properties of the NPs and embryo development stage. The concentrations of NPs not causing disruptions in embryonic development of Zebrafish were determined. The smallest impact on embryogenesis was exerted by nCeO2: coagulation of a small number of embryos was observed only at C = 20.0 mg/L. The same effect was observed when exposed to lower concentrations of nPt (C = 5.0 mg/L) and nNi (C = 0.1 mg/L). The greatest number of coagulated embryos was observed when grown in the DS nZnO: 37.5% of embryos died at the DS concentration of C = 0.1 mg/L. Zebrafish cultivation in the DS with low concentrations (C ≤ LC10) of nNi and nZnO caused distortions in the development of embryos: development of scoliosis, malformation of somites, inhibited mobility.

  6. The role of microorganisms at different stages of ecosystem development for soil formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil formation is the result of a complex network of biological as well as chemical and physical processes. The role of soil microbes is of high interest, since they are responsible for most biological transformations and drive the development of stable and labile pools of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and other nutrients, which facilitate the subsequent establishment of plant communities. Forefields of receding glaciers provide unique chronosequences of different soil development stages and are ideal ecosystems to study the interaction of bacteria, fungi and archaea with their abiotic environment. In this review we give insights into the role of microbes for soil development. The results presented are based on studies performed within the Collaborative Research Program DFG SFB/TRR 38 (http://www.tu-cottbus.de/ecosystem and are supplemented by data from other studies. The review focusses on the microbiology of major steps of soil formation. Special attention is given to the development of nutrient cycles on the formation of biological soil crusts (BSCs and on the establishment of plant–microbe interactions.

  7. The role of microorganisms at different stages of ecosystem development for soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S.; Brankatschk, R.; Dümig, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Schloter, M.; Zeyer, J.

    2013-06-01

    Soil formation is the result of a complex network of biological as well as chemical and physical processes. The role of soil microbes is of high interest, since they are responsible for most biological transformations and drive the development of stable and labile pools of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, which facilitate the subsequent establishment of plant communities. Forefields of receding glaciers provide unique chronosequences of different soil development stages and are ideal ecosystems to study the interaction of bacteria, fungi and archaea with their abiotic environment. In this review we give insights into the role of microbes for soil development. The results presented are based on studies performed within the Collaborative Research Program DFG SFB/TRR 38 (http://www.tu-cottbus.de/ecosystem ) and are supplemented by data from other studies. The review focusses on the microbiology of major steps of soil formation. Special attention is given to the development of nutrient cycles on the formation of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and on the establishment of plant-microbe interactions.

  8. Information support of decision-making in the early stages of new product development when approaching marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tishhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To create theoretical and practical approaches to information support of the decision making procedure at the initial stages of developing a new product with a marketing management approach that allows to improve the quality of management decisions on the product. Material and methods. The projected software package on the basis of expert assessments and fuzzy sets, allows to automate the decision to implement innovation at an early stage. The work used such scientific methods as generalization of scientific literature in the field of shaping and taking into account the features of innovation, Solutions in the initial stages of development, methods of expert evaluation and elements of fuzzy sets. Results and its discussion. The article presents the rationale and possibilities for informational support of the decision-making procedure for innovative products. The authors also proposed a methodology for making a decision when developing a new product based on expert and predictive assessments of innovation at the initial stages of its creation. A software package has been developed that automates the decision to manufacture a new product at the initial stages of production. Conclusion. Despite a large number of theoretical developments in innovative management, the risk associated with the release of new products remains quite high. The developed methodology of information support for decision-making at the initial stages of the development of a new product will reduce the risk of the lack of demand for innovation.

  9. The effect of construction stage on the development of retaining wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Hiung, Voo Kien; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Sofri, Liyana Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    With the growing of population and density in metropolitan areas, especially for the narrow space areas, high rise buildings are the best choice to fulfil the demands for the lacking spaces for development. Hence, it seems deep excavation is necessary to construct underground spaces. Control of soil deformation is crucial for deep excavation in congested urban area to minimize its effect on adjacent structures. During excavation of the soil, retaining walls are required to retain the soil behind it. Therefore, an appropriate method or modelling is required to determine the movement of retaining wall due to lateral earth pressure acts behind it. Finite Element Method (FEM) utilizing computer program PLAXIS, was used to estimate the wall and ground deformation at each stage of excavation.

  10. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    pointed at shared aetiology or the risk for development of one disorder, when the other disorder is present. The data do not evaluate how treatment factors or other factors mediate the risk or how overlap of diagnostic criteria adds to the statistical association. More research is much needed......: Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders......Background: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. Aims: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. Method: A comprehensive search...

  11. Export Brand Development of China: Lessons Learned and Implications for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Bai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of Chinese enterprises’ export brand development process. It describes the measures for dealing with their weaknesses, using case study methodology combined with the comparative method, analyzes the development of key Chinese enterprises’ internationalization, and summarizes three typically successful internationalization models currently used: Haier model, Huawei model and Lenovo model. Haier followed the “first easy later hard” approach, that means it went first to developed countries, and then entered the developing countries as the second step. Huawei on the contrary, followed the way of “rural surrounding the urban”, which means that it went to the developing countries first, and then entered the developed countries second. Lenovo realized their enterprise and brand internationalization success by acquiring IBM PC division with its “innovative and entrepreneurial spirit”.

  12. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  13. Nervous system development in lecithotrophic larval and juvenile stages of the annelid Capitella teleta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Néva P; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan; Moore, Richard E; Seaver, Elaine C

    2015-01-01

    larvogenesis in C. teleta persists into the juvenile stage. The first neurons differentiate in the brain, which contrasts with the early formation of peripheral, larval-specific neurons found in some spiralian taxa with planktotrophic larvae. Our study provides a clear indication that certain shared features among annelids - e.g., five connectives in the ventral nerve cord - are only visible during larval stages in particular species, emphasizing the need to include developmental data in ancestral character state reconstructions. The data provided in this paper will serve as an important comparative reference for understanding evolution of nervous systems, and as a framework for future molecular studies of development.

  14. Career Development and the Skills Shortage: A Lesson from Charles Dickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a critical argument to the profession of career development for the purpose of stimulating reflexive consideration on the myriad influences that impinge upon practitioners. The paper suggests that given the current skills agenda in the Australian economy, it may be timely to reflexively consider career development practice. The…

  15. Quest for economic development in agrarian localities : Lessons from West Nile, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Enzama (Wilson)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes and analyzes the operational strategy of West Nile region, a typical low local capability community, in pursuit of local economic development. Special emphasis has been placed on the development of groups of survival beekeeping-enterprises and their integration in

  16. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  17. Small Farmers and Social Capital in Development Projects: Lessons from Failures in Argentina's Rural Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Juan Jose

    2013-01-01

    The importance of social capital as a resource for rural development, especially in the context of projects involving joint participation of state and civil society, is widely recognized today. This paper analyzes the obstacles confronted by local players--small farmers and government organizations--in the development of an irrigation area through…

  18. Research and Practice Partnerships for Professional Development in Early Childhood: Lessons from ExCELL-e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Snell, Emily K.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Lewis, Kandia N.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Iannone-Campbell, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a research-practice partnership has informed the iterative development of a web-mediated early childhood language and literacy professional development (PD) intervention. Funded through the Investing in Innovation (i3) program, this new PD model is based on an effective in-situ intervention. As we translated the…

  19. Visualizing Boundaries and Embodying Conflicts: Lessons Learned from a Theatrical Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Amrit; Chan, Judy

    2013-01-01

    In the 2011-2012 academic year, the Organizational Development and Learning unit and the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology at the University of British Columbia co-developed an interactive theatre project, Conflict Theatre, to engage in discussion around conflict with our audience and to allow us to explore, engage with, and build…

  20. The Inclusion of Full Employment in MDG1, What Lessons for a Post - 2015 Development Agenda?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is one of a series of papers in a research project, The Power of Numbers: A Critical Review of MDG Targets for Human Development and Human Rights (the “Project”)1. Motivated by a concern with the consequences of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) beyond the achievement of

  1. Ten-years trends in renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease in mainland France: Lessons from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Cécile; Kolko, Anne; Stengel, Bénédicte; Jacquelinet, Christian; Landais, Paul; Rieu, Philippe; Bayat, Sahar; Couchoud, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    The incidence rate of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is decreasing in several countries, but not in France. We studied the RRT trends in mainland France from 2005 to 2014 to understand the reasons for this discrepancy and determine the effects of ESRD management changes. Data were extracted from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry. Time trends of RRT incidence and prevalence rates, patients' clinical and treatment characteristics were analysed using the Joinpoint regression program and annual percentage changes. Survival within the first year of RRT was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates for 4 periods of time. The overall age- and gender-adjusted RRT incidence rate increased from 144 to 159 individuals per million inhabitants (pmi) (+0.8% per year; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2) and the prevalence from 903 to 1141 pmi (+2.4% per year; 95% CI: 2.2-2.7). This increase concerned exclusively ESRD associated with type 2 diabetes (+4.0%; 3.4-4.6) and mostly elderly men. Despite patient aging and increasing comorbidity burden and a persistent 30% rate of emergency dialysis start, the one-year survival rate slightly improved from 82.1% (81.4-82.8) to 83.8% (83.3-84.4). Pre-emptive wait listing for renal transplantation and the percentage of wait-listed patients within one year after dialysis start strongly increased (from 5.6% to 15.5% and from 29% to 39%, respectively). Kidney transplantation and survival significantly improved despite the heavier patient burden. However, the rise in type 2 diabetes-related ESRD and the stable high rate of emergency dialysis start remain major issues. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing a Ballistic Software Kit to Estimate Vehicle Characteristics at the Draft Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Maiorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a ballistic software kit to calculate a moving vehicle trajectory in atmosphere and space. Such software gives an opportunity to accelerate the acquisition of flying vehicle’s ballistic parameters at the stage of draft design. It contributes to improving collaboration efficiency between adjacent departments involved in the project. The developed software kit includes three different programs: Trajectory-LAND© (motion in atmosphere with possible correction of a trajectory, Trajectory-SPACE© (motion in the non-central gravity field with possible simulation of maneuvers, Trajectory-LAUNCH© (launch-vehicle’s insertion into the orbit with possible defining the impact points of separated stages. Each of the software concedes the addition of computational modules to use the solution results of the basic task. Implemented mathematical models permit to take into account the influence of main perturbations on the flying vehicle during the flight. For illustration purposes, the article gives some examples of using each of the programs and their block-diagrams.The developed software implements some algorithms, which allow attaining the convergence of numerical simulation of differential equations of motion. This problem arises, for example, while determining an attitude in case the stages have already separated from the launch vehicle. The mathematical conversion from Rodriguez-Hamilton parameters into Euler’s angles disables us to obtain reliable values of attitude angles due to the limitations for existing area of inverse trigonometric functions being used. Incorrect values of pitch lead to raw and roll channels divergences. Moreover, the mistakes in attitude determination lead to mistakes in obtained values of attack angle, which is included into the forms for aerodynamic forces and torques. As a result, the solution of system of differential equations is a failure when a flying vehicle enters the height of 30-35 km. The

  3. The role of microorganisms and plants at different stages of ecosystem development for soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S.; Brankatschk, R.; Dümig, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Schloter, M.; Zeyer, J.

    2013-02-01

    Soil formation is the result of a complex network of biological as well as chemical and physical processes. Mainly the role of soil microbes is of high interest in this respect, as they are responsible for most transformations and drive the development of stable and labile carbon and nutrient pools in soil, which facilitate the basis for the subsequent establishment of plant communities. Glacier forefields, which provide a chronosequence of soils of different age due to the continuous retreat of the ice layer as a consequence of the increasing annual temperature since the last centuries, are a nice play ground to study the interaction of bacteria, fungi and archaea with their abiotic environment at different stages of soil formation. In this review we give insights into the role of microbes for soil development on the basis of investigations which have been performed at the Damma glacier in Switzerland in the frame of two international network projects Big Link (http://www.cces.ethz.ch/projects/clench/BigLink/) and DFG SFB/TRR 38 (http://www.tu-cottbus.de/ecosystem/). The review focusses on the microbiology of three major steps of soil formation including weathering of the parental material, the development of basic nutrient cycles, the formation of soil crusts and biofilms as initial microbial network structures and the occurrence of plants respectively the setup of plant communities.

  4. Linking public sector corporate social responsibility with sustainable development: lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Ray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In recent years, a number of regulatory measures have been proposed by the Indian government to ensure corporate support to the goals of sustainable and inclusive development. The objective of these regulations is to achieve triple bottom line based growth. Notable among them is the mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR guidelines for public sector undertakings, first issued in April, 2010. I study the possibility and problems created by this effort by analyzing the policy documents and interviewing managers responsible for implementing CSR programmers in Indian public sector. Managers interviewed came from hydropower, coal, power distribution and shipping industries. Based on the study, four areas are identified that requires attention for effective linking between sustainable development and CSR; stakeholder engagement, institutional mechanisms, capacity building and knowledge management. Both government-public sector and public sector-community engagements have to be more streamlined. Institutional mechanisms have to be developed to see that CSR projects are effective and delivering. Importantly, managers at all levels need a better understanding of CSR and sustainable development. Since most projects are in rural areas, understanding of rural issues and sustainability is very important. Finally, such a large scale exercise in CSR should have a knowledge management mechanism to learn from the achievements and mistakes of the early years. I discuss the implication of the findings on India and other emerging economies many of which are struggling to balance

  5. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  6. Axial level-specific regulation of neuronal development: lessons from PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Martin, Donna M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is vital for proper control of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of developing neurons. Pitx2 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is highly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. In humans, mutations in PITX2 result in Rieger syndrome, characterized by defects in the development of the eyes, umbilicus, and teeth and variable abnormalities in the brain, including hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of Pitx2 in the mouse results in three isoforms, Pitx2a, Pitx2b, and Pitx2c, each of which is expressed symmetrically along the left-right axis of the brain throughout development. Here, we review recent evidence for axial and brain region-specific requirements for Pitx2 during neuronal migration and differentiation, highlighting known isoform contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR DEVELOPING CORPORATE SUKUK: LESSONS FROM AN INDONESIAN CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution L.Z.

    2018-01-01

    This research is trying to find the issues, challenges, and strategies development of corporate sukuk in Indonesia. This objective arises because the level of supply and demand for corporate sukuk in Indonesia is still prolonged. This case in Indonesia is almost similar to cases in some countries, especially in Asian countries that are making efforts to develop sukuk market. Based on the method of mapping and root problem analysis, this study found three problem structures inhibiting the grow...

  8. Lessons learned from microsatellite development for nonmodel organisms using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, C N; Brodbeck, S; Buehler, D; Cornejo, C; Gajurel, J; Hartikainen, H; Keller, D; Leys, M; Ríčanová, S; Segelbacher, G; Werth, S; Csencsics, D

    2013-03-01

    Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are among the most commonly used marker types in evolutionary and ecological studies. Next Generation Sequencing techniques such as 454 pyrosequencing allow the rapid development of microsatellite markers in nonmodel organisms. 454 pyrosequencing is a straightforward approach to develop a high number of microsatellite markers. Therefore, developing microsatellites using 454 pyrosequencing has become the method of choice for marker development. Here, we describe a user friendly way of microsatellite development from 454 pyrosequencing data and analyse data sets of 17 nonmodel species (plants, fungi, invertebrates, birds and a mammal) for microsatellite repeats and flanking regions suitable for primer development. We then compare the numbers of successfully lab-tested microsatellite markers for the various species and furthermore describe diverse challenges that might arise in different study species, for example, large genome size or nonpure extraction of genomic DNA. Successful primer identification was feasible for all species. We found that in species for which large repeat numbers are uncommon, such as fungi, polymorphic markers can nevertheless be developed from 454 pyrosequencing reads containing small repeat numbers (five to six repeats). Furthermore, the development of microsatellite markers for species with large genomes was also with Next Generation Sequencing techniques more cost and time-consuming than for species with smaller genomes. In this study, we showed that depending on the species, a different amount of 454 pyrosequencing data might be required for successful identification of a sufficient number of microsatellite markers for ecological genetic studies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Lessons in structuring SME dedicated exchange for developing capital markets – a practitioner’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Šestanović, Aljoša; Šimunović, Antonela; Kasum, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Access to finance is nowadays widely recognized as one of the main impediments for growth and development of the SME sector. As a direct consequence of global economic crisis, the problem of financing of SMEs has only recently come under closer scrutiny of policymakers, but has also attracted the attention of market operators. For several years, a number of public and market-based initiatives towards SMEs and investors have taken place in developed (and to much lesser degree in emerging marke...

  10. Developing the Market for Local Currency Bonds by Foreign Issuers: Lessons from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoschka, Tobias C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys the experience of countries in the East Asian region that have introduced local currency bonds by foreign issuers. The countries that are examined include Australia; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Republic of Korea; and Singapore. It is suggested that there are sound reasons for many countries to develop the market for foreign issuers. Benefits and potential issues are analyzed, development policies are reviewed, and concrete policy options are discussed for those countries that ...

  11. Lessons for health care reform from the less developed world: the case of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Konrad; Jowett, Matthew R; Taleon, Juanito D; Mercado, Melinda C

    2008-11-01

    International technical and financial cooperation for health-sector reform is usually a one-way street: concepts, tools and experiences are transferred from more to less developed countries. Seldom, if ever, are experiences from less developed countries used to inform discussions on reforms in the developed world. There is, however, a case to be made for considering experiences in less developed countries. We report from the Philippines, a country with high population growth, slow economic development, a still immature democracy and alleged large-scale corruption, which has embarked on a long-term path of health care and health financing reforms. Based on qualitative health-related action research between 2002 and 2005, we have identified three crucial factors for achieving progress on reforms in a challenging political environment: (1) strive for local solutions, (2) make use of available technology and (3) work on the margins towards pragmatic solutions whilst having your ethical goals in mind. Some reflection on these factors might stimulate and inform the debate on how health care reforms could be pursued in developed countries.

  12. Learning styles and team roles – Lessons for Gregorc based teams for effective enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kbathgate

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop robust and coherent models for effective entrepreneurial training and development has never been more relevant than in the contemporary economic and educational milieu. The demand for the promotion of enterprise and enterprise development calls on those entrusted with nurturing entrepreneurial talent to create fecund environments for students and participant is alike to promote sustainable enterprise development. Essential to achieving this are considerations of learning styles and the relationship of these to team roles in business start-up activities. This research exercise attempts to establish linkages between different learning styles with the allocation of roles and responsibilities in teams who have aspirations to create and explore business start-up opportunities, within an educational setting. The context will be explored and a proposed model will be developed with considerations to cost of effective teaching and learning for enterprise development. The model will be used to demonstrate how an integrated and effective learning environment can be created through the use of Gregorc considerations and how this paradigm can contribute to cost effective teaching and learning methodologies.

  13. Quarantine treatment by gamma radiation for different development stages of Callosobruchus maculatus in bean Vigna sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Machi, André R.; Franco, Suely S.H.

    2017-01-01

    The loss of stored grain caused by insects generates a problem of economic order of importance, due to concern about the increased supply of food for the world population is expanding. Associated with this fact, there is the problem of nutritional deficiency due to lack of protein, especially for the less privileged populations. The use of ionizing radiation in grains and products stored without a doubt can solve the problem of the losses in these products, since it does not induce resistance to insects and leaves no toxic residue in the products, and is considered an effective and safe method. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation from cobalt-60 as a quarantine treatment for the different stages of development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1972) (Coleóptera, Chysomilidae) in bean Vigna sinensis. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Bean samples infested with eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae C. maculatus, the experiment consisted of 4 replicates for each stage of the insect's life cycle, and each repetition consisted of 20 individuals (eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae), a total of 200 subjects per treatment which were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, a source of cobalt-60, Gammabeam-650 type, in a rate dose of 1.3 kGy / h. The experiment was conducted in a room with a relative of 25 ± 2 ° C temperature and humidity of 70 ± 5%. After 35 days of irradiation process were carried out evaluations of the number of insects emerged in each repetition within the treatments. From the results obtained it was concluded that the dose lethal to eggs and larvae was 25 Gy, while for pre-pupae was 50 Gy, to pupae 100 Gy was not sufficient to control the adult emergence. (author)

  14. Quarantine treatment by gamma radiation for different development stages of Callosobruchus maculatus in bean Vigna sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Machi, André R.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Fontes, Lucia da Silva, E-mail: lsfontes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Harder, Márcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dep. Roque Trevisan; Rossi, Rodrigo S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Franco, José G., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: zegilmar60@gamil.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The loss of stored grain caused by insects generates a problem of economic order of importance, due to concern about the increased supply of food for the world population is expanding. Associated with this fact, there is the problem of nutritional deficiency due to lack of protein, especially for the less privileged populations. The use of ionizing radiation in grains and products stored without a doubt can solve the problem of the losses in these products, since it does not induce resistance to insects and leaves no toxic residue in the products, and is considered an effective and safe method. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation from cobalt-60 as a quarantine treatment for the different stages of development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1972) (Coleóptera, Chysomilidae) in bean Vigna sinensis. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Bean samples infested with eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae C. maculatus, the experiment consisted of 4 replicates for each stage of the insect's life cycle, and each repetition consisted of 20 individuals (eggs, larvae, pre-pupae and pupae), a total of 200 subjects per treatment which were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, a source of cobalt-60, Gammabeam-650 type, in a rate dose of 1.3 kGy / h. The experiment was conducted in a room with a relative of 25 ± 2 ° C temperature and humidity of 70 ± 5%. After 35 days of irradiation process were carried out evaluations of the number of insects emerged in each repetition within the treatments. From the results obtained it was concluded that the dose lethal to eggs and larvae was 25 Gy, while for pre-pupae was 50 Gy, to pupae 100 Gy was not sufficient to control the adult emergence. (author)

  15. Structural development of human brain white matter from mid-fetal to perinatal stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Yu, Qiaowen; Mishra, Virendra; Chalak, Lina; Jeon, Tina; Sivarajan, Muraleedharan; Jackson, Greg; Rollins, Nancy; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    The structures of developing human brain white matter (WM) tracts can be effectively quantified by DTI-derived metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD and RD). However, dynamics of WM microstructure during very early developmental period from mid-fetal to perinatal stage is unknown. It is difficult to accurately measure microstructural properties of these WM tracts due to severe contamination from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this study, high resolution DTI of fetal brains at mid-fetal stage (20 weeks of gestation or 20wg), 19 brains in the middle of 3rd trimester (35wg) and 17 brains around term (40wg) were acquired. We established first population-averaged DTI templates at these three time points and extracted WM skeleton. 16 major WM tracts in limbic, projection, commissural and association tract groups were traced with DTI tractography in native space. The WM skeleton in the template space was inversely transformed back to the native space for measuring core WM microstructures of each individual tract. Continuous microstructural enhancement and volumetric increase of WM tracts were found from 20wg to 40wg. The microstructural enhancement from FA measurement is decelerated in late 3rd trimester compared to mid-fetal to middle 3rd trimester, while volumetric increase of prefrontal WM tracts is accelerated. The microstructural enhancement from 35wg to 40wg is heterogeneous among different tract groups with microstructures of association tracts undergoing most dramatic change. Besides decreases of RD indicating active myelination, the decrease of AD for most WM tracts during late 3rd trimester suggests axonal packing process.

  16. Emotional responses of tutors and students in problem-based learning: lessons for staff development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Deborah; Hughes, Patricia

    2005-02-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method of teaching and learning that is used increasingly in medical and health care curricula worldwide. The literature on PBL is considerable and continues to develop. One important aspect of PBL is that students and tutors spend a lot of time together and this fosters an informal atmosphere that may encourage intimacy. The existing literature on PBL has not considered the emotional and psychological aspects of PBL nor the concomitant need for staff support and development. We present a discussion paper considering the ways in which educationalists using or considering using PBL could be informed by the psychological and psychotherapeutic literature on groups and group dynamics, in particular the work of Wilfred Bion. We discuss how PBL tutorials may arouse emotional responses that could result in unconsidered behaviours that impede student learning. We argue that faculty and PBL tutors need to agree and remain alert to the primary task of the group. Faculty should develop professional standards for tutors to use as reference points to ensure the group stays on course and achieves its intended outcomes. We conclude that greater attention should be paid by educationalists and faculty to identifying possible tutor emotional responses as part of initial PBL tutor training and ongoing staff development. We offer vignettes that have been successfully used in training and staff development at a UK medical school to demonstrate the practical application of our theoretical discussion.

  17. Lessons learned from development and quality assurance of software systems at the Halden Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorlo, T.J.; Berg, O.; Pehrsen, M.; Dahll, G.; Sivertsen, T.

    1996-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has developed a number of software systems within the research programmes. These programmes have comprised a wide range of topics, like studies of software for safety-critical applications, development of different operator support systems, and software systems for building and implementing graphical user interfaces. The systems have ranged from simple prototypes to installations in process plants. In the development of these software systems, Halden has gained much experience in quality assurance of different types of software. This paper summarises the accumulated experience at the Halden Project in quality assurance of software systems. The different software systems being developed at the Halden Project may be grouped into three categories. These are plant-specific software systems (one-of-a-kind deliveries), generic software products, and safety-critical software systems. This classification has been found convenient as the categories have different requirements to the quality assurance process. In addition, the experience from use of software development tools and proprietary software systems at Halden, is addressed. The paper also focuses on the experience gained from the complete software life cycle, starting with the software planning phase and ending with software operation and maintenance

  18. What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation and mitigation are two key responses to climate change. In the global South they prompt many questions: what is the direction and degree of change needed? How can new climate change policies be aligned with existing development initiatives? How are core social relations such as gender understood and prioritized in relation to technical and other solutions? In search of synergies between adaptation, development and mitigation, this article asks a pertinent question for sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture in particular: what can adaptation and mitigation learn from development debates on social goal setting, institutional change and gender equality? From the perspective of sustainability science and feminist literature, three main findings emerge. First, as regards social goal setting, adaptation and mitigation should, like development, support the escape out of poverty, ill-health and food-insecurity. Second, as regards institutions, adaptation and mitigation should address how gender regulates access to, use of and control over resources in terms of labor, land and strategic decision-making power. Third, as regards gender equality, adaptation and mitigation should learn from how development in theory and practice has addressed gender, women, nature and the environment. At its core, the analysis contributes twelve salient themes that can significantly inform adaptation and mitigation in research, policy and practice, thus serving as inspiration for a critical debate on much needed synergetic trajectories.

  19. Developing a sustainable child and family service system after a community tragedy: Lessons from Sandy Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Wang, Nicole M; Pollock, Michele; Acri, Mary; Glaeser, Elizabeth; Whitmyre, Emma D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to assessing community services post-Sandy Hook shooting. An evaluation team was invited to develop a sustainability plan for community services in Newtown. Service organizations, providers and families were interviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the range of services; respondent perspectives were coded using content analysis. We found that Newtown has a broad array of community services, but respondent groups varied in their perceptions of service adequacy. Consensus existed about core components of an ideal service system, including centralizing access; coordinating care; personalizing and tailoring services for families; and providing evidence-based care. The strategic community assessment approach developed here may inform how communities examine their service capacity and develop sustainability plans post-disaster.

  20. Lessons from comparative effectiveness research methods development projects funded under the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.

  1. Global economic meltdown and its effects on human capital development in Nigeria: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Oladele Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economies around the world have experienced the most traumatic moments in the last one-decade. The crisis has been described by scholars, as perhaps been the worst financial crisis since the great economic depression of the 1930s. This paper lucidly examines the effects of global economic recession on the development of human capital with reference to Nigeria nation. The objectives of the paper among others are (i To establish the level of the impact of global economic recession on development of skills of human capital in Nigeria (ii To examine if there is any significant relationship between global economic recession and the motivation of human capital development in Nigeria among others. The paper uses survey method with two research hypotheses. Questionnaires were administered among academic staff of two Nigerian universities in the southwest part of Nigeria. Findings showed that the global economic recession has great impact on the development of skills of human capital in Nigeria. Findings also revealed that there exists a positive relationship between global economic recession and training and development of human capital in Nigeria. The paper offers useful policy recommendations, which include the need for government and appropriate agencies to put in place policies such as enabling environment that will lead to the growth and development of human capital in Nigeria. Government needs to put forward policies that minimize cost at all levels, maximize efficiency of output, training and retraining of goods hands; and that there is need to encourage better motivation of workers at every sector of the economy amongst others.

  2. Pharmacological treatment of severe psychiatric disorders in the developing world : lessons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2003-01-01

    Severe psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) cause much morbidity and disability in developing countries. Most of the evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of drug treatments for these disorders is based on trials conducted in Western countries. Cultural, biological and health system factors may profoundly influence the applicability of such evidence in developing countries. Attitudes towards, and concepts about, psychiatric disorders vary across cultures, and these may influence the acceptability of drug treatments. Genetic and environmental factors may lead to variations in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psychotropic drugs across ethnic groups. This may explain why lower doses of psychotropic drugs tend to be used for non-Caucasian patients. There is a dearth of mental health professionals and care facilities in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Epidemiological studies show that, despite this lack of services, the outcome of schizophrenia is favourable in developing countries. This suggests that cultural, genetic or environmental factors may play as much of a role in influencing outcome as access to antipsychotic treatment. Regional drug policies may influence the availability and cost of psychotropic drugs. In particular, the Indian experience, where drugs are manufactured by several local pharmaceutical firms, thus bringing their cost down, may represent a unique deregulated drug industry. However, the impending impact of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement, with the strict enforcement of patent laws, will almost certainly lead to a rise in drug costs in the coming years. This may influence the choice and cost effectiveness of various drugs. The implications of these cross-cultural variations for policy and practice are the need to ensure a reliable supply of affordable psychotropic drugs in developing countries, trained healthcare

  3. Increasing synergies between institutions and technology developers: Lessons from marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsatea, Teodora Diana

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes innovation activities in the marine energy sector across ten European countries in 2011. Intense knowledge creation occurred in the UK and northern European countries, while European research networks encouraged public–private partnerships facilitating knowledge diffusion. An analysis based on a technological innovation system (TIS) has identified challenges for the system to evolve from one phase of development to another, i.e. from pre-development to take-off phase. In order for marine energy to pass successfully through the commercialisation ‘valley of death’, entrepreneurial experimentation and production is crucial. Entrepreneurial initiatives were developed mainly in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway and Ireland, whereas France, Germany and Sweden were active through venture capital initiatives. Additional system-builders, such as the authorities in charge of energy policies, could offer guidance for research, ensure legitimacy and effectively mobilise resources for system development. Although public support was efficient in stimulating private investment, national targets seemed less efficient in creating a long time horizon for private investors, due to consecutive, unexpected changes. In contrast, positive interactions between technology developers and policy-makers could empower market formation. Ultimately, the creation of a policy community, also involving local communities, could foster a positive environment for the development of innovation activities. - Highlights: • Intense knowledge creation takes place in the UK and in Nordic countries. • European research network facilitates knowledge diffusion between first and late movers. • Business opportunities are intensified by French, German and Swedish participants. • Public funding complements private research initiatives, especially in UK, Norway, Denmark and France. • Policy variations induce new risks on marine energy finance

  4. Constructive eHealth evaluation: lessons from evaluation of EHR development in 4 Danish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2017-04-20

    Information and communication sources in the healthcare sector are replaced with new eHealth technologies. This has led to problems arising from the lack of awareness of the importance of end-user involvement in eHealth development and of the difficulties caused by using traditional summative evaluation methods. The Constructive eHealth evaluation method (CeHEM) provides a solution to these problems by offering an evaluation framework for supporting and facilitating end-user involvement during all phases of eHealth development. The aim of this paper is to support this process by sharing experiences of the eHealth evaluation method used in the introduction of electronic health records (EHR) in the North Denmark Region of Denmark. It is the first time the fully developed method and the experiences on using the CeHEM in all five phases of a full lifecycle framework is presented. A case study evaluation of the EHR development process in the North Denmark Region was conducted from 2004 to 2010. The population consisted of clinicians, IT professionals, administrators, and vendors. The study involved 4 hospitals in the region. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations, interviews, and insight gathered from relevant documents. The evaluation showed a need for a) Early involvement of clinicians, b) The best possible representation of clinicians, and c) Workload reduction for those involved. The consequences of not providing this were a lack of ownership of decisions and negative attitudes towards the clinical benefits related to these decisions. Further, the result disclosed that by following the above recommendations, and by providing feedback to the 4 actor groups, the physicians' involvement was improved. As a result they took ownership of decisions and gained a positive attitude to the clinical benefits. The CeHEM has proven successful in formative evaluation of EHR development and can point at important issues that need to be taken care of by management

  5. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wurtenberger, L. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  6. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  7. Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

    2008-06-01

    We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.

  8. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nutrient limitation of soil microbial activity during the earliest stages of ecosystem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah C; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Knelman, Joseph; Hood, Eran; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K; Cleveland, Cory C

    2017-11-01

    A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences. Microbial respiratory responses in the microcosm experiment provided evidence for N, P and N/P co-limitation at Easton Glacier, Washington, USA, Puca Glacier, Peru, and Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, USA, respectively, and patterns of nutrient limitation generally reflected site-level differences in soil nutrient availability. The activities of three key extracellular enzymes known to vary with soil N and P availability developed in broadly similar ways among sites, increasing with succession and consistently correlating with changes in soil total N pools. Together, our findings demonstrate that during the earliest stages of soil development, microbial nutrient limitation and activity generally reflect soil nutrient supply, a result that is broadly consistent with biogeochemical theory.

  10. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelbaum, Richard [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kumfer, Benjamin [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Gopan, Akshay [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Yang, Zhiwei [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Phillips, Jeff [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pint, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The immediate need for a high efficiency, low cost carbon capture process has prompted the recent development of pressurized oxy-combustion. With a greater combustion pressure the dew point of the flue gas is increased, allowing for effective integration of the latent heat of flue gas moisture into the Rankine cycle. This increases the net plant efficiency and reduces costs. A novel, transformational process, named Staged, Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC), achieves additional step changes in efficiency and cost reduction by significantly reducing the recycle of flue gas. The research and development activities conducted under Phases I and II of this project (FE0009702) include: SPOC power plant cost and performance modeling, CFD-assisted design of pressurized SPOC boilers, theoretical analysis of radiant heat transfer and ash deposition, boiler materials corrosion testing, construction of a 100 kWth POC test facility, and experimental testing. The results of this project have advanced the technology readiness level (TRL) of the SPOC technology from 1 to 5.

  11. Inhibition of Ubc13-mediated Ubiquitination by GPS2 Regulates Multiple Stages of B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentucci, Claudia; Belkina, Anna C; Cederquist, Carly T; Chan, Michelle; Johnson, Holly E; Prasad, Sherry; Lopacinski, Amanda; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Monti, Stefano; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Tanasa, Bogdan; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-02-17

    Non-proteolytic ubiquitin signaling mediated by Lys 63 ubiquitin chains plays a critical role in multiple pathways that are key to the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous work indicates that GPS2 (G-protein Pathway Suppressor 2) is a multifunctional protein regulating TNFα signaling and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through modulation of Lys 63 ubiquitination events. However, the full extent of GPS2-mediated regulation of ubiquitination and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that GPS2 is required for restricting the activation of TLR and BCR signaling pathways and the AKT/FOXO1 pathway in immune cells based on direct inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Relevance of this regulatory strategy is confirmed in vivo by B cell-targeted deletion of GPS2, resulting in developmental defects at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal that GPS2 genomic and non-genomic functions are critical for the development and cellular homeostasis of B cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Education for Sustainable Development in Vietnam: Lessons Learned from Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Thi Kinh; Singer, Jane; Gannon, Tracey Jean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges in education for sustainable development (ESD) implementation in teacher education institutions (TEIs) in Vietnam and propose some appropriate solutions to advance ESD in training teachers toward sustainability. Design/methodology/approach The authors interviewed ten lecturers and 75…

  13. Securing Forest Tenure Rights for Rural Development : : Lessons from Six Countries in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Segura Warnholtz, Gerardo; Fernández, Mercedes; Smyle, James; Springer, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Secure land tenure in rural landscapes is widely recognized as an essential foundation for achieving a range of economic development goals. However, forest areas in low and middle-income countries face particular challenges in strengthening the security of land and resource tenure. Forest peoples are often among the poorest and most politically marginalized communities in their national co...

  14. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance program…

  15. Leaders of Sustainable Development Projects: Resources Used and Lessons Learned in a Context of Environmental Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Diane; Lang, Mathieu; Kerry, Jackie; Fortin, Guillaume; Langis, Joanne; Liboiron, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In our day, leaders involved in ingenious sustainable development projects plan spaces and implement practices that are beneficial to the environment. These initiatives represent a fertile source of information on the competences linked to environmental design that we should nurture in our students. In view of improving our understanding of the…

  16. Developing capacity in health informatics in a resource poor setting: lessons from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ann Marie; Curioso, Walter H; Arima, Yuzo; Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Segovia-Juarez, Jose; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Holmes, King K

    2009-10-27

    The public sectors of developing countries require strengthened capacity in health informatics. In Peru, where formal university graduate degrees in biomedical and health informatics were lacking until recently, the AMAUTA Global Informatics Research and Training Program has provided research and training for health professionals in the region since 1999. The Fogarty International Center supports the program as a collaborative partnership between Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru and the University of Washington in the United States of America. The program aims to train core professionals in health informatics and to strengthen the health information resource capabilities and accessibility in Peru. The program has achieved considerable success in the development and institutionalization of informatics research and training programs in Peru. Projects supported by this program are leading to the development of sustainable training opportunities for informatics and eight of ten Peruvian fellows trained at the University of Washington are now developing informatics programs and an information infrastructure in Peru. In 2007, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia started offering the first graduate diploma program in biomedical informatics in Peru.

  17. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Jouni; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Some of the determining factors for organic marketing initiatives (OMIs) success are supply policy, logistic and processing policy. Many OMIs are afraid of being dependent on one sales channel. Even though most of sales volume goes through supermarket sales, especially in Nordic countries and UK, many still want to develop their direct sales and regional sales.

  18. Use of Failure in IS Development Statistics: Lessons for IS Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert H., Jr.; Babb, Jeffry; Waguespack, Leslie; Tastle, William; Landry, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of computing education reflects the history of the professional practice of computing. Keeping computing education current has been a major challenge due to the explosive advances in technologies. Academic programs in Information Systems, a long-standing computing discipline, develop and refine the theory and practice of computing…

  19. Role of vision on early motor development : lessons from the blind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechtl, HFR; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Bos, AF; Ferrari, F

    For a better understanding of the contribution vision makes to the development of other sensory systems and to movement and posture, we studied effects of early blindness by examining video recordings of 14 totally blind infants. Infants were born at term or preterm and showed no evidence of brain

  20. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…