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Sample records for stage assembly process

  1. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  2. Minimizing the Makespan for a Two-Stage Three-Machine Assembly Flow Shop Problem with the Sum-of-Processing-Time Based Learning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Chin Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage production process and its applications appear in many production environments. Job processing times are usually assumed to be constant throughout the process. In fact, the learning effect accrued from repetitive work experiences, which leads to the reduction of actual job processing times, indeed exists in many production environments. However, the issue of learning effect is rarely addressed in solving a two-stage assembly scheduling problem. Motivated by this observation, the author studies a two-stage three-machine assembly flow shop problem with a learning effect based on sum of the processing times of already processed jobs to minimize the makespan criterion. Because this problem is proved to be NP-hard, a branch-and-bound method embedded with some developed dominance propositions and a lower bound is employed to search for optimal solutions. A cloud theory-based simulated annealing (CSA algorithm and an iterated greedy (IG algorithm with four different local search methods are used to find near-optimal solutions for small and large number of jobs. The performances of adopted algorithms are subsequently compared through computational experiments and nonparametric statistical analyses, including the Kruskal–Wallis test and a multiple comparison procedure.

  3. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  4. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation ...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept.......Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  5. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  6. Pervaporation process and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A.

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  7. Stages in the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-04

    Research should be conducted in a systematic manner, allowing the researcher to progress from a general idea or clinical problem to scientifically rigorous research findings that enable new developments to improve clinical practice. Using a research process helps guide this process. This article is the first in a 26-part series on nursing research. It examines the process that is common to all research, and provides insights into ten different stages of this process: developing the research question, searching and evaluating the literature, selecting the research approach, selecting research methods, gaining access to the research site and data, pilot study, sampling and recruitment, data collection, data analysis, and dissemination of results and implementation of findings.

  8. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  9. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  10. Evaluation of the fuel-element assembly non-hermeticity at its early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznyakova, V.A.; Shevel', V.N.; Ostapenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The given paper deals with control of the fuel-element assembly shell state at the early stage of failure development. Technique for the fuel-element assembly shell state evaluation are described. A method for assembly failure detection, used at WWR of the Institute for Nuclear Research is described also

  11. Experiments for Multi-Stage Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize...... the required number of experimental runs, we suggest using mirror image pairs of experiments at each stage following the first. As the design criterion, we consider their projectivity and mainly focus on projectivity 3 designs. We provide the methodology for generating these designs for processes with any...

  12. Systemic analysis of the caulking assembly process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodean Claudiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the importance of a caulking process which is nowadays less studied in comparison with the growing of its usage in the automotive industry. Due to the fact that the caulking operation is used in domains with high importance such as shock absorbers and brake systems there comes the demand of this paper to detail the parameters which characterize the process, viewed as input data and output data, and the requirements asked for the final product. The paper presents the actual measurement methods used for analysis the performance of the caulking assembly. All this parameters leads to an analysis algorithm of performance established for the caulking process which it is used later in the paper for an experimental research. The study is a basis from which it will be able to go to further researches in order to optimize the following processing.

  13. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  14. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF ASSEMBLY AND THREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Skorkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the issues related to the integrated management of assembling operations of fastening and threading elements at all stages of their implementation. The goal is to develop the generalized structure of the data management system of the process of assembly and threading. The objectives are: to justify the principles of managing the assembly and threading process at each stage of the assembly to improve the efficiency of these operations, to study the power, accuracy and performance characteristics of the connections and to draw the conclusion that suggested the theory of assembly management is efficient. The following results are obtained. The article presents the analytical dependencies of the force indexes of threading in the course of the package and sheet assembly, including the tightening force while joining; the assembly of a multilayered package of dissimilar sheet materials was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the dependences of the power indices of threading during the package and sheet assembly were determined. The assembly of the package of sheet materials was investigated, including a multilayered package of dissimilar materials of a “metal-plastic” type. Conclusions. The process of assembling threaded joints with the use of management principles was used; these principles enable increasing the efficiency of the assembly process, reducing the complexity of the basic operations, and improving the quality of the joints obtained. The use adaptive control of the screwing speed on the main threading transitions is suggested for reducing the torque.  The technology of making threaded joints with given properties is developed, the main ways of increasing the efficiency of assembly and threading processes are determined on the basis of the integrated control system for the assembly process.

  15. Munc18-1-regulated stage-wise SNARE assembly underlying synaptic exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Rebane, Aleksander A; Yang, Guangcan; Xi, Zhiqun; Kang, Yuhao; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-12-23

    Synaptic-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins couple their stage-wise folding/assembly to rapid exocytosis of neurotransmitters in a Munc18-1-dependent manner. The functions of the different assembly stages in exocytosis and the role of Munc18-1 in SNARE assembly are not well understood. Using optical tweezers, we observed four distinct stages of assembly in SNARE N-terminal, middle, C-terminal, and linker domains (or NTD, MD, CTD, and LD, respectively). We found that SNARE layer mutations differentially affect SNARE assembly. Comparison of their effects on SNARE assembly and on exocytosis reveals that NTD and CTD are responsible for vesicle docking and fusion, respectively, whereas MD regulates SNARE assembly and fusion. Munc18-1 initiates SNARE assembly and structures t-SNARE C-terminus independent of syntaxin N-terminal regulatory domain (NRD) and stabilizes the half-zippered SNARE complex dependent upon the NRD. Our observations demonstrate distinct functions of SNARE domains whose assembly is intimately chaperoned by Munc18-1.

  16. Elucidating dominant pathways of the nano-particle self-assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangze; Li, Bin; Qiao, Qin; Zhu, Lizhe; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-09-14

    Self-assembly processes play a key role in the fabrication of functional nano-structures with widespread application in drug delivery and micro-reactors. In addition to the thermodynamics, the kinetics of the self-assembled nano-structures also play an important role in determining the formed structures. However, as the self-assembly process is often highly heterogeneous, systematic elucidation of the dominant kinetic pathways of self-assembly is challenging. Here, based on mass flow, we developed a new method for the construction of kinetic network models and applied it to identify the dominant kinetic pathways for the self-assembly of star-like block copolymers. We found that the dominant pathways are controlled by two competing kinetic parameters: the encounter time Te, characterizing the frequency of collision and the transition time Tt for the aggregate morphology change from rod to sphere. Interestingly, two distinct self-assembly mechanisms, diffusion of an individual copolymer into the aggregate core and membrane closure, both appear at different stages (with different values of Tt) of a single self-assembly process. In particular, the diffusion mechanism dominates the middle-sized semi-vesicle formation stage (with large Tt), while the membrane closure mechanism dominates the large-sized vesicle formation stage (with small Tt). Through the rational design of the hydrophibicity of the copolymer, we successfully tuned the transition time Tt and altered the dominant self-assembly pathways.

  17. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  18. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  19. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  20. Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) Ready for Assembly AT KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    This photograph shows the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center ready to be mated with the second and third stages to complete the assembly of a Saturn V launch vehicle. This particular Saturn V was used for Apollo 6, which was a systems test flight. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  1. Cell-assembly coding in several memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y

    1998-01-01

    The present paper discusses why the cell assembly, i.e., an ensemble population of neurons with flexible functional connections, is a tenable view of the basic code for information processes in the brain. The main properties indicating the reality of cell-assembly coding are neurons overlaps among different assemblies and connection dynamics within and among the assemblies. The former can be detected as multiple functions of individual neurons in processing different kinds of information. Individual neurons appear to be involved in multiple information processes. The latter can be detected as changes of functional synaptic connections in processing different kinds of information. Correlations of activity among some of the recorded neurons appear to change in multiple information processes. Recent experiments have compared several different memory processes (tasks) and detected these two main properties, indicating cell-assembly coding of memory in the working brain. The first experiment compared different types of processing of identical stimuli, i.e., working memory and reference memory of auditory stimuli. The second experiment compared identical processes of different types of stimuli, i.e., discriminations of simple auditory, simple visual, and configural auditory-visual stimuli. The third experiment compared identical processes of different types of stimuli with or without temporal processing of stimuli, i.e., discriminations of elemental auditory, configural auditory-visual, and sequential auditory-visual stimuli. Some possible features of the cell-assembly coding, especially "dual coding" by individual neurons and cell assemblies, are discussed for future experimental approaches. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Second stage of Saturn V being assembled with the first stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The hydrogen-powered second stage is being lowered into place during the final phase of fabrication of the Saturn V moon rocket at North American's Seal Beach, California facility. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  3. Automated simultaneous assembly of multi-stage testing for the uniform CPA examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination are offered as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination will be offered as an adaptive multi-stage test (MST)

  4. Coupling Spatiotemporal Community Assembly Processes to Changes in Microbial Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Emily B.; Crump, Alex R.; Resch, Charles T.; Fansler, Sarah; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Stegen, James C.

    2016-12-16

    Community assembly processes govern shifts in species abundances in response to environmental change, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely decoupled from ecosystem function. Here, we test hypotheses regarding assembly and function across space and time using hyporheic microbial communities as a model system. We pair sampling of two habitat types through hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that dual selective pressures assimilate to generate compositional changes at distinct timescales among habitat types, resulting in contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with selection and with seasonal changes in aerobic metabolism. Our results culminate in a conceptual model in which selection from contrasting environments regulates taxon abundance and ecosystem function through time, with increases in function when oscillating selection opposes stable selective pressures. Our model is applicable within both macrobial and microbial ecology and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem function.

  5. Parallel processing of neutron transport in fuel assembly calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Seung

    1992-02-01

    Group constants, which are used for reactor analyses by nodal method, are generated by fuel assembly calculations based on the neutron transport theory, since one or a quarter of the fuel assembly corresponds to a unit mesh in the current nodal calculation. The group constant calculation for a fuel assembly is performed through spectrum calculations, a two-dimensional fuel assembly calculation, and depletion calculations. The purpose of this study is to develop a parallel algorithm to be used in a parallel processor for the fuel assembly calculation and the depletion calculations of the group constant generation. A serial program, which solves the neutron integral transport equation using the transmission probability method and the linear depletion equation, was prepared and verified by a benchmark calculation. Small changes from the serial program was enough to parallelize the depletion calculation which has inherent parallel characteristics. In the fuel assembly calculation, however, efficient parallelization is not simple and easy because of the many coupling parameters in the calculation and data communications among CPU's. In this study, the group distribution method is introduced for the parallel processing of the fuel assembly calculation to minimize the data communications. The parallel processing was performed on Quadputer with 4 CPU's operating in NURAD Lab. at KAIST. Efficiencies of 54.3 % and 78.0 % were obtained in the fuel assembly calculation and depletion calculation, respectively, which lead to the overall speedup of about 2.5. As a result, it is concluded that the computing time consumed for the group constant generation can be easily reduced by parallel processing on the parallel computer with small size CPU's

  6. Audiovisual integration in speech perception: a multi-stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    investigate whether the integration of auditory and visual speech observed in these two audiovisual integration effects are specific traits of speech perception. We further ask whether audiovisual integration is undertaken in a single processing stage or multiple processing stages....

  7. A two-stage stochastic rule-based model to determine pre-assembly buffer content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Elif Elcin; Kula, Ufuk

    2018-01-01

    This study considers instant decision-making needs of the automobile manufactures for resequencing vehicles before final assembly (FA). We propose a rule-based two-stage stochastic model to determine the number of spare vehicles that should be kept in the pre-assembly buffer to restore the altered sequence due to paint defects and upstream department constraints. First stage of the model decides the spare vehicle quantities, where the second stage model recovers the scrambled sequence respect to pre-defined rules. The problem is solved by sample average approximation (SAA) algorithm. We conduct a numerical study to compare the solutions of heuristic model with optimal ones and provide following insights: (i) as the mismatch between paint entrance and scheduled sequence decreases, the rule-based heuristic model recovers the scrambled sequence as good as the optimal resequencing model, (ii) the rule-based model is more sensitive to the mismatch between the paint entrance and scheduled sequences for recovering the scrambled sequence, (iii) as the defect rate increases, the difference in recovery effectiveness between rule-based heuristic and optimal solutions increases, (iv) as buffer capacity increases, the recovery effectiveness of the optimization model outperforms heuristic model, (v) as expected the rule-based model holds more inventory than the optimization model.

  8. Multiphonon capture processes in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    We investigate capture of carriers from states in the continuous part of the energy spectrum into the discrete states of self-assembled InAs/GaAs QDs via emission of one or two phonons. We are not aware of any other investigations of two-phonon mediated capture processes in QDs, but we show...

  9. Validation of Wendelstein 7-X fabrication and assembly stages by magnetic field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, T.; Kislinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which is currently under construction in Greifswald, is a 5-period machine, and many of the planned operational plasma scenarios are characterized by a rotational transform t/2p =1 at the plasma boundary. Such magnetic configurations are very sensitive to the symmetry breaking perturbations caused by fabrication and assembly errors, which can occur at different stages of the device construction. As a consequence, new islands at any periodicity can be produced, existing islands can be modified, stochastic regions can be enhanced and power load onto the divertor plates can be increased. Therefore the high precision of the machine construction is a very important issue, and evaluation of the magnetic field is necessary for the continuous validation of the fabrication and assembly stages with respect to their impact on the magnetic field perturbation. Analysis of the first fabricated winding packs (WPs) has shown that the fabrication errors can be divided into the systematical and statistical parts [1]. The systematic deviations add only negligible field components and don't perturb 5-fold symmetry of the machine, whilst the statistical deviations cause the disturbance of the machine periodicity. For that estimation of the magnetic field perturbation the numerical procedure has been developed [2], which describes statistically the randomly distributed errors, taken within the given tolerances or uses the actual measurements available as an input parameter. Since the construction of the magnet system of W7-X is subdivided into two main phases fabrication of components by industrial contractors and assembly of these components into the magnet system at the Greifswald site, the analysis of the magnetic field perturbation starts from the consideration of the impact of the WPs geometry deviations during the manufacturing stage. (Author)

  10. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  11. The self-assembling process and applications in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K.; Link, Jarrett M.; Hu, Jerry C. Y.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2018-01-01

    Tissue engineering strives to create neotissues capable of restoring function. Scaffold-free technologies have emerged that can recapitulate native tissue function without the use of an exogenous scaffold. This chapter will survey, in particular, the self-assembling and self-organization processes as scaffold-free techniques. Characteristics and benefits of each process are described, and key examples of tissues created using these scaffold-free processes are examined to provide guidance for future tissue engineering developments. This chapter aims to explore the potential of self-assembly and self-organization scaffold-free approaches, detailing the recent progress in the in vitro tissue engineering of biomimetic tissues with these methods, toward generating functional tissue replacements. PMID:28348174

  12. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  13. Design of remote handled process assemblies for the process facility modifications project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, J.L.; Ajifu, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modular design philosophy for the process facility modification project utilizes an integrated design of components to facilitate operations and maintenance of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment in a hot cell environment. The utilization of a matrix of remoteable base frames combines with process equipment designed as remote assemblies and sub-assemblies has simplified the overall design. Modularity will allow future flexibility while providing advantages for construction and maintenance in the initial installation

  14. Cost information in succeeding stages of the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Deiman, E.P.; Beheshti, M.R.; Zreik, K.

    1993-01-01

    Adequate decision making in the design process needs information about oost oonsequences over the life of the designed object. In succeeding stages the types of decisions change; as a consequence the type of oost information will differ as well. For each stage oost information about realized

  15. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...... of these findings for auditors and every stakeholder of business firms are considered....

  16. CONSIDERATIONS UPON DESIGNING MODULAR CONSTRUCTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTS ASSEMBLING, MAINTENANCE AND RECYCLING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂRSAN Lucian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modular constructions are frequently used in industry because of their multiple advantages. Used from the antiquity as a measuring system that ensured good proportions for the objects or buildings, the module is used in present industry as a tool for improving the product maintenance, repair, upgrading, and/or recycling. Modular constructions can be assembled and disassembled easily, facilitating the postuse actions like subassemblies reuse, or materials recovering for the recycling process. An important aspect of this paper is that designers should create the modular solution even from the conceptual design stage and build a structure of functions based on well motivated arguments and which can easily be brake out according to technological possibilities, product functioning and assembly solutions.

  17. Preliminary technical data summary defense waste processing facility stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This Preliminary Technical Data Summary presents the technical basis for design of Stage 2 of the Staged Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Process changes incorporated in the staged DWPF relative to the Alternative DWPF described in PTDS No. 3 (DPSTD-77-13-3) are the result of ongoing research and development and are aimed at reducing initial capital investment and developing a process to efficiently immobilize the radionuclides in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste. The radionuclides in SRP waste are present in sludge that has settled to the bottom of waste storage tanks and in crystallized salt and salt solution (supernate). Stage 1 of the DWPF receives washed, aluminum dissolved sludge from the waste tank farms and immobilizes it in a borosilicate glass matrix. The supernate is retained in the waste tank farms until completion of Stage 2 of the DWPF at which time it is filtered and decontaminated by ion exchange in the Stage 2 facility. The decontaminated supernate is concentrated by evaporation and mixed with cement for burial. The radioactivity removed from the supernate is fixed in borosilicate glass along with the sludge. This document gives flowsheets, material and curie balances, material and curie balance bases, and other technical data for design of Stage 2 of the DWPF. Stage 1 technical data are presented in DPSTD-80-38

  18. Community Assembly Processes of the Microbial Rare Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcão Salles, Joana

    2018-03-14

    Our planet teems with microorganisms that often present a skewed abundance distribution in a local community, with relatively few dominant species coexisting alongside a high number of rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that these rare taxa serve as limitless reservoirs of genetic diversity, and perform disproportionate types of functions despite their low abundances. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling rarity and the processes promoting the development of the rare biosphere. Here, we propose the use of multivariate cut-offs to estimate rare species and phylogenetic null models applied to predefined rare taxa to disentangle the relative influences of ecoevolutionary processes mediating the assembly of the rare biosphere. Importantly, the identification of the factors controlling rare species assemblages is critical for understanding the types of rarity, how the rare biosphere is established, and how rare microorganisms fluctuate over spatiotemporal scales, thus enabling prospective predictions of ecosystem responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disrupting assembly of the inner membrane complex blocks Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Parkyn Schneider

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of malaria parasites relies on the formation of a specialized blood form called the gametocyte. Gametocytes of the human pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, adopt a crescent shape. Their dramatic morphogenesis is driven by the assembly of a network of microtubules and an underpinning inner membrane complex (IMC. Using super-resolution optical and electron microscopies we define the ultrastructure of the IMC at different stages of gametocyte development. We characterize two new proteins of the gametocyte IMC, called PhIL1 and PIP1. Genetic disruption of PhIL1 or PIP1 ablates elongation and prevents formation of transmission-ready mature gametocytes. The maturation defect is accompanied by failure to form an enveloping IMC and a marked swelling of the digestive vacuole, suggesting PhIL1 and PIP1 are required for correct membrane trafficking. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry we reveal that PhIL1 interacts with known and new components of the gametocyte IMC.

  20. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, James C; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K; Konopka, Allan E

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  1. Estimating and Mapping Ecological Processes Influencing Microbial Community Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Stegen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  2. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  3. Initial stages of the ion beam mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverse, A.; Le Boite, M.G.; Nevot, L.; Pardo, B.; Corno, J.

    1987-01-01

    The grazing x-ray reflectometry technique, performed on irradiated periodic multilayers, was used to study the early stages of the ion beam mixing process. We present our first results, obtained on NiAu samples irradiated with He ions. The experimental fluence dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient is in good agreement with a calculation based on a purely ballistic process

  4. Stochastic processes dominate during boreal bryophyte community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Nicole J; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Why are plant species found in certain locations and not in others? The study of community assembly rules has attempted to answer this question, and many studies articulate the historic dichotomy of deterministic (predictable niches) vs. stochastic (random or semi-random processes). The study of successional sequences to determine whether they converge, as would be expected by deterministic theory, or diverge, as stochastic theory would suggest, has been one method used to investigate this question. In this article we ask the question: Do similar boreal bryophyte communities develop in the similar habitat created by convergent succession after fires of different severities? Or do the stochastic processes generated by fires of different severity lead to different communities? Specifically we predict that deterministic structure will be more important for large forest-floor species than stochastic processes, and that the inverse will be true for small bryophyte species. We used multivariate regression trees and model selection to determine the relative weight of structure (forest structure, substrates, soil structure) and processes (fire severity) for two groups of bryophyte species sampled in 12 sites (seven high-severity and five low-severity fires). Contrary to our first hypothesis, processes were as important for large forest-floor bryophytes as for small pocket species. Fire severity, its interaction with the quality of available habitat, and its impact on the creation of biological legacies played dominant roles in determining community structure. In this study, sites with nearly identical forest structure, generated via convergent succession after high- and low-severity fire, were compared to see whether these sites supported similar bryophyte communities. While similar to some degree, both the large forest-floor species and the pocket species differed after high-severity fire compared to low-severity fire. This result suggests that the "how," or process of

  5. Defense Waste Processing Facility staged operations: environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental information is presented relating to a staged version of the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The information is intended to provide the basis for an Environmental Impact Statement. In either the integral or the staged design, the DWPF will convert the high-level waste currently stored in tanks into: a leach-resistant form containing about 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residual, slightly contaminated salt, which is disposed of as saltcrete. In the first stage of the staged version, the insoluble sludge portion of the waste and the long lived radionuclides contained therein will be vitrified. The waste glass will be sealed in canisters and stored onsite until shipped to a Federal repository. In the second stage, the supernate portion of the waste will be decontaminated by ion exchange. The recovered radionuclides will be transferred to the Stage 1 facility, and mixed with the sludge feed before vitrification. The residual, slightly contaminated salt solution will be mixed with Portland cement to form a concrete product (saltcrete) which will be buried onsite in an engineered landfill. This document describes the conceptual facilities and processes for producing glass waste and decontaminated salt. The environmental effects of facility construction, normal operations, and accidents are then presented. Descriptions of site and environs, alternative sites and waste disposal options, and environmental consultations and permits are given in the base Environmental Information Document

  6. Force-controlled robotic assembly processes of rigid and flexible objects methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalyan, Ibrahim Fahad Jasim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive and integrated approaches for rigid and flexible object assembly. It presents comparison studies with the available force-guided robotic processes and covers contact-state modeling, scheme control strategies, and position searching algorithms. Further, it includes experimental validations for different assembly situations, including those for the assembly of industrial parts taken from the automotive industry. .

  7. Ergonomic risk assessment with DesignCheck to evaluate assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gabriele; Schaub, Karlheinz G; Großmann, Kay; Laun, Gerhard; Landau, Kurt; Bruder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Occupational hazards exist, if the design of the work situation is not in accordance with ergonomic design principles. At assembly lines ergonomics is applied to the design of work equipment and tasks and to work organisation. The ignoring of ergonomic principles in planning and design of assembly work leads to unfavourable working posture, action force and material handling. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are of a common occurrence throughout Europe. Musculoskeletal disorders are a challenge against the background of disabled workers. The changes in a worker's capability have to be regarded in the conception of redesigned and new assembly lines. In this way ergonomics becomes progressively more important in planning and design of vehicles: The objective of ergonomic design in different stages of the vehicles development process is to achieve an optimal adaptation of the assembly work to workers. Hence the ergonomic screening tool "Design Check" (DC) was developed to identify ergonomic deficits in workplace layouts. The screening-tool is based on the current ergonomic state of the art in the design of physical work and relevant EU legal requirements. It was tested within a federal German research project at selected work stations at the assembly lines at Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG / Stuttgart. Meanwhile the application of the screening-tool DC is transferred in other parts of the Porsche AG, Stuttgart. It is also realized as an ergonomic standard method to perform assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

  8. Engineering analysis of the two-stage trifluoride precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.w.W.

    1984-06-01

    An engineering analysis of two-stage trifluoride precipitation processes is developed. Precipitation kinetics are modeled using consecutive reactions to represent fluoride complexation. Material balances across the precipitators are used to model the time dependent concentration profiles of the main chemical species. The results of the engineering analysis are correlated with previous experimental work on plutonium trifluoride and cerium trifluoride

  9. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  10. The Discovery of Processing Stages: Extension of Sternberg's Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, John R; Zhang, Qiong; Borst, Jelmer P; Walsh, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring the number and durations of processing stages from the electroencephalographic signal and apply it to the study of associative recognition. Using an extension of past research that combines multivariate pattern analysis with hidden semi-Markov models, the approach

  11. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, C.E.J.; Schrijver, A.; Woeginger, G.J.; Schwentick, T.; Dürr, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the

  12. Staging Co-design Processes for Self-care Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    field studies in people’s homes and discuss how to stage design processes with the people who are actually going to use the self-care technologies—not only end-users, but also many other actors, such as relatives, caregivers, and municipality and company staff. Specifically, we describe how challenges...

  13. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  14. High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Tang, Jianshi; Kumar, Bharat; Falk, Abram; Farmer, Damon; Tulevski, George; Jenkins, Keith; Afzali, Ali; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John; Hannon, James; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-09-01

    As conventional monolithic silicon technology struggles to meet the requirements for the 7-nm technology node, there has been tremendous progress in demonstrating the scalability of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors down to the size that satisfies the 3-nm node and beyond. However, to date, circuits built with carbon nanotubes have overlooked key aspects of a practical logic technology and have stalled at simple functionality demonstrations. Here, we report high-performance complementary carbon nanotube ring oscillators using fully manufacturable processes, with a stage switching frequency of 2.82 GHz. The circuit was built on solution-processed, self-assembled carbon nanotube arrays with over 99.9% semiconducting purity, and the complementary feature was achieved by employing two different work function electrodes.

  15. Nanomaterial processing using self-assembly-bottom-up chemical and biological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruvengadathan, Rajagopalan; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Korampally, Venumadhav; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Chanda, Nripen

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is touted as the next logical sequence in technological evolution. This has led to a substantial surge in research activities pertaining to the development and fundamental understanding of processes and assembly at the nanoscale. Both top-down and bottom-up fabrication approaches may be used to realize a range of well-defined nanostructured materials with desirable physical and chemical attributes. Among these, the bottom-up self-assembly process offers the most realistic solution toward the fabrication of next-generation functional materials and devices. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the physical basis behind self-assembly and the processes reported in recent years to direct the assembly of nanoscale functional blocks into hierarchically ordered structures. This paper emphasizes assembly in the synthetic domain as well in the biological domain, underscoring the importance of biomimetic approaches toward novel materials. In particular, two important classes of directed self-assembly, namely, (i) self-assembly among nanoparticle–polymer systems and (ii) external field-guided assembly are highlighted. The spontaneous self-assembling behavior observed in nature that leads to complex, multifunctional, hierarchical structures within biological systems is also discussed in this review. Recent research undertaken to synthesize hierarchically assembled functional materials have underscored the need as well as the benefits harvested in synergistically combining top-down fabrication methods with bottom-up self-assembly. (review article)

  16. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the

  17. Changing contributions of stochastic and deterministic processes in community assembly over a successional gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Måren, Inger Elisabeth; Kapfer, Jutta; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2018-01-01

    Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and ungrazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe. A replicated series of post-fire successions (n = 12) were initiated under grazed and ungrazed conditions, and vegetation data were recorded in permanent plots over 13 years. We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to test for deterministic successional patterns in species composition repeated across the replicate successional series and analyses of co-occurrence to evaluate to what extent species respond synchronously along the successional gradient. Change in species co-occurrences over succession indicates stochastic successional dynamics at the species level (i.e., species equivalence), whereas constancy in co-occurrence indicates deterministic dynamics (successional niche differentiation). The RDA shows high and deterministic vascular plant community compositional change, especially early in succession. Co-occurrence analyses indicate stochastic species-level dynamics the first two years, which then give way to more deterministic replacements. Grazed and ungrazed successions are similar, but the early stage stochasticity is higher in ungrazed areas. Bryophyte communities in ungrazed successions resemble vascular plant communities. In contrast, bryophytes in grazed successions showed consistently high stochasticity and low determinism in both community composition and species co-occurrence. In conclusion, stochastic and individualistic species responses early in succession give way to more

  18. Inhibition of Early Stages of HIV-1 Assembly by INI1/hSNF5 Transdominant Negative Mutant S6 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jennifer; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2011-01-01

    INI1/hSNF5 is an HIV-1 integrase (IN) binding protein specifically incorporated into virions. A truncated mutant of INI1 (S6, amino acids 183 to 294) harboring the minimal IN binding Rpt1 domain potently inhibits HIV-1 particle production in a transdominant manner. The inhibition requires interaction of S6 with IN within Gag-Pol. While INI1 is a nuclear protein and harbors a masked nuclear export signal (NES), the transdominant negative mutant S6 is cytoplasmic, due to the unmasking of NES. Here, we examined the effects of subcellular localization of S6 on HIV-1 inhibition and further investigated the stages of assembly that are affected. We found that targeting a nuclear localization signal-containing S6 variant [NLS-S6(Rpt1)] to the nucleoplasm (but not to the nucleolus) resulted in complete reversal of inhibition of particle production. Electron microscopy indicated that although no electron-dense particles at any stage of assembly were seen in cells expressing S6, virions were produced in cells expressing the rescue mutant NLS-S6(Rpt1) to wild-type levels. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that p24 exhibited a diffuse pattern of localization within the cytoplasm in cells expressing S6 in contrast to accumulation along the membrane in controls. Pulse-chase analysis indicated that in S6-expressing cells, although Gag(Pr55gag) protein translation was unaffected, processing and release of p24 were defective. Together, these results indicate that expression of S6 in the cytoplasm interferes with trafficking of Gag-Pol/Gag to the membrane and causes a defective processing leading to inhibition of assembly at an early stage prior to particle formation and budding. PMID:21159874

  19. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage.

  20. Process analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2002-08-01

    The process and the mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) of coal were investigated by analyzing the products of different MHyPy processes in detail. The results showed that the suitable holding temperature was near the peak temperature (350-500{degree}C) at which more free radicals were produced rapidly, thus more oil was formed and the hydrogen utilization efficiency was increased. The cleavage of organic functional groups in char from MHyPy was mostly affected by the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of retention was to change the product distribution through stabilization of the free radicals and hydrogenation of the heavier products. In the holding stage the specific surface area and average pore volume of the char were increased due to the escape of more hydrogenation products. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A Framework for Geometric Reasoning About Human Figures and Factors in Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, Terri L.

    1999-07-20

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be perfectly valid operations, but in reality some operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. For example, the use of a ratchet may be reasoned feasible for an assembly operation; however, when a hand is placed on the tool the operation is no longer feasible, perhaps because of inaccessibility, insufficient strength or human interference with assembly components. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications, however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem, HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning which allows engineers to quickly verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. This paper presents a framework for integrating geometry-based assembly planning algorithms with commercially available human figure modeling software packages. Experimental results to selected applications along with lessons learned are presented.

  2. TAGUCHI METHOD FOR THREE-STAGE ASSEMBLY FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM WITH BLOCKING AND SEQUENCE-DEPENDENT SET UP TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AREF MALEKI-DARONKOLAEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a three-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem minimizing the weighted sum of mean completion time and makespan with sequence-dependent setup times at the first stage and blocking times between each stage. To tackle such an NP-hard, two meta-heuristic algorithms are presented. The novelty of our approach is to develop a variable neighborhood search algorithm (VNS and a well-known simulated annealing (SA for the problem. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the (SA, its parameters are optimized by the use of Taguchi method, but to setting parameters of VNS just one parameter has been used without Taguchi. The computational results show that the proposed VNS is better in mean and standard deviation for all sizes of the problem than SA, but on the contrary about CPU Time SA outperforms VNS.

  3. NDUFAF5 Hydroxylates NDUFS7 at an Early Stage in the Assembly of Human Complex I*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 45 proteins. One arm lies in the inner membrane, and the other extends about 100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH, the primary electron acceptor FMN, and seven iron-sulfur clusters that form a pathway for electrons linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in a tunnel in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Seven of the subunits, forming the core of the membrane arm, are translated from mitochondrial genes, and the remaining subunits, the products of nuclear genes, are imported from the cytosol. Their assembly is coordinated by at least thirteen extrinsic assembly factor proteins that are not part of the fully assembled complex. They assist in insertion of co-factors and in building up the complex from smaller sub-assemblies. One such factor, NDUFAF5, belongs to the family of seven-β-strand S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. However, similar to another family member, RdmB, it catalyzes the introduction of a hydroxyl group, in the case of NDUFAF5, into Arg-73 in the NDUFS7 subunit of human complex I. This modification occurs early in the pathway of assembly of complex I, before the formation of the juncture between peripheral and membrane arms. PMID:27226634

  4. NDUFAF5 Hydroxylates NDUFS7 at an Early Stage in the Assembly of Human Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2016-07-08

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 45 proteins. One arm lies in the inner membrane, and the other extends about 100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH, the primary electron acceptor FMN, and seven iron-sulfur clusters that form a pathway for electrons linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in a tunnel in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Seven of the subunits, forming the core of the membrane arm, are translated from mitochondrial genes, and the remaining subunits, the products of nuclear genes, are imported from the cytosol. Their assembly is coordinated by at least thirteen extrinsic assembly factor proteins that are not part of the fully assembled complex. They assist in insertion of co-factors and in building up the complex from smaller sub-assemblies. One such factor, NDUFAF5, belongs to the family of seven-β-strand S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. However, similar to another family member, RdmB, it catalyzes the introduction of a hydroxyl group, in the case of NDUFAF5, into Arg-73 in the NDUFS7 subunit of human complex I. This modification occurs early in the pathway of assembly of complex I, before the formation of the juncture between peripheral and membrane arms. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. A consolidation process for spent burnable poison rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Harada, M.; Komatsu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new consolidation system for the spent burnable poison assembly utilizing a sequence control robot operated under water was proposed. A credible accident in the system was analyzed mainly from the viewpoint of tritium release, based on the diffusion analysis of tritium in borosilicate glass. It was found that the amount of tritium released would be small even after the rupture of burnable poison rods. An experiment on a new consolidation system was performed using spent burnable poison assemblies. The volume of burnable poison assemblies was reduced safely and securely by a factor of 7 to 14 for burnable poison rods and by 22 for hold-down portions. It was proved that the consolidation system is collectively feasible

  6. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  7. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  8. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buescher, Christian; Hauck, Eckart; Schilberg, Daniel; Jeschke, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed wi...

  9. Staging the workplace design process: The role of ergonomists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term 'political reflective navigator' as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists it was fo......The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term 'political reflective navigator' as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists...... it was found that new ways and tools for influencing the workplace-making process are needed. The concept of 'staging the workplace design' is suggested as a new framework for seeing and guiding ergonomists when taking part in design of workplaces....

  10. A study of the friction and wear processes of the structural components of fuel assemblies for water-cooled and water moderated power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.; Afanasiev, A.; Matvienko, I.; Drozdov, Y.; Puchkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The friction forces affect the fuel assembly (FA) strength at all the stages of its lifecycle. The paper covers the methods and the results of the pre-irradiation experimental studies of the static and dynamic processes the friction forces are involved in. These comprise the FA assembling at the manufacturer, fuel rod flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear in the fuel rod-to-cell friction pairs, rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) movement in the FA guide tubes, FA bowing, FA loading-unloading into the core, irradiation-induced growth and thermal-mechanical fuel rod-to-spacer grid interaction. (authors)

  11. Geologic Mapping, Volcanic Stages and Magmatic Processes in Hawaiian Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    rise to various Hawaiian lithologies. This analysis indicates that the important magmatic process that links geologic mapping to volcanic stage is thermal state of the volcano, as manifest by depth of magma evolution. The only criterion for rejuvenation volcanism is the presence of a significant time break (more than several hundred thousand years) preceding eruption.

  12. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  13. Process and device for fabricating nuclear fuel assembly grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaut, B.; Duthoo, D.; Germanaz, J.J.; Angilbert, B.

    1991-01-01

    The method for fabricating PWR fuel assembly grids consists to place the grid of which the constituent parts are held firmly in place within a frame into a sealed chamber full of inert gas. This chamber can rotate about an axis. The welding on one face at a time is carried out with a laser beam orthogonal to the axis orientation of the device. The laser source is outside of the chamber and the beam penetrates via a transparent view port

  14. Development of process route for production of tubing for various core sub-assemblies and heat exchangers for 500 MWe Indian PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Phani Babu, C.; Dubey, A.K.; Surender, A.; Deshpande, K.V.K.; Maity, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    India's three stage Nuclear Power Program has entered its second stage on commercial scale with the commencement of construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad is playing a crucial role in the manufacture of all the critical sub-assemblies and control elements for this reactor. The challenging task of process development and production of the various critical tubing for these sub assemblies for PFBR has been taken up by Stainless Steel Tubes Plant (SSTP), NFC with indigenous development of the equipment and technology

  15. Combined scanning probe and light scattering characterization of multi-stage self-assembly of targeted liposome-based delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, N; Dagata, J A; Yang, C; Rait, A; Pirollo, K F; Chang, E H

    2011-01-01

    The mean size and size distribution of a targeted nanoparticle delivery system (NDS) strongly influences the intrinsic stability and functionality of this molecular complex, affects its performance as a systemic drug delivery platform and ultimately determines its efficacy toward early detection and treatment of cancer. Since its components undergo significant reorganization during multiple stages of self-assembly, it is essential to monitor the size and stability of the complex throughout the NDS formulation in order to ensure its potency and manufacturability prior to entering clinical trials. This work combines scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques to obtain quantitative and reliable size measurements of the NDS, and to investigate how variations in the NDS formulation or self-assembly process impact the size, structure and functionality of the complex with various therapeutic and diagnostic agent payloads. These combined SPM and DLS methods, when implemented at an early stage of the NDS formulation, present a potential measurement approach to facilitate drug discovery and development, optimization and quality control during manufacturing of the NDS

  16. Dynamics of process at the final stage of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koljari, I.G.; Mavlitov, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous experimental data show, that the final stage of nuclear fission near to a scission point plays an essential role at formation of characteristics of fission products. At the description of a final stage of fission there is a number of problems: Definition of the form of the nuclear near the scission point and definition forms of a fission fragments; The account of dynamic processes in compound nuclear directly before of fission. The condition of the quasistatic al adiabatic process - dS/dt=0 - is applied in a point of transition from the uniform compound nuclei to several forms for definition of generalized coordinates and speeds. Calculation of dependence of post neutrons from nuclear mass of fission fragments for reactions is α+ 83 Bi 209 → 85 At 213 (E lab = 45 MeV); α+ 92 U 242 → 94 Pu 242 (E lab = 45 MeV); 8 O 18 + 79 Au 197 → 97 Fr 215 (E lab = 159 MeV). System of equations, which describes behaviour of system in a point of nuclear fission-transition from the uniform form to system of a two (and, probably more) fission fragments is given. The system of the equations allows in a fission point to define the generalized coordinates, and the generalized speeds for each of the generalized coordinates of collective deformation variables

  17. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk  1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.

  18. Two-stage process analysis using the process-based performance measurement framework and business process simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, K.H.; Kang, J.G.; Song, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Many enterprises have recently been pursuing process innovation or improvement to attain their performance goals. To align a business process with enterprise performances, this study proposes a two-stage process analysis for process (re)design that combines the process-based performance measurement

  19. Apparatus and process for separating end of nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneck, J.A.; Quayre, C.; Moreau, J.R.M.; Vermeille, D.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The apparatus for cutting the guide tubes of a nuclear fuel assembly below the bottom nozzle has a framework with removable fixation and centering means on the bottom nozzle. Cutting devices in the form of hollow pins are inserted simultaneously into all the guide tubes. Each pin contains a shaft that is moved axially inside it by the expansion system to deploy or retract a cutting edge near the lower end of the pin. A single motor using a gear wheel system, rotates all the cutting pins simultaneously [fr

  20. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2006-05-01

    A majority of large-scale desalination plants all over the world employ multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process. Many of these MSF desalination plants have been set up near to nuclear power plants (generally called as nuclear desalination plants) to effectively utilize the low-grade steam from the power plants as the source of energy. A computer program called MSFSIM has been developed to simulate the MSF desalination plant operation both for steady state and various transients including start up. This code predicts the effect of number of stages, flashing temperature, velocity of brine flowing through the tubes of brine heater and evaporators, temperature of the condensing thin film etc. on the plant performance ratio. Such a code can be used for the design of a new plant and to predict its operating and startup characteristics. The code has been extensively validated with available start up data from the pilot MSF desalination plant of 425-m3/day capacity at Trombay, Mumbai. A MSF desalination plant of 4500-m3/day capacity is under construction by BARC at Kalpakkam, which will utilize the steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). In this present work extensive parametric study of the 4500-m3/day capacity desalination plant at Kalpakkam has been done using the code MSFSIM for optimizing the operating parameters in order to maximize the performance ratio for stable plant operation. The aim of the work is prediction of plant performance under different operating conditions. (author)

  1. Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and...

  2. Finite Progressive Planning for the Assembly Process in Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, John; Aldás, Darwin; Salazar, Edisson; Armendáriz, Evelyn; Álvarez, Kevin; Núñez, José; García, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The scheduling of the operations of a manufacturing system is recognized for its efficiency in establishing a characteristic rate of production based on the forecasting of the ending date of an order. However, progressive planning focused on the footwear industries has not been studied in detail, since it is limited by the use of machines and supply according to the demand of the production line, whose development is based on just in time. The study proposes a finite progressive planning model in the area of footwear assembly that begins with analysis of the demand and identification of manufacturing constraints in order to establish an optimal ordering sequence. The results show manufacturing requirements through production orders that automatically determine production shifts per order, through experimentation of scenarios, the 25% increase in productivity indicators and a 31% improvement in efficiency are established. This improvement represents higher benefits for the industrial sector when establishing planning in the workplace.

  3. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  4. Study for process and equipment design of wet gelation stages in vibropacking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryoji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Amino, Masaki; Yanai, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Process and layout design of external wet gelation stages in vibropacking process was examined for the feasibility study of commercialized FBR cycle system. In this study, following process stages for the oxide core fuel production line were covered, that is, solidification, washing, drying, calcination, reduction, sintering stages including interim storage of sintering particles and reagent recovery stage. The main results obtained by this study are as follows: (1) Based on the process examination results conducted previously, process-flow, mass-balance and number of production line/equipment were clarified. The process is covered from the receive tank of feed solution to the interim storage equipment. Reagent recovery process-flow, mass-balance were also clarified. And preliminary design of the main equipment was reexamined. (2) Normal operation procedure and the procedure after process failure were summarized along with a remote automated operation procedure. Operation sequence of each production line was mapped out by using a time-chart. (3) Design outline of reagent recovery equipments, installed to recover waste liquid from the wet gelation stages in the view of environmental impact were examined. Effective techniques such as collection of solvent, residue waste treatment method were examined its applicability and selected. Schematic block diagram was presented. (4) Analytical items and analyzing apparatus were extracted taking into account of quality control and process management. Analytical sample taking position and frequency of sampling were also examined. (5) A schematic layout drawing of main manufacturing process and reagent recovery process was presented taking into account of material handling. (6) A feature of the operating rate at each process stage was examined by analyzing failure rate reliability of each component. applying the reliability-centred method. (RCM), the operating rate was evaluated and annual maintenance period was estimated using

  5. Z-buffer image assembly processing in high parallel visualization processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Isamu; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro

    2000-03-01

    On the platform of the parallel computer with many processors, the domain decomposition method is used as a popular means of parallel processing. In these days when the simulation scale becomes much larger and takes a lot of time, the simultaneous visualization processing with the actual computation is much more needed, and especially in case of a real-time visualization, the domain decomposition technique is indispensable. In case of parallel rendering processing, the rendered results must be gathered to one processor to compose the integrated picture in the last stage. This integration is usually conducted by the method using Z-buffer values. This process, however, induces the crucial problems of much lower speed processing and local memory shortage in case of parallel processing exceeding more than several tens of processors. In this report, the two new solutions are proposed. The one is the adoption of a special operator (Reduce operator) in the parallelization process, and the other is a buffer compression by deleting the background informations. This report includes the performance results of these new techniques to investigate their effect with use of the parallel computer Paragon. (author)

  6. Molecular processes from the AGB to the PN stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. Anibal

    2012-08-01

    Many complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds have been observed in the circumstellar shell of stars (both C-rich and O-rich) in the transition phase between Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and Planetary Nebulae (PNe). This short (~102-104 years) phase of stellar evolution represents a wonderful laboratory for astrochemistry and provides severe constraints on any model of gas-phase and solid-state chemistry. One of the major challenges of present day astrophysics and astrochemistry is to understand the formation pathways of these complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene in the case of a C-rich chemistry and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich environments) in space. In this review, I present an observational review of the molecular processes in the late stages of stellar evolution with a special emphasis on the first detections of fullerenes and graphene in PNe.

  7. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules.

  8. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  9. Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report

  10. High-power fused assemblies enabled by advances in fiber-processing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert; Clark, Brett

    2011-02-01

    The power handling capabilities of fiber lasers are limited by the technologies available to fabricate and assemble the key optical system components. Previous tools for the assembly, tapering, and fusion of fiber laser elements have had drawbacks with regard to temperature range, alignment capability, assembly flexibility and surface contamination. To provide expanded capabilities for fiber laser assembly, a wide-area electrical plasma heat source was used in conjunction with an optimized image analysis method and a flexible alignment system, integrated according to mechatronic principles. High-resolution imaging and vision-based measurement provided feedback to adjust assembly, fusion, and tapering process parameters. The system was used to perform assembly steps including dissimilar-fiber splicing, tapering, bundling, capillary bundling, and fusion of fibers to bulk optic devices up to several mm in diameter. A wide range of fiber types and diameters were tested, including extremely large diameters and photonic crystal fibers. The assemblies were evaluated for conformation to optical and mechanical design criteria, such as taper geometry and splice loss. The completed assemblies met the performance targets and exhibited reduced surface contamination compared to assemblies prepared on previously existing equipment. The imaging system and image analysis algorithms provided in situ fiber geometry measurement data that agreed well with external measurement. The ability to adjust operating parameters dynamically based on imaging was shown to provide substantial performance benefits, particularly in the tapering of fibers and bundles. The integrated design approach was shown to provide sufficient flexibility to perform all required operations with a minimum of reconfiguration.

  11. An investigative approach to explore optimum assembly process design for annular targets carrying LEU foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Annemarie

    Technetium-99m is the most widely used nuclear isotope in the medical field, with nearly 80 to 85% of all diagnostic imaging procedures. The daughter isotope of molybdenum-99 is currently produced using weapons-grade uranium. A suggested design for aluminum targets carrying low-enriched uranium (LEU) foil is presented for the fulfillment of eliminating highly enriched uranium (HEU) for medical isotope production. The assembly process that this research focuses on is the conventional draw-plug process which is currently used and lastly the sealing process. The research is unique in that it is a systematic approach to explore the optimal target assembly process to produce those targets with the required quality and integrity. Conducting 9 parametric experiments, aluminum tubes with a nickel foil fission-barrier and a surrogate stainless steel foil are assembled, welded and then examined to find defects, to determine residual stresses, and to find the best cost-effective target dimensions. The experimental design consists of 9 assembly combinations that were found through orthogonal arrays in order to explore the significance of each factor. Using probabilistic modeling, the parametric study is investigated using the Taguchi method of robust analysis. Depending on the situation, optimal conditions may be a nominal, a minimized or occasionally a maximized condition. The results will provide the best target design and will give optimal quality with little or no assembly defects.

  12. Process and installation for welding nuclear fuel assembly grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vere, B.; Mathevon, P.

    1985-01-01

    The invention proposes a process to weld two sets of perpendicular plates of which the end parts are made integral with a belt piece; the grid is held in a support frame with access openings to the points to be welded on the two faces and on the grid sides; the frame is moved on a mobile table by means of an orientation system along the perpendicular direction of an electron beam welding equipment; each joint to be welded is presented, rotating the frame through 90 deg about an axis and repeating the operation, and rotating the frame about a perpendicular axis and repeating the operation until all the joints on each side of the grid have been welded [fr

  13. Modeling and simulation of bus assem-bling process using DES/ABS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel PAWLEWSKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project, which goal is to analyze the production process capability after reengineering the assembly process due to expansion of a bus production plant. The verification of the designed work organization for the new configuration of workstations on new production hall is necessary. To solve these  problems authors propose a method based on mixing DES (Discrete Event Simulation and ABS (Agent Based Simulation approach. DES is using to model the main process – material flow (buses, ABS is using to model assembling operations of teams of  workers.One of obtained goal is to build a simulation model, which presents the new assembly line in the factory, taking into ac-count the arrangement of workstations and work teams in the new production hall as well as the transport between workstations. Second goal is to present work organization of work teams and division of individual workers’ labor (who belongs to a particular work team and performs operations on buses in a particular workstation in order to determine the best allocation of tasks and the optimum size of individual work teams. Proposed solution enables to determine the effect of assembly interferences on the work of particular work teams and the efficiency of the whole production system, to define the efficiency of the designed assembly lines and proposing changes aimed at the quality improvement of the created conception. 

  14. RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly studied in vivo by RNA transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, A.M.; Pederson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a method for studying RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly in vivo, by using RNA synthesized in vitro. SP6-transcribed 32 P-labeled U2 small nuclear RNA precursor molecules were introduced into cultured human 293 cells by calcium phosphate-mediated uptake, as in standard DNA transfection experiments. RNase protection mapping demonstrated that the introduced pre-U2 RNA underwent accurate 3' end processing. The introduced U2 RNA was assembled into ribonucleoprotein particles that reacted with an antibody specific for proteins known to be associated with the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle. The 3' end-processed, ribonucleoprotein-assembled U2 RNA accumulated in the nuclear fraction. When pre-U2 RNA with a 7-methylguanosine group at the 5' end was introduced into cells, it underwent conversion to a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structure, a characteristic feature of the U-small nuclear RNAs. Pre-U2 RNA introduced with an adenosine cap (Ap-ppG) also underwent processing, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly, and nuclear accumulation, establishing that a methylated guanosine cap structure is not required for these steps in U2 small nuclear ribonucleprotein biosynthesis. Beyond its demonstrated usefulness in the study of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, RNA transfection may be of general applicability to the investigation of eukaryotic RNA processing in vivo and may also offer opportunities for introducing therapeutically targeted RNAs (ribozymes or antisense RNA) into cells

  15. Changes in assembly processes in soil bacterial communities following a wildfire disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; O'Neill, Sean P; Knelman, Joseph E; Todd, Bryan; Duggan, Sam; Bradley, Daniel; Robinson, Taylor; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R; Williams, Mark W; Cleveland, Cory C; Melbourne, Brett A; Jiang, Lin; Nemergut, Diana R

    2013-06-01

    Although recent work has shown that both deterministic and stochastic processes are important in structuring microbial communities, the factors that affect the relative contributions of niche and neutral processes are poorly understood. The macrobiological literature indicates that ecological disturbances can influence assembly processes. Thus, we sampled bacterial communities at 4 and 16 weeks following a wildfire and used null deviation analysis to examine the role that time since disturbance has in community assembly. Fire dramatically altered bacterial community structure and diversity as well as soil chemistry for both time-points. Community structure shifted between 4 and 16 weeks for both burned and unburned communities. Community assembly in burned sites 4 weeks after fire was significantly more stochastic than in unburned sites. After 16 weeks, however, burned communities were significantly less stochastic than unburned communities. Thus, we propose a three-phase model featuring shifts in the relative importance of niche and neutral processes as a function of time since disturbance. Because neutral processes are characterized by a decoupling between environmental parameters and community structure, we hypothesize that a better understanding of community assembly may be important in determining where and when detailed studies of community composition are valuable for predicting ecosystem function.

  16. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  17. Effect of internal flow and evaporation on hydrogel assembly process at droplet interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Giho; Seong, Baekhoon; Gim, Yeonghyeon; Ko, Han Seo; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-11-01

    Recently, controlling the behavior of nanoparticles inside liquid droplet has been widely studied. There have been many reports about the mechanism of the nanoparticles assembly and fabrication of a thin film on a substrate. However, the assembly mechanism at a liquid-air interface has not been clearly understood to form polymer chains into films. Herein, we investigated the role of internal flow on the thin film assembly process at the interface of the hydrogel droplet. The internal fluid flow during the formation of the hydrogel film was visualized systematically using micro-PIV (Particle image velocimetry) technique at various temperatures. We show that the buoyancy effect and convection flow induced by heat can affect the film morphology and its mechanical characteristics. Due to the accelerated fluid flow inside the droplet and evaporation flux, densely assembled hydrogel film was able to be formed. Film strength was increased 24% with temperature increase from 40 to 80 degrees Celsius. We expect our investigations could be applied to many applications such as self-assembly of planar structures at the interface in coating and printing process. The support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2015R1A2A1A05001829) is acknowledged.

  18. Assembly of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 via a stress-induced dewetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, E; Sutter, P

    2006-01-01

    We use epitaxial Ge islands on silicon-on-insulator (001) to initiate and drive the dewetting of the ultrathin ( 2 layer and transforms the Ge islands into oxide-supported, electrically isolated, Ge-rich nanocrystals. We investigate the process of dewetting and demonstrate that it can be used for the controlled assembly of nanocrystals-from isolated single ones to dense arrays

  19. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  20. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  1. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi, E-mail: sqli@hust.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  2. Three Stages and Two Systems of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    as squaring do not, in and of themselves, imply second- order processing . For example, the Adelson and Bergen’s (1985) detector of directional motion...rectification, halfwave rectification is a second- order processing scheme. Figure 8. Stimuli for analyzing second- order processing . (a) An x,y,t representation of

  3. Dual brush process for selective surface modification in graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-07-01

    Graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly is a potential low-cost solution for patterning via layers with pitches beyond the reach of a single optical lithographic exposure. In this process, selective control of the interfacial energy at the bottom and sidewall of the template is an important but challenging exercise. A dual brush process is implemented, in which two brushes with distinct end-groups are consecutively grafted to the prepattern to achieve fully independent modification of the bottom and sidewall surface of the template. A comprehensive study of hole pattern quality shows that using a dual brush process leads to a substantial improvement in terms of positional and dimensional variability across the process window. These findings will be useful to others who wish to manipulate polymer-surface interactions in directed self-assembly flows.

  4. Self-Organization and the Self-Assembling Process in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaramoorthy, Rajalakshmanan; Hadidi, Pasha; Hu, Jerry C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the tissue engineering paradigm has shifted to include a new and growing subfield of scaffoldless techniques which generate self-organizing and self-assembling tissues. This review aims to provide a cogent description of this relatively new research area, with special emphasis on applications toward clinical use and research models. Particular emphasis is placed on providing clear definitions of self-organization and the self-assembling process, as delineated from other scaffoldless techniques in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Significantly, during formation, self-organizing and self-assembling tissues display biological processes similar to those that occur in vivo. These help lead to the recapitulation of native tissue morphological structure and organization. Notably, functional properties of these tissues also approach native tissue values; some of these engineered tissues are already in clinical trials. This review aims to provide a cohesive summary of work in this field, and to highlight the potential of self-organization and the self-assembling process to provide cogent solutions to current intractable problems in tissue engineering. PMID:23701238

  5. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  6. Emerging Insights into Directed Assembly: Taking Examples from Nature to Design Synthetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Juan J.

    There is considerable interest in controlling the assembly of polymeric material in order to create highly ordered materials for applications. Such materials are often trapped in metastable, non-equilibrium states, and the processes through which they assemble become an important aspect of the materials design strategy. An example is provided by di-block copolymer directed self-assembly, where a decade of work has shown that, through careful choice of process variables, it is possible to create ordered structures whose degree of perfection meets the constraints of commercial semiconductor manufacturing. As impactful as that work has been, it has focused on relatively simple materials neutral polymers, consisting of two or at most three blocks. Furthermore, the samples that have been produced have been limited to relatively thin films, and the assembly has been carried out on ideal, two-dimensional substrates. The question that arises now is whether one can translate those achievements to polymeric materials having a richer sequence, to monomers that include charges, to three-dimensional substrates, or to active systems that are in a permanent non-equilibrium state. Building on discoveries from the biophysics literature, this presentation will review recent work from our group and others that explains how nature has evolved to direct the assembly of nucleic acids into intricate, fully three-dimensional macroscopic functional materials that are not only active, but also responsive to external cues. We will discuss how principles from polymer physics serve to explain those assemblies, and how one might design a new generation of synthetic systems that incorporate some of those principles.

  7. ASSEMBLER program group for preliminary data processing on-line with ES-1010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnyj, V.A.; Gritsaj, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with programs on the ASSEMBLER language for processing of physical data, obtained in a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. A program which provides the connection between a measuring room with a computer is given. There are also auxilliary programs for spectra processing recorded on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for calculation of areas under peaks for a ν-spectrum ed on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for cal

  8. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Buescher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative production technology for high-wage countries” at RWTH Aachen University which integrates several cognitive capabilities according to human cognition. This approach combines the advantages of automation with the flexibility of humans. In this paper the main principles of the system's core component—the cognitive control unit—are presented to underline its advantages with respect to traditional assembly systems. Based on this, the actual innovation of this paper is the development of key performance indicators. These refer to the ramp-up process as a main objective of such a system is to minimize the planning effort during ramp-up. The KPIs are also designed to show the impact on the main idea of the Cluster of Excellence in resolving the so-called Polylemma of Production.

  9. Fabrication of AA6061-T6 Plate Type Fuel Assembly Using Electron Beam Welding Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Seo, Kyoungseok; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang; Lee, Chongtak

    2014-01-01

    AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy is easily welded by conventional GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), LBW (Laser Beam Welding) and EBW. However, certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes possess the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using an electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the shrinkage measurement and weld inspection using computed tomography. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding parameters and to evaluate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory electron beam welding process of the full-sized sample was being developed. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication of the plate-type fuel assembly will be provided for the future Ki-Jang research reactor project

  10. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near

  12. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the leak current using a twin platinum electrode set-up. Localized extraction of residue was carried...

  13. Novel trends in the assembly process as the results of human – the industrial robot collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubek Radovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on the creation of an idea proposal and simulation of the assembly system in cooperation of the human and the industrial robot. The aim of the research is to verify the feasibility of this cooperation between the human and the industrial robot on the basis of the created simulation in the assembly process. The important step of the design this collaboration is the determination of rules and safety of this cooperation. The paper also presents the method of working with the selected software and its functionalities and sequence of steps at the simulation creation. The objective of the research is the evaluation of the idea proposal of the collaborative assembly system on the basis of the created simulation. The analysis and evaluation of the simulation confirm the feasibility and safety of the cooperation of the man and robot and also verified the possibility of assembly made by man and robot from the disposition and dimension on point of view of the proposed workplace.

  14. Working memory load improves early stages of independent visual processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cocchi, Luca; Toepel, Ulrike; De Lucia, Marzia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Wood, Stephen J.; Carter, Olivia; Murray, Micah M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that working memory and perceptual processes are dynamically interrelated due to modulating activity in overlapping brain networks. However, the direct influence of working memory on the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of behaviorally relevant intervening information remains unclear. To investigate this issue, subjects performed a visual proximity grid perception task under three different visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) load conditions. VSWM load was manipula...

  15. Setting planned leadtimes in customer-order-driven assembly systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atan, Z.; Kok, de A.G.; Dellaert, N.P.; Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.; Boxel, van R.

    2016-01-01

    We study an assembly system with a number of parallel multistage processes feeding a multistage final assembly process. Each stage has a stochastic throughput time. We assume that the system is controlled by planned leadtimes at each stage. From these planned leadtimes the start and due times of all

  16. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  17. Two-stage nonlinear filter for processing of scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistor, P.; Hoener, J.; Walch, G.

    1973-01-01

    Linear filters which have been successfully used to process scintigrams can be modified in a meaningful manner by a preceding non-linear point operator, the Anscombe-transform. The advantages are: The scintigraphic noise becomes quasi-stationary and thus independent of the image. By these means the noise can be readily allowed for in the design of the convolutional operators. Transformed images with a stationary signal-to-noise ratio and a non-constant background t correspond to untransformed images with a signal-to-noise ratio that varies in certain limits. The filter chain automatically adapts to these changes. Our filter has the advantage over the majority of space-varying filters of being realizable by Fast Fourier Transform techniques. These advantages have to be paid for by reduced signal amplitude to background ratios. If the background is known, this shortcoming can be easily by-passed by processing trendfree scintigrams. If not, the filter chain should be completed by a third operator which reverses the Anscombe-transform. The Anscombe-transform influences the signal-to-noise ratio of cold spots and of hot spots in a different way. It remains an open question if this fact can be utilized to directly influence the detectability of the different kinds of spots

  18. Working memory load improves early stages of independent visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Toepel, Ulrike; De Lucia, Marzia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Wood, Stephen J; Carter, Olivia; Murray, Micah M

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that working memory and perceptual processes are dynamically interrelated due to modulating activity in overlapping brain networks. However, the direct influence of working memory on the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of behaviorally relevant intervening information remains unclear. To investigate this issue, subjects performed a visual proximity grid perception task under three different visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) load conditions. VSWM load was manipulated by asking subjects to memorize the spatial locations of 6 or 3 disks. The grid was always presented between the encoding and recognition of the disk pattern. As a baseline condition, grid stimuli were presented without a VSWM context. VSWM load altered both perceptual performance and neural networks active during intervening grid encoding. Participants performed faster and more accurately on a challenging perceptual task under high VSWM load as compared to the low load and the baseline condition. Visual evoked potential (VEP) analyses identified changes in the configuration of the underlying sources in one particular period occurring 160-190 ms post-stimulus onset. Source analyses further showed an occipito-parietal down-regulation concurrent to the increased involvement of temporal and frontal resources in the high VSWM context. Together, these data suggest that cognitive control mechanisms supporting working memory may selectively enhance concurrent visual processing related to an independent goal. More broadly, our findings are in line with theoretical models implicating the engagement of frontal regions in synchronizing and optimizing mnemonic and perceptual resources towards multiple goals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stage-dependent hierarchy of criteria in multiobjective multistage decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Trzaskalik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider a multiobjective, multistage discrete dynamic process with a changeable, state-dependent hierarchy of stage criteria determined by the decision maker. The goal of this paper is to answer the question of how to control a multistage process while taking into account both the tendency to achieve multiobjective optimization of the entire process and the time-varying hierarchy of stage criteria. We consider in detail possible situations, where the hierarchy of stage criteria changes over time in individual stages and is stage dependent. We present an interactive proposal to solving the problem, where the decision maker actively participates in finding the final realization of the process. The algorithm proposed is illustrated using a numerical example.

  20. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession.

  1. The Cellular Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 Is Required for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Precursor Processing and Assembly of Capsid Pentamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph; Asfor, Amin S; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Curry, Stephen; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2018-03-01

    Productive picornavirus infection requires the hijacking of host cell pathways to aid with the different stages of virus entry, synthesis of the viral polyprotein, and viral genome replication. Many picornaviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), assemble capsids via the multimerization of several copies of a single capsid precursor protein into a pentameric subunit which further encapsidates the RNA. Pentamer formation is preceded by co- and posttranslational modification of the capsid precursor (P1-2A) by viral and cellular enzymes and the subsequent rearrangement of P1-2A into a structure amenable to pentamer formation. We have developed a cell-free system to study FMDV pentamer assembly using recombinantly expressed FMDV capsid precursor and 3C protease. Using this assay, we have shown that two structurally different inhibitors of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) impeded FMDV capsid precursor processing and subsequent pentamer formation. Treatment of FMDV permissive cells with the hsp90 inhibitor prior to infection reduced the endpoint titer by more than 10-fold while not affecting the activity of a subgenomic replicon, indicating that translation and replication of viral RNA were unaffected by the drug. IMPORTANCE FMDV of the Picornaviridae family is a pathogen of huge economic importance to the livestock industry due to its effect on the restriction of livestock movement and necessary control measures required following an outbreak. The study of FMDV capsid assembly, and picornavirus capsid assembly more generally, has tended to be focused upon the formation of capsids from pentameric intermediates or the immediate cotranslational modification of the capsid precursor protein. Here, we describe a system to analyze the early stages of FMDV pentameric capsid intermediate assembly and demonstrate a novel requirement for the cellular chaperone hsp90 in the formation of these pentameric intermediates. We show the added complexity

  2. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  3. Process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes using a catalyst packed bed assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; den Hartog, J.; Molson, F.W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of gaseous hydrogen and liquid water is described, wherein the streams of liquid water and gaseous hydrogen are simultaneously brought into contact with one another and a catalyst packed bed assembly while at a temperature in the range 273 0 to 573 0 K. The catalyst packed bed assembly may be composed of discrete carrier bodies of e.g. ceramics, metals, fibrous materials or synthetic plastics with catalytically active metal crystallites selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table, partially enclosed in and bonded to the carrier bodies by a water repellent, water vapor and hydrogen gas permeable, porous, polymeric material, and discrete packing bodies having an exterior surface which is substantially hydrophilic and relatively noncatalytically active with regard to hydrogen isotope exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor to that of the catalyst bodies

  4. Boostream: a dynamic fluid flow process to assemble nanoparticles at liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delléa, Olivier; Lebaigue, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    CEA-LITEN develops an original process called Boostream® to manipulate, assemble and connect micro- or nanoparticles of various materials, sizes, shapes and functions to obtain monolayer colloidal crystals (MCCs). This process uses the upper surface of a liquid film flowing down a ramp to assemble particles in a manner that is close to the horizontal situation of a Langmuir-Blodgett film construction. In presence of particles at the liquid interface, the film down-flow configuration exhibits an unusual hydraulic jump which results from the fluid flow accommodation to the particle monolayer. In order to master our process, the fluid flow has been modeled and experimentally characterized by optical means, such as with the moiré technique that consists in observing the reflection of a succession of periodic black-and-red fringes on the liquid surface mirror. The fringe images are deformed when reflected by the curved liquid surface associated with the hydraulic jump, the fringe deformation being proportional to the local slope of the surface. This original experimental setup allowed us to get the surface profile in the jump region and to measure it along with the main process parameters (liquid flow rate, slope angle, temperature sensitive fluid properties such as dynamic viscosity or surface tension, particle sizes). This work presents the experimental setup and its simple model, the different experimental characterization techniques used and will focus on the way the hydraulic jump relies on the process parameters.

  5. Structural integration of separation and reaction systems: I. Integration of stage-wise processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural integration of separation processes, using multifunctional equipment, has been studied on four stage-wise liquid-liquid separations extraction, absorption, distillation, adsorption and on some combinations of these processes. It was shown for stage - wise processes that the ultimate aim of equipment integration is 3-way integration (by components by steps and by stages and that membrane multiphase contactors present concerning the equipment optimal solutions in many cases. First, by using partially integrated equipment and, later by developing fully integrated systems it was experimentally confirmed that structural 3-way integration produces much higher degrees of component separations and component enrichments in compact and safe equipment.

  6. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  8. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  9. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  10. Using process monitor wafers to understand directed self-assembly defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Her, YoungJun; Delgadillo, Paulina R.; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Gronheid, Roel; Chan, Boon Teik; Hashimoto, Yukio; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-03-01

    As directed self-assembly (DSA) has gained momentum over the past few years, questions about its application to high volume manufacturing have arisen. One of the major concerns is about the fundamental limits of defectivity that can be attained with the technology. If DSA applications demonstrate defectivity that rivals of traditional lithographic technologies, the pathway to the cost benefits of the technology creates a very compelling case for its large scale implementation. To address this critical question, our team at IMEC has established a process monitor flow to track the defectivity behaviors of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy application for printing line/space patterns. Through establishing this baseline, we have been able to understand both traditional lithographic defect sources in new materials as well as new classes of assembly defects associated with DSA technology. Moreover, we have explored new materials and processing to lower the level of the defectivity baseline. The robustness of the material sets and process is investigated as well. In this paper, we will report the understandings learned from the IMEC DSA process monitor flow.

  11. Process and quality control in manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, M.; Hoff, A.; Reimann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies requires a multitude of different process and quality methods to assure and maintain a high quality level. In recent years methods have been applied which prevent deviations rather than detect deviant products. This paper gives an example on how to control a complex manufacturing process by using a small number of key parameters and second, it demonstrates the importance of graphical data evaluation and presentation methods. In the past many product and product characteristics were inspected m comparison with specification limits only. However, todays methods allow the early identification of trends, increase of variation, shifts disturbances etc. before the product characteristics exceed the specification limits. These methods are process control charts, x-y-plots, boxplots, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), process capability numbers and others. This paper demonstrates the beneficial use of some of the methods by presenting selected examples applied at Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF). (author)

  12. Process development for fabrication of zircaloy- 4 of dissolver assembly for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonpe, Sunil; Saibaba, N.; Jairaj, R.N.; Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing for fast breeder reactor (FBR) requires a dissolver made of a material which has resistance to corrosion as the process involves Nitric Acid as the process medium. Various materials to achieve minimum corrosion rates have been tried for this operation. Particularly the focus was on the use of advanced materials with high performance (corrosion rate and product life) for high concentrations greater than 8 N and temperatures (boiling and vapour) of Nitric Acid employed in the dissolver unit. The different commercially available materials like SS316L , Pure Titanium, Ti - 5% Ta and Ti - 5% Ta - 1.8% Nb were tried and the corrosion behavior of these materials was studied in detail. As this is continuous process of evolution of new materials, it was decided to try out zircaloy - 4 as the material of construction for construction due to its excellent corrosion resistance properties in Nitric Acid environment. The specifications were stringent and the geometrical configurations of the assembly were very intricate in shape. On accepting the challenge of fabrication of dissolver, NFC has made different fixtures for Electron Beam Welding and TIG Welding. Various trials were carried out for optimization of various operating parameter like beam current, Acceleration voltage, welding speed to get adequate weld penetration. Both EB welding and TIG welding process were standardized and qualified by carrying out a number of trials and testing these welds by various weld qualification procedures like radiography, Liquid dye penetrant testing etc. for different intricate weld geometries. All the welds were simulated with samples to optimize the weld parameters. Tests such as include metallographic (for microstructure and HAZ), mechanical (for weld strength) and chemical (material analysis for gases) were conducted and all the weld samples met the acceptable criteria. Finally the dissolver was made meeting stringent specifications. All the welds were checked

  13. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Lalaurette, Elodie; Thammannagowda, Shivegowda; Mohagheghi, Ali; Maness, Pin-Ching; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage dark-fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials into hydrogen gas at high yields and rates. Fermentation using Clostridium thermocellum produced 1.67 mol H2/mol

  14. Evaluation the potential and energy efficiency of dual stage pressure retarded osmosis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaee, Ali; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Drioli, Enrico; Zhou, John

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Single and dual stage PRO was evaluated at different membrane configurations. •Impact of increasing module area or numbers on the power efficiency was studied. •DSPRO reduced the impact of CP & restored the osmotic potential of salinity gradient. •DSPRO outperforms single stage PRO process but depends on salinity gradient type. -- Abstract: Power generation by means of Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has been proposed for harvesting the energy of a salinity gradient. Energy recovery by the PRO process decreases along the membrane module due to depleting of the chemical potential across the membrane and concentration polarization effects. A dual stage PRO (DSPRO) design can be used to rejuvenate the chemical potential difference and reduce the concentration polarization on feed solution. Several design configurations were suggested for the membrane module arrangements in the first and second stage of the PRO process. PRO performance was evaluated for a number of salinity gradients proposed by coupling Dead Sea water or Reverse Osmosis (RO) brine with seawater or wastewater effluent. Maximum specific energy of inlet and outlet feeds was calculated using a developed computer model to identify the amount of recovered and remaining energy. Initially, specific power generation by the PRO process increased by increasing the number of modules of the first stage. Maximum specific energy is calculated along the PRO module to understand the degradation of the maximum specific energy in each module before introducing a second stage PRO process. Adding a second stage PRO process resulted in a sharp increase of the chemical potential difference and the specific energy yield of the process. Between 10% and 13% increase of the specific power generation was achieved by the DSPRO process for the Dead Sea-seawater salinity gradient depending on the dual stage design configuration. For Dead Sea-RO brine, 12–16% increase of the specific power generation was

  15. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  16. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land, Mesuli B. Mbanjwa, Klariska Govindasamy, and Jan G. Korvink Citation: Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3641859 View online: http... polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land,1,2,a) Mesuli B. Mbanjwa,1,3 Klariska Govindasamy,1 and Jan G. Korvink2,4 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa 2University of Freiburg, Department...

  17. Deterministic nanoparticle assemblies: from substrate to solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Steven J; Gibson, Gary A; Yamakawa, Mineo; Li, Zhiyong; Kim, Ansoon; Norris, Kate J

    2014-01-01

    The deterministic assembly of metallic nanoparticles is an exciting field with many potential benefits. Many promising techniques have been developed, but challenges remain, particularly for the assembly of larger nanoparticles which often have more interesting plasmonic properties. Here we present a scalable process combining the strengths of top down and bottom up fabrication to generate deterministic 2D assemblies of metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their stable transfer to solution. Scanning electron and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of these assemblies suggested the formation of nanobridges between touching nanoparticles that hold them together so as to maintain the integrity of the assembly throughout the transfer process. The application of these nanoparticle assemblies as solution-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) materials is demonstrated by trapping analyte molecules in the nanoparticle gaps during assembly, yielding uniformly high enhancement factors at all stages of the fabrication process. (paper)

  18. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  19. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the processing stages of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela Alano; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rovaris, Angela Angeloni; Amboni, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho; Pagliosa, Cristiane Manfé; Xavier, José Júnior Mendonca; Amante, Edna Regina

    2010-06-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is believed to be due to the degradation of mate compounds and the burning of wood during the "sapeco" (rapid drying process) and the final drying steps, which are the most important processing stages in mate production. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, studies on their presence in mate are extremely important. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAH levels in mate throughout the processing stages of its production. The PAHs were measured in samples collected at different stages of mate processing. Total PAHs content ranged widely (443-9001 microg/kg) in the samples, with the highest PAHs levels recorded during the mate drying step. The results indicate that the processing method currently used in mate production may lead to an increase in PAHs levels in the final product.

  20. Kinetics of two-stage fermentation process for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Kaushik [Department of Chemical Engineering, G.H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Muthukumar, Manoj; Kumar, Anish; Das, Debabrata [Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2008-02-15

    Two-stage process described in the present work is a combination of dark and photofermentation in a sequential batch mode. In the first stage glucose is fermented to acetate, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in an anaerobic dark fermentation by Enterobacter cloacae DM11. This is followed by a successive second stage where acetate is converted to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in a photobioreactor by photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001. The yield of hydrogen in the first stage was about 3.31molH{sub 2}(molglucose){sup -1} (approximately 82% of theoretical) and that in the second stage was about 1.5-1.72molH{sub 2}(molaceticacid){sup -1} (approximately 37-43% of theoretical). The overall yield of hydrogen in two-stage process considering glucose as preliminary substrate was found to be higher compared to a single stage process. Monod model, with incorporation of substrate inhibition term, has been used to determine the growth kinetic parameters for the first stage. The values of maximum specific growth rate ({mu} {sub max}) and K{sub s} (saturation constant) were 0.398h{sup -1} and 5.509gl{sup -1}, respectively, using glucose as substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass concentration profiles have good resemblance with those obtained by kinetic model predictions. A model based on logistic equation has been developed to describe the growth of R. sphaeroides O.U 001 in the second stage. Modified Gompertz equation was applied to estimate the hydrogen production potential, rate and lag phase time in a batch process for various initial concentration of glucose, based on the cumulative hydrogen production curves. Both the curve fitting and statistical analysis showed that the equation was suitable to describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  1. Enhancing Photocatalytic Performance through Tuning the Interfacial Process between -Assembled and Pt-Loaded Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a simple two-step approach to rutile TiO2-assembled microspheres loaded by Pt with an aim to tune semiconductor-metal interfacial processes for enhancing the photocatalytic performance. Systematic sample characterizations and structural analysis indicate that Pt loading did not produce any significant influences on the lattice structure of TiO2-assembled microspheres. Instead, upon Pt loading, Schottky barrier was formed in the interfaces between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles, which inhabited efficiently the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs essential for the photocatalytic activities. In addition, TiO2 microspheres also showed a capacity of electrons storage and releasing as represented by a high dielectric constant, which increased the utility rate of photogenerated electrons. All these structural advantages contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light irradiation. The interfacial process between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles was further tuned through adjusting the loading Pt content of metal Pt. As a consequence, the best photocatalytic activity on TiO2 was obtained at 0.85 wt% Pt loading, above or below which photocatalytic activity was apparently decreased.

  2. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  3. Invasion in microbial communities: Role of community composition and assembly processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta

    of microbial community assembly. Biotic factors include interactions between different microbial groups as well as the community response to alien species – invaders. Microbial invasions can have significant effects on the composition and functioning of resident communities. There is, however, lack......Microbes contribute to all biogeochemical cycles on earth and are responsible for key biological processes that support the survival of plants and animals. There is increased interest in controlling and managing microbial communities in different ecosystems in order to make targeted microbiological...... processes more effective. In order to manage microbial communities, it is essential to understand the factors that shape and influence microbial community composition. In addition to abiotic factors, such as environmental conditions and resource availability, biotic factors also shape the dynamics...

  4. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The Danish company Solum A/S has developed a two-stage dry anaerobic digestion process labelled AIKAN® for the biological conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into biogas and compost. In the AIKAN® process design the methanogenic (2nd) stage is separated from...... the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process......, however, has shown to be only about 60% of the theoretical maximum. Previous monitoring of the hydrolytic and methanogenic activity in the two stages of the process revealed that the bottleneck of the whole degradation process is rather found in the hydrolytic first stage while the methanogenic second...

  5. Stages of processing in associative recognition: evidence from behavior, EEG, and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Schneider, Darryl W; Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the perceptual encoding, retrieval, and decision stages of the recognition task, respectively. Analyses of the behavioral and EEG data, supplemented with classification of the EEG data using machine-learning techniques, provided evidence that generally supported the sequence of stages assumed by a computational model developed in the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational cognitive architecture. However, the results suggested a more complex relationship between memory retrieval and decision-making than assumed by the model. Implications of the results for modeling associative recognition are discussed. The study illustrates how a classifier approach, in combination with focused manipulations, can be used to investigate the timing of processing stages.

  6. The Evolution of a Children's Domestic Violence Counseling Group: Stages and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E. Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to illuminate the lived experiences of 4 young children between 6 and 7 years old who witnessed domestic violence while revealing the complex relationship between group process and stage development in their 18-week counseling group. Data revealed that processes occurring between and among group…

  7. Multi-stage and multi-response process optimization in Taguchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product quality is all about reducing variations of key performance indicators. However, product manufacturing often, requires multiple processes with multiple indicators, which make reducing variation a complex task. There are tools used to optimize a single stage process independently which ensure local optimization ...

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. Examination process of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly and examination machine to bring the process into operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaroche, P.; Leseur, A.; Saglio, R.; Vaubert, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The machine to examine a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor includes a support on which the assembly to be examined is placed, a source emitting waves, directed to the assembly to be examined, devices to examine the assembly to be examined that receive the emitted wave by the said source and that have been reflected by the assembly. The examination devices have an axis, this axis being directed to a mirror, this mirror being inclined in such a way that it reflects the waves reflected by the assembly to the examination devices, a radiation protection, to avoid the radiation emitted by the assembly, being diposed between the assembly and the examination devices [fr

  10. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  11. What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Koehler, Derek J

    2015-08-01

    The distinction between intuitive and analytic thinking is common in psychology. However, while often being quite clear on the characteristics of the two processes ('Type 1' processes are fast, autonomous, intuitive, etc. and 'Type 2' processes are slow, deliberative, analytic, etc.), dual-process theorists have been heavily criticized for being unclear on the factors that determine when an individual will think analytically or rely on their intuition. We address this issue by introducing a three-stage model that elucidates the bottom-up factors that cause individuals to engage Type 2 processing. According to the model, multiple Type 1 processes may be cued by a stimulus (Stage 1), leading to the potential for conflict detection (Stage 2). If successful, conflict detection leads to Type 2 processing (Stage 3), which may take the form of rationalization (i.e., the Type 1 output is verified post hoc) or decoupling (i.e., the Type 1 output is falsified). We tested key aspects of the model using a novel base-rate task where stereotypes and base-rate probabilities cued the same (non-conflict problems) or different (conflict problems) responses about group membership. Our results support two key predictions derived from the model: (1) conflict detection and decoupling are dissociable sources of Type 2 processing and (2) conflict detection sometimes fails. We argue that considering the potential stages of reasoning allows us to distinguish early (conflict detection) and late (decoupling) sources of analytic thought. Errors may occur at both stages and, as a consequence, bias arises from both conflict monitoring and decoupling failures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A real time analysis of the self-assembly process using thermal analysis inside the differential scanning calorimeter instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debmalya; Shastri, Babita; Mukhopadhyay, K

    2012-07-12

    The supramolecular assembly of the regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (rr-P3HT) in solution has been investigated thoroughly in the past. In the current study, our focus is on the enthalpy of nanofiber formation using thermal analysis techniques by performing the self-assembly process inside the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) instrument. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out to check the concentration of the solvent during the self-assembly process of P3HT in p-xylene. Ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectophotometric technique, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiment, atomic force microscopic (AFM), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images were used to characterize the different experimental yields generated by cooling the reaction mixture at desired temperatures. Comparison of the morphologies of self-assembled products at different fiber formation temperatures gives us an idea about the possible crystallization parameters which could affect the P3HT nanofiber morphology.

  13. Preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli occurs mainly at the perceptual and conscious stages of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacikowski, P; Ehrsson, H H

    2016-04-01

    Self-related stimuli, such as one's own name or face, are processed faster and more accurately than other types of stimuli. However, what remains unknown is at which stage of the information processing hierarchy this preferential processing occurs. Our first aim was to determine whether preferential self-processing involves mainly perceptual stages or also post-perceptual stages. We found that self-related priming was stronger than other-related priming only because of perceptual prime-target congruency. Our second aim was to dissociate the role of conscious and unconscious factors in preferential self-processing. To this end, we compared the "self" and "other" conditions in trials where primes were masked or unmasked. In two separate experiments, we found that self-related priming was stronger than other-related priming but only in the unmasked trials. Together, our results suggest that preferential access to the self-concept occurs mainly at the perceptual and conscious stages of the stimulus processing hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Renovating process for Pressurized Water Reactor control rod assemblies and corresponding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, S.; Ple, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the first PWRs the control rods are moving by the intermediary of electromagnetic mechanisms where the power fed to the electromagnets is selected by a hard wired logic circuit connected to the controldesh by another logic control. For renovating the control rod assemblies each power assembly is replaced by an electronic assembly containing an ordinator and power supply interfaces [fr

  15. Adenoviral protein V promotes a process of viral assembly through nucleophosmin 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Dobbins, George C.; Wang, Minghui [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Le, Long P. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pathology Service, 55 Fruit St.-GRJ 249, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Matthews, David A. [School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Medical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Curiel, David T., E-mail: dcuriel@radonc.wustl.edu [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); The Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    Adenoviral infection induces nucleoplasmic redistribution of a nucleolar nucleophosmin 1/NPM1/B23.1. NPM1 is preferentially localized in the nucleoli of normal cells, whereas it is also present at the nuclear matrix in cancer cells. However, the biological roles of NPM1 during infection are unknown. Here, by analyzing a pV-deletion mutant, Ad5-dV/TSB, we demonstrate that pV promotes the NPM1 translocation from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm in normal cells, and the NPM1 translocation is correlated with adenoviral replication. Lack of pV causes a dramatic reduction of adenoviral replication in normal cells, but not cancer cells, and Ad5-dV/TSB was defective in viral assembly in normal cells. NPM1 knockdown inhibits adenoviral replication, suggesting an involvement of NPM1 in adenoviral biology. Further, we show that NPM1 interacts with empty adenovirus particles which are an intermediate during virion maturation by immunoelectron microscopy. Collectively, these data implicate that pV participates in a process of viral assembly through NPM1.

  16. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  17. Parallel assembling and equation solving via graph algorithms with an application to the FE simulation of metal extrusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Unterkircher, A

    2005-01-01

    We propose methods for parallel assembling and iterative equation solving based on graph algorithms. The assembling technique is independent of dimension, element type and model shape. As a parallel solving technique we construct a multiplicative symmetric Schwarz preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method. Both methods have been incorporated into a non-linear FE code to simulate 3D metal extrusion processes. We illustrate the efficiency of these methods on shared memory computers by realistic examples.

  18. Overview of tritium processing development at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been operating with tritium since June 1984. Presently there are some 50 g of tritium in the main processing loop. This 50 g has been sufficient to do a number of experiments involving the cryogenic distillation isotope separation system and to integrate the fuel cleanup system into the main fuel processing loop. In January 1986 two major experiments were conducted. During these experiments the fuel cleanup system was integrated, through the transfer pumping system, with the isotope separation system, thus permitting testing on the integrated fuel processing loop. This integration of these systems leaves only the main vacuum system to be integrated into the TSTA fuel processing loop. In September 1986 another major tritium experiment was performed in which the integrated loop was operated, the tritium inventory increased to 50 g and additional measurements on the performance of the distillation system were taken. In the period June 1984 through September 1986 the TSTA system has processed well over 10 8 Ci of tritium. Total tritium emissions to the environment over this period have been less than 15 Ci. Personnel exposures during this period have totaled less than 100 person-mRem. To date, the development of tritium technology at TSTA has proceeded in progressive and orderly steps. In two years of operation with tritium, no major design flows have been uncovered

  19. Finite Element Simulation of the Presta Joining Process for Assembled Camshafts: Application to Aluminum Shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Scherzer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sequence of numerical models for the simulation of the Presta joining process: a well-established industrial process for manufacturing assembled camshafts. The operation is divided into two sub-steps: the rolling of the shaft to widen the cam seat and the joining of the cam onto the shaft. When manufactured, the connection is tested randomly by loading it with a static torque. Subsequently, there are three numerical models using the finite element method. Additionally, a material model of finite strain viscoplasticity with nonlinear kinematic hardening is used throughout the whole simulation process, which allows a realistic representation of the material behavior even for large deformations. In addition, it enables a transfer of the deformation history and of the internal stresses between different submodels. This work also shows the required parameter identification and the associated material tests. After comparing the numerical results with experimental studies of the manufacturing process for steel-steel connections, the models are used to extend the joining process to the utilization of aluminum shafts.

  20. Molecular Processes Underlying the Structure and Assembly of Thin Films and Nanoparticles at Complex interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Geraldine [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2016-06-03

    differences in how water behaves at hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAMS)/water interfaces relative to the organic liquid/water interfaces. Several monolayer films have been examined in these studies using a combination of vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), contact angle measurements and AFM. At the hydrocarbon monolayer/water interface we find that water has a weak bonding interaction with the monolayer film that results in an orientation of water at the terminus of these hydrocarbon chains. The water-film interaction is still present for fluorinated films but it is found to be considerably weaker. Hydration and Surfactant Adsorption at Salt/Water Interfaces This set of studies has examined the molecular characteristics of the CaF2/water interface using VSFS. Our first studies detailed the structure and orientation of water molecules adsorbed at this mineral surfaces including studies of the surface in the presence of aqueous solutions of salts. These studies have been followed by a series of static and time-resolved studies of the adsorption of carboxylic acid containing organics at this surface, specifically carboxylic acid surfactants and acetic acid. In the latter we have developed a new method for time resolved studies that involve sequential wavelength tuning and automated control of spatial beam overlap at the target can probe amplitude changes of sum-frequency resonances in widely spaced infrared regions. This offers great advantages for the study of the synchronism of molecular processes at interfaces. This approach is particularly suitable to investigate the synchronization of interfacial processes such as surfactant adsorption at charged mineral surfaces. Macromolecular Assembly at Liquid/Liquid Interfaces Macromolecular assembly at the interface between water and a hydrophobic surface underlies some of the most important biological and environmental processes on the planet. Our work has examined polymer adsorption and assembly of

  1. An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, J; Greig, M; Salustri, F; Zolfaghari, S; Neumann, W P

    2014-01-01

    In action research (AR), the researcher participates 'in' the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting 'on' the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation's ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new 'actions'. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study.

  2. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2009-03-01

    The improvement of NDDP-MSF plant's performance ratio (PR) from design value of 9.0 to 13.1 was achieved by optimizing the plant's operating parameters within the feasible zone of operation. This plant has 20% excess heat transfer area over the design condition which helped us to get a PR of 15.1 after optimization. Thus we have obtained, (1) A 45% increase in the output over design value by the optimization carried out with design heat transfer area. (2) A 68% increase in the output over design value by the optimization carried out with increased heat transfer area. This report discusses the approach, methodology and results of the optimization study carried out. A simulator, MSFSIM which predicts the performance of a multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plant has been coupled with Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimizer. Exhaustive optimization case studies have been conducted on this plant with an objective to increase the performance ratio (PR). The steady state optimization performed was based on obtaining the best stage wise pressure profile to enhance thermal efficiency which in-turn improves the performance ratio. Apart from this, the recirculating brine flow rate was also optimized. This optimization study enabled us to increase the PR of NDDP-MSF plant from design value of 9.0 to an optimized value 13.1. The actual plant is provided with 20% additional heat transfer area over and above the design heat transfer area. Optimization with this additional heat transfer area has taken the PR to 15.1. A desire to maintain equal flashing rates in all of the stages (a feature required for long life of the plant and to avoid cascading effect of non-flashing triggered by any stage) of the MSF plant has also been achieved. The deviation in the flashing rates within stages has been reduced. The startup characteristic of the plant (i.e the variation of stage pressure and the variation of recirculation flow rate with time), have been optimized with a target to minimize the

  3. An Enhanced Preventive Maintenance Optimization Model Based on a Three-Stage Failure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants are highly complex systems and the issues related to their safety are of primary importance. Probabilistic safety assessment is regarded as the most widespread methodology for studying the safety of nuclear power plants. As maintenance is one of the most important factors for affecting the reliability and safety, an enhanced preventive maintenance optimization model based on a three-stage failure process is proposed. Preventive maintenance is still a dominant maintenance policy due to its easy implementation. In order to correspond to the three-color scheme commonly used in practice, the lifetime of system before failure is divided into three stages, namely, normal, minor defective, and severe defective stages. When the minor defective stage is identified, two measures are considered for comparison: one is that halving the inspection interval only when the minor defective stage is identified at the first time; the other one is that if only identifying the minor defective stage, the subsequent inspection interval is halved. Maintenance is implemented immediately once the severe defective stage is identified. Minimizing the expected cost per unit time is our objective function to optimize the inspection interval. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  4. Preliminary technical data summary for the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This Preliminary Technical Data Summary presents the technical basis for design of Stage 1 of the Staged Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), a process to efficiently immobilize the radionuclides in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste. The radionuclides in SRP waste are present in sludge that has settled to the bottom of waste storage tanks and in crystallized salt and salt solution (supernate). Stage 1 of the DWPF receives washed, aluminum dissolved sludge from the waste tank farms and immobilizes it in a borosilicate glass matrix. The supernate is retained in the waste tank farms until completion of Stage 2 of the DWPF at which time it filtered and decontaminated by ion exchange in the Stage 2 facility. The decontaminated supernate is concentrated by evaporation and mixed with cement for burial. The radioactivity removed from the supernate is fixed in borosilicate glass along with the sludge. This document gives flowsheets, material, and curie balances, material and curie balance bases, and other technical data for design of the Stage 1 DWPF

  5. Self-assembly and photoluminescence evolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic quantum dots in sol–gel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Krakow 31-155 (Poland); Song, Xueling; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Yumeng; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were assembled into various morphologies including chain, hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures through sol–gel processes. The PL properties during assembly as investigated. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized from several ligands. • The evolution of PL in self-assembly via sol–gel processes was investigated. • CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling hydrolysis and condensation reactions. • Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created via CdSe/ZnS QDs in sol–gel processes. - Abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were synthesized from several ligands to investigate the PL evolution in QD self-assembly via sol–gel processes. After ligand exchange, CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The chain was then coated with a SiO{sub 2} shell from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created from CdSe/ZnS QDs via various sol–gel processes. CdTe QDs revealed red-shifted and narrowed PL spectrum after assembly compared with their initial one. In contrast, the red-shift of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs is small. By optimizing experimental conditions, SiO{sub 2} spheres with multiple CdSe/ZnS QDs were fabricated using TEOS and MPS. The QDs in these SiO{sub 2} spheres retained their initial PL properties. This result is useful for application because of their high stability and high PL efficiency of 33%.

  6. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  7. On the role of the chaperonin CCT in the just-in-time assembly process of APC/CCdc20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Carien

    2010-02-05

    The just-in-time hypothesis relates to the assembly of large multi-protein complexes and their regulation of activation in the cell. Here I postulate that chaperonins may contribute to the timely assembly and activation of such complexes. For the case of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome(Cdc20) assembly by the eukaryotic chaperonin chaperonin containing Tcp1 it is shown that just-in-time synthesis and chaperone-assisted folding can synergise to generate a highly regulated assembly process of a protein complex that is vital for cell cycle progression. Once dependency has been established transcriptional regulation and chaperonin-dependency may have co-evolved to safeguard the timely activation of important multi-protein complexes. 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Process for environmentally safe disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast assemblies with component part reclamation and/or recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardella, A.; Norian, B.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the environmentally safe and economical disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast housing assemblies comprising removing from the housing the potted assembly with its embedded electrical component assemblies including a component capacitor containing environmentally hazardous material PCB's; after or before such removing, immersing the potted assembly in a cryogenic bath and freezing the same to reader the potting sufficiently brittle to fragment into small pieces upon being impacted; impacting the potting thoroughly to crush and fragment the same into small pieces and to cleanly remove substantially all traces of the potting from all the electrical components and parts embedded therein and without imparting damage to the components and parts; disconnecting the component containing the environmentally hazardous material; and incinerating only the component containing the environmentally hazardous material, leaving all other components and parts including the housing and potting fragments for salvage, re-use and/or recycling.

  9. The stage tonadilla in Venezuela or the process of creolization of a Hispanic musical genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Capelán Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the performance of the stage tonadilla during the colonial period, when works originating from the peninsula were performed, as well as during the Republic, when local composers began cultivating this genre. We shall establish the structural characteristics of what the press called tonadilla and what was considered operetta and, in disagreement with José Subirá, it will become evident that the tonadilla does not undergo a process of Italianization but rather of a marked Hispanic slant. Once the Republic is installed and along with it the cultivation of the stage tonadilla by Venezuelan composers, this process will give way to a creolization introducing within the stage tonadilla local dances such as the meringue. We shall undertake a detailed study of this, and we shall establish the possibility that the origin of the meringue is in the tiranas of the peninsular tonadillas of the previous century.

  10. A two-stage metal valorisation process from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Issa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates possibility of separate zinc and lead recovery from coal composite pellets, composed of EAFD with other synergetic iron-bearing wastes and by-products (mill scale, pyrite-cinder, magnetite concentrate, through a two-stage process. The results show that in the first, low temp erature stage performed in electro-resistant furnace, removal of lead is enabled due to presence of chlorides in the system. In the second stage, performed at higher temperatures in Direct Current (DC plasma furnace, valorisation of zinc is conducted. Using this process, several final products were obtained, including a higher purity zinc oxide, which, by its properties, corresponds washed Waelz oxide.

  11. Describing the Process of Adopting Nutrition and Fitness Apps: Behavior Stage Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Laura M; Sproesser, Gudrun; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2018-03-13

    Although mobile technologies such as smartphone apps are promising means for motivating people to adopt a healthier lifestyle (mHealth apps), previous studies have shown low adoption and continued use rates. Developing the means to address this issue requires further understanding of mHealth app nonusers and adoption processes. This study utilized a stage model approach based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), which proposes that people pass through qualitatively different motivational stages when adopting a behavior. To establish a better understanding of between-stage transitions during app adoption, this study aimed to investigate the adoption process of nutrition and fitness app usage, and the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and decision-making style preferences of people at different adoption stages. Participants (N=1236) were recruited onsite within the cohort study Konstanz Life Study. Use of mobile devices and nutrition and fitness apps, 5 behavior adoption stages of using nutrition and fitness apps, preference for intuition and deliberation in eating decision-making (E-PID), healthy eating style, sociodemographic variables, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Analysis of the 5 behavior adoption stages showed that stage 1 ("unengaged") was the most prevalent motivational stage for both nutrition and fitness app use, with half of the participants stating that they had never thought about using a nutrition app (52.41%, 533/1017), whereas less than one-third stated they had never thought about using a fitness app (29.25%, 301/1029). "Unengaged" nonusers (stage 1) showed a higher preference for an intuitive decision-making style when making eating decisions, whereas those who were already "acting" (stage 4) showed a greater preference for a deliberative decision-making style (F 4,1012 =21.83, Pdigital interventions. This study highlights that new user groups might be better reached by apps designed to address a more intuitive

  12. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  13. Development of a membrane electrode assembly process for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, Wilians Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) producing process was developed, involving simple steps, aiming cost reduction and good reproducibility for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) commercial applications. The electrodes were produced by spraying ink into both sides of the polymeric membrane, building the catalytic layers, followed by hot pressing of Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL), forming the MEA. This new producing method was called 'Spray and hot pressing hybrid method'. Concerning that all the parameters of spray and hot pressing methods are interdependent, a statistical procedure were used in order to study the mutual variables influences and to optimize the method. This study was earned out in two distinct steps: the first one, where seven variables were considered for the analysis and the second one, where only the variables that interfered in the process performance in the first step were considered for analysis. The results showed that the developed process was adequate, including only simple steps, reaching MEA's performance of 651 m A cm -2 at a potential of 600 mV for catalysts loading of 0,4 mg cm -2 Pt at the anode and 0,6 mg cm -2 Pt at the cathode. This result is compared to available commercial MEA's, with the same fuel cell operations conditions. (author)

  14. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    the pegmatites. A linear trend of decreasing CO2 content and δ13CCO2 is consistent with mixtures between (i) carbon derived from organic matter or volatilization of skarns and (ii) inorganic carbon (carbonate). Based on the data obtained, we propose that the pegmatites of Ponta Negra are close to an LCT-type geochemical signature (highly peraluminous magmas with normative corundum), and originated by partial melting of the metasedimentary Palmital succession at depth, during the waning stages of the Búzios Orogeny. The primary melts of the PNP cross-cut both the Neoproterozoic supracrustals and the Paleoproterozoic orthogneissic basement during its ascent and emplacement at higher crustal levels. Variable melt sources explain the slight differences in geochemical compositions among the studied rocks within the metasedimentary succession, which probably include Mn-bearing exhalites, as well as differentiation processes. The 454 ± 5 Ma U-Pb (zircon) age of the Cajú syenogranite overlaps previous geochronological data of 440 ± 11 Ma obtained on a pegmatite dyke at Ponta Negra, bracketing and extending the time interval for the Gondwana assembly collapse magmatism in the region. The heat that triggered this magmatic event could still be a consequence of the collisional orogeny, increasing contents of heat-producing elements, or, a large intraplate extension that followed the Gondwana amalgamation and initiated the formation of Paleozoic basins.

  15. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  16. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  17. Role of temporal processing stages by inferior temporal neurons in facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eSugase-Miyamoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on the role of temporal stages of encoded facial information in the visual system, which might enable the efficient determination of species, identity, and expression. Facial recognition is an important function of our brain and is known to be processed in the ventral visual pathway, where visual signals are processed through areas V1, V2, V4, and the inferior temporal (IT cortex. In the IT cortex, neurons show selective responses to complex visual images such as faces, and at each stage along the pathway the stimulus selectivity of the neural responses becomes sharper, particularly in the later portion of the responses.In the IT cortex of the monkey, facial information is represented by different temporal stages of neural responses, as shown in our previous study: the initial transient response of face-responsive neurons represents information about global categories, i.e., human vs. monkey vs. simple shapes, whilst the later portion of these responses represents information about detailed facial categories, i.e., expression and/or identity. This suggests that the temporal stages of the neuronal firing pattern play an important role in the coding of visual stimuli, including faces. This type of coding may be a plausible mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of recognition, including the process of detection/categorization followed by the identification of objects. Recent single-unit studies in monkeys have also provided evidence consistent with the important role of the temporal stages of encoded facial information. For example, view-invariant facial identity information is represented in the response at a later period within a region of face-selective neurons. Consistent with these findings, temporally modulated neural activity has also been observed in human studies. These results suggest a close correlation between the temporal processing stages of facial information by IT neurons and the temporal dynamics of

  18. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 2 - The Later Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poole, S.; Simon, M; Sweatman, A.

    1999-01-01

    , Central Europe, and the USA are carrying out ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures that compnies have experienced and the lessons learned along the way. Part 1 of this two-part paper focuses on the early stages of the product development process. It shows how products can...

  19. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa; Kick, Benjamin; Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Burger, Christian; Karan, Ram; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Eppinger, Jö rg; Arold, Stefan T.

    2018-01-01

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer

  20. Influence of caffeine on information processing stages in well rested and fatigued subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, L.M.; Snel, J.; Kok, A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of caffeine on different information processing stages using choice reaction time (RT) tasks. A 200-mg dose at the beginning and a maintenance dose of 50 mg caffeine or lactose half-way through the session were administered to 15 well-rested and 15 fatigued university students

  1. Understanding consumers' multichannel choices across the different stages of the buying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, Sonja; Verhoef, Peter C.; Boehm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a more integrative approach toward channel choice than previous research by considering all stages of the buying process (search, purchase, and after-sales), and by taking channel attributes, experience, and spillover effects into account when examining consumers' channel

  2. Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Velpen, van der V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Kamphuis, H.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library

  3. Stages of Processing in Associative Recognition : Evidence from Behavior, EEG, and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Schneider, Darryl W.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the

  4. Mass-transfer in extraction and reextraction as a single-stage process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez del Cerro, M.; Trilleros, J.A.; Otero de la Gandara, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of mass transfer between water and naftenic acid and threebutilphosphate in kerosen are studied in the two possibilities to or from water. The two insoluble phases are brought in to intimate contact with dispersed phase droplets, in a single-stage process. The evolution of the equilibrium distribution of solute is taken in consideration. (author)

  5. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1999-01-01

    environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...... in the UK, Central Europe and the USA are carrying out Ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures companies had experienced and the lessons they had learnt along the way. From this survey we identified a number of success factors that enabled companies to successfully integrate...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  6. Development of a Micro-SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope by Post-Assembly of a MEMS-Stage and an Independent Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of miniature scanning probe microscopes (SPM on the basis of the MEMS technique has gained more and more interest. Here a novel approach is presented to realize a micro-SPM, in which by means of post-assembly a conventional cantilever is mounted onto a MEMS positioning stage and used to detect the topography variation of the surface under test. Compared with other integrated micro-SPMs, the proposed micro-SPM can maintain the lateral resolution by simply renewing its cantilever in use, and therefore features low cost, practicability and longer lifetime. Preliminary experimental results are reported, which demonstrate that the proposed microSPM can be realized.

  7. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  8. Sensory shelf life estimation of minimally processed lettuce considering two stages of consumers' decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of context, particularly the stage of the decision-making process (purchase vs consumption stage), on sensory shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. Leaves of butterhead lettuce were placed in common polypropylene bags and stored at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Periodically, a panel of six assessors evaluated the appearance of the samples, and a panel of 40 consumers evaluated their appearance and answered "yes" or "no" to the questions: "Imagine you are in a supermarket, you want to buy a minimally processed lettuce, and you find a package of lettuce with leaves like this, would you normally buy it?" and "Imagine you have this leaf of lettuce stored in your refrigerator, would you normally consume it?". Survival analysis was used to calculate the shelf lives of minimally processed lettuce, considering both decision-making stages. Shelf lives estimated considering rejection to purchase were significantly lower than those estimated considering rejection to consume. Therefore, in order to be conservative and assure the products' quality, shelf life should be estimated considering consumers' rejection to purchase instead of rejection to consume, as traditionally has been done. On the other hand, results from logistic regressions of consumers' rejection percentage as a function of the evaluated appearance attributes suggested that consumers considered them differently while deciding whether to purchase or to consume minimally processed lettuce.

  9. Model Development and Process Analysis for Lean Cellular Design Planning in Aerospace Assembly and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Monty D.

    Successful lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing execution relies upon a foundation of leadership commitment and strategic planning built upon solid data and robust analysis. The problem for this study was to create and employ a simple lean transformation planning model and review process that could be used to identify functional support staff resources required to plan and execute lean manufacturing cells within aerospace assembly and manufacturing sites. The lean planning model was developed using available literature for lean manufacturing kaizen best practices and validated through a Delphi panel of lean experts. The resulting model and a standardized review process were used to assess the state of lean transformation planning at five sites of an international aerospace manufacturing and assembly company. The results of the three day, on-site review were compared with baseline plans collected from each of the five sites to determine if there analyzed, with focus on three critical areas of lean planning: the number and type of manufacturing cells identified, the number, type, and duration of planned lean and continuous kaizen events, and the quantity and type of functional staffing resources planned to support the kaizen schedule. Summarized data of the baseline and on-site reviews was analyzed with descriptive statistics. ANOVAs and paired-t tests at 95% significance level were conducted on the means of data sets to determine if null hypotheses related to cell, kaizen event, and support resources could be rejected. The results of the research found significant differences between lean transformation plans developed by site leadership and plans developed utilizing the structured, on-site review process and lean transformation planning model. The null hypothesis that there was no difference between the means of pre-review and on-site cell counts was rejected, as was the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in kaizen event plans. These

  10. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  12. An approach to quantitative sustainability assessment in the early stages of process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Santarelli, Francesco; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-06-15

    A procedure was developed for the quantitative assessment of key performance indicators suitable for the sustainability analysis of alternative processes, mainly addressing the early stages of process design. The methodology was based on the calculation of a set of normalized impact indices allowing a direct comparison of the additional burden of each process alternative on a selected reference area. Innovative reference criteria were developed to compare and aggregate the impact indicators on the basis of the site-specific impact burden and sustainability policy. An aggregation procedure also allows the calculation of overall sustainability performance indicators and of an "impact fingerprint" of each process alternative. The final aim of the method is to support the decision making process during process development, providing a straightforward assessment of the expected sustainability performances. The application of the methodology to case studies concerning alternative waste disposal processes allowed a preliminary screening of the expected critical sustainability impacts of each process. The methodology was shown to provide useful results to address sustainability issues in the early stages of process design.

  13. Simulative design and process optimization of the two-stage stretch-blow molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Rasche, S.; Windeck, C. [Institute of Plastics Processing at RWTH Aachen University (IKV) Pontstraße 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    The total production costs of PET bottles are significantly affected by the costs of raw material. Approximately 70 % of the total costs are spent for the raw material. Therefore, stretch-blow molding industry intends to reduce the total production costs by an optimized material efficiency. However, there is often a trade-off between an optimized material efficiency and required product properties. Due to a multitude of complex boundary conditions, the design process of new stretch-blow molded products is still a challenging task and is often based on empirical knowledge. Application of current CAE-tools supports the design process by reducing development time and costs. This paper describes an approach to determine optimized preform geometry and corresponding process parameters iteratively. The wall thickness distribution and the local stretch ratios of the blown bottle are calculated in a three-dimensional process simulation. Thereby, the wall thickness distribution is correlated with an objective function and preform geometry as well as process parameters are varied by an optimization algorithm. Taking into account the correlation between material usage, process history and resulting product properties, integrative coupled simulation steps, e.g. structural analyses or barrier simulations, are performed. The approach is applied on a 0.5 liter PET bottle of Krones AG, Neutraubling, Germany. The investigations point out that the design process can be supported by applying this simulative optimization approach. In an optimization study the total bottle weight is reduced from 18.5 g to 15.5 g. The validation of the computed results is in progress.

  14. Simulative design and process optimization of the two-stage stretch-blow molding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Rasche, S.; Windeck, C.

    2015-01-01

    The total production costs of PET bottles are significantly affected by the costs of raw material. Approximately 70 % of the total costs are spent for the raw material. Therefore, stretch-blow molding industry intends to reduce the total production costs by an optimized material efficiency. However, there is often a trade-off between an optimized material efficiency and required product properties. Due to a multitude of complex boundary conditions, the design process of new stretch-blow molded products is still a challenging task and is often based on empirical knowledge. Application of current CAE-tools supports the design process by reducing development time and costs. This paper describes an approach to determine optimized preform geometry and corresponding process parameters iteratively. The wall thickness distribution and the local stretch ratios of the blown bottle are calculated in a three-dimensional process simulation. Thereby, the wall thickness distribution is correlated with an objective function and preform geometry as well as process parameters are varied by an optimization algorithm. Taking into account the correlation between material usage, process history and resulting product properties, integrative coupled simulation steps, e.g. structural analyses or barrier simulations, are performed. The approach is applied on a 0.5 liter PET bottle of Krones AG, Neutraubling, Germany. The investigations point out that the design process can be supported by applying this simulative optimization approach. In an optimization study the total bottle weight is reduced from 18.5 g to 15.5 g. The validation of the computed results is in progress

  15. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  16. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Sustainability assessment of novel chemical processes at early stage: application to biobased processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.; Uil, H. den; Jong, E. de; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical conversions have been a cornerstone of industrial revolution and societal progress. Continuing this progress in a resource constrained world poses a critical challenge which demands the development of innovative chemical processes to meet our energy and material needs in a sustainable way.

  18. Biogas production of Chicken Manure by Two-stage fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Yuan; Wang, Jing Jing; Nie, Jia Min; Wu, Nan; Yang, Fang; Yang, Ren Jie

    2018-06-01

    This paper performs a batch experiment for pre-acidification treatment and methane production from chicken manure by the two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. Results shows that the acetate was the main component in volatile fatty acids produced at the end of pre-acidification stage, accounting for 68% of the total amount. The daily biogas production experienced three peak period in methane production stage, and the methane content reached 60% in the second period and then slowly reduced to 44.5% in the third period. The cumulative methane production was fitted by modified Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters of the methane production potential, the maximum methane production rate and lag phase time were 345.2 ml, 0.948 ml/h and 343.5 h, respectively. The methane yield of 183 ml-CH4/g-VSremoved during the methane production stage and VS removal efficiency of 52.7% for the whole fermentation process were achieved.

  19. Generated forces and heat during the critical stages of friction stir welding and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Sadiq Aziz; Tahir, Abd Salam Md; Izamshah, R. [University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malacca (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    The solid-state behavior of friction stir welding process results in violent mechanical forces that should be mitigated, if not eliminated. Plunging and dwell time are the two critical stages of this welding process in terms of the generated forces and the related heat. In this study, several combinations of pre-decided penetration speeds, rotational speeds, tool designs, and dwell time periods were used to investigate these two critical stages. Moreover, a coupled-field thermal-structural finite element model was developed to validate the experimental results and the induced stresses. The experimental results revealed the relatively large changes in force and temperature during the first two stages compared with those during the translational tool movement stage. An important procedure to mitigate the undesired forces was then suggested. The model prediction of temperature values and their distribution were in good agreement with the experimental prediction. Therefore, the thermal history of this non-uniform heat distribution was used to estimate the induced thermal stresses. Despite the 37% increase in these stresses when 40 s dwell time was used instead of 5 s, these stresses showed no effect on the axial force values because of the soft material incidence and stir effects.

  20. Is the continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion process well suited for all substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion systems are often considered to be advantageous compared to one-stage processes. Although process conditions and fermenter setups are well examined, overall substrate degradation in these systems is controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how substrates with different fibre and sugar contents (hay/straw, maize silage, sugar beet) influence the degradation rate and methane production. Intermediates and gas compositions, as well as methane yields and VS-degradation degrees were recorded. The sugar beet substrate lead to a higher pH-value drop 5.67 in the acidification reactor, which resulted in a six time higher hydrogen production in comparison to the hay/straw substrate (pH-value drop 5.34). As the achieved yields in the two-stage system showed a difference of 70.6% for the hay/straw substrate, and only 7.8% for the sugar beet substrate. Therefore two-stage systems seem to be only recommendable for digesting sugar rich substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generated forces and heat during the critical stages of friction stir welding and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Sadiq Aziz; Tahir, Abd Salam Md; Izamshah, R.

    2015-01-01

    The solid-state behavior of friction stir welding process results in violent mechanical forces that should be mitigated, if not eliminated. Plunging and dwell time are the two critical stages of this welding process in terms of the generated forces and the related heat. In this study, several combinations of pre-decided penetration speeds, rotational speeds, tool designs, and dwell time periods were used to investigate these two critical stages. Moreover, a coupled-field thermal-structural finite element model was developed to validate the experimental results and the induced stresses. The experimental results revealed the relatively large changes in force and temperature during the first two stages compared with those during the translational tool movement stage. An important procedure to mitigate the undesired forces was then suggested. The model prediction of temperature values and their distribution were in good agreement with the experimental prediction. Therefore, the thermal history of this non-uniform heat distribution was used to estimate the induced thermal stresses. Despite the 37% increase in these stresses when 40 s dwell time was used instead of 5 s, these stresses showed no effect on the axial force values because of the soft material incidence and stir effects

  2. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  3. Collimation method using an image processing technique for an assembling-type antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Shinichi; Fukase, Yutaro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Harima, Kouichi; Sato, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1998-10-01

    To construct highly precise space structures, such as antennas, it is essential to be able to collimate them with high precision by remote operation. Surveying techniques which are commonly used for collimating ground-based antennas cannot be applied to space systems, since they require relatively sensitive and complex instruments. In this paper, we propose a collimation method that is applied to mark-patterns mounted on an antenna dish for detecting very slight displacements. By calculating a cross- correlation function between the target and reference mark- patterns, and by interpolating this calculated function, we can measure the displacement of the target mark-pattern in sub-pixel precision. We developed a test-bed for the measuring system and evaluated several mark-patterns suitable for our image processing technique. A mark-pattern with which enabled to detect displacement within an RMS error of 1/100 pixels was found. Several tests conducted using this chosen pattern verified the robustness of the method to different light conditions and alignment errors. This collimating method is designed for application to an assembling-type antenna which is being developed by the Communications Research Laboratory.

  4. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  5. Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses using a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses by a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process was investigated in a series of two up‐flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The first reactor that was dominated with hydrogen‐producing bacteria of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharo......Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses by a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process was investigated in a series of two up‐flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The first reactor that was dominated with hydrogen‐producing bacteria of Thermoanaerobacterium...... molasses. Furthermore, the mixed gas with a volumetric content of 16.5% H2, 38.7% CO2, and 44.8% CH4, containing approximately 15% energy by hydrogen is viable to be bio‐hythane....

  6. Reliability Omnipotent Analysis For First Stage Separator On The Separation Process Of Gas, Oil And Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony Tjahyani, D. T.; Ismu W, Puradwi; Asmara Santa, Sigit

    2001-01-01

    Reliability of industry can be evaluated based on two aspects which are risk and economic aspects. From these points, optimation value can be determined optimation value. Risk of the oil refinery process are fire and explosion, so assessment of this system must be done. One system of the oil refinery process is first stage separator which is used to separate gas, oil and water. Evaluation of reliability for first stage separator system has been done with FAMECA and HAZap method. The analysis results, the probability of fire and explosion of 1.1x10 - 2 3 /hour and 1.2x10 - 1 1 /hour, respectively. The reliability value of the system is high because each undesired event is anticipated with safety system or safety component

  7. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  8. THE STRATEGIC DIAGNOSIS ANALYSIS - AN ESSENTIAL STAGE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU; Horea COROIU

    2010-01-01

    The strategic diagnosis analysis aims to assess the potential of small and medium enterprises by evaluating their inner resources and the business environment within which these enterprises perform their activity. As a first stage in the strategic management process, the strategic diagnosis analysis ensures the premises for founding, elaborating and operationalizing a competitive managerial strategy. In this context, the paper presents the conceptual criteria which are essential for thematica...

  9. Theta oscillations are sensitive to both early and late conflict processing stages: effects of alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Sanja; Azma, Sheeva; Irimia, Andrei; Sherfey, Jason; Halgren, Eric; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging evidence indicates that decision conflict activates medial and lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Theoretical accounts of cognitive control highlight anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a central node in this network. However, a better understanding of the relative primacy and functional contributions of these areas to decision conflict requires insight into the neural dynamics of successive processing stages including conflict detection, response selection and execution. Moderate alcohol intoxication impairs cognitive control as it interferes with the ability to inhibit dominant, prepotent responses when they are no longer correct. To examine the effects of moderate intoxication on successive processing stages during cognitive control, spatio-temporal changes in total event-related theta power were measured during Stroop-induced conflict. Healthy social drinkers served as their own controls by participating in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) approach was applied to complex power spectra for theta (4-7 Hz) frequencies. The principal generator of event-related theta power to conflict was estimated to ACC, with contributions from fronto-parietal areas. The ACC was uniquely sensitive to conflict during both early conflict detection, and later response selection and execution stages. Alcohol attenuated theta power to conflict across successive processing stages, suggesting that alcohol-induced deficits in cognitive control may result from theta suppression in the executive network. Slower RTs were associated with attenuated theta power estimated to ACC, indicating that alcohol impairs motor preparation and execution subserved by the ACC. In addition to their relevance for the currently prevailing accounts of cognitive control, our results suggest that alcohol-induced impairment of top-down strategic processing

  10. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  11. Determination of Process Parameters in Multi-Stage Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing by FE Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Ravi; Manohar, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, analysis has been carried to simulate manufacturing of a near hemispherical bottom part with large depth by hydro-mechanical deep drawing with an aim to reduce the number of forming steps and to reduce the extent of thinning in the dome region. Inconel 718 has been considered as the material due to its importance in aerospace industry. It is a Ni-based super alloy and it is one of the most widely used of all super alloys primarily due to large-scale applications in aircraft engines. Using Finite Element Method (FEM), numerical simulations have been carried out for multi-stage hydro-mechanical deep drawing by using the same draw ratios and design parameters as in the case of conventional deep drawing in four stages. The results showed that the minimum thickness in the final part can be increased significantly when compared to conventional deep drawing. It has been found that the part could be deep drawn to the desired height (after trimming at the final stage) without any severe wrinkling. Blank holding force (BHF) and peak counter pressure have been found to have a strong influence on thinning in the component. Decreasing the coefficient of friction has marginally increased the minimum thickness in the final component. By increasing the draw ratio and optimizing BHF, counter pressure and die corner radius in the simulations, it has been found that it is possible to draw the final part in three stages. It has been found that thinning can be further reduced by decreasing the initial blank size without any reduction in the final height. This reduced the draw ratio at every stage and optimum combination of BHF and counter pressure have been found for the 3-stage process also.

  12. Design and Optimization of Die Preforming Process for Long Last-stage Blade of Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long last-stage blade is a key component of the steam turbine of nuclear conventional island. The die preforming process for a new technology that provides billets for near-net-shape roll-forging process was designed, the effects of the forging temperature, friction coefficient, flash land’s height and die’s outer fillet radius on the die forging force and forging energy were studied by using the orthogonal experiment method, the primary and secondary order of the four factors were analysed by using range analysis method, and the optimal combination of the factors was obtained. By means of numerical simulation and physical experiment, the die preforming process that can provide qualified billets for the subsequent roll-forging process was verified, and the PZS1120f electric screw press can meet the requirements of the die preforming process.

  13. Tracking the first two seconds: three stages of visual information processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jane; Breitmeyer, Bruno G; Treviño, Melissa

    2013-12-01

    We compared visual priming and comparison tasks to assess information processing of a stimulus during the first 2 s after its onset. In both tasks, a 13-ms prime was followed at varying SOAs by a 40-ms probe. In the priming task, observers identified the probe as rapidly and accurately as possible; in the comparison task, observers determined as rapidly and accurately as possible whether or not the probe and prime were identical. Priming effects attained a maximum at an SOA of 133 ms and then declined monotonically to zero by 700 ms, indicating reliance on relatively brief visuosensory (iconic) memory. In contrast, the comparison effects yielded a multiphasic function, showing a maximum at 0 ms followed by a minimum at 133 ms, followed in turn by a maximum at 240 ms and another minimum at 720 ms, and finally a third maximum at 1,200 ms before declining thereafter. The results indicate three stages of prime processing that we take to correspond to iconic visible persistence, iconic informational persistence, and visual working memory, with the first two used in the priming task and all three in the comparison task. These stages are related to stages presumed to underlie stimulus processing in other tasks, such as those giving rise to the attentional blink.

  14. Both species sorting and neutral processes drive assembly of bacterial communities in aquatic microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jack E.; Buckley, Hannah L.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Lear, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    A focus of ecology is to determine drivers of community assembly. Here, we investigate effects of immigration and species sorting (environmental selection) on structuring aquatic bacterial communities in both colonised and previously uncolonised environments. We used nonsterilised and presterilised

  15. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ferrenberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the

  16. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod

  17. Investigation of Self-Assembly Processes for Chitosan-Based Coagulant-Flocculant Systems: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi Bhalkaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of contaminants in wastewater poses significant challenges to water treatment processes and environmental remediation. The use of coagulation-flocculation represents a facile and efficient way of removing charged particles from water. The formation of stable colloidal flocs is necessary for floc aggregation and, hence, their subsequent removal. Aggregation occurs when these flocs form extended networks through the self-assembly of polyelectrolytes, such as the amine-based polysaccharide (chitosan, which form polymer “bridges” in a floc network. The aim of this overview is to evaluate how the self-assembly process of chitosan and its derivatives is influenced by factors related to the morphology of chitosan (flocculant and the role of the solution conditions in the flocculation properties of chitosan and its modified forms. Chitosan has been used alone or in conjunction with a salt, such as aluminum sulphate, as an aid for the removal of various waterborne contaminants. Modified chitosan relates to grafted anionic or cationic groups onto the C-6 hydroxyl group or the amine group at C-2 on the glucosamine monomer of chitosan. By varying the parameters, such as molecular weight and the degree of deacetylation of chitosan, pH, reaction and settling time, dosage and temperature, self-assembly can be further investigated. This mini-review places an emphasis on the molecular-level details of the flocculation and the self-assembly processes for the marine-based biopolymer, chitosan.

  18. Experimental study of hydrodynamically induced vibrational processes in VVER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, V.I.; Perevezentsev, V.V.; Rekshnya, N.F.; Krapivtsev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations are described of hydrodynamically induced vibrations in a single fuel assembly of a VVER-440 reactor, performed on a full-scale model installed in a closed loop filled with distilled water; the model fuel elements contained simulators of fuel pellets. Data on hydrodynamic loads were obtained by measuring pressure oscillations along the height of the fuel assembly case. Results of the measurements are presented in graphs and are discussed in some detail. (A.K.)

  19. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  20. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  1. Transition Process from Diffuser Stall to Stage Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaned Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumichi Fujisawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process from a diffuser rotating stall to a stage stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser was investigated by experimental and numerical analyses. From the velocity measurements, it was found that the rotating stall existed on the shroud side of the diffuser passage in the off-design flow condition. The numerical results revealed the typical vortical structure of the diffuser stall. The diffuser stall cell was caused by the systematic vortical structure which consisted of the tornado-type vortex, the longitudinal vortex at the shroud/suction surface corner (i.e., leading edge vortex (LEV, and the vortex in the throat area of the diffuser passages. Furthermore, the stage stall, which rotated within both the impeller and diffuser passages, occurred instead of the diffuser stall as the mass flow rate was decreased. According to the velocity measurements at the diffuser inlet, the diffuser stall which rotated on the shroud side was shifted to the hub side. Then, the diffuser stall moved into the impeller passages and formed the stage stall. Therefore, the stage stall was caused by the development of the diffuser stall, which transferred from the shroud side to the hub side in the vaneless space and expanded to the impeller passages.

  2. Effects of drying process on the physicochemical properties of nopal cladodes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Valderrama-Bravo, María Del Carmen; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Espinosa-Arbeláez, Diego Germán; Suárez-Vargas, Raúl; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2012-03-01

    Chemical proximate analysis was done in order to determine the changes of nutritional characteristics of nopal powders from three different maturity stages 50, 100, and 150 days and obtained by three different drying processes: freeze dried, forced air oven, and tunnel. Results indicate that nopal powder obtained by the process of freeze dried retains higher contents of protein, soluble fiber, and fat than the other two processes. Also, freeze dried process had less effect on color hue variable. No changes were observed in insoluble fiber content, chroma and lightness with the three different drying processes. Furthermore, the soluble fibers decreased with the age of nopal while insoluble fibers and ash content shows an opposite trend. In addition, the luminosity and hue values did not show differences among the maturity stages studied. The high content of dietary fibers of nopal pad powder could to be an interesting source of these important components for human diets and also could be used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Make or buy decision model with multi-stage manufacturing process and supplier imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mega Aria; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This research develops an make or buy decision model considering supplier imperfect quality. This model can be used to help companies make the right decision in case of make or buy component with the best quality and the least cost in multistage manufacturing process. The imperfect quality is one of the cost component that must be minimizing in this model. Component with imperfect quality, not necessarily defective. It still can be rework and used for assembly. This research also provide a numerical example and sensitivity analysis to show how the model work. We use simulation and help by crystal ball to solve the numerical problem. The sensitivity analysis result show that percentage of imperfect generally not affect to the model significantly, and the model is not sensitive to changes in these parameters. This is because the imperfect cost are smaller than overall total cost components.

  4. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Staged Bosch Process for CO2 Reduction to Produce Life Support Consumables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney. Morgan B.; Mansell, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing carbon dioxide to produce water and hence oxygen is critical for sustained manned missions in space, and to support both NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) concepts. For long term missions beyond low Earth orbit, where resupply is significantly more difficult and costly, open loop ARS, like Sabatier, consume inputs such as hydrogen. The Bosch process, on the other hand, has the potential to achieve complete loop closure and is hence a preferred choice. However, current single stage Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. Developmental efforts are seeking to improve upon the efficiency (hence reducing the recycle penalty) of current single stage Bosch reactors which employ traditional steel wool catalysts. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has investigated the potential for utilizing catalysts supported over short-contact time Microlith substrates for the Bosch reaction to achieve faster reaction rates, higher conversions, and a reduced recycle flows. Proof-of-concept testing was accomplished for a staged Bosch process by splitting the chemistry in two separate reactors, first being the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) and the second being the carbon formation reactor (CFR) via hydrogenation and/or Boudouard. This paper presents the results from this feasibility study at various operating conditions. Additionally, results from two 70 hour durability tests for the RWGS reactor are discussed.

  6. Application Of Lean Strategy To Redesign The Assembly Process Flow Of Glow Plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vylen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific objective techniques which will improve the tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value-added activities. It is being increasingly adopted as a potential solution for many automotive manufacturing industries. This paper addresses the implementation of lean principles in an automotive component manufacturing company with a focus on current manufacturing practices and visual identification of non-value-added time, such as bottle necking, waiting time and material handling, etc. The typical operations involved in making the Glow Plug are caulking, tig welding, MgO filling & O-ring pressing, swaging, facing, thread rolling, inspection and assembly. The facing operation can be eliminated by stabilizing the variations generated during the MgO filling machine. The MgO filling activity contains various forms of non-value-added activities such as worn-out gripper, insufficient clamping tension, physical shaking of the WPC on the agitation unit instead of fine vibration, Jerky insertion of the WPC shank into the agitation locator. It was identified that approximately 15mm material was wasted per piece, though there is no value addition on the part. This project utilizes Lean tools such as “Six Sigma” and “Value Stream Mapping” procedures. Resolving and improving the above problems resulted in drastic increase in productivity by 87% from 82%, reduction in the rejections by 13% from 18%, reduction in the manufacturing lead time by 2.62 days/annum, reduction in the utilization of shop floor space by 6m2 and also the manufacturing cost by 1.16 million INR/ annum.

  7. Development and Modeling of a Novel Self-Assembly Process for Polymer and Polymeric Composite Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G. [ORNL; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y. [ORNL; Ahn, Suk-Kyun [ORNL; Barnes, Mike D. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Shelton, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Harrison, Robert J. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); W. Noid, Donald [Retired

    2017-10-01

    Extensive computational simulations and experiments have been used to investigate the structure, dynamics and resulting photophysical properties of a number para-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based polymers and oligomers. These studies have shown how the morphology and structure are controlled to a large extent by the nature of the solute-solvent interactions in the initial solution phase preparation. A good solvent such as dichloromethane generates non-compact structures with more of a defect-extended chain like morphology while a bad solvent such as toluene leads to compact organized and folded structures with rod-like morphologies. Secondary structural organization is induced by using the solution phase structures to generate solvent-free single molecule nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are very compact and rod shaped, consisting of near-cofacial ordering of the conjugated PPV chain backbones between folds located at tetrahedral defects (sp3 C-C bonds). The resulting photophysical properties exhibit a significant enhancement in the photoluminescence quantum yield, lifetime, and stability. In addition, the single molecule nanoparticles have Gaussian-like emission spectra with discrete center frequencies that are correlated to a conjugation length, allowing the design of nanoparticles which luminesces at a particular frequency. We followed a similar approach and applied a comparable methodology in our recent work on polythiophenes in order to study the effect of polymer architecture on nanoscale assembly. Unlike linear chains of comparable size, we observed aggregation of the bottlebrush architecture of poly(norbornene)-g-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PNB-g-P3HT) after the freeze-drying and dissolution processes. The behavior can be attributed to a significant enhancement in the number of π-π interactions between grafted P3HT side chains.

  8. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of assembled ZnO/TiO2 heterojunction thin film transistors using solution processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Leo Chau-Kuang; Lin, Yun-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field-effect thin film transistors (TFTs), which were assembled by ZnO and TiO2 heterojunction films coated using solution processing technique, were fabricated and characterized. The fabrication of the device began with the preparation of ZnO and TiO2 films by spin coating. The ZnO and TiO2 films that were stacked together and annealed at 450 °C were characterized as a p-n junction diode. Two types of the devices, p-channel and n-channel TFTs, were produced using different assemblies of ZnO and TiO2 films. Results show that the p-channel TFTs (p-TFTs) and n-channel TFTs (n-TFTs) using the assemblies of ZnO and TiO2 films were demonstrated by source-drain current vs. drain voltage (IDS-VDS) measurements. Several electronic properties of the p- and n- TFTs, such as threshold voltage (Vth), on-off ratio, channel mobility, and subthreshold swing (SS), were determined by current-voltage (I-V) data analysis. The ZnO/TiO2-based TFTs can be produced using solution processing technique and an assembly approach.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  11. Effect of different processing stages of commercial fruit leather on patulin reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Eskandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leather (Lavashak is a high consumption food product especially among children in Iran. This product is being manufactured by low quality fruits that usually are contaminated with molds and patulin mycotoxin.  The objective of this study was to determine the effect of industrial processing stages of leather production (including pre-heating, filtration, evaporation, formulation and final heat boiling and drying on reduction of patulin level. Samples were taken for analysis prior and following each processing steps and patulin level was determined using HPLC technique. The results indicated that the maximum reduction of patulin level was ooccurred during formulation and evaporation steps which was estimated at 24.60 and 18.20%, respectively. Meanwhilewhile after drying, filtration, and pre-heating processes, the main loss of patulin was 8.58, 3.82 and 2.48%, respectively. It was concluded that the amount of residual patulin in final product was higher than 40% of its primary concentration. Besides, various processing stages were found insufficient to eliminate all of patulin or to reduce its level to lower than the maximum acceptable limit.

  12. Early‐Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jean‐Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean‐Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil‐based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital‐intensive projects that involve state‐of‐the‐art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well‐documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early‐stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  13. Real-time simulation of the retina allowing visualization of each processing stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jeffrey L.; Werblin, Frank S.

    1991-08-01

    The retina computes to let us see, but can we see the retina compute? Until now, the answer has been no, because the unconscious nature of the processing hides it from our view. Here the authors describe a method of seeing computations performed throughout the retina. This is achieved by using neurophysiological data to construct a model of the retina, and using a special-purpose image processing computer (PIPE) to implement the model in real time. Processing in the model is organized into stages corresponding to computations performed by each retinal cell type. The final stage is the transient (change detecting) ganglion cell. A CCD camera forms the input image, and the activity of a selected retinal cell type is the output which is displayed on a TV monitor. By changing the retina cell driving the monitor, the progressive transformations of the image by the retina can be observed. These simulations demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of temporal and spatial variations in the patterns of activity generated by the retina which are fed into the brain. The dynamical aspects make these patterns very different from those generated by the common DOG (Difference of Gaussian) model of receptive field. Because the retina is so successful in biological vision systems, the processing described here may be useful in machine vision.

  14. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots. Properties, modification and emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, structural, optical as well as electronic properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) were studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), capacitance spectroscopy (CV) and capacitance transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The quantum dots were grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and embedded in Schottky diodes for electrical characterization. In this work growth aspects as well as the electronic structures of QD were discussed. By varying the QD growth parameters it is possible to control the structural, and thus the optical and electronic properties of QD. Two methods are presented. Adjusting the QD growth temperature leads either to small QD with a high areal density or to high QDs with a low density. The structural changes of the QD are reflected in the changes of the optical and electronic properties. The second method is to introduce a growth interruption after capping the QD with thin cap layers. It was shown that capping with AlAs leads to a well-developed alternative to control the QD height and thus the ground-state energies of the QD. A post-growth method modifying the QD properties ist rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raising the RTA temperature causes a lifting of the QD energy states with respect to the GaAs band edge energy due to In/Ga intermixing processes. A further main part of this work covers the emission processes of charge carriers in QD. Thermal emission, thermally assisted tunneling, and pure tunneling emission are studied by capacitance transient spectroscopy techniques. In DLTS experiments a strong impact of the electric field on the activation energies of electrons was found interfering the correct determination of the QD level energies. This behaviour can be explained by a thermally assisted tunneling model. A modified model taking the Coulomb interaction of occupied QD into account describes the emission rates of the electrons. In order to avoid several emission pathes in the experiments

  15. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE MODERN STAGE OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Osobov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses attention on the analysis of the role and place of the concept of "information and communication technologies" among the concepts related to technology training. In the article it is analyzed the aspects of nascence of the concept "Information and communication technologies", modern approaches to its identification. The author shows potential and possibility to use ICT at the modern stage of educational process. The paper analyzes the arsenal of modern information and communication technologies, their importance in the development of the potential of students. There are considered conditions of effective functioning of information and communication technologies in educational process. The author discusses possible directions of implementation of informatization in the educational process.

  16. Establishing error management process for power plants. A study on entire picture of the process and introduction stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sugihara, Yoshikuni; Takeda, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a management process for a power plant to positively find out actual and/or potential problems that may possibility cause a serious human factor event, and to take effective measures. Firstly, detail steps for error management process utilizing human factor event data has been examined through an application at a plant. Secondly, basic steps for evaluating the degree of execution, enhancement and usefulness of each human performance activity and for identifying unsafe acts and uneasy human performance states were established based on literature searching and our experiences on plant evaluation. Finally, an entire picture of error management process was proposed by unifying the steps studied above. In addition, as stages for introducing and establishing the above proposed error management process into a power plant, a basic idea of supplementing an insufficient part of the process with a phased approach after comparing the above proposed management process and the existing human performance activities at the plant was introduced. (author)

  17. STAGE MODEL FOR GONDWANA ASSEMBLY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Eastern Granulites, the Kitumbi rocks occur as small enclaves ... out of collision of India, Madagascar, parts of Easten Antarctica and the Kalahari craton (IMSLEK ... Hepworth (1972) describes other granulite occurrences in the western and central parts of ..... of Gondwana. In: A. Kroner (ed) Precambrian Plate Tectonics,.

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  19. Development of an innovative two-stage process, a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.K.; Shin, H.S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil and Enviromental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen produced from waste by means of fermentative bacteria is an attractive way to produce this fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. It also helps treat the associated waste. The authors have undertaken to optimize acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. Building on this, they then developed a two-stage process that produces both hydrogen and methane. Acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was investigated using a leaching bed reactor. The dilution rate was varied in order to maximize efficiency which was as high as 70.8 per cent. Further to this, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor converted the wastewater from acidogenic hydrogenesis into methane. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates exceeded 96 per cent up to a COD loading of 12.9 COD/l/d. After this, the authors devised a new two-stage process based on a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. The authors report on results for this process using food waste as feedstock. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  1. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... stages of the design process and, to investigate the factors that influence the different dimensions of comfort (physical, physiological and psychological). The investigation has been conducted in strong collaboration with an industrial partner working with ear-worn devices, providing access to data...

  2. The rearrangement process in a two-stage broadcast switching network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren B.

    1988-01-01

    The rearrangement process in the two-stage broadcast switching network presented by F.K. Hwang and G.W. Richards (ibid., vol.COM-33, no.10, p.1025-1035, Oct. 1985) is considered. By defining a certain function it is possible to calculate an upper bound on the number of connections to be moved...... during a rearrangement. When each inlet channel appears twice, the maximum number of connections to be moved is found. For a special class of inlet assignment patterns in the case of which each inlet channel appears three times, the maximum number of connections to be moved is also found. In the general...

  3. Evaluating print performance of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder pastes used in electronics assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Bauer, R.; Hübner, F.; Ekere, N. N.

    2011-01-01

    Solder paste is the most widely used interconnection material in the electronic assembly process for attaching electronic components/devices directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards, using stencil printing process. This paper evaluates the performance of three different commercially available Sn-Ag-Cu solder pastes formulated with different particle size distributions (PSD), metal content and alloy composition. A series of stencil printing tests were carried out using a specially designed stencil of 75 μm thickness and apertures of 300×300 μm2 dimension and 500 μm pitch sizes. Solder paste printing behaviors were found related to attributes such as slumping and surface tension and printing performance was correlated with metal content and PSD. The results of the study should benefit paste manufacturers and SMT assemblers to improve their products and practices.

  4. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  5. [Influence of different processing methods and mature stages on 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Na; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Tai-Xin; Zhang, Cun-Li; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Ming; Wen, Chun-Xiu

    2014-04-01

    To study the different mature stages and the best processing methods on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds. The content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds was determined by HPLC. The sample of different mature stages such as immature, near mature and fully mature and processed by different methods were studied. Fully mature Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds were better than the immatured, and the best processing method was dried under 60degrees C, the content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol reached up to 131.63microlg/mL. Different processing methods and different mature stages had a significant influence on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds.

  6. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  7. New approaches to improve a WCDMA SIR estimator by employing different post-processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnart Chaichoet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective control of transmission power in WCDMA mobile systems, a good estimate of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is needed. Conventionally, an adaptive SIR estimator employs a moving average (MA filter (Yoon et al., 2002 to encounter fading channel distortion. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation. In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average (MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average (EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared (LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE are then compared by simulation. The results show the best comparable performance when the MA and LMS post-filter are used. However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table.

  8. Defining progressive stages in the commitment process leading to embryonic lens formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The commitment of regions of the embryo to form particular tissues or organs is a central concept in development, but the mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. The well-studied model of lens induction is ideal for dissecting key phases of the commitment process. We find in Xenopus tropicalis, at the time of specification of the lens, i.e. when presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) can be isolated, cultured and will differentiate into a lens, that the PLE is not yet irreversibly committed, or determined, to form a lens. When transplanted into the posterior of a host embryo lens development is prevented at this stage, while approximately 3 hr later, using the same assay, determination is complete. Interestingly, we find that specified lens ectoderm, when cultured, acquires the ability to become determined without further tissue interactions. Further, we show that specified PLE has a different gene expression pattern than determined PLE, and that determined PLE can maintain expression of essential regulatory genes (e.g. foxe3, mafB) in an ectopic environment while specified PLE cannot. These observations set the stage for a detailed mechanistic study of the genes and signals controlling tissue commitment. PMID:22566346

  9. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  10. Precipitation modeling of inclusions at different stages of the steel making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, V.; Morales, R.D.; Romeero, A.; Hernandez, M.; Morales, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Steel making processes are continuously improved in order to attend the increasing requirements of the cleanness of the liquid metal. At the refining stages, as deoxidation and desulphuration, the formation of inclusions of oxides and sulphides is promoted, which on the other hand, are the most frequent inclusions. In this work a mathematical simulator of the precipitation and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions at different steps of the steel making process is presented. To this purpose, it is assumed that inclusions formed by reoxidation can be simulated by increasing arbitrarily the oxygen levels consumed by the residual elements (aluminium, calcium, etc) and starting the chemical reaction with less powerful deoxidants (silicium and manganese). Accordingly, different operative conditions can be simulated. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental results of industrial trials, as well as results included in the bibliography. (Author) 7 refs

  11. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  12. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barnes, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  13. Combinatorial Models for Assembly and Decomposition of Products

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Bojko

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the most popular combinatorial models that are used for the synthesis of design solutions at the stage of the assembly process flow preparation. It shows that while assembling the product the relations of parts can be represented as a structure of preferences, which is formed on the basis of objective design restrictions put in at the stage of the product design. This structure is a binary preference relation pre-order. Its symmetrical part is equivalence and describes the...

  14. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, Antje [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Gillespie, Leah [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der [Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Khromykh, Alexander [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Mackenzie, Jason, E-mail: jason.mackenzie@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  15. Towards Ordered Silicon Nanostructures through Self-Assembling Mechanisms and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Puglisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of innovative architectures for memory storage and energy conversion devices are at the forefront of current research efforts driving us towards a sustainable future. However, issues related to the cost, efficiency, and reliability of current technologies are still severely limiting their overtake of the standard designs. The use of ordered nanostructured silicon is expected to overcome these limitations and push the advancement of the alternative technologies. Specifically, self-assembling of block copolymers has been recognized as a promising and cost-effective approach to organize silicon nanostructures. This work reviews some of the most important findings on block copolymer self-assembling and complements those with the results of new experimental studies. First of all, a quantitative analysis is presented on the ordering and fluctuations expected in the synthesis of silicon nanostructures by using standard synthesis methods like chemical vapour deposition. Then the effects of the several parameters guiding the ordering mechanisms in the block copolymer systems, such as film thickness, molecular weight, annealing conditions, solvent, and substrate topography are discussed. Finally, as a proof of concept, an in-house developed example application to solar cells is presented, based on silicon nanostructures resulting from self-assembling of block copolymers.

  16. Vernier But Not Grating Acuity Contributes to an Early Stage of Visual Word Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yufei; Tong, Xiuhong; Chen, Wei; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-28

    The process of reading words depends heavily on efficient visual skills, including analyzing and decomposing basic visual features. Surprisingly, previous reading-related studies have almost exclusively focused on gross aspects of visual skills, while only very few have investigated the role of finer skills. The present study filled this gap and examined the relations of two finer visual skills measured by grating acuity (the ability to resolve periodic luminance variations across space) and Vernier acuity (the ability to detect/discriminate relative locations of features) to Chinese character-processing as measured by character form-matching and lexical decision tasks in skilled adult readers. The results showed that Vernier acuity was significantly correlated with performance in character form-matching but not visual symbol form-matching, while no correlation was found between grating acuity and character processing. Interestingly, we found no correlation of the two visual skills with lexical decision performance. These findings provide for the first time empirical evidence that the finer visual skills, particularly as reflected in Vernier acuity, may directly contribute to an early stage of hierarchical word processing.

  17. The structural features of hemicelluloses dissolved out at different cooking stages of active oxygen cooking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin; Lin, Lu

    2014-04-15

    This work described the morphologic changes of corn stalk and the structural characterization of its hemicelluloses dissolved in yellow liquor at different cooking stages. The results showed that active oxygen cooking process was an efficient method to depolymerize the corn stalk into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as a pretreatment of biomass conversion. This cooking process can also be divided into three phases: bulk delignification, extended delignification, and residual delignification. During the heating-up period 57.67% of hemicelluloses and 62.31% of lignin were removed from the raw material. However, only 15% of hemicelluloses and 23.21% of lignin were removed during at temperature' period. The hemicelluloses from the corn stalk and yellow liquor were composed of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose backbones substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl, 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid, and some methoxyl residues. The backbones of hemicelluloses were gradually cleaved during the cooking process. The acetyl groups substituted with xylopyranosyl residues were completely cleaved during the cooking process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodology of life cycle cost with risk expenditure for offshore process at conceptual design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kiil; Chang, Daejun; Chang, Kwangpil; Rhee, Taejin; Lee, In-Beum

    2011-01-01

    This study proposed a new LCC (life cycle cost) methodology with the risk expenditure taken into account for comparative evaluation of offshore process options at their conceptual design stage. The risk expenditure consisted of the failure risk expenditure and the accident risk expenditure. The former accounted for the production loss and the maintenance expense due to equipment failures while the latter reflected the asset damage and the fatality worth caused by disastrous accidents such as fire and explosion. It was demonstrated that the new LCC methodology was capable of playing the role of a process selection basis in choosing the best of the liquefaction process options including the power generation systems for a floating LNG (Liquefied natural gas) production facility. Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. The new methodology with the risk expenditure, however, indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines should be the optimum choice, mainly due to its better availability and safety. -- Highlights: → The study presented the methodology of the LCC with the risk expenditure for the conceptual design of offshore processes. → The proposed methodology demonstrated the applicability of the liquefaction unit with the power generation system of LNG FPSO. → Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. → The new methodology indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines is the optimum choice due to its better availability and safety.

  19. Fabrication of high-resolution reflective scale grating for an optical encoder using a patterned self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shanjin; Jiang, Weitao; Li, Xuan; Yu, Haoyu; Lei, Biao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Chen, Bangdao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Steel tape scale grating of a reflective incremental linear encoder has a key impact on the measurement accuracy of the optical encoder. However, it is difficult for conventional manufacturing processes to fabricate scale grating with high-resolution grating strips, due to process and material problems. In this paper, self-assembly technology was employed to fabricate high-resolution steel tape scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were adopted to form anti-reflective grating strips of steel tape scale grating. They were deposited in the tape, which had a hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern when the dispersion of the nanoparticles evaporated. A standard lift-off process was employed to fabricate the hydrophobic grating strips on the steel tape. Simultaneously, the steel tape itself presents a hydrophilic property. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern was thus obtained. In this study, octafluorocyclobutane was used to prepare the hydrophobic grating strips, due to its hydrophobic property. High-resolution graphene oxide steel tape scale grating with a pitch of 20 μ m was obtained through the self-assembly process. The photoelectric signals of the optical encoder containing the graphene oxide scale grating and conventional scale grating were tested under the same conditions. Comparison test results showed that the graphene oxide scale grating has a better performance in its amplitude and harmonic components than that of the conventional steel tape scale. A comparison experiment of position errors was also conducted, demonstrating an improvement in the positioning error of the graphene oxide scale grating. The comparison results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed self-assembly process to fabricate high-resolution graphene oxide scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. (paper)

  20. A probabilistic approach to the management of multi-stage multicriteria process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bugaev

    2017-01-01

    get a detailed picture of consequences of different management options at each stage of the process, which then can be used for technological preparation of production or to control the operation of the operational process

  1. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen in two stage trickling filter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Wadhawan, Tanush; Bye, Christopher; Blonigen, Mark; Khan, Eakalak

    2012-10-15

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a significant portion of nitrogen in the final effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Biodegradable portion of DON (BDON) can support algal growth and/or consume dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters. The fate of DON and BDON has not been studied for trickling filter WWTPs. DON and BDON data were collected along the treatment train of a WWTP with a two-stage trickling filter process. DON concentrations in the influent and effluent were 27% and 14% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The plant removed about 62% and 72% of the influent DON and BDON mainly by the trickling filters. The final effluent BDON values averaged 1.8 mg/L. BDON was found to be between 51% and 69% of the DON in raw wastewater and after various treatment units. The fate of DON and BDON through the two-stage trickling filter treatment plant was modeled. The BioWin v3.1 model was successfully applied to simulate ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDN, DON and BDON concentrations along the treatment train. The maximum growth rates for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and AOB half saturation constant influenced ammonia and nitrate output results. Hydrolysis and ammonification rates influenced all of the nitrogen species in the model output, including BDON. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa

    2018-03-06

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

  3. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Facilitators and constraints at each stage of the migration decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Stefanie

    2017-10-01

    Behavioural models of migration emphasize the importance of migration decision-making for the explanation of subsequent behaviour. But empirical migration research regularly finds considerable gaps between those who intend to migrate and those who actually realize their intention. This paper applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour, enriched by the Rubicon model, to test specific hypotheses about distinct effects of facilitators and constraints on specific stages of migration decision-making and behaviour. The data come from a tailor-made panel survey based on random samples of people drawn from two German cities in 2006-07. The results show that in conventional models the effects of facilitators and constraints on migration decision-making are likely to be underestimated. Splitting the process of migration decision-making into a pre-decisional and a pre-actional phase helps to avoid bias in the estimated effects of facilitators and constraints on both migration decision-making and migration behaviour.

  5. An integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with imperfect production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Kundu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with the objective of cost minimization by synchronizing the replenishment decisions for procurement, production and delivery activities. The supply chain structure examined here consists of a single manufacturer with multi-buyer where manufacturer orders a fixed quantity of raw material from outside suppliers, processes the materials and delivers the finished products in unequal shipments to each customer. In this paper, we consider an imperfect production system, which produces defective items randomly and assumes that all defective items could be reworked. A simple algorithm is developed to obtain an optimal production policy, which minimizes the expected average total cost of the integrated production-inventory system.

  6. Stigma toward psychosis and its formulation process: prejudice and discrimination against early stages of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoko; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-02-01

    Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals. We performed a survey examining stigmas toward people with psychotic-like-experiences (PLE), at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), schizophrenia, or depression. Prejudice was measured using a 21-item questionnaire, and discrimination was measured using the Social Distance Scale. The participants consisted of 149 people from the general public, 97 patients, and 119 psychiatric professionals. Generally, a similar pattern was observed among the groups in which prejudice and discrimination against PLE was mildest, followed by that against ARMS and depression, and finally schizophrenia. When the stigma of the general public was compared with that of psychiatric professionals, the prejudice and discrimination against PLE of the general public were both lower than those of the psychiatric professionals. However, the prejudice of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for ARMS. Furthermore, the discrimination of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for schizophrenia. The stigmas of mental illness differed according to the clinical stage, although the pattern of severity was similar among the three groups. A formulation process is suggested in which stigma toward schizophrenia develops from an attitudinal property (prejudice) against ARMS and a behavioral property (discrimination) against schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early stage oxynitridation process of Si(001) surface by NO gas: Reactive molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Haining; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Srivastava, Pooja; Choi, Keunsu

    2016-01-01

    Initial stage of oxynitridation process of Si substrate is of crucial importance in fabricating the ultrathin gate dielectric layer of high quality in advanced MOSFET devices. The oxynitridation reaction on a relaxed Si(001) surface is investigated via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A total of 1120 events of a single nitric oxide (NO) molecule reaction at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 K are statistically analyzed. The observed reaction kinetics are consistent with the previous experimental or calculation results, which show the viability of the reactive MD technique to study the NO dissociation reaction on Si. We suggest the reaction pathway for NO dissociation that is characterized by the inter-dimer bridge of a NO molecule as the intermediate state prior to NO dissociation. Although the energy of the inter-dimer bridge is higher than that of the intra-dimer one, our suggestion is supported by the ab initio nudged elastic band calculations showing that the energy barrier for the inter-dimer bridge formation is much lower. The growth mechanism of an ultrathin Si oxynitride layer is also investigated via consecutive NO reactions simulation. The simulation reveals the mechanism of self-limiting reaction at low temperature and the time evolution of the depth profile of N and O atoms depending on the process temperature, which would guide to optimize the oxynitridation process condition.

  8. Effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Luz; Atkinson, John; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Roeckel, Marlene

    2018-05-16

    Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process. The TAN concentration in the effluent was predicted, this being the most inhibiting and polluting compound in AD. Despite the limited data available, the SVM-based model outperformed the analytical method for the TAN prediction, achieving a relative average error of 15.2% against 43% for the analytical method. Moreover, SVM showed higher prediction accuracy in comparison with Artificial Neural Networks. This result reveals the future promise of SVM for prediction in non-linear and dynamic AD processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. Early stage oxynitridation process of Si(001) surface by NO gas: Reactive molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Haining; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol, E-mail: krlee@kist.re.kr [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 5, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterial Science and Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Srivastava, Pooja; Choi, Keunsu [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 5, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-28

    Initial stage of oxynitridation process of Si substrate is of crucial importance in fabricating the ultrathin gate dielectric layer of high quality in advanced MOSFET devices. The oxynitridation reaction on a relaxed Si(001) surface is investigated via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A total of 1120 events of a single nitric oxide (NO) molecule reaction at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000 K are statistically analyzed. The observed reaction kinetics are consistent with the previous experimental or calculation results, which show the viability of the reactive MD technique to study the NO dissociation reaction on Si. We suggest the reaction pathway for NO dissociation that is characterized by the inter-dimer bridge of a NO molecule as the intermediate state prior to NO dissociation. Although the energy of the inter-dimer bridge is higher than that of the intra-dimer one, our suggestion is supported by the ab initio nudged elastic band calculations showing that the energy barrier for the inter-dimer bridge formation is much lower. The growth mechanism of an ultrathin Si oxynitride layer is also investigated via consecutive NO reactions simulation. The simulation reveals the mechanism of self-limiting reaction at low temperature and the time evolution of the depth profile of N and O atoms depending on the process temperature, which would guide to optimize the oxynitridation process condition.

  10. A Multi-stage Representation of Cell Proliferation as a Markov Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Ford, Matthew J; Mort, Richard L

    2017-12-01

    The stochastic simulation algorithm commonly known as Gillespie's algorithm (originally derived for modelling well-mixed systems of chemical reactions) is now used ubiquitously in the modelling of biological processes in which stochastic effects play an important role. In well-mixed scenarios at the sub-cellular level it is often reasonable to assume that times between successive reaction/interaction events are exponentially distributed and can be appropriately modelled as a Markov process and hence simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. However, Gillespie's algorithm is routinely applied to model biological systems for which it was never intended. In particular, processes in which cell proliferation is important (e.g. embryonic development, cancer formation) should not be simulated naively using the Gillespie algorithm since the history-dependent nature of the cell cycle breaks the Markov process. The variance in experimentally measured cell cycle times is far less than in an exponential cell cycle time distribution with the same mean.Here we suggest a method of modelling the cell cycle that restores the memoryless property to the system and is therefore consistent with simulation via the Gillespie algorithm. By breaking the cell cycle into a number of independent exponentially distributed stages, we can restore the Markov property at the same time as more accurately approximating the appropriate cell cycle time distributions. The consequences of our revised mathematical model are explored analytically as far as possible. We demonstrate the importance of employing the correct cell cycle time distribution by recapitulating the results from two models incorporating cellular proliferation (one spatial and one non-spatial) and demonstrating that changing the cell cycle time distribution makes quantitative and qualitative differences to the outcome of the models. Our adaptation will allow modellers and experimentalists alike to appropriately represent cellular

  11. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning: electrophysiological evidence for a two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamé, Carlos M; Cosmelli, Diego; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2011-04-26

    Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d') and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP) components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.

  12. A preventive maintenance model with a two-level inspection policy based on a three-stage failure process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbin; Zhao, Fei; Peng, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Inspection is always an important preventive maintenance (PM) activity and can have different depths and cover all or part of plant systems. This paper introduces a two-level inspection policy model for a single component plant system based on a three-stage failure process. Such a failure process divides the system′s life into three stages: good, minor defective and severe defective stages. The first level of inspection, the minor inspection, can only identify the minor defective stage with a certain probability, but can always reveal the severe defective stage. The major inspection can however identify both defective stages perfectly. Once the system is found to be in the minor defective stage, a shortened inspection interval is adopted. If however the system is found to be in the severe defective stage, we may delay the maintenance action if the time to the next planned PM window is less than a threshold level, but otherwise, replace immediately. This corresponds to the well adopted maintenance policy in practice such as periodic inspections with planned PMs. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed model by comparing with other models. - Highlights: • The system′s deterioration goes through a three-stage process, namely, normal, minor defective and severe defective. • Two levels of inspections are proposed, e.g., minor and major inspections. • Once the minor defective stage is found, instead of taking a maintenance action, a shortened inspection interval is recommended. • When the severe defective stage is found, we delay the maintenance according to the threshold to the next PM. • The decision variables are the inspection intervals and the threshold to PM

  13. Computational and theoretical modeling of pH and flow effects on the early-stage non-equilibrium self-assembly of optoelectronic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Rachael; Ferguson, Andrew

    Self-assembling π-conjugated peptides are attractive candidates for the fabrication of bioelectronic materials possessing optoelectronic properties due to electron delocalization over the conjugated peptide groups. We present a computational and theoretical study of an experimentally-realized optoelectronic peptide that displays triggerable assembly in low pH to resolve the microscopic effects of flow and pH on the non-equilibrium morphology and kinetics of assembly. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and hydrodynamic modeling, we quantify the time and length scales at which convective flows employed in directed assembly compete with microscopic diffusion to influence assembly. We also show that there is a critical pH below which aggregation proceeds irreversibly, and quantify the relationship between pH, charge density, and aggregate size. Our work provides new fundamental understanding of pH and flow of non-equilibrium π-conjugated peptide assembly, and lays the groundwork for the rational manipulation of environmental conditions and peptide chemistry to control assembly and the attendant emergent optoelectronic properties. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0011847, and by the Computational Science and Engineering Fellowship from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  14. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  15. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  16. Molecular modeling of directed self-assembly of block copolymers: Fundamental studies of processing conditions and evolutionary pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Gurdaman Singh

    Rapid progress in the semi-conductor industry has pushed for smaller feature sizes on integrated electronic circuits. Current photo-lithographic techniques for nanofabrication have reached their technical limit and are problematic when printing features small enough to meet future industrial requirements. "Bottom-up'' techniques, such as the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP), are the primary contenders to compliment current "top-down'' photo-lithography ones. For industrial requirements, the defect density from DSA needs to be less than 1 defect per 10 cm by 10 cm. Knowledge of both material synthesis and the thermodynamics of the self-assembly process are required before optimal operating conditions can be found to produce results adequate for industry. The work present in this thesis is divided into three chapters, each discussing various aspects of DSA as studied via a molecular model that contains the essential physics of BCP self-assembly. Though there are various types of guiding fields that can be used to direct BCPs over large wafer areas with minimum defects, this study focuses only on chemically patterned substrates. The first chapter addresses optimal pattern design by describing a framework where molecular simulations of various complexities are coupled with an advanced optimization technique to find a pattern that directs a target morphology. It demonstrates the first ever study where BCP self-assembly on a patterned substrate is optimized using a three-dimensional description of the block-copolymers. For problems pertaining to DSA, the methodology is shown to converge much faster than the traditional random search approach. The second chapter discusses the metrology of BCP thin films using TEM tomography and X-ray scattering techniques, such as CDSAXS and GISAXS. X-ray scattering has the advantage of being able to quickly probe the average structure of BCP morphologies over large wafer areas; however, deducing the BCP morphology

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  18. Non-destructive testing of assemblies by welding, brazing or bonding, and material to use for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, J.

    1983-01-01

    The process consists in doing a neutron photography of the pieces assembled with the aid of a joining material containing a neutrophage element, such as gadolinium, samarium, europium, boron, cadmium. The neutrophage element, e.g. gadolinium, is dispersed in the joining material with contents between 0,5 and 7,5% of weight. Its granulometry must be less than 1000 MESH. The incorporation of a neutrophage element in the joining material of metallic pieces by welding or brazing, allows to visualize, among others, the following defects: blistering, cracks, slag inclusions, undercuts, bad distribution of the successive passes [fr

  19. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucker, V.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.; Coto, P. B.

    2018-03-01

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  20. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucker, V; Bockstedte, M; Thoss, M; Coto, P B

    2018-03-28

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  1. The Ergonomics Analysis In the Process of Reversed Loader Cylinder Virtual Assembly Based on CATIA and DELMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and work efficiency of staff of the enterprise gradually attracted people's attention. The human factor was crucial in the manufacturing process. First establish virtual assembly model through CATIA software. Second use DELMIA software to make the rapid upper limb assessment of human body posture, lifting equation NIOSH to lift frequent location analysis, etc. Improve the unreasonable location for the improvement of human factors engineering to reduce the probability of enterprise staff occupational disease and injury, and eventually improve production efficiency.

  2. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  3. Combined two-stage xanthate processes for the treatment of copper-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.K. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Leu, M.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University of Technology, Yung-Kang City (Taiwan); Chang, J.E.; Lin, T.F.; Chen, T.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City (Taiwan); Chiang, L.C.; Shih, P.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung County (Taiwan)

    2007-02-15

    Heavy metal removal is mainly conducted by adjusting the wastewater pH to form metal hydroxide precipitates. However, in recent years, the xanthate process with a high metal removal efficiency, attracted attention due to its use of sorption/desorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study, two kinds of agricultural xanthates, insoluble peanut-shell xanthate (IPX) and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX), were used as sorbents to treat the copper-containing wastewater (Cu concentration from 50 to 1,000 mg/L). The experimental results showed that the maximum Cu removal efficiency by IPX was 93.5 % in the case of high Cu concentrations, whereby 81.1 % of copper could rapidly be removed within one minute. Moreover, copper-containing wastewater could also be treated by ISX over a wide range (50 to 1,000 mg/L) to a level that meets the Taiwan EPA's effluent regulations (3 mg/L) within 20 minutes. Whereas IPX had a maximum binding capacity for copper of 185 mg/g IPX, the capacity for ISX was 120 mg/g ISX. IPX is cheaper than ISX, and has the benefits of a rapid reaction and a high copper binding capacity, however, it exhibits a lower copper removal efficiency. A sequential IPX and ISX treatment (i.e., two-stage xanthate processes) could therefore be an excellent alternative. The results obtained using the two-stage xanthate process revealed an effective copper treatment. The effluent (C{sub e}) was below 0.6 mg/L, compared to the influent (C{sub 0}) of 1,001 mg/L at pH = 4 and a dilution rate of 0.6 h{sup -1}. Furthermore, the Cu-ISX complex formed could meet the Taiwan TCLP regulations, and be classified as non-hazardous waste. The xanthatilization of agricultural wastes offers a comprehensive strategy for solving both agricultural waste disposal and metal-containing wastewater treatment problems. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

  5. Computational Modelling of Large Scale Phage Production Using a Two-Stage Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Krysiak-Baltyn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost effective and scalable methods for phage production are required to meet an increasing demand for phage, as an alternative to antibiotics. Computational models can assist the optimization of such production processes. A model is developed here that can simulate the dynamics of phage population growth and production in a two-stage, self-cycling process. The model incorporates variable infection parameters as a function of bacterial growth rate and employs ordinary differential equations, allowing application to a setup with multiple reactors. The model provides simple cost estimates as a function of key operational parameters including substrate concentration, feed volume and cycling times. For the phage and bacteria pairing examined, costs and productivity varied by three orders of magnitude, with the lowest cost found to be most sensitive to the influent substrate concentration and low level setting in the first vessel. An example case study of phage production is also presented, showing how parameter values affect the production costs and estimating production times. The approach presented is flexible and can be used to optimize phage production at laboratory or factory scale by minimizing costs or maximizing productivity.

  6. At what stage of neural processing does cocaine act to boost pursuit of rewards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Hernandez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine-containing neurons have been implicated in reward and decision making. One element of the supporting evidence is that cocaine, like other drugs that increase dopaminergic neurotransmission, powerfully potentiates reward seeking. We analyze this phenomenon from a novel perspective, introducing a new conceptual framework and new methodology for determining the stage(s of neural processing at which drugs, lesions and physiological manipulations act to influence reward-seeking behavior. Cocaine strongly boosts the proclivity of rats to work for rewarding electrical brain stimulation. We show that the conventional conceptual framework and methods do not distinguish between three conflicting accounts of how the drug produces this effect: increased sensitivity of brain reward circuitry, increased gain, or decreased subjective reward costs. Sensitivity determines the stimulation strength required to produce a reward of a given intensity (a measure analogous to the KM of an enzyme whereas gain determines the maximum intensity attainable (a measure analogous to the vmax of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. To distinguish sensitivity changes from the other determinants, we measured and modeled reward seeking as a function of both stimulation strength and opportunity cost. The principal effect of cocaine was a two-fourfold increase in willingness to pay for the electrical reward, an effect consistent with increased gain or decreased subjective cost. This finding challenges the long-standing view that cocaine increases the sensitivity of brain reward circuitry. We discuss the implications of the results and the analytic approach for theories of how dopaminergic neurons and other diffuse modulatory brain systems contribute to reward pursuit, and we explore the implications of the conceptual framework for the study of natural rewards, drug reward, and mood.

  7. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  8. New improved counter - current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Ionita; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Retegan, Teodora; Kitamoto, Asashi

    2003-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involves an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and performed. A similar apparatus was not found from in other published papers as yet. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor was a cylinder made of stainless steel with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, working in a horizontal position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor consisting of nine cells (units), five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates, ensures the counter-current running of the two phases.The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is coupled by an intermediary connection to a electric motor of high rotation speed. The conceptual layout of the advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is presented. The newly designed extractor has been tested at 500-2800 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase =1 to examine the mechanical behavior and the hydrodynamics of the two phases in countercurrent. The results showed that the performances have been generally good and the design requirements were fulfilled. The newly designed counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor appears to be a promising way to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  9. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  11. Supramolecular assembly/reassembly processes: molecular motors and dynamers operating at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Among the many significant advances within the field of supramolecular chemistry over the past decades, the development of the so-called "dynamers" features a direct relevance to materials science. Defined as "combinatorial dynamic polymers", dynamers are constitutional dynamic systems and materials resulting from the application of the principles of supramolecular chemistry to polymer science. Like supramolecular materials in general, dynamers are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures, capable of modifying their constitution by exchanging, recombining, incorporating components. They may exhibit a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive materials. In this review we focus on the design of responsive switchable monolayers, i.e. monolayers capable to undergo significant changes in their physical or chemical properties as a result of external stimuli. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies provide direct evidence with a sub-nanometre resolution, on the formation and dynamic response of these self-assembled systems featuring controlled geometries and properties.

  12. Preparation of one-dimensional nickel nanowires by self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dapeng; Sun Dongbai; Yu Hongying; Qiu Zhigang; Meng Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembly nickel nanowires were prepared by soft template method in ethylene glycol solutions. The structure and micro-morphology of the products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results showed that the products were pure nickel powders with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. A growth model was presented to explain the growth mechanism. The effects of pH value, surfactant, reaction temperature and reaction time on the synthesis of nickel nanowires were discussed. When pH > 11.5, the reaction temperature was between 80 deg. C and 90 deg. C, and the concentration of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was higher than 7.0 x 10 -3 , zigzag nickel nanowires with slenderness ratio about 20 could be synthesized

  13. Near-chip compliant layer for reducing perimeter stress during assembly process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Yao, Yuan

    2018-03-20

    A heat source (single semiconductor chip or group of closely spaced semiconductor chips of similar height) is provided on a first side of a substrate, which substrate has on said first side a support member comprising a compressible material. A heat removal component, oriented at an angle to said heat source, is brought into proximity of said heat source such that said heat removal component contacts said support member prior to contacting said heat source. Said heat removal component is assembled to said heat source such that said support member at least partially absorbs global inequality of force that would otherwise be applied to said heat source, absent said support member comprising said compressible material.

  14. Process and remote device for unscrewing and extracting an assembly screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarrigue, F.

    1990-01-01

    The device comprises a C-shaped frame, with two parallel arms and a joining section fixed at one end of a long support, an extraction screw engaged in a hole through one arm and having one end made of a centre punch directed towards the inside of the frame and a remote mean for screwed or unscrewed the extraction screw. A supporting and centering piece can also be fixed to the second branch of the frame. The screw is extracted by exerting a moment about the axis of the screw through the support and frame after tightening the extraction screw. This device can be used particularly for the unscrewing and the extraction of the screw of the springs of a nuclear fuel assembly [fr

  15. High Performance Platinum Group Metal Free Membrane Electrode Assemblies through Control of Interfacial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Capuano, Christopher [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hickner, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    The quantitative goal of this project was to produce a high-performance anion exchange membrane water electrolyzer (AEM-WE) completely free of platinum group metals (PGMs), which could operate for at least 500 hours with less than 50 microV/hour degradation, at 500 mA/cm2. To achieve this goal, work focused on the optimization of electrocatalyst conductivity, with dispersion and utilization in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) improved through refinement of deposition techniques. Critical factors were also explored with significant work undertaken by Northeastern University to further understand catalyst-membrane-ionomer interfaces and how they differ from liquid electrolyte. Water management and optimal cell operational parameters were established through the design, fabrication, and test of a new test station at Proton specific for AEM evaluation. Additionally, AEM material stability and robustness at high potentials and gas evolution conditions were advanced at Penn State.

  16. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Lalaurette, Elodie

    2009-08-01

    A two-stage dark-fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials into hydrogen gas at high yields and rates. Fermentation using Clostridium thermocellum produced 1.67 mol H2/mol-glucose at a rate of 0.25 L H2/L-d with a corn stover lignocellulose feed, and 1.64 mol H2/mol-glucose and 1.65 L H2/L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 ± 290 mL H2/g-COD was produced from a synthetic effluent with a wastewater inoculum (fermentation effluent inoculum; FEI) by electrohydrogensis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yields were increased to 980 ± 110 mL H2/g-COD with the synthetic effluent by combining in the inoculum samples from multiple microbial fuel cells (MFCs) each pre-acclimated to a single substrate (single substrate inocula; SSI). Hydrogen yields and production rates with SSI and the actual fermentation effluents were 980 ± 110 mL/g-COD and 1.11 ± 0.13 L/L-d (synthetic); 900 ± 140 mL/g-COD and 0.96 ± 0.16 L/L-d (cellobiose); and 750 ± 180 mL/g-COD and 1.00 ± 0.19 L/L-d (lignocellulose). A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.11 ± 0.13 L H2/L reactor/d was produced with synthetic effluent. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC using SSI were 270 ± 20% for the synthetic effluent, 230 ± 50% for lignocellulose effluent and 220 ± 30% for the cellobiose effluent. COD removals were ∼90% for the synthetic effluents, and 70-85% based on VFA removal (65% COD removal) with the cellobiose and lignocellulose effluent. The overall hydrogen yield was 9.95 mol-H2/mol-glucose for the cellobiose. These results show that pre-acclimation of MFCs to single substrates improves performance with a complex mixture of substrates, and that high hydrogen yields and gas production rates can be achieved using a two-stage fermentation and MEC

  17. Cotton fibers nano-TiO2 composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, J.H.; Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ► The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ► The loading amount of nano-TiO 2 was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ► UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ► The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO 2 nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid 13 C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO 2 coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO 2 was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

  18. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1993-04-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  19. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper will also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  20. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  1. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo

    2016-01-01

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  2. Development of a two-stage inspection process for the assessment of deteriorating infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, Emma; O'Connor, Alan; Breysse, Denys; Schoefs, Franck; Yotte, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Inspection-based maintenance strategies can provide an efficient tool for the management of ageing infrastructure subjected to deterioration. Many of these methods rely on quantitative data from inspections, rather than qualitative and subjective data. The focus of this paper is on the development of an inspection-based decision scheme, incorporating analysis on the effect of the cost and quality of NDT tools to assess the condition of infrastructure elements/networks during their lifetime. For the first time the two aspects of an inspection are considered, i.e. detection and sizing. Since each stage of an inspection is carried out for a distinct purpose, different parameters are used to represent each procedure and both have been incorporated into a maintenance management model. The separation of these procedures allows the interaction between the two inspection techniques to be studied. The inspection for detection process acts as a screening exercise to determine which defects require further inspection for sizing. A decision tool is developed that allows the owner/manager of the infrastructural element/network to choose the most cost-efficient maintenance management plan based on his/her specific requirements.

  3. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  4. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  5. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS registered . Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project ''APT P ACK'' (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging)

  6. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V.

    2007-05-01

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS®. Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project "APT_PACK" (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging).

  7. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  8. Tube in zirconium base alloy for nuclear fuel assembly and manufacturing process of such a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, J.P.; Senevat, J.; Charquet, D.

    1996-01-01

    This patent concerns the description and manufacturing guidelines of a zirconium alloy tube for fuel cladding or fuel assembly guiding. The alloy contains (in weight) 0.4 to 0.6% of tin, 0.5 to 0.8% of iron, 0.35 to 0.50% of vanadium and 0.1 to 0.18% of oxygen. The carbon and silicon tenors range from 100 to 180 ppm and from 80 to 120 ppm, respectively. The alloy contains only zirconium, plus inevitable impurities, and is completely recrystallized. Corrosion resistance tests were performed on tubes made of this alloy and compared to corrosion tests performed on zircaloy 4 tubes. These tests show a better corrosion resistance and a lower corrosion kinetics for the new alloy, even in presence of lithium and iodine, and a lower hydridation rate. The mechanical resistance of this alloy is slightly lower than the one of zircaloy 4 but becomes equivalent or slightly better after two irradiation cycles. The ductility remains always equal or better than for zircaloy 4. (J.S.)

  9. Achieving Accurate Automatic Sleep Staging on Manually Pre-processed EEG Data Through Synchronization Feature Extraction and Graph Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriskos, Panteleimon; Frantzidis, Christos A; Gkivogkli, Polyxeni T; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula

    2018-01-01

    Sleep staging, the process of assigning labels to epochs of sleep, depending on the stage of sleep they belong, is an arduous, time consuming and error prone process as the initial recordings are quite often polluted by noise from different sources. To properly analyze such data and extract clinical knowledge, noise components must be removed or alleviated. In this paper a pre-processing and subsequent sleep staging pipeline for the sleep analysis of electroencephalographic signals is described. Two novel methods of functional connectivity estimation (Synchronization Likelihood/SL and Relative Wavelet Entropy/RWE) are comparatively investigated for automatic sleep staging through manually pre-processed electroencephalographic recordings. A multi-step process that renders signals suitable for further analysis is initially described. Then, two methods that rely on extracting synchronization features from electroencephalographic recordings to achieve computerized sleep staging are proposed, based on bivariate features which provide a functional overview of the brain network, contrary to most proposed methods that rely on extracting univariate time and frequency features. Annotation of sleep epochs is achieved through the presented feature extraction methods by training classifiers, which are in turn able to accurately classify new epochs. Analysis of data from sleep experiments on a randomized, controlled bed-rest study, which was organized by the European Space Agency and was conducted in the "ENVIHAB" facility of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany attains high accuracy rates, over 90% based on ground truth that resulted from manual sleep staging by two experienced sleep experts. Therefore, it can be concluded that the above feature extraction methods are suitable for semi-automatic sleep staging.

  10. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  11. Non-destructive failure analysis and measurement for molded devices and complex assemblies with X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Liew, Seaw Jia; Jiang, Ting Ying; Xu, Jian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    In both automotive and healthcare sectors, reliable failure analysis and accurate measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies are important. Current methods of failure analysis and measurement require these molded parts to be cross-sectioned so that internal features or dimensions can be accessible. As a result, the parts are deemed unusable and additional failure introduced by sectioning may cause misinterpretation of the results. X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques provide a new nondestructive solution for failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies. These techniques simplify failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and assemblies, and improve the productivity of molding manufacturing significantly.

  12. Automatic Generation of Assembly Sequence for the Planning of Outfitting Processes in Shipbuilding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The most important characteristics of the outfitting processes in shipbuilding are: 1. The processes involve many interferences between yard and different subcontractors. In recent years, the use of outsourcing and subcontracting has become a widespread strategy of western shipyards. There exists

  13. Solution-processed assembly of ultrathin transparent conductive cellulose nanopaper embedding AgNWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yaoquan; Shi, Liyi; Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui

    2015-08-01

    Natural biomass based cellulose nanopaper is becoming a promising transparent substrate to supersede traditional petroleum based polymer films in realizing future flexible paper-electronics. Here, ultrathin, highly transparent, outstanding conductive hybrid nanopaper with excellent mechanical flexibility was synthesized by the assembly of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) using a pressured extrusion paper-making technique. The hybrid nanopaper with a thickness of 4.5 μm has a good combination of transparent conductive performance and mechanical stability using bamboo/hemp NFC and AgNWs cross-linked by hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). The heterogeneous fibrous structure of BNFC/HNFC/AgNWs endows a uniform distribution and an enhanced forward light scattering, resulting in high electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. The hybrid nanopaper with an optimal weight ratio of BNFC/HNFC to AgNWs shows outstanding synergistic properties with a transmittance of 86.41% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 1.90 ohm sq-1, equal to the electronic conductivity, which is about 500 S cm-1. The BNFC/HNFC/AgNW hybrid nanopaper maintains a stable electrical conductivity after the peeling test and bending at 135° for 1000 cycles, indicating remarkably strong adhesion and mechanical flexibility. Of importance here is that the high-performance and low-cost hybrid nanopaper shows promising potential for electronics application in solar cells, flexible displays and other high-technology products.Natural biomass based cellulose nanopaper is becoming a promising transparent substrate to supersede traditional petroleum based polymer films in realizing future flexible paper-electronics. Here, ultrathin, highly transparent, outstanding conductive hybrid nanopaper with excellent mechanical flexibility was synthesized by the assembly of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) using a pressured extrusion paper-making technique. The

  14. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  15. Electron Processing at 50 eV of Terphenylthiol Self-Assembled Monolayers: Contributions of Primary and Secondary Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houplin, Justine; Dablemont, Céline; Sala, Leo; Lafosse, Anne; Amiaud, Lionel

    2015-12-22

    Aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can serve as platforms for development of supramolecular assemblies driven by surface templates. For many applications, electron processing is used to locally reinforce the layer. To achieve better control of the irradiation step, chemical transformations induced by electron impact at 50 eV of terphenylthiol SAMs are studied, with these SAMs serving as model aromatic SAMs. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of neutral fragment measurements are combined to investigate electron-induced chemical transformation of the layer. The decrease of the CH stretching HREELS signature is mainly attributed to dehydrogenation, without a noticeable hybridization change of the hydrogenated carbon centers. Its evolution as a function of the irradiation dose gives an estimate of the effective hydrogen content loss cross-section, σ = 2.7-4.7 × 10(-17) cm(2). Electron impact ionization is the major primary mechanism involved, with the impact electronic excitation contributing only marginally. Therefore, special attention is given to the contribution of the low-energy secondary electrons to the induced chemistry. The effective cross-section related to dissociative secondary electron attachment at 6 eV is estimated to be 1 order of magnitude smaller. The 1 eV electrons do not induce significant chemical modification for a 2.5 mC cm(-2) dose, excluding their contribution.

  16. Self-assembly of the yeast actomyosin contractile ring as an aggregation process: kinetics of formation and instability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojkic, Nikola; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2009-03-01

    Fission yeast cells assemble an equatorial contractile ring for cytokinesis, the last step of mitosis. The ring assembles from ˜ 65 membrane-bound ``nodes''' containing myosin motors and other proteins. Actin filaments that grow out from the nodes establish transient connections among the nodes and aid in pulling them together in a process that appears as pair-wise attraction (Vavylonis et al. Science 97:319, 2008). We used scaling arguments, coarse grained stability analysis of homogeneous states, and Monte Carlo simulations of simple models, to explore the conditions that yield fast and efficient ring formation, as opposed to formation of isolated clumps. We described our results as a function of: number of nodes, rate of establishing connections, range of node interaction, distance traveled per node interaction and broad band width, w. Uniform cortical 2d distributions of nodes are stable over short times due to randomness of connections among nodes, but become unstable over long times due to fluctuations in the initial node distribution. Successful condensation of nodes into a ring requires sufficiently small w such that lateral contraction occurs faster then clump formation.

  17. Tritium experiments on components for fusion fuel processing at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.; Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Under a collaborative agreement between US and Japan, two tritium processing components, a palladium diffuser and a ceramic electrolysis cell have been tested with tritium for application to a Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for plasma exhaust processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The fundamental characteristics, compatibility with tritium, impurities effects with tritium, and long-term behavior of the components, were studied over a three year period. Based on these studies, an integrated process loop, ''JAERI Fuel Cleanup System'' equipped with above components was installed at the TSTA for full scale demonstration of the plasma exhaust reprocessing

  18. Process for resuperheating steam coming from the high-pressure stage of a turbine and device to bring into use this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for resuperheating steam coming from the high pressure stage of a turbine fed by a steam generator, itself heated from a base thermal source. The resuperheating is done by desuperheating at least a part of the steam coming from the generator, taken from the inflow of the turbine high pressure stage, the desuperheated steam being condensed, partially at least, in a condensation exchanger forming a preliminary resuperheater [fr

  19. Operating Characteristics of a Continuous Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Pil-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristics and the operating range of gas velocity was investigated for a two-stage bubbling fluidized-bed (0.1 m-i.d., 1.2 m-high) that had continuous solids feed and discharge. Solids were fed in to the upper fluidized-bed and overflowed into the bed section of the lower fluidized-bed through a standpipe (0.025 m-i.d.). The standpipe was simply a dense solids bed with no mechanical or non-mechanical valves. The solids overflowed the lower bed for discharge. The fluidizing gas was fed to the lower fluidized-bed and the exit gas was also used to fluidize the upper bed. Air was used as fluidizing gas and mixture of coarse (<1000 μm in diameter and 3090 kg/m 3 in apparent density) and fine (<100 μm in diameter and 4400 kg/m 3 in apparent density) particles were used as bed materials. The proportion of fine particles was employed as the experimental variable. The gas velocity of the lower fluidized-bed was defined as collapse velocity in the condition that the standpipe was emptied by upflow gas bypassing from the lower fluidized-bed. It could be used as the maximum operating velocity of the present process. The collapse velocity decreased after an initial increase as the proportion of fine particles increased. The maximum took place at the proportion of fine particles 30%. The trend of the collapse velocity was similar with that of standpipe pressure drop. The collapse velocity was expressed as a function of bulk density of particles and voidage of static bed. It increased with an increase of bulk density, however, decreased with an increase of voidage of static bed

  20. Advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Mihaila, V.; Peteu, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involve an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and built. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is a stainless steel cylinder with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, having horizontal position as working position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor is shown. It consists of nine cells (units): five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates which ensures the counter-current running of the two phases. The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is connected to an electric motor of high rotation speed. The extractor has been tested at 1000-3000 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase = 1. The mechanical and hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases in counter-current are described. The results showed that the performances have been generally good. The new facility appears to be a promising idea to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  1. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance and microbial community structures of hydrolysis acidification process treating azo and anthraquinone dyes in different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xie, Xuehui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Qingyun; Yu, Chengzhi; Zheng, Xiulin; Xu, Leyi; Li, Ran; Liu, Jianshe

    2017-01-01

    In this study, performance of hydrolysis acidification process treating simulated dyeing wastewater containing azo and anthraquinone dyes in different stages was investigated. The decolorization ratio, COD Cr removal ratio, BOD 5 /COD Cr value, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production were almost better in stage 1 than that in stage 2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biodegradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) in hydrolysis acidification process. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses revealed that significant difference of microbial community structures existed in stage 1 and 2. The dominant species in stage 1 was related to Bacteroidetes group, while the dominant species in stage 2 was related to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes groups. From the results, it could be speculated that different dyes' structures might have significant influence on the existence and function of different bacterial species, which might supply information for bacteria screening and acclimation in the treatment of actual dyeing wastewater.

  3. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single......:12 to 1:14, 6.7%, more energy could be obtained. Microbial community analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were different in the hydrogen reactors (Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum-like species) and methane reactors (Clostridium thermocellum-like species). The changes...

  5. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  6. Construction accidents: identification of the main associations between causes, mechanisms and stages of the construction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Trillo-Cabello, Antonio F; Rubio-Romero, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    To identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the construction sector in order to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions depending on the stage of construction. Official accident investigation reports are analysed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes in each of the different possible groups of causes. Significant associations of the types of causes with accident mechanisms and construction stages have been identified. Significant differences have been found in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident and the construction stage ongoing. These results should be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes for each accident mechanism and construction stage.

  7. Synthesis of Large Molecules in Cometary Ice Analogs: Physical Properties Related to Self-Assembly Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Deamer, David W.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; Allamandola, Louis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    strikingly similar to those produced by extracts of the Murchison meteorite. Together, these results suggest a link between organic material photochemically synthesized on the cold grains in dense, interstellar molecular clouds and compounds that may have contributed to the organic inventory of the primitive Earth. For example, the amphiphilic properties of such compounds permit self-assembly into the membranous boundary structures that required for the first forms of cellular life.

  8. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  9. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  10. Evolution of a strategy for preparing bioactive small molecules by sequential multicomponent assembly processes, cyclizations, and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, James J; Granger, Brett A; Martin, Stephen F

    2014-10-21

    A strategy for generating diverse collections of small molecules has been developed that features a multicomponent assembly process (MCAP) to efficiently construct a variety of intermediates possessing an aryl aminomethyl subunit. These key compounds are then transformed via selective ring-forming reactions into heterocyclic scaffolds, each of which possesses suitable functional handles for further derivatizations and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions. The modular nature of this approach enables the facile construction of libraries of polycyclic compounds bearing a broad range of substituents and substitution patterns for biological evaluation. Screening of several compound libraries thus produced has revealed a large subset of compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of medicinally-relevant activities.

  11. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant

  12. Insight of Transmembrane Processes of Self-Assembling Nanotubes Based on a Cyclic Peptide Using Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yankai; Yan, Tingxuan; Xu, Xia

    2017-09-28

    Transmembrane self-assembling cyclic peptide (SCP) nanotubes are promising candidates for delivering specific molecules through cell membranes. The detailed mechanisms behind the transmembrane processes, as well as stabilization factors of transmembrane structures, are difficult to elucidate through experiments. In this study, the effects of peptide sequence and oligomeric state on the transmembrane capabilities of SCP nanotubes and the perturbation of embedded SCP nanotubes acting on the membrane were investigated based on coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that hydrophilic SCP oligomers result in the elevation of the energy barrier while the oligomerization of hydrophobic SCPs causes the reduction of the energy barrier, further leading to membrane insertion. Once SCP nanotubes are embedded, membrane properties such as density, thickness, ordering state and lateral mobility are adjusted along the radial direction. This study provides insight into the transmembrane strategy of SCP nanotubes and sheds light on designing novel transport systems.

  13. In situ and real-time small-angle neutron scattering studies of living anionic polymerization process and polymerization-induced self-assembly of block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Miyamoto, N.; Koizumi, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied a simultaneous living anionic polymerization process of isoprene and deuterated styrene in deuterated benzene with sec-buthyl lithium as an initiator into polyisoprene-block-poly(styrene-d 8 ) and the polymerization-induced self-assembling process. This polymerization-induced self-assembling process was directly observed by an in situ and real-time small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. The time-resolved SANS studies enabled us to explore a time evolution of hierarchical structures induced by a time evolution of the primary structure (linear sequential connection of two monomers)

  14. Parallel processing for nonlinear dynamics simulations of structures including rotating bladed-disk assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shang-Hsien

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to develop, test, and implement coarse-grained, parallel-processing strategies for nonlinear dynamic simulations of practical structural problems. There are contributions to four main areas: finite element modeling and analysis of rotational dynamics, numerical algorithms for parallel nonlinear solutions, automatic partitioning techniques to effect load-balancing among processors, and an integrated parallel analysis system.

  15. Characterization of 16S rRNA Processing with Pre-30S Subunit Assembly Intermediates from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian A; Gupta, Neha; Denny, Kevin; Culver, Gloria M

    2018-06-08

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a major component of ribosomes and is fundamental to the process of translation. In bacteria, 16S rRNA is a component of the small ribosomal subunit and plays a critical role in mRNA decoding. rRNA maturation entails the removal of intervening spacer sequences contained within the pre-rRNA transcript by nucleolytic enzymes. Enzymatic activities involved in maturation of the 5'-end of 16S rRNA have been identified, but those involved in 3'-end maturation of 16S rRNA are more enigmatic. Here, we investigate molecular details of 16S rRNA maturation using purified in vivo-formed small subunit (SSU) assembly intermediates (pre-SSUs) from wild-type Escherichia coli that contain precursor 16S rRNA (17S rRNA). Upon incubation of pre-SSUs with E. coli S100 cell extracts or purified enzymes implicated in 16S rRNA processing, the 17S rRNA is processed into additional intermediates and mature 16S rRNA. These results illustrate that exonucleases RNase R, RNase II, PNPase, and RNase PH can process the 3'-end of pre-SSUs in vitro. However, the endonuclease YbeY did not exhibit nucleolytic activity with pre-SSUs under these conditions. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that multiple pathways facilitate 16S rRNA maturation with pre-SSUs in vitro, with the dominant pathways entailing complete processing of the 5'-end of 17S rRNA prior to 3'-end maturation or partial processing of the 5'-end with concomitant processing of the 3'-end. These results reveal the multifaceted nature of SSU biogenesis and suggest that E. coli may be able to escape inactivation of any one enzyme by using an existing complementary pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Framework for the Development of Automatic DFA Method to Minimize the Number of Components and Assembly Reorientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhlani; Samadhi, T. M. A. Ari; Ma’ruf, Anas; Setiasyah Toha, Isa

    2018-03-01

    Assembly is a part of manufacturing processes that must be considered at the product design stage. Design for Assembly (DFA) is a method to evaluate product design in order to make it simpler, easier and quicker to assemble, so that assembly cost is reduced. This article discusses a framework for developing a computer-based DFA method. The method is expected to aid product designer to extract data, evaluate assembly process, and provide recommendation for the product design improvement. These three things are desirable to be performed without interactive process or user intervention, so product design evaluation process could be done automatically. Input for the proposed framework is a 3D solid engineering drawing. Product design evaluation is performed by: minimizing the number of components; generating assembly sequence alternatives; selecting the best assembly sequence based on the minimum number of assembly reorientations; and providing suggestion for design improvement.

  17. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  18. Process and device for controling lateral wall of fuel assembly storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inspection procedure involves moving a detection system along the length of the wall of a cell in the fuel storage rack immersed in water. The detection system has at least one probe for determining the wall thickness. The probe signal is received above the pond and compared against a reference signal. This process allows to verify the presence of neutron absorbing material in the side walls of the cell [fr

  19. Tracking cognitive processing stages with MEG : A spatio-temporal model of associative recognition in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Ghuman, Avniel S; Anderson, John R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing stages underlying associative recognition using MEG. Over the last four decades, a model of associative recognition has been developed in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was first exclusively based on behavior, but was later

  20. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  1. Characterization of fibrillation process of α-synuclein at the initial stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Mitsuru; Kojima, Masaki; Kihara, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kouki; Kamiyoshihara, Tomoaki; Ueda, Kenji; Shimotakahara, Sakurako

    2008-01-01

    α-Synuclein is the major component of the filamentous Lewy bodies and Lewy-related neurites, neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Although numerous studies on α-synuclein fibrillation have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of aggregation and fibrillation at the initial stage are still unclear. In the present study, structural properties and propensities to form fibrils of α-synuclein at the initial stage were investigated using 2D 1 H- 15 N NMR spectroscopy, electron microscope, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Observation of the 2D 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectra indicated significant attenuation of many cross peak intensities in the regions of KTKEGV-type repeats and the non-Aβ component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NAC), suggesting that these regions contributed fibril formation. Oligomerization comprising heptamer was successfully monitored at the initial stage using the time-dependent SAXS measurements

  2. Evaluation of a new welding process used to joint grids thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: DPNcarlosschettino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (DPN/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Producao Nuclear; Silva, Marcio Adriano Coelho da, E-mail: marcio.adriano@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (GEACON/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Analise Tecnica do Combustivel

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate structurally the new welding process used to join the grids to the guide thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new process is an increase of the number of welding points, 4 to 8, between grids and guide thimbles, giving more stiffness to the whole structure. A finite element model of the fuel assembly design was generated in the program ANSYS 12.1. To build this model were used elements BEAM-4 and several spring type elements. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements, simulating the boundaries conditions found during small deflection acting on the entire structure. The method used to development this analysis was the simulation of a finite element model performing a fuel assembly with four weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles, and then the results of it was compare with another model, with eight weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles. The behavior of the structure under the acting displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the new grid to guide thimble welding process improve the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. The performed analysis provided INB to get more information of extreme importance, for the continuity of the development of new process of manufacturing and to improve the design of the current fuel assemblies used in reactors. (author)

  3. Evaluation of a new welding process used to joint grids thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos; Silva, Marcio Adriano Coelho da

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate structurally the new welding process used to join the grids to the guide thimbles properly in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new process is an increase of the number of welding points, 4 to 8, between grids and guide thimbles, giving more stiffness to the whole structure. A finite element model of the fuel assembly design was generated in the program ANSYS 12.1. To build this model were used elements BEAM-4 and several spring type elements. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements, simulating the boundaries conditions found during small deflection acting on the entire structure. The method used to development this analysis was the simulation of a finite element model performing a fuel assembly with four weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles, and then the results of it was compare with another model, with eight weld points on each grid cell containing the guide thimbles. The behavior of the structure under the acting displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the new grid to guide thimble welding process improve the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. The performed analysis provided INB to get more information of extreme importance, for the continuity of the development of new process of manufacturing and to improve the design of the current fuel assemblies used in reactors. (author)

  4. Identification of acoustic emission sources in early stages of fatigue process of Inconel 713LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkova, Denisa; Vlasic, Frantisek; Mazal, Pavel [Brno Univ. of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-11-01

    Inconel 713LC is low carbon variant of Inconel 713 nickel-based cast alloy. The biggest advantage of these alloys is their ability to resist a wide variety of operating conditions (corrosive environment, high temperature, high stresses). Main area of applications is aircraft, energetic, chemical and petrochemical industry etc. In many applications, components undergo cyclic stresses. This study presents results of acoustic emission response of Inconel 713LC during high-cycle fatigue testing. In comparison with low-cycle fatigue, stage of initiation of micro cracks is in high-cycle region much more significant and can take several tens of percent of whole fatigue life. This work is focused on comparison of selected parameters of acoustic emission signal in pre-initiation and initiation stage of fatigue crack creation. Signal data were specified by linear location technique, hence only signal from shallow notch was analysed. Acoustic emission signal was correlated with frequency of load reversals which is a function of specimen's rigidity (modulus). Acoustic emission hits with higher stress were detected in pre-initiation stage whereas initiation stage hits exhibited low stress. Acoustic emission signal measurements are supplemented by fractographic and metallographic analysis.

  5. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment for Determining Carbon Footprint of Catalytic Converter Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mustfizul Karim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the pursuit of embracing the circular economy, having upward trend in vehicle sales and environmental concern, sustainability has become an imperative part of the global automotive manufacturing strategies. One of the tactics to achieve this sustainable goal is to conserve and enhance the resource base by salvaging the embedded values from end-of-life product and for which, the remanufacturing can be considered as one of the most prominent epitome. Even though many of the auto parts like engine, transmissions, starters, alternators and etc. have been assessed for remanufacturability since last few decades, being a major component of a car body the Catalytic Converter (CC still remains unfocused in literature. However, to examine the remanufacturability of CC, a comprehensive study for assessing its economic, social, and environmental impact is inevitable. Therefore, with an underlying aim of designing the remanufacturable CC, in this endeavour an attempt has made to evaluate the environmental impact of its welding operations by means of energy consumption through gate-to-gate life cycle assessment. Real life data are collected from a Local Malaysian CC manufacturer. The obtained results show that the welding section has a carbon footprint of 0.203 kgCO2e/unit with major emission coming from the plasma arc welding. In addition to that, it is also observed that the value of carbon footprint is not only sensitive to the emission factor and processing time, but also it is responsive to the nature of the processing operations. Certainly, this observation will motivate to change the product design from the prospect of remanufacturing.

  7. Modulated growth, stability and interactions of liquid-like coacervate assemblies of elastin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiznieks, L.D.; Cirulis, J.T.; Reinhardt, D.P.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Pomes, R.; Keeley, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Elastin self-assembles from monomers into polymer networks that display elasticity and resilience. The first major step in assembly is a liquid-liquid phase separation known as coacervation. This process represents a continuum of stages from initial phase separation to early growth of droplets by

  8. An RF power amplifier with inter-metal-shuffled capacitor for inter-stage matching in a digital CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiaoxing; Zhang Xing; Ge Binjie; Wang Xin' an, E-mail: wangxa@szpku.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Integrated Microsystems, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2009-06-01

    One challenge of the implementation of fully-integrated RF power amplifiers into a deep submicro digital CMOS process is that no capacitor is available, especially no high density capacitor. To address this problem, a two-stage class-AB power amplifier with inter-stage matching realized by an inter-metal coupling capacitor is designed in a 180-nm digital CMOS process. This paper compares three structures of inter-metal coupling capacitors with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor regarding their capacitor density. Detailed simulations are carried out for the leakage, the voltage dependency, the temperature dependency, and the quality factor between an inter-metal shuffled (IMS) capacitor and an MIM capacitor. Finally, an IMS capacitor is chosen to perform the inter-stage matching. The techniques are validated via the design and implement of a two-stage class-AB RF power amplifier for an UHF RFID application. The PA occupies 370 x 200 mum{sup 2} without pads in the 180-nm digital CMOS process and outputs 21.1 dBm with 40% drain efficiency and 28.1 dB power gain at 915 MHz from a single 3.3 V power supply.

  9. An RF power amplifier with inter-metal-shuffled capacitor for inter-stage matching in a digital CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiaoxing; Zhang Xing; Ge Binjie; Wang Xin'an

    2009-01-01

    One challenge of the implementation of fully-integrated RF power amplifiers into a deep submicro digital CMOS process is that no capacitor is available, especially no high density capacitor. To address this problem, a two-stage class-AB power amplifier with inter-stage matching realized by an inter-metal coupling capacitor is designed in a 180-nm digital CMOS process. This paper compares three structures of inter-metal coupling capacitors with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor regarding their capacitor density. Detailed simulations are carried out for the leakage, the voltage dependency, the temperature dependency, and the quality factor between an inter-metal shuffled (IMS) capacitor and an MIM capacitor. Finally, an IMS capacitor is chosen to perform the inter-stage matching. The techniques are validated via the design and implement of a two-stage class-AB RF power amplifier for an UHF RFID application. The PA occupies 370 x 200 μm 2 without pads in the 180-nm digital CMOS process and outputs 21.1 dBm with 40% drain efficiency and 28.1 dB power gain at 915 MHz from a single 3.3 V power supply.

  10. Supraspliceosomes at Defined Functional States Portray the Pre-Assembled Nature of the Pre-mRNA Processing Machine in the Cell Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Kotzer-Nevo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When isolated from mammalian cell nuclei, all nuclear pre-mRNAs are packaged in multi-subunit large ribonucleoprotein complexes—supraspliceosomes—composed of four native spliceosomes interconnected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes contain all five spliceosomal U snRNPs, together with other splicing factors, and are functional in splicing. Supraspliceosomes studied thus far represent the steady-state population of nuclear pre-mRNAs that were isolated at different stages of the splicing reaction. To analyze specific splicing complexes, here, we affinity purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 7 (PP7-tagged splicing complexes assembled in vivo on Adenovirus Major Late (AdML transcripts at specific functional stages, and characterized them using molecular techniques including mass spectrometry. First, we show that these affinity purified splicing complexes assembled on PP7-tagged AdML mRNA or on PP7-tagged AdML pre-mRNA are assembled in supraspliceosomes. Second, similar to the general population of supraspliceosomes, these defined supraspliceosomes populations are assembled with all five U snRNPs at all splicing stages. This study shows that dynamic changes in base-pairing interactions of U snRNA:U snRNA and U snRNA:pre-mRNA that occur in vivo during the splicing reaction do not require changes in U snRNP composition of the supraspliceosome. Furthermore, there is no need to reassemble a native spliceosome for the splicing of each intron, and rearrangements of the interactions will suffice.

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  13. Methodology on Investigating the Influences of Automated Material Handling System in Automotive Assembly Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Seha; Azni Jafar, Fairul; Jamaludin, Zamberi

    2016-02-01

    A case study was selected as a method to collect data in actual industry situation. The study aimed to assess the influences of automated material handling system in automotive industry by proposing a new design of integration system through simulation, and analyze the significant effect and influence of the system. The method approach tool will be CAD Software (Delmia & Quest). The process of preliminary data gathering in phase 1 will collect all data related from actual industry situation. It is expected to produce a guideline and limitation in designing a new integration system later. In phase 2, an idea or concept of design will be done by using 10 principles of design consideration for manufacturing. A full factorial design will be used as design of experiment in order to analyze the performance measured of the integration system with the current system in case study. From the result of the experiment, an ANOVA analysis will be done to study the performance measured. Thus, it is expected that influences can be seen from the improvement made in the system.

  14. Integrating Growth Stage Deficit Irrigation into a Process Based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose R.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Elliott, Joshua; Ruane, Alex C.; Porter, Cheryl; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Current rates of agricultural water use are unsustainable in many regions, creating an urgent need to identify improved irrigation strategies for water limited areas. Crop models can be used to quantify plant water requirements, predict the impact of water shortages on yield, and calculate water productivity (WP) to link water availability and crop yields for economic analyses. Many simulations of crop growth and development, especially in regional and global assessments, rely on automatic irrigation algorithms to estimate irrigation dates and amounts. However, these algorithms are not well suited for water limited regions because they have simplistic irrigation rules, such as a single soil-moisture based threshold, and assume unlimited water. To address this constraint, a new modeling framework to simulate agricultural production in water limited areas was developed. The framework consists of a new automatic irrigation algorithm for the simulation of growth stage based deficit irrigation under limited seasonal water availability; and optimization of growth stage specific parameters. The new automatic irrigation algorithm was used to simulate maize and soybean in Gainesville, Florida, and first used to evaluate the sensitivity of maize and soybean simulations to irrigation at different growth stages and then to test the hypothesis that water productivity calculated using simplistic irrigation rules underestimates WP. In the first experiment, the effect of irrigating at specific growth stages on yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in maize and soybean was evaluated. In the reproductive stages, IWUE tended to be higher than in the vegetative stages (e.g. IWUE was 18% higher than the well watered treatment when irrigating only during R3 in soybean), and when rainfall events were less frequent. In the second experiment, water productivity (WP) was significantly greater with optimized irrigation schedules compared to non-optimized irrigation schedules in

  15. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Roberts, Luke F.; Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars

  16. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trenti, Michele [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars.

  17. Estimation of the resource buffers in the assembly process of a shearer machine in the CPPM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwiazda Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of scheduling systems allows significantly improving currently realized tasks. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM is one of the methods of project management basing on network planning. In this method is utilized the concept of a critical chain derived from the Theory of Constraints. This method allows avoiding losses considered project time and resources. It results in quicker project implementation (20-30%, and in reducing the risk level considered with tasks realization. The projects are cheaper, and the risk of cost overruns is significantly reduced. Factors that distinguish CCPM method from traditional network planning methods are: the balance of resources and the introduction of buffers. Moreover in the CCPM method key elements are: times of tasks that are reduced from traditional estimates to realistic ones. Activities associated with the task start as late as possible in accordance with the ALAP principle (As Late As Possible. This work presents the process of managing the assembly of a shearer machine taking into account the process of safety buffers utilization and the whole project optimization. It is presented the estimation of buffers capacity to obtain the improvement of project realization task.

  18. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  19. Process analysis and mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2002-07-01

    The mechanism of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal was probed through detailed analysis of products of hydropyrolysis with different holding methods. The results showed that the holding method significantly affects the product distributions, thus making an apparent difference in hydrogen utilization efficiency. The holding temperature should be about 350-500{degree}C during which more free radicals are produced rapidly. Pore-riched structures are formed at the holding stage at 350{degree}C due to the evolution of large amount of volatiles, which is favorable to the subsequent hydrogenation reaction. The holding at a low temperature favors the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen-containing groups, leading to the formation of phenol and avoiding the formation of water at a high temperature. The cleavage of chemical bonds in the char is mainly dependent-on the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of holding stage is to change the distribution and components of products via stabilizing the free radicals and hydrogenating the heavier products.

  20. Enhanced nitrogen removal from electroplating tail wastewater through two-staged anoxic-oxic (A/O) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmei; Zhu, Chunyan; Huang, Bin; Yan, Qun; Zhang, Guangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Consisted of anaerobic (ANA), anoxic-1 (AN1), aerobic-1 (AE1), anoxic-2 (AN2), aerobic-2 (AE2) reactors and sediment tank, the two-staged A/O process was applied for depth treatment of electroplating tail wastewater with high electrical conductivity and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen. It was found that the NH 4 + -N and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.11% and 83.00%, respectively. Besides, the short-term salinity shock of the control, AE1 and AE2 indicated that AE1 and AE2 have better resistance to high salinity when the concentration of NaCl ranged from 1 to 10g/L. Meanwhile, it was found through high-throughput sequencing that bacteria genus Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Thauera, which are capable of nitrogen removal, were enriched in the two-staged A/O process. Moreover, both salt-tolerant bacteria and halophili bacteria were also found in the combined process. Therefore, microbial community within the two-staged A/O process could be acclimated to high electrical conductivity, and adapted for electroplating tail wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions

  2. The method shaft projects integrator in the process of forming the teaching mode interdisciplinary performance at the initial stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Páez Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article is approached the practical viability of the method of projects for the contribution to the process of formation in the professional, pedagogic and interdisciplinary way of acting in the initial stage of the trainee teachers, which is inserted in the professional formation in the curricular and in the extracurricular field, so that the formation of the student be integral and inside the context.

  3. Modelling and Analysis of Daylight, Solar Heat Gains and Thermal Losses to Inform the Early Stage of the Architectural Process

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The EU building sector is a main contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, which need to be cut as part of the global response to anthropogenic climate change. This cut can be realised through improvements in building energy performance, such as optimisation of facade design. The early stage of the architectural process has been identified as the ideal time to implement such sustainable design choices. There is need for simple guidelines and tools to provide quantitative data to support these ...

  4. 19 CFR 10.26 - Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary country in whole of U.S. components or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., material, ingredient, or article remained under the control of the customs authority of the non-beneficiary... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles assembled or processed in a beneficiary... textile components cut to shape in the United States. 10.26 Section 10.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND...

  5. Failure to synthesize the CD3-gamma chain. Consequences for T cell antigen receptor assembly, processing, and expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C

    1992-01-01

    surface expression of the Ti/CD3 complex. Transfection of the wild-type CD3-gamma gene into JGN reconstituted expression of functional Ti/CD3 complexes, and analysis of T cell lines producing different amounts of CD3-gamma indicated that CD3-gamma and CD3-delta competed for the binding to CD3-epsilon.......The TCR consists of the Ti alpha beta heterodimer and the associated CD3 chains, CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta 2 or zeta eta. The structural relationships between the subunits of the Ti/CD3 complex are still not fully understood. To explore the roles of the individual CD3 chains for the assembly......, intracellular processing, and expression of the TCR, mutants of the T cell line Jurkat were isolated. One variant, JGN, was found to produce all the Ti/CD3 components with the exception of CD3-gamma. The results indicate that: 1) the tetrameric form (Ti alpha beta-CD3 delta epsilon) of the Ti/CD3 complex...

  6. Solution-Processable transparent conducting electrodes via the self-assembly of silver nanowires for organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba Camic, B; Jeong Shin, Hee; Hasan Aslan, M; Basarir, Fevzihan; Choi, Hyosung

    2018-02-15

    Solution-processed transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were fabricated via the self-assembly deposition of silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Glass substrates modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTES) were coated with Ag NWs for various deposition times, leading to three different Ag NWs samples (APTES-Ag NWs (PVP), MPTES-Ag NWs (PVP), and APTES-Ag NWs (COOH)). Controlling the deposition time produced Ag NWs monolayer thin films with different optical transmittance and sheet resistance. Post-annealing treatment improved their electrical conductivity. The Ag NWs films were successfully characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and four-point probe. Three Ag NWs films exhibited low sheet resistance of 4-19Ω/sq and high optical transmittance of 65-81% (at 550nm), which are comparable to those of commercial ITO electrode. We fabricated an organic photovoltaic device by using Ag NWs as the anode instead of ITO electrode, and optimized device with Ag NWs exhibited power conversion efficiency of 1.72%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-assembled 3D zinc borate florets via surfactant assisted synthesis under moderate pressures: Process temperature dependent morphology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj S.; Deshpande, Tushar; Bari, Mahendra L.; Patil, Ujwal D.; Narkhede, Jitendra S.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we prepared zinc borates using aqueous phase synthesis under moderate pressures (MP) (ethanol as a co-solvent in the presence of a quaternary ammonium surfactant-Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). 3D morphologies of self-assembled zinc borate (Zn(H2O)B2O4 · 0.12 H2O, Zn3B6O12 · 3.5H2O, ZnB2O4) resembling flower-like structures were obtained by varying temperature under moderate pressure conditions. Synthesized zinc borates’ florets were morphologically characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The x-ray diffractions of borate species reveal rhombohydra, monoclinic and cubic phases of zinc borate crystals as a function of process temperature. Additionally, thermal analysis confirms excellent dehydration/degradation behavior for the zinc borate crystals synthesized at moderate pressures and elevated temperatures and could be utilized as potential flame retardant fillers in the polymer matrices.

  8. Uncertainties in Early Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A case study on biorefinery design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan eSin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early stage design is a challenging task. This is especially important in biorefinery research, where available information and experiences with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs (a Bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data is available and (b the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data is not available. Four well-known models for early stage cost estimation are reviewed an analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision making under uncertainties. One of the results using an order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with economic risks of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a due to uncertainties in cost estimations, respectively.

  9. Uncertainties in Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A Case Study on Biorefinery Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist V.; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which is especially relevant in biorefinery research where information about new technologies and experience with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs: (a) bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data are available; and, (b) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision-making under uncertainties. One of the results using order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with the lowest economic risks (among the alternatives considered) of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a, respectively.

  10. Uncertainties in Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A Case Study on Biorefinery Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist V.; Sin, Gürkan, E-mail: gsi@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-06

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which is especially relevant in biorefinery research where information about new technologies and experience with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs: (a) bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data are available; and, (b) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision-making under uncertainties. One of the results using order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with the lowest economic risks (among the alternatives considered) of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a, respectively.

  11. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Díaz, P D; Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Barragán, J; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Perales, J A

    2015-04-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in two cultivation stages: (1) in batch with real wastewater; (2) maintaining the stationary phase with different conditions of CO2, light and salinity according to a factorial design in order to improve the lipid content. The presence of the three factors increased lipid content from 35.8% to 49% at the end of the second stage; CO2 presence presented the highest direct effect increasing lipid content followed by light presence and salt presence. The ω-3 fatty acids content increased with CO2 and light presence acting in isolation, nevertheless, when both factors acted together the interaction effect was negative. The ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid content of the oil from S. obliquus slightly exceeded the 1% maximum to be used as biodiesel source (EU normative). Therefore, it is suggested the blend with other oils or the selective extraction of the ω-3 fatty acids from S. obliquus oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconsidering the scribbling stage of drawing: a new perspective on toddlers' representational processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Quaglia, Rocco; Iotti, Nathalie O.

    2015-01-01

    Although the scribbling stage of drawing has been historically regarded as meaningless and transitional, a sort of prelude to the “actual” drawing phase of childhood, recent studies have begun to re-evaluate this important moment of a child's development and find meaning in what was once considered mere motor activity and nothing more. The present study analyzes scribbling in all its subphases and discovers a clear intention behind young children's gestures. From expressing the dynamic qualities of an object and the child's relationship with it, to gradually reducing itself to a simple contour of a content no more “alive” on the paper, but only in the child's own imagination, we trace the evolution of the line as a tool that toddlers use to communicate feelings and intentions to the world that surrounds them. We will provide a selected number of graphical examples that are representative of our theory. These drawings (13 in total) were extracted from a much wider sample derived from our studies on children's graphical-pictorial abilities, conducted on children aged 0–3 years in various Italian nurseries. Our results appear to indicate that scribbling evolves through a series of stages, and that early graphical activity in children is sparked and maintained by their relationship with their caregivers and the desire to communicate with them. PMID:26347690

  13. An automated image processing method for classification of diabetic retinopathy stages from conjunctival microvasculature images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; O'Neill, William; Penn, Richard; Blair, Norman P.; Chau, Felix; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2017-03-01

    The conjunctiva is a densely vascularized tissue of the eye that provides an opportunity for imaging of human microcirculation. In the current study, automated fine structure analysis of conjunctival microvasculature images was performed to discriminate stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The study population consisted of one group of nondiabetic control subjects (NC) and 3 groups of diabetic subjects, with no clinical DR (NDR), non-proliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR). Ordinary least square regression and Fisher linear discriminant analyses were performed to automatically discriminate images between group pairs of subjects. Human observers who were masked to the grouping of subjects performed image discrimination between group pairs. Over 80% and 70% of images of subjects with clinical and non-clinical DR were correctly discriminated by the automated method, respectively. The discrimination rates of the automated method were higher than human observers. The fine structure analysis of conjunctival microvasculature images provided discrimination of DR stages and can be potentially useful for DR screening and monitoring.

  14. Photocatalytic evaluation of self-assembled porous network structure of ferric oxide film fabricated by dry deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yunchan; Kim, Hyungsub; Lee, Geon-Yong; Pawar, Rajendra C.; Lee, Jai-Sung; Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    Ferric oxide powder in the alpha phase (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was deposited on an aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrate by a nanoparticle deposition system using the dry deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) images confirmed that the phase of the deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not change. The deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was characterized in terms of its microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A porous network microstructure formed when small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAF) were deposited. The deposition and formation mechanism of the microstructure were investigated using SEM and three-dimensional (3D) profile analysis. First, a dense coating layer formed when the film was thinner than the particle size. After that, as the film thickness increased to over 5 μm, the porous network structure formed by excavating the surface of the coating layer as it was bombarded by particles. Rhodamine B (RhB) was degraded after 6 h of exposure to the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer with SAF, which has good photocatalytic activity and a high porous network structure. The kinetic rate constants of the SAF and large agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LAF) were calculated to be 0.197(h{sup −1}) and 0.128(h{sup −1}), respectively, based on the absorbance results. Using linear sweep voltammetry, we confirmed that the photoelectric effect occurred in the coating layer by measuring the resulting current under illuminated and dark conditions. - Graphical abstract: Self-assembled porous photocatalytic film fabricated by dry deposition method for water purification. - Highlights: • Different sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerates were used to form porous network structure. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerate particles were deposited using solvent-free process. • Self-assembled porous network microstructure formed better with small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fabricated porous network structure showed its potential to be used

  15. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  16. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  17. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  18. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  19. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  20. Synergistic Effect of Binary Mixed-Pluronic Systems on Temperature Dependent Self-assembly Process and Drug Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fen Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Pluronic micelles from very hydrophobic and very hydrophilic copolymers were selected to scrutinize the synergistic effect on the self-assembly process as well as the solubilization capacity of ibuprofen. The tendency of mixing behavior between parent copolymers was systematically examined from two perspectives: different block chain lengths at same hydrophilicity (L92 + F108, +F98, +F88, and +F68, as well as various hydrophobicities at the same PPO moiety (L92 + F88, +F87, and +P84. Temperature-dependent micellization in these binary systems was clearly inspected by the combined use of high sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (HSDSC and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Changes in heat capacity and size of aggregates at different temperatures during the whole micellization process were simultaneously observed and examined. While distinction of block chain length between parent copolymers increases, the monodispersity of the binary Pluronic systems decreases. However, parent copolymers with distinct PPO moieties do not affirmatively lead to non-cooperative binding, such as the L92 + P84 system. The addition of ibuprofen promotes micellization as well as stabilizes aggregates in the solution. The partial replacement of the hydrophilic Pluronic by a more hydrophobic Pluronic L92 would increase the total hydrophobicity of mixed Pluronics used in the system to substantially enhance the solubility of ibuprofen. The solubility of ibuprofen in the 0.5 wt % L92 + 0.368 wt % P84 system is as high as 4.29 mg/mL, which is 1.4 times more than that of the 0.868 wt % P84 system and 147 times more than that in pure water at 37 °C.

  1. Development of a membrane electrode assembly production process for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by sieve printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Energy is a resource that presents historical trend of growth in demand. Projections indicate that future energy needs will require a massive use of hydrogen as fuel. The use of systems based on the use of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has features that allow its application for stationary applications, automotive and portable power generation. The use of hydrogen as fuel for PEMFC has the advantage low pollutants' emission, when compared to fossil fuels. For the reactions in a PEMFC is necessary to build membrane electrode assembly (MEA). And the production of MEAs and its materials are relevant to the final cost of kW of power generated by systems of fuel cell. This represent currently a technological and financial barriers to large-scale application of this technology. In this work a process of MEAs fabrication were developed that showed high reproducibility, rapidity and low cost by sieve printing. The process of sieve printing and the ink composition as a precursor to the catalyst layer were developed, which allow the preparation of electrodes for MEAs fabrication with the implementation of the exact catalyst loading, 0.6 milligrams of platinum per square centimeters (mgPt.cm -2 ) suitable for cathodes and 0.4 mgPt.cm -2 for anode in only one application step per electrode. The ink was developed, produced, characterized and used with similar characteristics to ink of sieve printing build for other applications. The MEAs produced had a performance of up to 712 mA.cm -2 by 600 mV to 25 cm 2 MEA area. The MEA cost production for MEAs of 247.86 cm 2 , that can generate 1 kilowatt of energy was estimated to US$ 7,744.14 including cost of equipment, materials and labor. (author)

  2. Crispy banana obtained by the combination of a high temperature and short time drying stage and a drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hofsetz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the high temperature and short time (HTST drying stage was combined with an air drying process to produce crispness in bananas. The fruit was dehydrated in an air drier for five minutes at 70°C and then immediately set at a HTST stage (130, 140, 150°C and 9, 12, 15 minutes and then at 70°C until water activity (a w was around 0.300. Crispness was evaluated as a function of water activity, using sensory and texture analyses. Drying kinetics was evaluated using the empirical Lewis model. Crispy banana was obtained at 140°C-12min and 150°C-15min in the HTST stage, with a w = 0.345 and a w = 0.363, respectively. Analysis of the k parameter (Lewis model suggests that the initial moisture content of the samples effects this parameter, overcoming the HTST effect. Results showed a relationship between sensory crispness, instrumental texture and the HTST stage.

  3. Assembly of the PLT device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, R.

    1975-11-01

    The assembly of the PLT device began in June 1974 with a preassembly of the mechanical structure at a remote site. The preassembly sequence incorporated final fabrication procedures with an initial staging operation. This successful staging/fabrication procedure proved to be an invaluable asset when the final assembly was started in August 1974. The assembly continued with the initial reassembly of the previously tested structural components at the final machine site. Construction was interrupted at several points to allow for toroidal field coil, vacuum vessel, and poloidal coil installation. Two phases of toroidal field coil power tests were included in the assembly sequence prior to, and just after the vacuum vessel insertion

  4. Monitoring of trace chloride ions at different stages of the gas production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. El Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty gas and liquid samples at different stages of Obaiyed gas plant in Egypt were selected and subjected for determining chloride ion and hydrocarbon compositions. The trace levels of chloride in the water extracted from natural gas, condensate, Benfield and glycol samples were achieved using ion chromatograph (IC, electrical, conductivity and potentiometric methods, respectively. The hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed and evaluated using capillary gas chromatography. The chloride ions in natural gas and condensate are a function of water content and their concentration mainly depends on the separation efficiency. Variability in natural gas and condensate compositions seasonally is not an uncommon occurrence. Our aim is monitoring of chloride ion to select and optimize the conditions of sweetening and dehydration regenerators in order to follow and prevent their gradient in gas plant.

  5. Experimental validation of a method for performance monitoring of the impurity processing stage in the TEP system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornschein, B.; Corneli, D.; Glugla, M.; Guenther, K.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) system within the Tritium Plant of ITER needs to be designed such that tritium is recovered from all exhaust gases produced during different modes and operational conditions of the vacuum vessel. The reference process for the TEP system of ITER is called CAPER and comprises three different, consecutive steps to recover hydrogen isotopes at highest purity for direct transfer to the cryogenic Isotope Separation system. The second step ('impurity processing', IP) is carried out in a closed loop involving heterogeneously catalyzed cracking or conversion reactions to liberate tritium from tritiated hydrocarbons or tritiated water combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a Pd/Ag permeator. This combination shifts chemical equilibria towards dehydrogenation and, therefore, enables detritiation factors higher than 1000 in the IP stage. Such a high decontamination factor requires the optimal performance of the permeator, which on the other hand is operated under conditions which provoke coking of the permeator membrane by hydrocarbon cracking. For this reason the permeator in the impurity processing loop needs to be repeatedly regenerated in order to sustain decontamination factors higher/in the order of 1000. At the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) a method to measure the actual performance of the second stage of the CAPER process has been developed. This method has been successfully tested with the CAPER facility and appears feasible for the TEP system of ITER

  6. Emergence of the neural network underlying phonological processing from the prereading to the emergent reading stage: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Raney, Talia; Perdue, Meaghan V; Zuk, Jennifer; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Becker, Bryce L C; Raschle, Nora M; Gaab, Nadine

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that phonological skills are critical for successful reading acquisition. However, how the brain network supporting phonological processing evolves and how it supports the initial course of learning to read is largely unknown. Here, for the first time, we characterized the emergence of the phonological network in 28 children over three stages (prereading, beginning reading, and emergent reading) longitudinally. Across these three time points, decreases in neural activation in the left inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) were observed during an audiovisual phonological processing task, suggesting a specialization process in response to reading instruction/experience. Furthermore, using the LIPC as the seed, a functional network consisting of the left inferior frontal, left posterior occipitotemporal, and right angular gyri was identified. The connection strength in this network co-developed with the growth of phonological skills. Moreover, children with above-average gains in phonological processing showed a significant developmental increase in connection strength in this network longitudinally, while children with below-average gains in phonological processing exhibited the opposite trajectory. Finally, the connection strength between the LIPC and the left posterior occipitotemporal cortex at the prereading level significantly predicted reading performance at the emergent reading stage. Our findings highlight the importance of the early emerging phonological network for reading development, providing direct evidence for the Interactive Specialization Theory and neurodevelopmental models of reading. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Consequences of Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cachexia on Muscle Metabolic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, Andrew J; Maddocks, Matthew; Stephens, Francis B; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; England, Ruth; Wilcock, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The loss of muscle is common in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of this group. The exact mechanisms behind the muscle loss are unclear. To investigate this, 4 patients with stage IV NSCLC who met the clinical definitions for sarcopenia and cachexia were recruited, along with 4 age-matched healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis, and the key components associated with inflammation and the control of muscle protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism were assessed. Compared with the healthy volunteers, significant increases in mRNA levels for interleukin-6 and NF-κB signaling and lower intramyocellular lipid content in slow-twitch fibers were observed in NSCLC patients. Although a significant decrease in phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling protein 4E-BP1 (Ser 65 ) was observed, along with a trend toward reduced p70 S6K (Thr 389 ) phosphorylation (P = .06), no difference was found between groups for the mRNA levels of MAFbx (muscle atrophy F box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger protein 1), chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, or protein levels of multiple proteasome subunits. Moreover, despite decreases in intramyocellular lipid content, no robust changes in mRNA levels for key proteins involved in insulin signaling, glycolysis, oxidative metabolism, or fat metabolism were observed. These findings suggest that examining the contribution of suppressed mTOR signaling in the loss of muscle mass in late-stage NSCLC patients is warranted and reinforces our need to understand the potential contribution of impaired fat metabolism and muscle protein synthesis in the etiology of cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  9. Improvement in Visual Search with Practice : Mapping Learning-Related Changes in Neurocognitive Stages of Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Kait; Appelbaum, L. Gregory; van den Berg, Berry; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    Practice can improve performance on visual search tasks; the neural mechanisms underlying such improvements, however, are not clear. Response time typically shortens with practice, but which components of the stimulus-response processing chain facilitate this behavioral change? Improved search

  10. Computer simulations in the high school: students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, J.; Michal Lomask, S.; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-08-01

    Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.

  11. In-Pile Section(IPS) Inner Assembly Manufacturing Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Shim, Bong Sik; Lee, Chung Yong

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this report is to present the manufacturing, assembling and testing process of IPS Inner Assembly used in Fuel Test Loop(FTL) pre-operation test. The majority of the manufactured components are test fuels, inner assembly structures and subsidiary tools that is needed during the assembly process. In addition, Mock-up test for the welding and brazing is included at this stage. Lower structure, such as test fuels, fuel carrier legs are assembled and following structures, such as fuel carrier stem in the middle structure, top flange in the top structure are assembled together each other. To Verify the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary(RCPB) function in IPS Inner Assembly helium leak test and hydraulic test is performed with its acceptance criteria. According to the ASME III code Authorized Nuclear Inspector(ANI) is required during the hydraulic test. As-built measurement and insulation resistance test are performed to the structures and instrumentations after the test process. All requirements are satisfied and the IPS Inner Assembly was loaded in HANARO IR-1 hole in September 25, 2009

  12. Transcriptomic analysis reveals metabolic switches and surface remodeling as key processes for stage transition in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Berná

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available American trypanosomiasis is a chronic and endemic disease which affects millions of people. Trypanosoma cruzi, its causative agent, has a life cycle that involves complex morphological and functional transitions, as well as a variety of environmental conditions. This requires a tight regulation of gene expression, which is achieved mainly by post-transcriptional regulation. In this work we conducted an RNAseq analysis of the three major life cycle stages of T. cruzi: amastigotes, epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. This analysis allowed us to delineate specific transcriptomic profiling for each stage, and also to identify those biological processes of major relevance in each state. Stage specific expression profiling evidenced the plasticity of T. cruzi to adapt quickly to different conditions, with particular focus on membrane remodeling and metabolic shifts along the life cycle. Epimastigotes, which replicate in the gut of insect vectors, showed higher expression of genes related to energy metabolism, mainly Krebs cycle, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation related genes, and anabolism related genes associated to nucleotide and steroid biosynthesis; also, a general down-regulation of surface glycoprotein coding genes was seen at this stage. Trypomastigotes, living extracellularly in the bloodstream of mammals, express a plethora of surface proteins and signaling genes involved in invasion and evasion of immune response. Amastigotes mostly express membrane transporters and genes involved in regulation of cell cycle, and also express a specific subset of surface glycoprotein coding genes. In addition, these results allowed us to improve the annotation of the Dm28c genome, identifying new ORFs and set the stage for construction of networks of co-expression, which can give clues about coded proteins of unknown functions.

  13. Workflow for Criticality Assessment Applied in Biopharmaceutical Process Validation Stage 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zahel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of critical process parameters that impact product quality is a central task during regulatory requested process validation. Commonly, this is done via design of experiments and identification of parameters significantly impacting product quality (rejection of the null hypothesis that the effect equals 0. However, parameters which show a large uncertainty and might result in an undesirable product quality limit critical to the product, may be missed. This might occur during the evaluation of experiments since residual/un-modelled variance in the experiments is larger than expected a priori. Estimation of such a risk is the task of the presented novel retrospective power analysis permutation test. This is evaluated using a data set for two unit operations established during characterization of a biopharmaceutical process in industry. The results show that, for one unit operation, the observed variance in the experiments is much larger than expected a priori, resulting in low power levels for all non-significant parameters. Moreover, we present a workflow of how to mitigate the risk associated with overlooked parameter effects. This enables a statistically sound identification of critical process parameters. The developed workflow will substantially support industry in delivering constant product quality, reduce process variance and increase patient safety.

  14. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-08

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinatorial Models for Assembly and Decomposition of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the most popular combinatorial models that are used for the synthesis of design solutions at the stage of the assembly process flow preparation. It shows that while assembling the product the relations of parts can be represented as a structure of preferences, which is formed on the basis of objective design restrictions put in at the stage of the product design. This structure is a binary preference relation pre-order. Its symmetrical part is equivalence and describes the entry of parts into the assembly unit. The asymmetric part is a partial order. It specifies part- ordering time in in the course of the assembly process. The structure of preferences is a minimal description of the restrictions and constraints in the assembly process. It can serve as a source for generating multiple assembly sequences of a product and its components, which are allowed by design. This multiplicity increases the likelihood of rational choice under uncertainty, unpredictable changes in the properties of technological or industrial systems.Incomplete dominance relation gives grounds for further examination and better understanding of the project situation. Operation field of the study is limited to a set of disparate elements of the partial order. Different strategies for processing the disparate elements may be offered, e.g. selection of the most informative pairs, comparison of which foremost linearizes the original partial order.

  16. Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados

    2017-08-03

    The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties.

  17. Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    operation and rejection of disturbances. Three novel control strategies were developed, evaluated, and benchmarked against each other: a feedforward control (control structure 1 – CS#1), a rule-based feedback control (CS#2), and a feedforward–feedback controller, in which the feedback loop updates the set......The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable...... point of the feedforward loop (CS#3). The CS#1 gave the best performance against disturbances in the ammonium concentration, whereas the CS#2 provided the best performance against disturbances in the organic carbon concentration and dynamic influent conditions. The CS#3 rejected both disturbances...

  18. Production of acids and alcohols from syngas in a two-stage continuous fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A two-stage continuous system with two stirred tank reactors in series was utilized to perform syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans. The first bioreactor (bioreactor 1) was maintained at pH 6 to promote acidogenesis and the second one (bioreactor 2) at pH 5 to stimulate solventogenesis. Both reactors were operated in continuous mode by feeding syngas (CO:CO 2 :H 2 :N 2 ; 30:10:20:40; vol%) at a constant flow rate while supplying a nutrient medium at different flow rates of 8.1, 15, 22 and 30 ml/h. A cell recycling unit was added to bioreactor 2 in order to recycle the cells back to the reactor, maintaining the OD 600 around 1 in bioreactor 2 throughout the experimental run. When comparing the flow rates, the best results in terms of solvent production were obtained with a flow rate of 22 ml/h, reaching the highest average outlet concentration for alcohols (1.51 g/L) and the most favorable alcohol/acid ratio of 0.32. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ETHYLBENZENE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESS KINETICS IN A TWO-STAGE ADIABATIC CONTINUOUS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation in a two-stage adiabatic reactor with a catalytic bed functioning on continuous technology. The analysis of chemical reactions taking place parallel to the main reaction of styrene formation has been carried out on the basis of which a number of assumptions were made proceeding from which a kinetic scheme describing the mechanism of the chemical reactions during the dehydrogenation process was developed. A mathematical model of the dehydrogenation process, describing the dynamics of chemical reactions taking place in each of the two stages of the reactor block at a constant temperature is developed. The estimation of the rate constants of direct and reverse reactions of each component, formation and exhaustion of the reacted mixture was made. The dynamics of the starting material concentration variations (ethyl benzene batch was obtained as well as styrene formation dynamics and all byproducts of dehydrogenation (benzene, toluene, ethylene, carbon, hydrogen, ect.. The calculated the variations of the component composition of the reaction mixture during its passage through the first and second stages of the reactor showed that the proposed mathematical description adequately reproduces the kinetics of the process under investigation. This demonstrates the advantage of the developed model, as well as loyalty to the values found for the rate constants of reactions, which enable the use of models for calculating the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation under nonisothermal mode in order to determine the optimal temperature trajectory of the reactor operation. In the future, it will reduce energy and resource consumption, increase the volume of produced styrene and improve the economic indexes of the process.

  20. Genome Assembly of the Fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and Transcriptome Analysis during Early Stages of Infection on American Wildrice (Zizania palustris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Castell-Miller

    Full Text Available The fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes severe leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Despite the importance of C. miyabeanus as a disease-causing agent in wildrice, little is known about either the mechanisms of pathogenicity or host defense responses. To start bridging these gaps, the genome of C. miyabeanus strain TG12bL2 was shotgun sequenced using Illumina technology. The genome assembly consists of 31.79 Mbp in 2,378 scaffolds with an N50 = 74,921. It contains 11,000 predicted genes of which 94.5% were annotated. Approximately 10% of total gene number is expected to be secreted. The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs and some fungal effector homologs. Detoxification systems were represented by a variety of enzymes that could offer protection against plant defense compounds. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases (PKS present were common to other Cochliobolus species. Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta. A total of 10,674 genes were found to be expressed, some of which are known to be involved in pathogenicity or response to host defenses including hydrophobins, cutinase, cell wall degrading enzymes, enzymes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, PKS, detoxification systems, SSPs, and a known fungal effector. This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns and effectors, and in the identification of their corresponding wildrice defense mechanisms.

  1. Characterising Combustion in Diesel Engines : Using parameterised finite stage cylinder process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Characterising combustion of diesel engines is not only necessary when researching the instantaneous combustion phenomena but also when investigating the change of the combustion process under variable engine operating conditions. An effective way to achieve this goal is to parameterize the

  2. Evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in different parts of pistachio fruit and effects of processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dargahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nut as the most important agricultural export products is facing challenges trough production and conception. Toxigenic Aspergillus species are able to grow and produce dangerous mycotoxins on pistachio nut. Distribution of aflatoxin in different pistachio samples collected pre- (early splitting and healthy pistachios in orchards and post-harvest (steps in processing plants was evaluated. Aflatoxin B1 content of samples was quantified using ELISA.  Overall, high content of aflatoxin B1 in pre-harvest was observed in early splitting pistachios which were 5 times higher than healthy ones. The mean value of aflatoxin B1 content in early splitting and healthy pistachio was 10.2 and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. In processing plant, the content of aflatoxin B1 in stained, small, floater and open shell pistachios was 21, 4, 15 and 2 times higher than unstained, large, sinker and closed shell pistachios, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in samples taken from orchards and processing plants indicates pre-harvest contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, which may exacerbate by inadequate post-harvest conditions. Physical properties of contaminated pistachios may be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in pistachio bulks during or after processing. ELISA, as practical, sensitive and cheap method, may apply to determine the aflatoxin content of pistachios.

  3. Design for end of life : A design methodology for the early stages of an innovation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.R.; Dewulf, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    The first phases of the engineering design process, such as the problem definition, the information gathering and the idea generation phase, are commonly considered as important steps in product development, since the cost of a product is assumed to be largely determined within these design steps.

  4. Stages of functional processing and the bihemispheric recognition of Japanese Kana script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, K

    2000-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to examine the effects of functional steps on the benefits of interhemispheric integration. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate the validity of the Banich (1995a) model, where the benefits of interhemispheric processing increase as the task involves more functional steps. The 16 right-handed subjects were given two types of Hiragana-Katakana script matching tasks. One was the Name Identity (NI) task, and the other was the vowel matching (VM) task, which involved more functional steps compared to the NI task. The VM task required subjects to make a decision whether or not a pair of Katakana-Hiragana scripts had a common vowel. In both tasks, a pair of Kana scripts (Katakana-Hiragana scripts) was tachistoscopically presented in the unilateral visual fields or the bilateral visual fields, where each letter was presented in each visual field. A bilateral visual fields advantage (BFA) was found in both tasks, and the size of this did not differ between the tasks, suggesting that these findings did not support the Banich model. The purpose of Experiment 2 was to examine the effects of imbalanced processing load between the hemispheres on the benefits of interhemispheric integration. In order to manipulate the balance of processing load across the hemispheres, the revised vowel matching (r-VM) task was developed by amending the VM task. The r-VM task was the same as the VM task in Experiment 1, except that a script that has only vowel sound was presented as a counterpart of a pair of Kana scripts. The 24 right-handed subjects were given the r-VM and NI tasks. The results showed that although a BFA showed up in the NI task, it did not in the r-VM task. These results suggested that the balance of processing load between hemispheres would have an influence on the bilateral hemispheric processing.

  5. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin; Cizek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil; Kekule, Tomas; Kudrnova, Hana; Gemma, Ryota; Neubert, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  6. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  7. Treatment of process water containing heavy metals with a two-stage electrolysis procedure in a membrane electrolysis cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.; Krebs, P. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Analytik, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Foerster, H.J.; Thiele, W. [Eilenburger Elektrolyse- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Ziegelstrasse 2, D-04838 Eilenburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The capability of a two-stage electrochemical treatment for the regeneration of acidic heavy-metal containing process water was examined. The process water came from sediment bioleaching and was characterized by a wide spectrum of dissolved metals, a high sulfate content, and a pH of about 3. In the modular laboratory model cell used, the anode chamber and the cathode chamber were separated by a central chamber fitted with an ion exchanger membrane on either side. The experiments were carried out applying a platinum anode and a graphite cathode at a current density of 0.1 A/cm{sup 2}. The circulation flow of the process water in the batch process amounted to 35 L/h, the electrolysis duration was 5.5 h at maximum and the total electrolysis current was about 1 A. In the first stage, the acidic process water containing metals passed through the cathode chamber. In the second stage, the cathodically pretreated process water was electrolyzed anodically. In the cathode chamber the main load of dissolved Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb was eliminated. The sulfuric acid surplus of 3-4 g/L decreased to about 1 g/L, the pH rose from initially 3.0 to 4-5, but the desired pH of 9-10 was not achieved. Precipitation in the proximity to the cathode evidently takes place at a higher pH than farther away. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of amorphous MnO{sub 2} owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). The further depletion of the remaining heavy metals in the cathodically pretreated process water by subsequent anodic treatment was nearly exhaustive, more than 99 % of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were removed from the leachate. The high depletion of heavy metals might be due to both the sorption on MnO{sub 2} precipitates and/or basic ferrous sulfate formed anodically, and the migration of metal ions through the cation exchanger membrane via the middle chamber into the cathode chamber. In the anode chamber, the sulfuric acid content increased to 6-7 g/L and the

  8. Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Peter; van Rhijn, Gu; Seim, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design....... It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand....

  9. Disruption of visual awareness during the attentional blink is reflected by selective disruption of late-stage neural processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joseph A.; McMahon, Alex R.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    Any information represented in the brain holds the potential to influence behavior. It is therefore of broad interest to determine the extent and quality of neural processing of stimulus input that occurs with and without awareness. The attentional blink is a useful tool for dissociating neural and behavioral measures of perceptual visual processing across conditions of awareness. The extent of higher-order visual information beyond basic sensory signaling that is processed during the attentional blink remains controversial. To determine what neural processing at the level of visual-object identification occurs in the absence of awareness, electrophysiological responses to images of faces and houses were recorded both within and outside of the attentional blink period during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Electrophysiological results were sorted according to behavioral performance (correctly identified targets versus missed targets) within these blink and non-blink periods. An early index of face-specific processing (the N170, 140–220 ms post-stimulus) was observed regardless of whether the subject demonstrated awareness of the stimulus, whereas a later face-specific effect with the same topographic distribution (500–700 ms post-stimulus) was only seen for accurate behavioral discrimination of the stimulus content. The present findings suggest a multi-stage process of object-category processing, with only the later phase being associated with explicit visual awareness. PMID:23859644

  10. Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys, and G13, G14 (girls, and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players.

  11. Exploitation of algal-bacterial associations in a two-stage biohydrogen and biogas generation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Minárovics, János; Nagy, Katalin; Kondorosi, Éva; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-01-01

    The growing concern regarding the use of agricultural land for the production of biomass for food/feed or energy is dictating the search for alternative biomass sources. Photosynthetic microorganisms grown on marginal or deserted land present a promising alternative to the cultivation of energy plants and thereby may dampen the 'food or fuel' dispute. Microalgae offer diverse utilization routes. A two-stage energetic utilization, using a natural mixed population of algae (Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and mutualistic bacteria (primarily Rhizobium sp.), was tested for coupled biohydrogen and biogas production. The microalgal-bacterial biomass generated hydrogen without sulfur deprivation. Algal hydrogen production in the mixed population started earlier but lasted for a shorter period relative to the benchmark approach. The residual biomass after hydrogen production was used for biogas generation and was compared with the biogas production from maize silage. The gas evolved from the microbial biomass was enriched in methane, but the specific gas production was lower than that of maize silage. Sustainable biogas production from the microbial biomass proceeded without noticeable difficulties in continuously stirred fed-batch laboratory-size reactors for an extended period of time. Co-fermentation of the microbial biomass and maize silage improved the biogas production: The metagenomic results indicated that pronounced changes took place in the domain Bacteria, primarily due to the introduction of a considerable bacterial biomass into the system with the substrate; this effect was partially compensated in the case of co-fermentation. The bacteria living in syntrophy with the algae apparently persisted in the anaerobic reactor and predominated in the bacterial population. The Archaea community remained virtually unaffected by the changes in the substrate biomass composition. Through elimination of cost- and labor-demanding sulfur deprivation, sustainable

  12. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  13. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unified risk analysis of fatigue failure in ductile alloy components during all three stages of fatigue crack evolution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Ravindra

    2003-10-01

    Statistical fatigue life of a ductile alloy specimen is traditionally divided into three stages, namely, crack nucleation, small crack growth, and large crack growth. Crack nucleation and small crack growth show a wide variation and hence a big spread on cycles versus crack length graph. Relatively, large crack growth shows a lesser variation. Therefore, different models are fitted to the different stages of the fatigue evolution process, thus treating different stages as different phenomena. With these independent models, it is impossible to predict one phenomenon based on the information available about the other phenomenon. Experimentally, it is easier to carry out crack length measurements of large cracks compared to nucleating cracks and small cracks. Thus, it is easier to collect statistical data for large crack growth compared to the painstaking effort it would take to collect statistical data for crack nucleation and small crack growth. This article presents a fracture mechanics-based stochastic model of fatigue crack growth in ductile alloys that are commonly encountered in mechanical structures and machine components. The model has been validated by Ray (1998) for crack propagation by various statistical fatigue data. Based on the model, this article proposes a technique to predict statistical information of fatigue crack nucleation and small crack growth properties that uses the statistical properties of large crack growth under constant amplitude stress excitation. The statistical properties of large crack growth under constant amplitude stress excitation can be obtained via experiments.

  15. Lead and cadmium in mangrove root crab (Goniopsis cruentata), in natura and at food processing stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Renata G; Bah, Homegnon A F; Bandeira, Matheus J; Oliveira, Sérgio S P; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in mangrove root crab (Goniopsis cruentata) tissues (in natura) and in two culinary preparations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mangrove root crab samples from three sampling sites along the Jaguaripe River, Bahia, Brazil, where lead-glazed ceramics are produced, and from two commercial preparations were collected or purchased in March and April 2016. Cd levels in raw and processed samples were below the methods' limits of detection (0.016 mg kg -1 ), while Pb levels in the raw tissues were determined only in the gills (0.67 mg kg -1 ) and in the hepatopancreas (0.14 mg kg -1 ). However, Pb levels increased from 0.05 to 2.84 mg kg -1 in boiled/sorted muscle and in the traditional stew (with a 57-fold increase), respectively. Pb levels augmented significantly in the processed food due to migration of Pb used in the glazing of cooking ceramic utensils, surpassing the Brazilian and international safety limits.

  16. ERP evidence for own-age effects on late stages of processing sad faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster, Mara; Werheid, Katja

    2016-08-01

    Faces convey important information on interaction partners, such as their emotional state and age. Faces of the same age are, according to recent research, preferentially processed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the neural processes underlying this own-age effect are influenced by the emotional expression of the face, and to explore possible explanations such as the frequency or quality of contact to own-age versus other-age groups. Event-related potentials were recorded while 19 younger (18-30 years) and 19 older (64-86 years) observers watched younger and older sad and happy faces. Sad but not happy faces elicited higher late positive potential amplitudes for own-age than for other-age faces. This own-age effect was significant for older, but not for younger, observers, and correlated with the quality of contact with the own-age versus the other-age group. This pattern suggests that sad own-age faces are motivationally more relevant.

  17. Cue acquisition: A feature of Malawian midwives decision making process to support normality during the first stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzaza, Elizabeth; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Holloway, Aisha; Mander, Rosemary

    2018-03-01

    to explore Malawian midwives decision making when caring for women during the first stage of labour in the hospital setting. this focused ethnographic study examined the decision making process of 9 nurse-midwives with varying years of clinical experience in the real world setting of an urban and semi urban hospital from October 2013 to May 2014.This was done using 27 participant observations and 27 post-observation in-depth interviews over a period of six months. Qualitative data analysis software, NVivo 10, was used to assist with data management for the analysis. All data was analysed using the principle of theme and category formation. analysis revealed a six-stage process of decision making that include a baseline for labour, deciding to admit a woman to labour ward, ascertaining the normal physiological progress of labour, supporting the normal physiological progress of labour, embracing uncertainty: the midwives' construction of unusual labour as normal, dealing with uncertainty and deciding to intervene in unusual labour. This six-stage process of decision making is conceptualised as the 'role of cue acquisition', illustrating the ways in which midwives utilise their assessment of labouring women to reason and make decisions on how to care for them in labour. Cue acquisition involved the midwives piecing together segments of information they obtained from the women to formulate an understanding of the woman's birthing progress and inform the midwives decision making process. This understanding of cue acquisition by midwives is significant for supporting safe care in the labour setting. When there was uncertainty in a woman's progress of labour, midwives used deductive reasoning, for example, by cross-checking and analysing the information obtained during the span of labour. Supporting normal labour physiological processes was identified as an underlying principle that shaped the midwives clinical judgement and decision making when they cared for women in

  18. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  19. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  20. Temporary stages and motivational variables: Two complementary perspectives in the help-seeking process for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo

    2017-10-09

    Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  3. Process and device for stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium in a material suitable for isotope exchange of deuterium and tritium with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der.

    1983-01-01

    Water containing deuterium and/or tritium is first introduced into a carrier gas flow and reduced for the stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium. A hydrogen partial pressure of a maximum of 100 millibar is set in the carrier gas flow. The carrier gas flow is taken along the primary side of an exchange wall suitable for the permeation of hydrogen, and a further carrier gas flow flows on its secondary side, which contains water or hydrogen. Reaction products formed after isotope exchange of deuterium and/or tritium with hydrogen are removed by the secondary carrier gas flow. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  5. Structural insights into the light-driven auto-assembly process of the water-oxidizing Mn4CaO5-cluster in photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Bommer, Martin; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Hussein, Rana; Yano, Junko; Dau, Holger; Kern, Jan; Dobbek, Holger; Zouni, Athina

    2017-07-18

    In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven splitting of water at a protein-bound Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). In the photosynthetic organisms, the light-driven formation of the WOC from dissolved metal ions is a key process because it is essential in both initial activation and continuous repair of PSII. Structural information is required for understanding of this chaperone-free metal-cluster assembly. For the first time, we obtained a structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus without the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster. Surprisingly, cluster-removal leaves the positions of all coordinating amino acid residues and most nearby water molecules largely unaffected, resulting in a pre-organized ligand shell for kinetically competent and error-free photo-assembly of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster. First experiments initiating (i) partial disassembly and (ii) partial re-assembly after complete depletion of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster agree with a specific bi-manganese cluster, likely a di-µ-oxo bridged pair of Mn(III) ions, as an assembly intermediate.

  6. Effect of two-stage sintering process on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Seung I. [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ryu, Ho J. [DUPIC, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhong@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-06-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) tungsten heavy alloys have been considered as promising candidates for advanced kinetic energy penetrator due to their characteristic fracture mode compared to conventional tungsten heavy alloy. In order to obtain high relative density, the ODS tungsten heavy alloy needs to be sintered at higher temperature for longer time, however, induces growth of tungsten grains. Therefore, it is very difficult to obtain controlled microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloy having fine tungsten grains with full densification. In this study, two-stage sintering process, consisted of primary solid-state sintering and followed by secondary liquid phase sintering, was introduced for ODS tungsten heavy alloys. The mechanically alloyed 94W-4.56Ni-1.14Fe-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders are solid-state sintered at 1300-1450 deg. C for 1 h in hydrogen atmosphere, and followed by liquid phase sintering temperature at 1465-1485 deg. C for 0-60 min. The microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloys showed high relative density above 97%, with contiguous tungsten grains after primary solid-state sintering. The microstructure of solid-state sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy was changed into spherical tungsten grains embedded in W-Ni-Fe matrix during secondary liquid phase sintering. The two-stage sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy from mechanically alloyed powders showed finer microstructure and higher mechanical properties than conventional liquid phase sintered alloy. The mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloys are dependent on the microstructural parameters such as tungsten grain size, matrix volume fraction and tungsten/tungsten contiguity, which can be controlled through the two-stage sintering process.

  7. The role of the amygdala during emotional processing in Huntington's disease: from pre-manifest to late stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah L; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Begeti, Faye; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Lazar, Alpar S; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Hampshire, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Deficits in emotional processing can be detected in the pre-manifest stage of Huntington's disease and negative emotion recognition has been identified as a predictor of clinical diagnosis. The underlying neuropathological correlates of such deficits are typically established using correlative structural MRI studies. This approach does not take into consideration the impact of disruption to the complex interactions between multiple brain circuits on emotional processing. Therefore, exploration of the neural substrates of emotional processing in pre-manifest HD using fMRI connectivity analysis may be a useful way of evaluating the way brain regions interrelate in the period prior to diagnosis. We investigated the impact of predicted time to disease onset on brain activation when participants were exposed to pictures of faces with angry and neutral expressions, in 20 pre-manifest HD gene carriers and 23 healthy controls. On the basis of the results of this initial study went on to look at amygdala dependent cognitive performance in 79 Huntington's disease patients from a cross-section of disease stages (pre-manifest to late disease) and 26 healthy controls, using a validated theory of mind task: "the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test" which has been previously been shown to be amygdala dependent. Psychophysiological interaction analysis identified reduced connectivity between the left amygdala and right fusiform facial area in pre-manifest HD gene carriers compared to controls when viewing angry compared to neutral faces. Change in PPI connectivity scores correlated with predicted time to disease onset (r=0.45, pneural networks underlying social cognition and emotional processing can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis in Huntington's disease. Connectivity between the amygdala and other brain regions is impacted by the disease process in pre-manifest HD and may therefore be a useful way of identifying participants who are approaching a clinical diagnosis

  8. Large-scale self-assembled zirconium phosphate smectic layers via a simple spray-coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Minhao; Ishige, Ryohei; White, Kevin L.; Li, Peng; Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Gunther, Robert; Higuchi, Takeshi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Takahara, Atsushi; Nishimura, Riichi; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2014-04-01

    The large-scale assembly of asymmetric colloidal particles is used in creating high-performance fibres. A similar concept is extended to the manufacturing of thin films of self-assembled two-dimensional crystal-type materials with enhanced and tunable properties. Here we present a spray-coating method to manufacture thin, flexible and transparent epoxy films containing zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets self-assembled into a lamellar arrangement aligned parallel to the substrate. The self-assembled mesophase of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets is stabilized by epoxy pre-polymer and exhibits rheology favourable towards large-scale manufacturing. The thermally cured film forms a mechanically robust coating and shows excellent gas barrier properties at both low- and high humidity levels as a result of the highly aligned and overlapping arrangement of nanoplatelets. This work shows that the large-scale ordering of high aspect ratio nanoplatelets is easier to achieve than previously thought and may have implications in the technological applications for similar materials.

  9. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  10. Minimizing makespan in a two-stage flow shop with parallel batch-processing machines and re-entrant jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. D.; Liu, J. J.; Chen, Q. X.; Mao, N.

    2017-06-01

    Against a background of heat-treatment operations in mould manufacturing, a two-stage flow-shop scheduling problem is described for minimizing makespan with parallel batch-processing machines and re-entrant jobs. The weights and release dates of jobs are non-identical, but job processing times are equal. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed and tested with small-scale scenarios. Given that the problem is NP hard, three heuristic construction methods with polynomial complexity are proposed. The worst case of the new constructive heuristic is analysed in detail. A method for computing lower bounds is proposed to test heuristic performance. Heuristic efficiency is tested with sets of scenarios. Compared with the two improved heuristics, the performance of the new constructive heuristic is superior.

  11. Orientation selection process during the early stage of cubic dendrite growth: A phase-field crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.

  12. Nr 1115 National Assembly, Nr 640 Senate - Stage report on alternate techniques to hydraulic fracturing for the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Jean-Claude; Bataille, Christian

    2013-01-01

    While noticing that these resources are more supposed that demonstrated, this report first addresses the potential of non conventional hydrocarbon resources: definition, forms and assessment. It presents the status and locations of such resources in France, and discusses how uncertainties can be reduced as far as gas shale and hydrocarbons are concerned (exploration drillings seem necessary). The second part proposes an overview of the various extraction techniques: technologies without fracturing, and hydraulic fracturing (description, recall of previous uses in France, technique management). The third part presents alternate techniques as research topics to be explored: stimulation by another pressurized fluid than water, or by other physical processes (electric arc, thermal process). Proposals are stated. The document also comprised a report of meeting of the scientific committee, a list of heard persons, and a feasibility study

  13. Characterization and Analysis of Ultrathin CIGS Films and Solar Cells Deposited by 3-Stage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Rajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the large-scale utilization of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS solar cells for photovoltaic application, it is of interest not only to enhance the conversion efficiency but also to reduce the thickness of the CIGS absorber layer in order to reduce the cost and improve the solar cell manufacturing throughput. In situ and real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE has been used conjointly with ex situ characterizations to understand the properties of ultrathin CIGS films. This enables monitoring the growth process, analyzing the optical properties of the CIGS films during deposition, and extracting composition, film thickness, grain size, and surface roughness which can be corroborated with ex situ measurements. The fabricated devices were characterized using current voltage and quantum efficiency measurements and modeled using a 1-dimensional solar cell device simulator. An analysis of the diode parameters indicates that the efficiency of the thinnest cells was restricted not only by limited light absorption, as expected, but also by a low fill factor and open-circuit voltage, explained by an increased series resistance, reverse saturation current, and diode quality factor, associated with an increased trap density.

  14. Progression Analysis and Stage Discovery in Continuous Physiological Processes Using Image Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrucci Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an image computing-based method for quantitative analysis of continuous physiological processes that can be sensed by medical imaging and demonstrate its application to the analysis of morphological alterations of the bone structure, which correlate with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of the analysis is to quantitatively estimate OA progression in a fashion that can assist in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Ultimately, the texture analysis will be able to provide an alternative OA scoring method, which can potentially reflect the progression of the disease in a more direct fashion compared to the existing clinically utilized classification schemes based on radiology. This method can be useful not just for studying the nature of OA, but also for developing and testing the effect of drugs and treatments. While in this paper we demonstrate the application of the method to osteoarthritis, its generality makes it suitable for the analysis of other progressive clinical conditions that can be diagnosed and prognosed by using medical imaging.

  15. Corrosion of Alloy 690 process pot by sulfate containing high level radioactive waste at feed stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, P.; Soudamini, N.; Kaushik, C.P.; Jagannath; Mishra, R.K.; Kale, G.B.; Raj, K.; Das, D.; Sharma, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Alloy 690 process pot to sulfate containing high level radioactive waste leads to (a) depletion of Cr from the alloy, (b) intergranular attack and (c) building up of Cr 2 O 3 -Ni 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 mixed oxide surface layer containing Na and Cs sulfate precipitates. Time dependence of material loss from Alloy 690 is found to follow a linear relationship of the type Δw (material loss) = -7.05 + 0.05t. Corrosion rate calculated for 2400 h exposure is 3.66 mpy. Cr and Ni leach rates obtained for the same sample are 1.61 g m -2 d -1 and 2.52 g m -2 d -1 , respectively. Ni leach rates followed a linear time dependence relationship of the type dNL Ni /dt (leach rate) = -0.09 + 0.027t, whereas Cr leach rates obeyed a non-linear relationship of the type dNL Cr /dt (leach rate) = 0.241 + 0.027t - 1.33 x 10 -4 t 1/2

  16. Ares Upper Stage Processes to Implement Model Based Design - Going Paperless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design (CAD) has all but replaced the drafting board for design work. Increased productivity and accuracy should be natural outcomes of using CAD. Going from paper drawings only to paper drawings based on CAD models to CAD models and no drawings, or Model Based Design (MBD), is a natural progression in today?s world. There are many advantages to MBD over traditional design methods. To make the most of those advantages, standards should be in place and the proper foundation should be laid prior to transitioning to MBD. However, without a full understanding of the implications of MBD and the proper control of the data, the advantages are greatly diminished. Transitioning from a paper design world to an electronic design world means re-thinking how information gets controlled at its origin and distributed from one point to another. It means design methodology is critical, especially for large projects. It means preparation of standardized parts and processes as well as strong communication between all parties in order to maximize the benefits of MBD.

  17. Micellar casein concentrate production with a 3X, 3-stage, uniform transmembrane pressure ceramic membrane process at 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, E; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2010-12-01

    The production of serum protein (SP) and micellar casein from skim milk can be accomplished using microfiltration (MF). Potential commercial applications exist for both SP and micellar casein. Our research objective was to determine the total SP removal and SP removal for each stage, and the composition of retentates and permeates, for a 3×, continuous bleed-and-feed, 3-stage, uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) system with 0.1-μm ceramic membranes, when processing pasteurized skim milk at 50°C with 2 stages of water diafiltration. For each of 4 replicates, about 1,100 kg of skim milk was pasteurized (72°C, 16s) and processed at 3× through the UTP MF system. Retentate from stage 1 was cooled to <4°C and stored until the next processing day, when it was diluted with reverse osmosis water back to a 1× concentration and again processed through the MF system (stage 2) to a 3× concentration. The retentate from stage 2 was stored at <4°C, and, on the next processing day, was diluted with reverse osmosis water back to a 1× concentration, before running through the MF system at 3× for a total of 3 stages. The retentate and permeate from each stage were analyzed for total nitrogen, noncasein nitrogen, and nonprotein nitrogen using Kjeldahl methods; sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis was also performed on the retentates from each stage. Theoretically, a 3-stage, 3× MF process could remove 97% of the SP from skim milk, with a cumulative SP removal of 68 and 90% after the first and second stages, respectively. The cumulative SP removal using a 3-stage, 3× MF process with a UTP system with 0.01-μm ceramic membranes in this experiment was 64.8 ± 0.8, 87.8 ± 1.6, and 98.3 ± 2.3% for the first, second, and third stages, respectively, when calculated using the mass of SP removed in the permeate of each stage. Various methods of calculation of SP removal were evaluated. Given the analytical limitations in the various methods for measuring SP removal, calculation

  18. Frequency of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus and porcine enteric calicivirus at various stages of pork carcass processing in two pork processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-10-16

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process. A total of 1000 swabs were collected from 2 pork processing plants on 10 separate occasions over the span of a year. The samples were obtained from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 dressing stages (plant A: bleeding, dehairing, pasteurization, and evisceration; plant B: bleeding, skinning, evisceration, and washing) and from meat cuts. Numbers of genome copies (gc) of HEV, RV and PEC were determined by RT-qPCR. RV and PEC were detected in 100%, and 18% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant A and in 98%, and 36% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant B. After evisceration, RV and PEC were detected in 21% and 3% of samples, respectively, for plant A and in 1%, and 0% of samples, respectively for plant B. RV and PEC were detected on 1%, and 5% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant A and on 0%, and 0% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant B. HEV was not detected in any pork carcass or retail pork samples from plants A or B. The frequency of PEC and RV on pork is progressively reduced along the pork processing chain but the viruses were not completely eliminated. The findings suggest that consumers could be at risk when consuming undercooked meat contaminated with pathogenic enteric viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The structure of tubulin-binding cofactor A from Leishmania major infers a mode of association during the early stages of microtubule assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrack, Keri L.; Fyfe, Paul K.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-21

    The structure of a tubulin-binding cofactor from L. major is reported and compared with yeast, plant and human orthologues. Tubulin-binding cofactor A (TBCA) participates in microtubule formation, a key process in eukaryotic biology to create the cytoskeleton. There is little information on how TBCA might interact with β-tubulin en route to microtubule biogenesis. To address this, the protozoan Leishmania major was targeted as a model system. The crystal structure of TBCA and comparisons with three orthologous proteins are presented. The presence of conserved features infers that electrostatic interactions that are likely to involve the C-terminal tail of β-tubulin are key to association. This study provides a reagent and template to support further work in this area.

  20. Subjective processes surgical treatment in patients with stages of the disease hemorrhoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Otávio Salgado de Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemorrhoidal disease afflicts 4.4% of the world population, being the most common anal disorder. Surgical treatment is used for about 5–10% of cases where conservative procedures have not worked. Objective: To understand the trajectory and perception of individuals submitted to surgical treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. Methods: This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, which emphasized Cartography as the main method in the analysis of the results. Data were produced through individual interviews recorded and transcribed in full, from March to June 2015, in a Polyclinic and in a public hospital in the municipality of Montes Claros-MG. Twelve interviews were carried out. Results: The results evidenced the existence of processes of subjectivization that, through affectations, cause individuals to demonstrate a transcendent thought, exemplified by the sensation of a self-knowledge of the disease, including correlating it with possible hereditary, behavioral and alimentary causes. There was an escalation in the various levels of health care, standardized by the public system, sometimes revealing a molar thought, preventing the occurrence of an event, reducing power and failing to achieve a plan of immanence with the complete resolution of the problem. The hard lines, evidenced by a delay in obtaining a treatment thanks for fear and shame, favored self-medication, with a worsening of symptoms. Conclusion: It was noted that there were obstacles in all levels of the SUS that made it difficult to reach the surgical treatment, but all patients were considered with surgery and with the postoperative period. Resumo: Introdução: A doença hemorroidaria aflige 4,4% da população mundial, sendo o distúrbio anal mais comum. O tratamento cirúrgico é utilizado para cerca de 5 a 10% dos casos em que os procedimentos conservadores não surtiram efeito. Objetivo: Compreender a trajetória e percepção dos indiv

  1. RNA-Seq analysis and annotation of a draft blueberry genome assembly identifies candidate genes involved in fruit ripening, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and stage-specific alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Estrada, April D; Blakley, Ivory; Reid, Rob; Patel, Ketan; Meyer, Mason D; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Brown, Allan F; Lila, Mary Ann; Loraine, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds that can protect against disease. Identifying genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds could enable the breeding of berry varieties with enhanced health benefits. Toward this end, we annotated a previously sequenced draft blueberry genome assembly using RNA-Seq data from five stages of berry fruit development and ripening. Genome-guided assembly of RNA-Seq read alignments combined with output from ab initio gene finders produced around 60,000 gene models, of which more than half were similar to proteins from other species, typically the grape Vitis vinifera. Comparison of gene models to the PlantCyc database of metabolic pathway enzymes identified candidate genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, including bixin, an apocarotenoid with potential disease-fighting properties, and defense-related cyanogenic glycosides, which are toxic. Cyanogenic glycoside (CG) biosynthetic enzymes were highly expressed in green fruit, and a candidate CG detoxification enzyme was up-regulated during fruit ripening. Candidate genes for ethylene, anthocyanin, and 400 other biosynthetic pathways were also identified. Homology-based annotation using Blast2GO and InterPro assigned Gene Ontology terms to around 15,000 genes. RNA-Seq expression profiling showed that blueberry growth, maturation, and ripening involve dynamic gene expression changes, including coordinated up- and down-regulation of metabolic pathway enzymes and transcriptional regulators. Analysis of RNA-seq alignments identified developmentally regulated alternative splicing, promoter use, and 3' end formation. We report genome sequence, gene models, functional annotations, and RNA-Seq expression data that provide an important new resource enabling high throughput studies in blueberry.

  2. Combustion Dynamics and Stability Modeling of a Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Oxygen-Rich Staged Combustion Preburner and Thrust Chamber Assembly with Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.; Kenny, R. J.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Simpson, S. P.; Elmore, J. L.; Fischbach, S. R.; Giacomoni, C. B.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Combustion Stability Tool Development (CSTD) project, funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, began in March 2015 supporting a renewed interest in the development of a liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon, oxygen-rich combustion engine. The project encompasses the design, assembly, and hot-fire testing of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 40-klbf Integrated Test Rig (MITR). The test rig models a staged-combustion configuration by combining an oxygen-rich preburner (ORPB), to generate hot gas, with a thrust chamber assembly (TCA) using gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements. There are five separately designed interchangeable injectors in the TCA that each contain 19- or 27- injector elements. A companion paper in this JANNAF conference describes the design characteristics, rationale, and fabrication issues for all the injectors. The data acquired from a heavily instrumented rig encompasses several injectors, several operating points, and stability bomb tests. Another companion paper in this JANNAF conference describes this test program in detail. In this paper, dynamic data from the hot-fire testing is characterized and used to identify the responses in the ORPB and TCA. A brief review of damping metrics are discussed and applied as a measure of stability margin for damped acoustic modes. Chug and longitudinal combustion stability models and predictions are described which includes new dynamic models for compressible flow through an orifice and a modification to incorporate a third feed line for inclusion of the fuel-film coolant. Flow-acoustics finite element modeling is used to investigate the anticipated TCA acoustics, the effects of injector element length on stability margin, and the potential use of an ORPB orifice trip ring for improving longitudinal stability margin.

  3. A study of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation as a possible method for purifying sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Kouama, K; Matsuo, T

    1983-01-01

    Great attention has recently been given to the study of the processes of anaerobic fermentation, which may become alternatives to the existing methods for purifying waste waters which use aerobic microorganisms. A series of experimentswere conducted with the use of an artificially prepared liquid (fermented milk and starch) which imitates the waste to be purified, in order to explain the capabilities of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation (DAS) as a method for purifying waste waters. The industrial system of the process includes: a fermentation vat for acetic fermentation with recirculation of the sediment, a primary settler, a fermentation tank for methane fermentation and a secondary settler. The process was conducted at a loading speed (based on Carbon) from 0.15 to 0.4 kilograms per cubic meter per day at a temperature of 38C. The degree of conversion of the fermented organic substances into volatile organic acids was not a function of the loading speed and was 54 to 57 percent in the acetic fermentation tank, where 95 to 97 percent of the organic material was broken down with the production of methane and carbon dioxide.

  4. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Social-Emotional Correlates of Early Stage Social Information Processing Skills in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M; McKown, Clark; Johnson, Jason K; Allen, Adelaide W; Evans-Smith, Bernadette; Fogg, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Difficulty processing social information is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet the failure of children with ASD to process social information effectively is poorly understood. Using Crick and Dodge's model of social information processing (SIP), this study examined the relationship between social-emotional (SE) skills of pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition on the one hand, and early stage SIP skills of problem identification and goal generation on the other. The study included a sample of school-aged children with and without ASD. SIP was assessed using hypothetical social situations in the context of a semistructured scenario-based interview. Pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition were measured using direct assessments. Social thinking differences between children with and without ASD are largely differences of quantity (overall lower performance in ASD), not discrepancies in cognitive processing patterns. These data support theoretical models of the relationship between SE skills and SIP. Findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms giving rise to SIP deficits in ASD and may ultimately inform treatment development for children with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimization of soaking stage in technological process of wheat germination by hydroponic method when objective function is defined implicitly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugayets, N. A.; Tamova, M. Yu; Fedorova, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and a part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. One of the main stages, soaking, determining the time and quality of germinated wheat grain is studied, when grain receives the required amount of moisture and air oxygen for germination and subsequently accumulates enzymes. A solution algorithm for this problem is suggested implemented by means of software packages Statistica v.10 and MathCAD v.15. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic soaking of spring soft wheat varieties made it possible to determine optimal conditions of germination. The results of investigations show that the type of aquatic environment used for soaking has a great influence on the process of water absorption, especially the chemical composition of the germinated material. The use of the anolyte of electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water) intensifies the process from 5.83 to 4 hours for wheat variety «Altayskaya 105» and from 13 to 8.8 hours - for «Pobla Runo».

  7. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  8. Process development for automated solar-cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Gifford, M.

    1981-04-15

    The Automated Lamination Station is mechanically complete and is currently undergoing final wiring. The high current driver and isolator boards have been completed and installed, and the main interface board is under construction. The automated vacuum chamber has had a minor redesign to increase stiffness and improve the cover open/close mechanism. Design of the Final Assembly Station has been completed and construction is underway.

  9. Concentration-dependent multiple chirality transition in halogen-bond-driven 2D self-assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinrui; Li, Jinxing; Zha, Bao; Miao, Kai; Dong, Meiqiu; Wu, Juntian; Deng, Wenli

    2018-03-01

    The concentration-dependent self-assembly of iodine substituted thienophenanthrene derivative (5,10-DITD) is investigated at the 1-octanic acid/graphite interface using scanning tunneling microscopy. Three kinds of chiral arrangement and transition of 2D molecular assembly mainly driven by halogen bonding is clearly revealed. At high concentration the molecules self-assembled into a honeycomb-like chiral network. Except for the interchain van der Waals forces, this pattern is stabilized by intermolecular continuous Cdbnd O⋯I⋯S halogen bonds in each zigzag line. At moderate concentration, a chiral kite-like nanoarchitecture are observed, in which the Cdbnd O⋯I⋯S and I⋯Odbnd C halogen bonds, along with the molecule-solvent Cdbnd O⋯I⋯H halogen bonds are the dominated forces to determine the structural formation. At low concentration, the molecules form a chiral cyclic network resulting from the solvent coadsorption mainly by molecule-molecule Cdbnd O⋯I⋯S halogen bonds and molecule-solvent Cdbnd O⋯I⋯H halogen bonds. The density of molecular packing becomes lower with the decreasing of the solution concentration. The solution-concentration dependent self-assembly of thienophenanthrene derivative with iodine and ester chain moieties reveals that the type of intermolecular halogen bond and the number of the co-adsorbing 1-octanic acids by molecule-solvent Cdbnd O⋯I⋯H halogen bonds determine the formation and transformation of chirality. This research emphasizes the role of different types of halogen (I) bonds in the controllable supramolecular structures and provides an approach for the fabrication of chirality.

  10. Effect of double-tailed surfactant architecture on the conformation, self-assembly, and processing in polypeptide-surfactant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, Susanna; Hanski, Sirkku; Oakley, Richard J; Nummelin, Sami; Ruokolainen, Janne; Faul, Charl F J; Ikkala, Olli

    2009-10-12

    This work describes the solid-state conformational and structural properties of self-assembled polypeptide-surfactant complexes with double-tailed surfactants. Poly(L-lysine) was complexed with three dialkyl esters of phosphoric acid (i.e., phosphodiester surfactants), where the surfactant tail branching and length was varied to tune the supramolecular architecture in a facile way. After complexation with the branched surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in an aqueous solution, the polypeptide chains adopted an alpha-helical conformation. These rod-like helices self-assembled into cylindrical phases with the amorphous alkyl tails pointing outward. In complexes with dioctyl phosphate and didodecyl phosphate, which have two linear n-octyl or n-dodecyl tails, respectively, the polypeptide formed antiparallel beta-sheets separated by alkyl layers, resulting in well-ordered lamellar self-assemblies. By heating, it was possible to trigger a partial opening of the beta-sheets and disruption of the lamellar phase. After repeated heating/cooling, all of these complexes also showed a glass transition between 37 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvent treatment and plasticization by overstoichiometric amount of surfactant led to structure modification in poly(L-lysine)-dioctyl phosphate complexes, PLL(diC8)(x) (x = 1.0-3.0). Here, the alpha-helical PLL is surrounded by the surfactants and these bottle-brush-like chains self-assemble in a hexagonal cylindrical morphology. As x is increased, the materials are clearly plasticized and the degree of ordering is improved: The stiff alpha-helical backbones in a softened surfactant matrix give rise to thermotropic liquid-crystalline phases. The complexes were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and circular dichroism.

  11. Process for the manufacture of a shielding or container wall assembled from components in plants with radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The shielding or container wall is assembled from cast iron components. Liquid lead at a temperature of 500 0 C is introduced into the gaps between the cast iron components by means of a lead pump and a heated lance. The casting can be done at several positions of the container wall. To increase the flow paths of the lead, the walls with gaps are provided with a ground cork layer. (DG) [de

  12. Systems and methods for creation of conducting networks of magnetic particles through dynamic self-assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-01-25

    Self-assembly of magnetic microparticles in AC magnetic fields. Excitation of the system by an AC magnetic field provides a variety of patterns that can be controlled by adjusting the frequency and the amplitude of the field. At low particle densities the low-frequency magnetic excitation favors cluster phase formation, while high frequency excitation favors chains and netlike structures. For denser configurations, an abrupt transition to the network phase was obtained.

  13. Performance measurement in healthcare: part II--state of the science findings by stage of the performance measurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Simpson, Elizabeth; Casebeer, Ann L; Birdsell, Judith M; Hayden, Katharine A; Lewis, Steven

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes findings of a comprehensive, systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on performance measurement according to each stage of the performance measurement process--conceptualization, selection and development, data collection, and reporting and use. It also outlines implications for practice. Six hundred sixty-four articles about organizational performance measurement from the health and business literature were reviewed after systematic searches of the literature, multi-rater relevancy ratings, citation checks and expert author nominations. Key themes were extracted and summarized from the most highly rated papers for each performance measurement stage. Despite a virtually universal consensus on the potential benefits of performance measurement, little evidence currently exists to guide practice in healthcare. Issues in conceptualizing systems include strategic alignment and scope. There are debates on the criteria for selecting measures and on the types and quality of measures. Implementation of data collection and analysis systems is complex and costly, and challenges persist in reporting results, preventing unintended effects and putting findings for improvement into action. There is a need for further development and refinement of performance measures and measurement systems, with a particular focus on strategies to ensure that performance measurement leads to healthcare improvement.

  14. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteolytic Processing and Assembly of gag and gag-pol Proteins of TED, a Baculovirus-Associated Retrotransposon of the Gypsy Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Kathryn L.; Friesen, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    TED (transposable element D) is an env-containing member of the gypsy family of retrotransposons that represents a possible retrovirus of invertebrates. This lepidopteran (moth) retroelement contains gag and pol genes that encode proteins capable of forming viruslike particles (VLP) with reverse transcriptase. Since VLP are likely intermediates in TED transposition, we investigated the roles of gag and pol in TED capsid assembly and maturation. By using constructed baculovirus vectors and TED Gag-specific antiserum, we show that the principal translation product of gag (Pr55gag) is cleaved to produce a single VLP structural protein, p37gag. Replacement of Asp436 within the retrovirus-like active site of the pol-encoded protease (PR) abolished Pr55gag cleavage and demonstrated the requirement for PR in capsid processing. As shown by expression of an in-frame fusion of TED gag and pol, PR is derived from the Gag-Pol polyprotein Pr195gag-pol. The PR cleavage site within Pr55gag was mapped to a position near the junction of a basic, nucleocapsid-like domain and a C-terminal acidic domain. Once released by cleavage, the C-terminal fragment was not detected. This acidic fragment was dispensable for VLP assembly, as demonstrated by the formation of VLP by C-terminal Pr55gag truncation proteins and replacement of the acidic domain with a heterologous protein. In contrast, C-terminal deletions that extended into the adjacent nucleocapsid-like domain of Pr55gag abolished VLP recovery and demonstrated that this central region contributes to VLP assembly or stability, or both. Collectively, these data suggest that the single TED protein p37gag provides both capsid and nucleocapsid functions. TED may therefore use a simple processing strategy for VLP assembly and genome packaging. PMID:9765414

  16. Prevalent fatty acids in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the three largest producers of fruits in the world, and among those fruit trees, the cashew tree stands out due to the high nutritional and commercial value of its products. During its fruit processing, there are losses in some compounds and few studies address this issue. Over the last decade the conventional system of food production has been substituted for the organic cultivation system, which is a promising alternative source of income given the global demand for healthy food. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the prevalent fatty acids found in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing. The prevalent fatty acids found were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acid. The average of these fatty acids were 6.93 ± 0.55; 16.99 ± 0.61; 67.62 ± 1.00 and 8.42 ± 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. There was no reduction in the palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acid contents during processing. Very little difference was observed between the nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation, indicating that the method of cultivation used has little or no influence on the content of cashew nut fatty acids.

  17. Characterization of microbial community in the two-stage process for hydrogen and methane production from food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chun-Feng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ebie, Yoshitaka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Xu, Kai-Qin [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li, Yu-You [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The structure of a microbial community in the two-stage process for H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} production from food waste was investigated by a molecular biological approach. The process was a continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic (RUN1) or thermophilic (RUN2) methanogenesis with recirculation of the digested sludge. A two-phase process suggested in this study effectively separate H{sub 2}-producing bacteria from methanogenic archaea by optimization of design parameters such as pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature. Galore microbial diversity was found in the thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis, Clostridium sp. strain Z6 and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum were considered to be the dominant thermophilic H{sub 2}-producing bacteria. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens were inhibited in thermophilic methanogenesis, whereas archaeal rDNAs were higher in the thermophilic methanogenesis than those in mesophilic methanogenesis. The yields of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were in equal range depending on the characteristics of food waste, whereas effluent water quality indicators were different obviously in RUN1 and RUN2. The results indicated that hydrolysis and removal of food waste were higher in RUN2 than RUN1. (author)

  18. Modeling and Control of the Springback Effect in the Bottom Sheet Metal Part One-Stage Drawing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chumadin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to reduce a manufacturing complexity of bottom sheet metal parts by improving the accuracy of parts produced. This study is aimed at using the finite element analysis to prove assumptions that there is a transition frontier between the processes of forming and drawing, and there are capabilities to control springback effect by moving this frontier positions.The process, the stress-strain state of which in the dome corresponds to the process of forming parts, and in the flange area to the drawing process, was considered to be a formingdrawing process.Based on previous studies, techniques to reduce a springback have been proposed which enable us to use three calculation schemes for the process simulation:The frontier transition position control between the processes of forming and drawing by changing the contact pressure on the flange by varying the frictions coefficients on the die and binder surfaces;Springback manage through the additional tensile forces in the flange area of the blank;Springback manage through the technological insert at the first process stage.For ease of comparison with previous research results the same geometric parameters and material properties of the items are used in the simulation.The springback analysis used a finite element method in the AutoFormTM incremental module with automatically mashed and standard tolerance computation properties. The blank, binder, punch, and die were then imported to the module by CATIATM interface in .iges format.The calculation has shown that the optimal value for the least thinning and springback parts are available for the second scheme whereby ring punch makes additional tension in the flange area (from 1.09 to 0.35 mm with thinning from 0.80 to 0.73 mm. The use of flange retention of sheet blank at the expense of variable frictional forces showed the springback value reduction by 4 times (from 1.09 to 0.27 mm. However thinning was 16% (from 0.80 to

  19. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  20. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO 2 /CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector

  1. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Ioannis, E-mail: iliapis@sidenor.vionet.gr [AEIFOROS SA, 12th km Thessaloniki-Veroia Rd, PO Box 59, 57008 Ionia, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papayianni, Ioanna [Laboratory of Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO{sub 2}/CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  2. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  3. Investigation of the relevant kinetic processes in the initial stage of a double-arcing instability in oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, B.; Prevosto, L.; Chamorro, J. C.; Minotti, F. O.; Kelly, H.

    2018-05-01

    A numerical investigation of the kinetic processes in the initial (nanosecond range) stage of the double-arcing instability was developed. The plasma-sheath boundary region of an oxygen-operated cutting torch was considered. The energy balance and chemistry processes in the discharge were described. It is shown that the double-arcing instability is a sudden transition from a diffuse (glow-like) discharge to a constricted (arc-like) discharge in the plasma-sheath boundary region arising from a field-emission instability. A critical electric field value of ˜107 V/m was found at the cathodic part of the nozzle wall under the conditions considered. The field-emission instability drives in turn a fast electronic-to-translational energy relaxation mechanism, giving rise to a very fast gas heating rate of at least ˜109 K/s, mainly due to reactions of preliminary dissociation of oxygen molecules via the highly excited electronic state O2(B3Σu-) populated by electron impact. It is expected that this fast oxygen heating rate further stimulates the discharge contraction through the thermal instability mechanism.

  4. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  5. A Novel Process for Joining Ti Alloy and Al Alloy using Two-Stage Sintering Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Luping; Liu, Wensheng; Ma, Yunzhu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The major challenges for conventional diffusion bonding of joining Ti alloy and Al alloy are the undesirable interfacial reaction, low matrixes and joint strength. To avoid the problem in diffusion bonding, a novel two-stage sintering powder metallurgy process is developed. In the present work, the interface characterization and joint performance of the bonds obtained by powder metallurgy bonding are investigated and are compared with the diffusion bonded Ti/Al joints obtained with the same and the optimized process parameters. The results show that no intermetallic compound is visible in the Ti/Al joint obtained by powder metallurgy bonding, while a new layer formed at the joint diffusion bonded with the same parameters. The maximum tensile strength of joint obtained by diffusion bonding is 58 MPa, while a higher tensile strength reaching 111 MPa for a bond made by powder metallurgy bonding. Brittle fractures occur at all the bonds. It is shown that the powder metallurgy bonding of Ti/Al is better than diffusion bonding. The results of this study should benefit the bonding quality.

  6. MODELING OF THE SEPARATION OF PARTICLES NOT RETAINED IN THE STAGE OF SEDIMENTATION ON CHANELS: EXTRACTION PROCESS CASSAVA STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the settling stage in channels of the extraction process of the cassava starch, is generated around 80% of the total wastewater from the process. On this study, we analyze the theoretical modeling of the particles that are not retained in the channels basing on the analyses of settling of discrete particles with sizes between 2 and 8 microns, using the Stockes Law. The theoretical modeling showed that the sedimentation rate is between 0,007 and 0,112 cm/min. With this rate range and a critical flow rate of 1,5 L/s, for the total removal of the particles, it is required a structure with a surface area of 1288 m2 , height of 1 m and approximately 10 days. This study shows that is not economically or technically feasible the conventional nor high settling to retain this type of particles, being advisable to evaluate different mechanisms to improve the separation efficiency of particles that may potentiate their use and to avoid the contamination of the receiving bodies of these effluents

  7. Analysis of Chemical Species Along the Process Stages of Demineralized Water Production at Reactor G.A. Siwabessy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda; Setyono; Sumijanto; Diah E L; Ihsan, M.

    2003-01-01

    The tank water of multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy is supplied from a water demineralization plant which works based on ion exchange processes. Controlling the quality of the water produced by this plant is one of many factor which effects the quality of the reactor tank water. This experiment resulted a characteristic pattern data of water and its chemical species content along process stages of demineralized water production at the reactor. The experiment results showed that the pH (degree of acidity), electric conductivity and dissolved cation (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) lied at the permissible range. The value fluctuation of these variables showed a right pattern. It can be concluded that the water produced by this plant met the requirements to be used as primary cooling water of the reactor. However, the value of pH is still too low although it lied in the tolerance limit. Beside that, it isn't all of water impurities concentration can be predicted by the value of pH and conductivity. Therefore, the determination of water quality for the need of reactor tank water quiet to be done continually to keep the water condition in order to meet the quality required, and to evaluate and developed its production technology. (author)

  8. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  9. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  10. Investigation of multi-stage cold forward extrusion process using coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtan, Mehmet Okan

    2018-05-01

    Cold extrusion processes are distinguished by their low material usage as well as great efficiency in the production of mid-range and large component series. Although majority of the cold extruded parts are produced using die systems containing multiple forming stages, this subject has rarely been investigated so far. Therefore, the characteristics of multi-stage cold forward rod extrusion is studied in the current work using thermo-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) analysis. A case hardening steel, 16MnCr5 (1.7131) was used as experimental material. Its strain, strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical characteristics were determined using compression testing and modeled in FE simulations via a Johnson-Cook material model. Friction coefficients for the same material while in contact with a tool steel (1.2379) were determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using sliding compression test (SCT) and modeled by an adaptive friction model developed by the author. In the first set of simulations, rod material with a diameter of 14.9 mm was extruded down to a diameter of 9.6 mm in a single step using three different die opening angles (2α); 20°, 40° and 60°. In the second set of investigations, the same rod was reduced first to 12 mm and then to 9.6 mm in two steps within the same forming die. Press forces, contact normal stresses between extruded material and forming die, material temperature and axial stresses are compared in these two set of simulations and the differences are discussed.

  11. Numerical Study of the Working Process in the Reducing Gas Generator of the Upper Stage Oxygen - Methane Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Yagodnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of creating a reducing gas generator of the liquid rocket engine (LRE of upper stage using advanced fuel components, namely oxygen + liquid natural gas. Relevance of the work is justified by the need to create and develop of environmentally friendly missile systems for space applications using methane-based fuel (liquid natural gas. As compared to the currently used unsymmetrical dimethyl-hydrazine and kerosene, this fuel is environmentally safe, passive to corrosion, has better cooling properties and high energy characteristics in the re-generatively cooled chambers, as well as is advantageous for LRE of multiple start and use.The purpose of this work is a mathematical modeling, calculation of the working process efficiency, as well as study of gas-dynamic structure of the flow in the gas generator flow path. The object of study is the upper stage LRE gas generator, which uses the reducing scheme on the liquid propellants: oxygen + liquid methane. Research methods are based on numerical simulation.Computational studies allowed us to receive the velocity, temperatures, and concentrations of reactants and combustion products in the longitudinal section of gas generator. Analysis of the gas-dynamic structure of flow shows a complete equalization of the velocity field by 2/3 of the gas generator length. Thus, the same distance is not enough to equalize the temperature distribution of the gasification products and their concentrations in radius. Increasing the total excess oxidant ratio from 0.15 to 0.25 leads to a greater spread of the parameters at the exit of the gas generator by ~ 13 ÷ 17%. As a recommendation to reduce the size of the working area, is proposed a dual-zone gas generator-mixing scheme with fuel separately supplied to the first and second zones.

  12. Self-assembly of silica microparticles in magnetic multiphase flows: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Xiao-Dong; Li, You; Chen, Mu-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic self-assembly, especially self-assembly under magnetic field, is vital not only for its marvelous phenomenon but also for its mechanisms. Revealing the underlying mechanisms is crucial for a deeper understanding of self-assembly. In this paper, several magnetic induced self-assembly experiments by using the mixed magnetic multiphase fluids comprised of silica microspheres were carried out. The relations of the strength of external magnetic field, the inverse magnetorheological effect, and the structures of self-assembled particles were investigated. In addition, a momentum-exchanged immersed boundary-based lattice Boltzmann method (MEIB-LBM) for modeling multi-physical coupling multiphase flows was employed to numerically study the magnetic induced self-assembly process in detail. The present work showed that the external magnetic field can be used to control the form of self-assembly of nonmagnetic microparticles in a chain-like structure, and the self-assembly process can be classified into four stages with magnetic hysteresis, magnetization of nonmagnetic microparticles, self-assembly in chain-like structures, and the stable chain state. The combination of experimental and numerical results could offer a method to control the self-assembled nonmagnetic microparticles, which can provide the technical and theoretical support for the design and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials.

  13. A conceptual design of assembly strategy and dedicated tools for assembly of 40o sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.; Nam, K.O.; Kim, D.J.; Ahn, H.J.; Lee, J.H.; Im, K.; Shaw, R.

    2010-01-01

    The International Thermanuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak device is composed of 9 vacuum vessel (VV)/toroidal field coils (TFCs)/vacuum vessel thermal shields (VVTS) 40 o sectors. Each VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 o sector is made up of one 40 o VV, two 20 o TFCs and associated VVTS segments. The 40 o sectors are sub-assembled at assembly hall respectively and then nine 40 o sectors sub-assembled at assembly hall are finally assembled at tokamak in-pit hall. The assembly strategy and tools for the 40 o sector sub-assembly and final assembly should be developed to satisfy the basic assembly requirements of the ITER tokamak device. Accordingly, the purpose-built assembly tools should be designed and manufactured considering assembly plan, available space, cost, safety, easy operation, efficient maintenance, and so on. The 40 o sector assembly tools are classified into 2 groups. One group is the sub-assembly tools including upending tool, lifting tool, sub-assembly tool, VV supports and bracing tools used at assembly hall and the other group is the in-pit assembly tools including lifting tool, central column, radial beams and their supports. This paper describes the current status of the assembly strategy and major tools for the VV/TFCs/VVTS 40 o sector assembly at in-pit hall and assembly hall. The conceptual design of the major assembly tools and assembly process at assembly hall and tokamak in-pit hall are presented also.

  14. Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D I

    2018-04-02

    Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of

  15. Using neutral theory to reveal the contribution of meta-community processes to assembly in complex landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gravel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The metacommunity perspective appears as an appropriate conceptual framework to make ecology more predictive. It is particularly relevant to limnology, where exchanges of organisms and nutrients affect community and ecosystem properties from the local to the regional scales. The recent development of neutral theory appears as a step back in that direction because of the assumption of ecological equivalence and the absence of any effect of the environment on community organization. A remarkable strength of neutral theory is nonetheless to provide a general theory of diversity that accounts for a wide range of empirical observations. In this paper, we argue that neutral theory can be useful to understand the impact of dispersal on community assembly in landscapes of various complexities. Our analysis focus on spatially explicit landscapes conceptualized as networks of local communities (e.g., lakes connected to each other by dispersal channels (e.g., rivers. The main objective of the paper is to use neutral theory to stress the importance of landscape structure on the distribution of diversity. We refer to the landscape organization as a spatial contingency that could potentially affect the coexistence mechanisms at play. We briefly review the main approaches to describe spatial networks and describe three simple toy models of metacommunity dynamics. We take this opportunity to review their assumptions and main predictions. We then conduct simulations of these models to reveal with simple examples the impact of spatial network structure on diversity distribution. The simulation results show that competitive interactions buffer the potential impact of landscape structure. The strongest relationship between node position in the landscape and species richness was observed for the patch dynamics model without any interactions. On the other hand, strong and unequal competitive interactions minimized the effect of node position. We conclude that the

  16. Reducing the Entrainment of Gangue Fines in Low Grade Microcrystalline Graphite Ore Flotation Using Multi-Stage Grinding-Flotation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Weng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A suitable grinding fineness and flow-sheet could potentially reduce the mechanical entrainment of gangue minerals in the flotation process of microcrystalline graphite. In this study, the suitable grinding fineness of a commercial graphite ore was estimated by mineralogy analysis and laboratory grind-flotation tests. The target grind size of this ore should be 92% passing 74 μm based on the mineralogical evaluation and the flotation performance. A comparison of a single-stage and a three-stage grinding circuit was conducted. Experimental results demonstrated that the three-stage grinding circuit could effectively improve the separation effect, which was attributed to the reduction of slimes. In the end, a more desirable beneficiation result was obtained with the application of three-stage grinding-flotation process by minimizing gangue entrainment.

  17. Assembly of Collagen Matrices as a Phase Transition Revealed by Structural and Rheologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Forgacs, Gabor; Newman, Stuart A.; Hinner, Bernhard; Maier, Christian W.; Sackmann, Erich

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structural and viscoelastic properties of assembling networks of the extracellular matrix protein type-I collagen by means of phase contrast microscopy and rotating disk rheometry. The initial stage of the assembly is a nucleation process of collagen monomers associating to randomly distributed branched clusters with extensions of several microns. Eventually a sol-gel transition takes place, which is due to the interconnection of these clusters. We analyzed this transition...

  18. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  19. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  20. Systematic development of a two-stage fed-batch process for lipid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eric; Runge, Dennis; Marbà-Ardébol, Anna-Maria; Schmacht, Maximilian; Stahl, Ulf; Senz, Martin

    2017-03-20

    The application of oleaginous yeast cells as feed supplement, for instance in aqua culture, can be a meaningful alternative for fish meal and oil additives. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch process split into growth and lipogenesis phase was systematically developed to enrich the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Rh-00301 with high amounts of lipids at industrial relevant biomasses. Thereby, the different carbon sources glucose, sucrose and glycerol were investigated concerning their abilities to serve as a suited raw material for growth and/or lipid accumulation. With the background of economic efficiency C/N ratios of 40, 50 and 70 were investigated as well. It became apparent that glycerol is an improper carbon source most likely because of the passive diffusion of this compound caused by absence of active transporters. The opposite was observed for sucrose, which is the main carbon source in molasses. Finally, an industrially applicable process was successfully established that ensures biomasses of 106±2gL -1 combined with an attractive lipid content of 63±6% and a high lipid-substrate yield (Y L/S ) of 0.18±0.02gg -1 in a short period of time (84h). Furthermore, during these studies a non-negligible formation of the by-product glycerol was detected. This characteristic of R. glutinis is discussed related to other oleaginous yeasts, where glycerol formation is absent. Nevertheless, due to modifications in the feeding procedure, the formation of glycerol could have been reduced but not avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  2. Beyond the adoption/ non-adoption dichotomy: the impact of innovation characteristics on potential adopters' transition through adoption process stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, M.K.; Frambach, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Research on innovation adoption has suffered from a bias towards understanding the factors that affect the dichotomous adoption/non-adoption decision.Much less attention is devoted to the question why potential adopters fail to progress to the adoption stage from earlier stages in the decision

  3. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  5. Design of the ITER Tokamak Assembly Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunki; Her, Namil; Kim, Byungchul; Im, Kihak; Jung, Kijung; Lee, Jaehyuk; Im, Kisuk

    2006-01-01

    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Procurement allocation among the seven Parties, EU, JA, CN, IN , KO, RF and US had been decided in Dec. 2005. ITER Tokamak assembly tools is one of the nine components allocated to Korea for the construction of the ITER. Assembly tools except measurement and common tools are supplied to assemble the ITER Tokamak and classified into 9 groups according to components to be assembled. Among the 9 groups of assembly tools, large-sized Sector Sub-assembly Tools and Sector Assembly Tools are used at the first stage of ITER Tokamak construction and need to be designed faster than seven other assembly tools. ITER IT (International Team) proposed Korea to accomplish ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) Task on detailed design, manufacturing feasibility and contract specification of specific, large sized tools such as Upending Tool, Lifting Tool, Sector Sub-assembly Tool and Sector Assembly Tool in Oct. 2004. Based on the concept design by ITER IT, Korea carried out ITA Task on detailed design of large-sized and specific Sector Sub-assembly and Sector Assembly Tools until Mar. 2006. The Sector Sub-assembly Tools mainly consist of the Upending, Lifting, Vacuum Vessel Support and Bracing, and Sector Sub-assembly Tool, among which the design of three tools are herein. The Sector Assembly Tools mainly consist of the Toroidal Field (TF) Gravity Support Assembly, Sector In-pit Assembly, TF Coil Assembly, Vacuum Vessel (VV) Welding and Vacuum Vessel Thermal Shield (TS) Assembly Tool, among which the design of Sector In-pit Assembly Tool is described herein

  6. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  10. Effect of surfactant concentration on characteristics of mesoporous bioactive glass prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chi-Chung; Chien, Chi-Sheng; Kung, Jung-Chang; Chen, Jian-Chih; Chang, Shy-Shin; Lu, Pei-Shan; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the unwanted organic contents were removed completely at temperatures above 600 °C. ► Specific surface area and pore volume of Mesoporous bioactive glasses reached maximum at the critical surfactant concentration. ► SAED pattern suggests that some glassy structures in the Bioactive Glasses became crystalline due to the heat treatment. ► The MBGs can induce the formation of an apatite-like layer on their surface in SBF, even after short soaking periods. - Abstract: Mesoporous bioactive glasses were prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The main objective of the present study is to determine the effect of surfactant concentration on the synthesis of SiO 2 –CaO–P 2 O 5 mesoporous bioactive glasses; the characterization techniques used include X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. The results show that the specific surface area initially increased with increasing surfactant concentrations in the range of 2.1–9.1 wt% and significantly decreased from 328.7 to 204.0 m 2 /g in the concentration range of 9.1–12.5 wt%. For texture evaluation, the selected area electron diffraction patterns of the mesoporous bioactive glass precursor gels (9.1 wt% F127) calcined at different temperatures were analyzed; these patterns support the notion that some glassy structures in bioactive glasses become crystalline following heat treatment. The scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns obtained agree with the inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy results as the mesoporous bioactive glasses can induce the formation of an apatite-like layer on their surface in SBF, even after short soaking periods.