Through a series of TABLETOP exercises and other events that involved participation by State and Federal organizations, the need was identified for further explanation of financial and other related resources available to individuals and State and local governments in a major emergency at a nuclear power plant. A group with representatives from the Nuclear Regulatory commission, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Nuclear Insurers/Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters was established to work toward this end. This report is the result of that effort. This document is not meant to modify, undermine, or replace any other planning document (e.g., the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan or the Federal Response Plan). Its purpose is to clarify issues that have surfaced regarding resources available under the Price-Anderson and Stafford Acts
Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...
... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Cocke, Hardin, Jackson, Macon, Overton, Pickett, Putnam, Smith, and Wayne Counties for Public Assistance...
...] Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act) AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act), which... mitigation discretionary funding available under Section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...
Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura
The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used
Young, W.R. Jr.
Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.
Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)
Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.
Donna J. Duerst
Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.
... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Jennings, Knox, Martin, Monroe, Ohio, Orange, Parke, Perry, Pike, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, Scott, Spencer...
... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Putnam, Ralls, Shelby, St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Stoddard, Sullivan, Texas, and Webster...
... a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Harrison, Holt, Howard, Jackson, Lafayette, Lewis, Livingston, Mercer, Nodaway, Putnam, Ray, Schuyler...
Bjerge, Benedikte Alkjærsig; Clark, Nathan Edward; Fisker, Peter Kielberg
This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete...
..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Miller, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Osage, Pettis, Platte, Polk, Pulaski, Putnam, Ralls...
..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., McDonough, McHenry, Menard, Mercer, Morgan, Moultrie, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Putnam, Richland, Rock Island...
Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter; Raju, Emmanuel
This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.
... and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C...: Allamakee, Benton, Buchanan, Butler, Cedar, Clayton, Delaware, Howard, Jones, and Winneshiek Counties for...
This article examines engagements between civilian actors, the Philippine security forces and the US military during disaster response operations. The Philippine disaster framework recognises the military's role in disaster relief and has existing mechanisms for accepting international assistance and procedures for ...
The devastation caused by the 2010 earthquake in Haiti was compounded by the significant logistical : challenges of distributing relief to those in need. Unfortunately this is the case with many disasters. : Rapid and efficient distribution of water,...
Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar
A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."
Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.
number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on
Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky
By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul
Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).
..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly report...
and Natural Resources (DENR) and Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and the. Tacloban City chapter of the ... focus group discussions were conducted with 18 officers and enlisted men from the. 8th Regional .... rescue and disaster relief teams, and their accompanying equipment and supplies. Assistance by way of ...
DeBusk, Wesley M.
Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.
Vehicle routing for disaster relief distribution involves many challenges that distinguish this problem from those in commercial settings, given the time sensitive and resource constrained nature of relief activities. While operations research approa...
disaster -relief mission is challenging due to the uncertainty inherent in natural disasters and the demand created by them. The MND does not currently... disaster , local buses and shuttles would be very useful in transporting displaced people from AAs to RL shelters. The bus and shuttle information has...as buses and shuttles , which can also be used in disaster relief. Both buses and shuttles can transport commodities to the AP 27 and also
Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.
Walk, Ryan M; Donahue, Timothy F; Stockinger, Zsolt; Knudson, M Margaret; Cubano, Miguel; Sharpe, Richard P; Safford, Shawn D
The Haitian earthquake of January 12, 2010, was a disaster essentially unprecedented in the Western Hemisphere's recorded history. The USNS Comfort departed from Baltimore, Maryland, within 72 hours of the earthquake and arrived in Port-au-Prince harbor on January 19. During the subsequent 40 days, the ship provided one of the largest relief efforts in the US Navy's history. The data analyzed included all patients evaluated and treated by the USNS Comfort between January 19 and February 27, 2010. A medical chart with a unique identifier was created for each patient on admission. A patient database was created from these records and used for this analysis. A total of 872 patients and 185 patient escorts were processed aboard the ship. Ages ranged from younger than 1 day to 89 years: 635 were adults and 237 were children. Of those admitted, 817 of the patients were admitted for longer than 24 hours; the average length of stay was 8.0 days. The need for surgery was substantial: 454 patients went to the operating room (OR) 843 times for 927 cumulative procedures. A total of 58 patients underwent amputations. Haiti was almost completely reliant on foreign medical teams for trauma care. Analysis of the data illustrates the challenges of triage and treatment in a humanitarian mass-casualty response. The remarkable coordination and cooperation among the Haitian Ministry of Health, nongovernmental humanitarian aid organizations, and the US military highlighted the responders' respective capabilities and demonstrated the importance of collaboration in future disaster response efforts.
Klappa, Susan; Audette, Jennifer; Do, Sandy
This article describes the roles and experiences of rehabilitation therapists involved in disaster relief work (DRW) in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. The results of a pilot study and phenomenological study are presented. A phenomenological study of rehabilitation providers' experiences in post-disaster relief care is presented along with preliminary pilot study results. The phenomenological study explored the experiences of therapists from a lived experience perspective through the roles they played in DRW. Participants provided disaster relief through direct patient care, adaptive equipment sourcing and allocation, education and training, community outreach and logistic or administrative duties. Barriers and challenges included: (1) emotions: ups and downs; (2) challenges: working at the edge of practice; (3) education: key to success and sustainability; (4) lessons learned: social responsibility is why we go; and (5) difficulty coming home: no one understands. Therapists play a key role in disaster relief situations. Data presented should encourage organizations to include therapists from early planning to implementation of relief services. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of rehabilitation interventions in disaster settings. Understanding the roles and experiences of therapists in disaster relief setting is important Certain barriers to providing care in post-disaster settings exist Those participating in disaster response should be well prepared and aware of that they might be asked to do.
Choe, Myoung-Ae; Kuwano, Noriko; Bang, Kyung-Sook; Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Yatsushiro, Rika; Kawata, Yuki
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in motivation for joining disaster relief activities as a nurse in the future between Japanese and Korean nursing students. A descriptive 2-group comparative study design was used. The participants were 721 first- to fourth-year nursing students (Japanese, n = 324; Korean, n = 397). From June to September 2014, data were collected through a researcher-administered questionnaire and self-reported answers. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the χ test, and the t test.No significant difference was found between Japanese and Korean students in motivation to join domestic relief activities should a disaster occur in the area in which they lived. Compared with Korean students, Japanese students strongly agreed that it is necessary to carry out relief work across borders when disasters occur in foreign countries (p = .001). Meanwhile, Japanese students showed less motivation than Korean students to join relief activities in other domestic areas and foreign countries (p = .020).The results of this study suggest that the motivation of Japanese students to join disaster relief activities as nurses in the future should a disaster occur in other domestic areas and foreign countries needs to be increased. The results also suggest that undergraduate students should be well prepared for disasters through disaster nursing education, including practical training, disaster drills, and simulation.
Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W
Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance.
Tean, Ee S
.... This thesis develops a two-stage stochastic optimization model to provide guidance in the pre-positioning of relief units and assets, where budget, physical limitations and logistics are taken into account...
Wenji, Zhou; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A
Disasters require well trained nurses but disaster nursing education is very limited in China and evidence is urgently required for future planning and implementation of specialized disaster education. This describes the themes arising from narratives of Chinese registered nurses who worked in disaster relief after two major earthquakes. In-depth interviews were held with 12 registered nurses from Hubei Province. Riessman's narrative inquiry method was used to develop individual stories and themes, and socio-cultural theory informed this study. Five themes emerged: unbeatable challenges; qualities of a disaster nurse; mental health and trauma; poor disaster planning and co-ordination; and urgently needed disaster education. Participants were challenged by rudimentary living conditions, a lack of medical equipment, earthquake aftershocks, and cultural differences in the people they cared for. Participants placed importance on the development of teamwork abilities, critical thinking skills, management abilities of nurses in disasters, and the urgency to build a better disaster response system in China in which professional nurses could more actively contribute their skills and knowledge. Our findings concur with previous research and emphasize the urgency for health leaders across China to develop and implement disaster nursing education policies and programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei
The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.
Epperly, John M
... in Louisiana on August 29, 2005. The study explores the problem of establishing a hastily formed network during a complex humanitarian disaster scenario by focusing on the difficulties of establishing a network at the rifle...
This paper examines the present value of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief, in view of discussions on neutrality and the Western bias of the humanitarian aid system, and assesses how it can
Janse, H.C.; Van der Flier, C.L.
Haiti was struck by a heavy earthquake in 2010 and international aid poured into the country. News reports in 2011 were not very positive about the results of post-disaster reconstruction: “The relief efforts are only putting Haiti on lifesupport instead of evolving into the next stage of
Baraka, Jean-Claude Munyaka
Full Text Available This paper reviews some challenges faced by humanitarian logistics and supply chain organisations in the transportation of resources, evacuees, and emergency supplies for disaster relief operations in the SADC region. To identify the appropriate transportation to assist in the region, three models were reviewed and proposed: A typical transportation problem, a genetic algorithm based on a spanning tree, and a linear optimisation using Excel Solver. Reviewing the literature revealed that both man-made and natural disasters have caused over ninety thousand fatalities and affected millions just over the past three decades. A further review shows that most disaster deaths are the result of poor infrastructure, especially in populated areas. This presents a challenge to relief organisations in their efforts to provide on-time relief to victims in pre- and post-disaster periods. Although each proposed transportation problem has particular complexities, each of them could assist the region to decrease the relief operation response time and cost. This paper provides the reader with a greater understanding of the challenges faced by the humanitarian supply chain in the SADC region. This paper proposes a conceptual model based on an actual empirical case.
Yan, Y E; Turale, S; Stone, T; Petrini, M
Globally, nurses becoming more aware of getting better prepared for disaster relief, but in China, disaster nursing knowledge, courses and research are still limited. China has long been prone to disasters, but disaster nursing education and training is in its infancy. This study explored the skills, knowledge and attitudes required by registered nurses from across China who worked in the aftermath of three large earthquakes to try to determine future disaster nursing education requirements. The Questionnaire of Nurses' Disaster Nursing Skills at Earthquake Sites, assessing nursing skills, knowledge and attitudes, was distributed to 139 registered nurses in 38 hospitals in 13 provinces across China who had worked in one or more earthquake disaster zones. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data, and content analysis for qualitative data. Eighty-nine questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 68.3%. No respondent had ever received specific disaster nursing training prior to their post-earthquake nursing. Skills most often used by respondents were haemostasis bandaging, fixation, manual handling, observation and monitoring, debridement and dressing, and mass casualty transportation. Respondents identified that the most important groups of skills required were cardiopulmonary resuscitation; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, and manual handling; and emergency management. They emphasized the need for psychological care of victims as well as that of fellow health workers. No respondent had ever received disaster nursing training prior to engagement at the earthquake disaster sites. All believed that there were important gaps in their knowledge and skills, and supported disaster nursing courses in the future. China urgently needs to develop disaster nursing courses, with the support of nurse leaders, educationalists and government, to implement training using an all hazards approach in accordance with international best practice and trainees
de Ville de Goyet, C; Acosta, E; Sabbat, P; Pluut, E
Frequently in the wake of disasters, large amounts of humanitarian supplies arrive from multiple sources within the country or from abroad. Only a portion of these donations actually responds to specific requests from the affected country. A significant part consists of unsolicited donations whose value--in terms of meeting immediate, life-threatening needs--is questioned by many disaster managers. In 1990, WHO initiated a supply management project, known as "SUMA", to provide national authorities with a management tool and the skills to sort and inventory large amounts of relief supplies in a short period of time. It is a technical cooperation programme to assist the local coordinating agency to get an accurate picture of what is potentially available in the affected area, and to sort the most valuable relief items from those of doubtful usefulness. National authorities have developed their SUMA teams in many situations, both in Latin America and the Caribbean; this article describes three of these experiences. A flood in Costa Rica, in 1995, where the Red Cross assumed national responsibility for managing relief supplies donated locally. The earthquake in Paéz, Colombia, also in 1995, where the National Disaster Committee activated SUMA for all supplies sent to the disaster area, with the exception of specialized health shipments channelled through the Ministry of Health. In Haiti, in 1994, a complex disaster was compounded by a tropical storm. All civilian supplies arriving at the airport were processed by the SUMA team which included customs officers among its members. The traditional problem of unsorted and inappropriate supplies, noted in most international disasters, seems to have been negligible, a trend which can perhaps be credited to 20 years of preparedness activities in Latin America and the Caribbean. The superficial analysis of the data underlines the potential for operational research on the standardized databases generated by SUMA.
Godbee, D C; Odom, J W
Special Forces units and their innate assets are presented as the ideal first-response unit to natural disasters due to their breadth of skill, speed of response, and ability to work independently in remote areas. "Green Beret" soldiers are particularly suited to work under the most extreme hardships, with little or no supervision, and can demonstrate tremendous amounts of initiative and creativity in unique and changing situations. The compact, versatile, and adaptable detachments of which Special Forces Groups are composed can serve as vital resources in humanitarian and disaster relief operations as well as in combat.
Lee, Kangeui; Lee, So Hee; Park, Taejin; Lee, Ji Yeon
We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences. Stress tended to stem from several factors: difficulties related to cooperation with new team members, the frightening disaster experience, and the aftermath of the disaster. Other stressors included conflict with the control tower, diverse problems at the disaster relief work site, and environmental factors. The most common reason that members participated in KDRT work despite all the stressors and difficulties was pride about the kind of work it involved. Many subjects in this study suffered from various stresses after the relief work, but they had no other choice than to attempt to forget about their experiences over time. It is recommended that the mental health of disaster relief workers will improve through the further development of effective treatment and surveillance programs in the future.
This article provides an overview of US humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti following the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Humanitarian aid arrived rapidly from many sources and was largely provided by organized and skilled humanitarian volunteers. There are however multiple impacts on the existing health care systems, as well as the pharmaceutical and medical supply chain created by massive relief efforts involving personnel, medicines, supplies and equipment that should be considered even in the immediate post-disaster period. Additionally the consequences of short-term medical missions by secular and non-secular NGOs should be considered carefully both in the post-disaster period and as ongoing support to underserved populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.
01/ celulares -topo-de-gama-ces-2012/?lang= en 50 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 51 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense Technical...EFFECTIVENESS OF SMARTPHONES AND APPS FOR HUMANITARIAN AID AND DISASTER RELIEF (HADR) OPERATIONS–A SYSTEMS ENGINEERING STUDY by Wen Kai Chan... Smartphones and Apps for Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations–A Systems Engineering Study 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Wen Kai
Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.
-based orchestration cooperative sensing scheme is proposed, where the cluster head controls and adapts the distribution of the cluster sensing's nodes according to the monitored spectrum state. The proposed scheme performance is evaluated through a framework, which allows gauging the accuracy of wideband multi....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...
Full Text Available In this paper, we optimize the search and rescue (SAR in disaster relief through agent-based simulation. We simulate rescue teams’ search behaviors with the improved Truncated Lévy walks. Then we propose a cooperative rescue plan based on a distributed auction mechanism, and illustrate it with the case of landslide disaster relief. The simulation is conducted in three scenarios, including “fatal”, “serious” and “normal”. Compared with the non-cooperative rescue plan, the proposed rescue plan in this paper would increase victims’ relative survival probability by 7–15%, increase the ratio of survivors getting rescued by 5.3–12.9%, and decrease the average elapsed time for one site getting rescued by 16.6–21.6%. The robustness analysis shows that search radius can affect the rescue efficiency significantly, while the scope of cooperation cannot. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two parameters, the time limit for completing rescue operations in one buried site and the maximum turning angle for next step, both have a great influence on rescue efficiency, and there exists optimal value for both of them in view of rescue efficiency.
Mitsuyoshi, Shunji; Nakamura, Mitsuteru; Omiya, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Shuji; Hagiwara, Naoki; Tokuno, Shinichi
Disaster relief personnel tend to be exposed to excessive stress, which can be a cause of mental disorders. To prevent from mental disorders, frequent assessment of mental status is important. This pilot study aimed to examine feasibility of stress assessment using vocal affect display (VAD) indices as calculated by our proposed algorithms in a situation of comparison between different durations of stay in stricken area as disaster relief operation, which is an environment highly likely to induce stress. We used Sensibility Technology (ST) software to analyze VAD from voices of participants exposed to extreme stress for either long or short durations, and we proposed algorithms for indices of low VAD (VAD-L), high VAD (VAD-H), and VAD ratio (VAD-R), calculated from the intensity of emotions as measured by voice emotion analysis. As a preliminary validation, 12 members of Japan Self-Defense Forces dispatched overseas for long (3 months or more) or short (about a week) durations were asked to record their voices saying 11 phrases repeatedly across 6 days during their dispatch. In the validation, the two groups showed an inverse relationship in VAD-L and VAD-H, in that long durations in disaster zones resulted in higher values of both VAD-L and VAD-R, and lower values of VAD-H, compared with short durations. Interestingly, phrases produced varied results in terms of group differences and VAD indices, demonstrating the sensitivity of the ST. A comparison of the values obtained for the different groups of subjects clarified that there were tendencies of the VAD-L, VAD-H, and VAD-R indices observed for each group of participants. The results suggest the possibility of using ST software in the measurement of affective aspects related to mental health from vocal behavior.
Geethanjali SELVARETNAM; Kannika THAMPANISHVONG; David ULPH
We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financ...
Full Text Available This main focus of this article is a case study that analyzes social media usage by a local municipality in Japan, and on the possibilities and problems of complementary communication channels such as social networking services for promoting civil society activities and linking civil society organizations. We examine how in the past, Japanese municipalities have been using social media and social networking services for enhancing civil society and how social networking services are a potential tool that can provide vital information and connect citizens, municipal governments and civil society. This article focuses on the first phase of the Tsukuba Civic Activities Cyber-Square [Tsukuba Shimin Katsudō no Hiroba] on Facebook Experiment in 2012 and how it functioned during and after the May 6, 2012 Tsukuba city tornado disaster for the subsequent relief and support activities during May 2012.
Li, Ya-Pin; Gao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Hao-Jun; Wei, Wei; Xu, Bo; Dong, Wen-Long; Li, Qing-Feng; Song, Wen-Jing; Hou, Shi-Ke
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA). SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA. A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved. This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668-673).
Full Text Available Many countries tightly manage and monitor various radiological sources and facilities, yet some serious radiological disasters still occurred in recent decades. In order to reach effective relief work on radiological disaster sites, numerous information techniques have become popular, i. e. global positioning system, geographical information system, computer simulation, and three-dimensional graphics. However, this study recognizes insufficient information service in global positioning system and geographical information system and inconvenient information operation in computer simulation and three-dimensional graphics. Therefore, this study adopts augmented-reality and mobile three-dimensional graphics techniques to construct a mobile relief work system. This system helps relief workers to comprehend the spatial relationship among their localities, the targeted constructions, and the anticipated shelters. Based on the testing results regarding escaping victims, through the mobile relief work system in contrast to a Google maps-based system, relief workers more easily arrive at the targeted constructions, and more rapidly seek the anticipated shelters. In sum, this study is useful for similar applications in disaster management.
Full Text Available The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities.
Yoshimura, Mitsunobu; Kurokawa, Etsuko; Noda, Takayuki; Hineno, Koji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kawai, Yuji; Dillbeck, Michael C
This study examined changes in self-reported stress symptoms after instruction in the Transcendental Meditation(®) technique among 171 residents of two cities (Sendai and Ishinomaki) directly affected by the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster compared with 326 non-disaster Tokyo participants previously tested before and after learning the technique and a no-treatment control group (n = 68). The participants completed a rating checklist of mental and physical symptoms. Disaster area participants who learned the Transcendental Meditation(®) technique in contrast to controls showed a significant drop in total symptom score from pre-test to post-test (effect size = -1.09). Results were comparable for an ordinal measure of symptom intensity. The findings suggest the potential value of this procedure for relief from disaster trauma.
Aleksey Vladimirovich Kuvshinov
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the structure and main directions of the activities of UN specialized agencies as well as other international organizations and entities such as ICDO aimed at the organization of the measures for disaster relief and civil defence. The urgency of the article is in the fact that it is for the first time in Russian academic literature devoted to this topic with the specific examples of conducting of such measures. The main conclusions of the article stresses that the specialized U.N. agencies and other international and national entities have already demonstrated the urgent nature and efficiency of providing disaster relief to affected countries and population in the beginning of the XXI century but they should upgrade their potential in that regard in the coming years.
Full Text Available We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financial loss and level of corruption, while GDP per capita had no effect. More populated countries receive more humanitarian aid. Earthquake, tsunami and drought attract more aid.
Will a Twenty-First Century Logistics Management System Improve Federal Emergency Management Agency's Capability to Deliver Supplies to Critical Areas, during Future Catastrophic Disaster Relief Operations
Gill, Glenda A
The United States Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must be prepared at all times to supplement state and local emergency personnel, or to provide logistics support during disaster relief operations...
Full Text Available Accidents and natural disasters and crises coming out of them indicate the importance of an integrated planning to reduce their effected. Therefore, disaster relief logistics is one of the main activities in disaster management. In this paper, we study the response phase of the disaster management cycle and a bi-objective model has been developed for relief chain logistic in uncertainty condition including uncertainty in traveling time an also amount of demand in damaged areas. The proposed mathematical model has two objective functions. The first one is to minimize the sum of arrival times to damaged area multiplying by amount of demand and the second objective function is to maximize the minimum ratio of satisfied demands in total period in order to fairness in the distribution of goods. In the proposed model, the problem has been considered periodically and in order to solve the mathematical model, Global Criterion method has been used and a case study has been done at South Khorasan.
During the week of August 8, 1994, a Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) survey was conducted at the Stafford County Public Schools located in Stafford County, Virginia, considered one of the fastest growing counties in the state...
[What is important in disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons from disaster relief missions to the Japan Self-Defense Forces Sendai Hospital and Haiti peacekeeping deployments].
Tanichi, Masaaki; Tatsuki, Toshitaka; Saito, Taku; Wakizono, Tomoki; Shigemura, Jun
We assessed the core factors necessary for mental health of disaster workers according to the following experiences: 1) the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Haiti peacekeeping deployment associated with the Great Haiti Earthquake, 2) conformations of the peacekeeping mission units of various countries deployed to Haiti, and 3) JSDF assistance activities to the Japanese earthquake victims. We learned that the basic life needs were the major premises for maintaining the mental health of the disaster workers. Food, drinking supplies, medical supplies were particularly crucial, yet overlooked in Japanese worker settings compared with forces of other countries. Conversely, the workers tend to feel guilty (moushi wake nai) for the victims when their basic life infrastructures are better than those of the victims. The Japanese workers and disaster victims both tend to find comfort in styles based on their culture, in particular, open-air baths and music performances. When planning workers' environments in disaster settings, provision of basic infrastructure should be prioritized, yet a sense of balance based on cultural background may be useful to enhance the workers' comfort and minimize their guilt.
Full Text Available Disaster management is the responsibility of the central government and local governments. The principles of disaster management, among others, are quick and precise, priorities, coordination and cohesion, efficient and effective manner. Help that is needed by most societies are logistical assistance, such as the assistance covers people's everyday needs, such as food, instant noodles, fast food, blankets, mattresses etc. Logistical assistance is needed for disaster management, especially in times of disasters. The support of logistical assistance must be timely, to the right location, target, quality, quantity, and needs. The purpose of this study is to make a web application to monitorlogistics distribution of disaster relefusing CodeIgniter framework. Through this application, the mechanisms of aid delivery will be easily controlled from and heading to the disaster site
Jamil, Mohamad; Ridwan Lessy, Mohamad
Disaster management is the responsibility of the central government and local governments. The principles of disaster management, among others, are quick and precise, priorities, coordination and cohesion, efficient and effective manner. Help that is needed by most societies are logistical assistance, such as the assistance covers people’s everyday needs, such as food, instant noodles, fast food, blankets, mattresses etc. Logistical assistance is needed for disaster management, especially in times of disasters. The support of logistical assistance must be timely, to the right location, target, quality, quantity, and needs. The purpose of this study is to make a web application to monitorlogistics distribution of disaster relefusing CodeIgniter framework. Through this application, the mechanisms of aid delivery will be easily controlled from and heading to the disaster site.
Ling, Douglas C.
A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.
Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andresen
Natural disasters which can occur in the United States include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and related high-velocity winds, as well as ice storms. Preparing for these natural disasters, which strike urban forests in large cities and small communities, should involve the cooperative effort of a wide array of municipal agencies, private arboricultural companies,...
In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…
Jiang, Lin; He, Hong-Gu; Zhou, Wen-Guang; Shi, Su-Hua; Yin, Ting-Ting; Kong, Yue
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards and level of competence in nursing practice, as well as factors influencing nurses' competence in nursing practice, in typhoon disaster relief work. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire to obtain data from 607 nurses working in four tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals in Fujian, China, in November 2011. Our findings show that the nurses' average percentage scores on their responses to questions in the domains of knowledge, attitudes and practice were 66.33%, 68.87% and 67.60%, respectively. The findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between nurses' attitudes and their practice. Nurses' working unit, prior training in typhoon disaster relief, current position of employment and attitudes were significant predictors of nurses' competence in practice. The results indicate that strategies need to be developed for nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practice. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sherod, II, Frank W
.... The next national disaster facing the U.S. could be an influenza pandemic. The bird flu virus H5N1 currently threatening Asia and Europe can potentially mutate into a deadly human influenza pandemic with global consequences...
E. Van Wyk
Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Natural disasters – and even those caused by people – are largely unpredictable. So disasters need to be researched and their impact fully understood, so that the aid supplies required to ensure survival during and after disaster events will be available. The member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC are the countries of interest for this paper, as insufficient research has been conducted into inventory pre-positioning for disaster response in these countries. It is vital to anticipate the needs of disaster victims in potential disasters. These needs are evaluated according to the types and amounts of aid supplies required. This paper proposes a stochastic inventory model that can be applied in a generic way to any SADC country, providing a means to improve disaster preparedness through keeping aid supplies in pre-positioned facilities in the SADC region, at reasonable and affordable cost.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Natuurlike en mensgemaakte rampe is grootliks onvoorspelbaar. Gevolglik moet rampe nagevors en hul impak ten volle begryp word, sodat noodvoorrade wat benodig word vir oorlewing doeltreffend beplan kan word vir aanwending tydens en na rampgebeure. Die lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Ontwikkelingsgemeenskap (SAOG is die lande van belang vir hierdie artikel omrede navorsing oor voorraadhouding vir rampreaksie in hierdie betrokke lande tot nog toe onvoldoende was. Dit is noodsaaklik om doeltreffend in die behoeftes van rampslagoffers te voorsien. Hierdie behoeftes word beoordeel na aanleiding van die aard en hoeveelhede van noodvoorrade wat benodig mag word in ramptoestande. Hierdie artikel stel ’n stochastiese voorraadmodel voor vir toepassing op ’n generiese wyse in enige SAOG land, om sodoende ’n metode te verskaf om rampvoorbereiding te verbeter deur die opgaar van noodvoorrade in vooraf-geïdentifiseerde fasiliteite binne die SAOG, teen redelike en bekostigbare koste.
Developing post-disaster physical rehabilitation: role of the World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.
Gosney, James; Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan
This special report presents the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief (CRDR) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in developing an enhanced physical rehabilitation relief response to large-scale natural disasters. The CRDR has stated that disaster rehabilitation is an emerging subspecialty within physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). In reviewing the existing literature it was found that large natural disasters result in many survivors with disabling impairments, that these survivors may have better clinical outcomes when they are treated by PRM physicians and teams of rehabilitation professionals, that the delivery of these rehabilitation services to disaster sites is complicated, and that their absence can result in significant negative consequences for individuals, communities and society. To advance its agenda, the CRDR sponsored an inaugural Symposium on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief as a concurrent scientific session at the 2011 ISPRM 6th World Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium included oral and poster presentations on a range of relevant topics and concluded with an international non-governmental organization panel discussion that addressed the critical question "How can rehabilitation actors coordinate better in disaster?" Building upon the symposium, the CRDR is developing a disaster rehabilitation evidence-base, which will inform and educate the global professional rehabilitation community about needs and best practices in disaster rehabilitation. The Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (JRM) has commissioned this special report to announce a series of papers on disaster rehabilitation from the symposium's scientific programme. Authors are invited to submit papers on the topic for inclusion in this special series. JRM also encourages expert commentary in the form of Letters to the Editor.
Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Rivera, Jason David; Wood, Zachary David
This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide.
global distance from the nearest warehouse to a fore- casted homeless person. Demand patterns, along with correlated variables, such as population...and hierarchical clustering methods using several variables, to include disaster frequency, mortality, total number affected, and total economic ...Central America), Tanzania (Eastern Africa), India (South- ern Asia), China (Eastern Asia), Australia ( Australia and New Zealand), and Peru (South America
Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andreson
Following a severe August, 1990, tornado that struck Kane, Kendall, and Will Counties in Illinois, a consortium of concerned federal, state and university agencies decided to prepare a disaster mitigation handbook to serve the 20 states of the Northeastern Area. This second edition of Storms over the Urban Forest has been expanded to serve the needs of all 50 states....
perfect location for a conveyor belt operation. Not the type of conveyor that produces bicycles or car engines, but one that conducts a symphony of...relatively successful track record of previous relief operations. Therefore, the question at hand is to determine where the benefit in planning can
shouted, “to hell with you and the Birkenhead we got wives and kids ashore!”57 Most of the Canadian soldiers and sailors defending Halifax were not...a.m. Von Steuben departed Halifax Relief Committee established 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Armstrong, John Griffith. The Halifax Explosion and the
Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali
Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…
Ocean Tsunami Operations off the Coast of Sumatra ...................... 8 Table 5. Cost for Ships and Their Platforms for 2010 Haiti Earthquake ...9 Table 6. USN-Reported Incremental Costs Associated With the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Operations...Indian Ocean tsunami, 2010 earthquake in Haiti , and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake are just three instances when the USN has been a significant relief provider
Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.
THE ABILITY OF THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO DEFENCE FORCE (TTDF) LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS IN RESPONSE TO HUMANITARIAN...SUBTITLE The Ability of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force (TTDF) Logistics Infrastructure to Support Requirements in Response to...provide logistics support in response to Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief operations. This thesis examined Hurricane Ivan 2004
Full Text Available Occurrence of natural disaster inflicts irreparable injuries and symptoms on humans. In such conditions, affected people are waiting for medical services and relief commodities. Thus, quick reaction of medical services and relief commodities supply play important roles in improving natural disaster management. In this paper, a multi-objective non-linear credibility-based fuzzy mathematical programming model under uncertainty conditions is presented, which considers two vital needs in disaster time including medical services and relief commodities through location of hospitals, transfer points, and location routing of relief depots. The proposed model approaches reality by considering time, cost, failures probability in routes, and parameters uncertainty. The problem is first linearized and then global criterion method is applied for solving the multi objective model. Moreover, to illustrate model efficiency, a case study is performed on region 1 of Tehran city for earthquake disaster. Results demonstrate that if Decision-makers want to meet uncertainty with lowered risk, they have to choose a high minimum constraint feasibility degree even though the objective function will be worse.
Tatham, Peter; Rietjens, Sebastiaan Bas
The twenty-first century has seen a significant rise in all forms of disasters and this has resulted in military and humanitarian organisations becoming more frequently engaged in the provision of support to those affected. Achieving an efficient and effective logistic preparation and response is one of the key elements in mitigating the impact of such events, but the establishment of mechanisms to deliver an appropriately integrated civil-military approach remains elusive. Not least because of the high percentage of assistance budgets spent on logistics, this area is considered to represent fertile ground for developing improved processes and understanding. In practice, the demands placed on civilian and military logisticians are broadly similar, as is the solution space. Speaking a common language and using common concepts, it is argued, therefore, that the logistic profession should be in the vanguard of the development of an improved civil-military interface. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
arrive on the scene of a disaster within hours after it happens, including the DR1, DR2, and the EMOC . Figure 6. DR1 DR1 is an 83 foot part Truck... EMOC ) was a Military Field Hospital in Afghanistan in its former life. It consists of two 25ft x 26ft tents, a 18ft x 25ft tent and a 14ft x 25ft
When disaster strikes, electric power is usually the first critically important service to be lost. After several years of research and development, portable electric generator sets (gensets) are now entering the marketplace. The new gensets make use of solar electric panels known as photovoltaics (PV) to produce electricity. These gensets are reliable, safe to operate, highly mobile and will supply much-needed power for emergency response teams.
Klasing, Amanda M; Moses, P Scott; Satterthwaite, Margaret L
This article provides results from an online survey of humanitarian workers and volunteers that was conducted in May and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand how the humanitarian aid system adopts or incorporates human rights into its post-natural disaster work and metrics. Data collected from Haiti suggest that humanitarians have embraced a rights-based approach but that they do not agree about how this is defined or about what standards and indicators can be considered rights-based. This disagreement may reveal that humanitarians are aware of a mismatch between the rights-based approach to post-disaster humanitarian work and the legal framework of human rights. Using participation and accountability as examples, this article identifies and examines this mismatch and suggests that the humanitarian aid system should more fully embrace engagement with the human rights framework. To do so, the article concludes, humanitarian actors and the human rights community should have an open dialogue about the development of metrics that accurately reflect and monitor adherence to the legal framework of human rights. This would allow the humanitarian aid system to ensure its interventions enhance the capacity of the disaster-affected state to fulfill its human rights obligations, and would allow humanitarian and human rights actors alike to measure the impact of such interventions on the realization of human rights in post-natural disaster settings. Copyright © 2011 Klasing, Moses, and Satterthwaite. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
with the Taiwanese government, military, and relief personnel before rede - ploying to Sasebo. So, to review: first and foremost, the commodore and his...affairs roundtables and updated the status of operations via Twitter and Facebook . The staff in White Beach, Okinawa, supported the FCE and HAST by...2011 11:04:30 AM Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen • Aggressively use social media and web pages, accessible to
Jones, Brenda K.; Risty, Ron R.; Buswell, M.
The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center responds to emergencies in support of various government agencies for human-induced and natural disasters. This response consists of satellite tasking and acquisitions, satellite image registrations, disaster-extent maps analysis and creation, base image provision and support, Web-based mapping services for product delivery, and predisaster and postdisaster data archiving. The emergency response staff are on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and have access to many commercial and government satellite and aerial photography tasking authorities. They have access to value-added data processing and photographic laboratory services for off-hour emergency requests. They work with various Federal agencies for preparedness planning, which includes providing base imagery. These data may include digital elevation models, hydrographic models, base satellite images, vector data layers such as roads, aerial photographs, and other predisaster data. These layers are incorporated into a Web-based browser and data delivery service that is accessible either to the general public or to select customers. As usage declines, the data are moved to a postdisaster nearline archive that is still accessible, but not in real time.
Missair, Andres; Pretto, Ernesto A; Visan, Alexandru; Lobo, Laila; Paula, Frank; Castillo-Pedraza, Catalina; Cooper, Lebron; Gebhard, Ralf E
All modalities of anesthetic care, including conscious sedation, general, and regional anesthesia, have been used to manage earthquake survivors who require urgent surgical intervention during the acute phase of medical relief. Consequently, we felt that a review of epidemiologic data from major earthquakes in the context of urgent intraoperative management was warranted to optimize anesthesia disaster preparedness for future medical relief operations. The primary outcome measure of this study was to identify the predominant preoperative injury pattern (anatomic location and pathology) of survivors presenting for surgical care immediately after major earthquakes during the acute phase of medical relief (0-15 days after disaster). The injury pattern is of significant relevance because it closely relates to the anesthetic techniques available for patient management. We discuss our findings in the context of evidence-based strategies for anesthetic management during the acute phase of medical relief after major earthquakes and the associated obstacles of devastated medical infrastructure. To identify reports on acute medical care in the aftermath of natural disasters, a query was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, as well as an online search engine (Google Scholar). The search terms were "disaster" and "earthquake" in combination with "injury," "trauma," "surgery," "anesthesia," and "wounds." Our investigation focused only on studies of acute traumatic injury that specified surgical intervention among survivors in the acute phase of medical relief. A total of 31 articles reporting on 15 major earthquakes (between 1980 and 2010) and the treatment of more than 33,410 patients met our specific inclusion criteria. The mean incidence of traumatic limb injury per major earthquake was 68.0%. The global incidence of traumatic limb injury was 54.3% (18,144/33,410 patients). The pooled estimate of the proportion of limb injuries was calculated to be 67.95%, with a
Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia
In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.
Imagery combined with LiDAR data and LiDAR-derived products provides a significant source of geospatial data which is of use in disaster mitigation planning. Feature rich building inventories can be constructed from tools with 3D rooftop extraction capabilities, and two dimensional outputs such as DSMs and DTMs can be used to generate layers to support routing efforts in Spatial Analyst and Network Analyst workflows. This allows us to leverage imagery and LiDAR tools for disaster mitigation or other scenarios. Software such as ENVI, ENVI LiDAR, and ArcGIS® Spatial and Network Analyst can therefore be used in conjunction to help emergency responders route ground teams in support of disaster relief efforts. This is exemplified by a case study against the background of the magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti's capital city of Port-au-Prince on January 12, 2010. Soon after, both LiDAR data and an 8-band WorldView-2 scene were collected to map the disaster zone. The WorldView-2 scene was orthorectified and atmospherically corrected in ENVI prior to use. ENVI LiDAR was used to extract the DSM, DTM, buildings, and debris from the LiDAR data point cloud. These datasets provide a foundation for the 2D portion of the analysis. As the data was acquired over an area of dense urbanization, the majority of ground surfaces are roads, and standing buildings and debris are actually largely separable on the basis of elevation classes. To extract the road network of Port-au-Prince, the LiDAR-based feature height information was fused with the WorldView-2 scene, using ENVI's object-based feature extraction approach. This road network was converted to a network dataset for further analysis by the ArcGIS Network Analyst. For the specific case of Haiti, the distribution of blue tarps, used as accommodations for refugees, provided a spectrally distinct target. Pure blue tarp pixel spectra were selected from the WorldView-2 scene and input as a reference into ENVI's Spectral Angle
... and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have... U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I declare that such a major disaster exists..., Clay, Clayton, Crawford, Davis, Delaware, Des Moines, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Greene, Grundy, Hardin...
Geoffrey J Oravec
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Department of Defense participates in more than 500 missions every year, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, as part of medical stability operations. This study assessed perceptions of active-duty physicians regarding these activities and related these findings to the retention and overall satisfaction of healthcare professionals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An Internet-based survey was developed and validated. Of the 667 physicians who responded to the survey, 47% had participated in at least one mission. On a 7-point, Likert-type response scale, physicians reported favorable overall satisfaction with their participation in these missions (mean = 5.74. Perceived benefit was greatest for the United States (mean = 5.56 and self (mean = 5.39 compared to the target population (mean = 4.82. These perceptions were related to participants' intentions to extend their military medical service (total model R (2 = .37, with the strongest predictors being perceived benefit to self (β = .21, p<.01, the U.S. (β = .19, p<.01, and satisfaction (β = .18, p<.05. In addition, Air Force physicians reported higher levels of satisfaction (mean = 6.10 than either Army (mean = 5.27, Cohen's d = 0.75, p<.001 or Navy (mean = 5.60, Cohen's d = 0.46, p<.01 physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Military physicians are largely satisfied with humanitarian missions, reporting the greatest benefit of such activities for themselves and the United States. Elucidation of factors that may increase the perceived benefit to the target populations is warranted. Satisfaction and perceived benefits of humanitarian missions were positively correlated with intentions to extend time in service. These findings could inform the larger humanitarian community as well as military medical practices for both recruiting and retaining medical professionals.
Kligerman, Maxwell; Walmer, David; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia
We assessed healthcare provider perspectives of international aid four years after the Haiti Earthquake to better understand the impact of aid on the Haitian healthcare system and learn best practices for recovery in future disaster contexts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with the directors of local, collaborative, and aid-funded healthcare facilities in Leogane, Haiti. We coded and analysed the interviews using an iterative method based on a grounded theory approach of data analysis. Healthcare providers identified positive aspects of aid, including acute emergency relief, long-term improved healthcare access, and increased ease of referrals for low-income patients. However, they also identified negative impacts of international aid, including episodes of poor quality care, internal brain drain, competition across facilities, decrease in patient flow to local facilities, and emigration of Haitian doctors to abroad. As Haiti continues to recover, it is imperative for aid institutions and local healthcare facilities to develop a more collaborative relationship to transition acute relief to sustainable capacity building. In future disaster contexts, aid institutions should specifically utilise quality of care metrics, NGO Codes of Conduct, Master Health Facility Lists, and sliding scale payment systems to improve disaster response.
This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain ...
Lucci, William, Jr.
The Stafford Technical Center (STC) in Rutland, Vermont, operates with a mission statement that proudly touts its desire to "create a learning environment that promotes pride in work, a sense of self-worth and the ability to respect others by developing effective communication and life skills." Stafford acknowledges that these learning…
Johnson, Ralph J
This article reports the exploratory development and study efforts regarding the viability of a novel "going-in light" or "Going Light" medical component in support of US Army Pacific (USARPAC) Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) missions, namely, a BLU-MED ® incremental modular equipment package along with a Rapid Deployment Medical Team (RDMT). The study was conducted to uncover a way for the U.S. Army to: (1) better medically support the greater U.S. military Pacific Command, (2) prepare the Army for Pacific HA/DR contingencies, and (3) imprint a swift presence and positive contribution to Pacific HA/DR operations. The findings were derived from an intensive quasi-Military Decision Making Planning (MDMP) process, specifically, the Oracle Delphi. This process was used to: (1) review a needs assessment on the profile of disasters in general and the Pacific in particular and (2) critically examine the viability and issues surrounding a Pacific HA/DR medical response of going in light and incrementally. The Pacific area of operations contains 9 of 15 countries most at risk for disasters in the most disaster-prone region of the world. So, it is not a matter of whether a major, potentially large-scale lethal disaster will occur but rather when. Solid empirical research has shown that by every outcome measured Joint Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines) medical HA/DR operations have been inordinately successful and cost-effective when they employed U.S. Army medical assets inland near disasters' kinetic impact and combined sister services' logistical support and expertise. In this regard, USARPAC has the potential to go in light and successfully fill a vital HA/DR medical response gap with the RDMT and a BLU-MED ® . However, initially going in fast and light and expanding and contracting as the situation dictates comes with subsequent challenges as briefly described herein that must be addressed. The challenges to going in light are not
Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn
While anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Evans et al., 2006) indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a one-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD. PMID:19008736
This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367
Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.
Full Text Available This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.
notice of impending disaster, e.g., volcanoes ’ eruptions and incoming hurricanes, so that evacuation-related measures can be taken early to reduce...contained technical fire control - Hatch system / support structure / module service panels - Gas management system - Module control computer...others, such as those close to an active volcano , hurricane-prone region, or fault line. For such regions, measures can be taken to limit the effects
The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard
Full Text Available Recent disasters around the globe illustrate the unpredictability of their timing and the severity of their impact, making aid operations highly uncertain and complex. The aftermath of sudden-impact disasters, such as civil conflicts, wars, and natural disasters, are typically characterized by chaos and the urgent need for medical care for a massive number of casualties; however, damage to local healthcare infrastructures usually render them unable to deliver needed services. Foreign field hospitals, innovative self-sufficient emergency healthcare logistics systems deployed outside the hospitals’ country, constitute a temporary solution until the local facilities are repaired or rebuilt. These types of healthcare logistics system have been deployed with great success. However, not much is known about factors that may account for their success in the supply chain literature. In this study, we investigate military foreign field hospitals and explore general factors that may account for their effectiveness. Specifically, we look into military healthcare logistics systems, specifically foreign field hospitals (FFHs, to explore factors that may account for their responsiveness. We examine ten successful deployments of an experienced and effective military FFH through an exploratory case analysis to shed light into factors that may account for its success. Various propositions and avenues for future research are developed.
Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Schmidtlein, Mathew; Schelling, John; Frazier, T.
Successful evacuations are critical to saving lives from future tsunamis. Pedestrian-evacuation modeling related to tsunami hazards primarily has focused on identifying areas and the number of people in these areas where successful evacuations are unlikely. Less attention has been paid to identifying evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas for at-risk individuals that may have sufficient time to evacuate. We use the neighboring coastal communities of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, least-cost-distance evacuation modeling for supporting evacuation outreach, response, and relief planning. We demonstrate an approach that uses geospatial evacuation modeling to (a) map the minimum pedestrian travel speeds to safety, the most efficient paths, and collective evacuation basins, (b) estimate the total number and demographic description of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas, and (c) determine which paths may be compromised due to earthquake-induced ground failure. Results suggest a wide range in the magnitude and type of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas and highlight parts of the communities with no readily accessible assembly area. Earthquake-induced ground failures could obstruct access to some assembly areas, cause evacuees to reroute to get to other assembly areas, and isolate some evacuees from relief personnel. Evacuation-modeling methods and results discussed here have implications and application to tsunami-evacuation outreach, training, response procedures, mitigation, and long-term land use planning to increase community resilience.
... dated July 23, 2012, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford..., Mercer, Mingo, Monroe, Nicholas, Pendleton, Pleasants, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Raleigh, Randolph...
Daniel H. Mlenga
Full Text Available Sanitation related diseases have become endemic in southern Africa resulting in increased sanitation and hygiene morbidity and mortality. The region has experienced 318 400 cases of cholera and diarrhoea outbreaks between 2006 and 2012. There is insufficient financing for sanitation and hygiene activities, as people lack basic sanitation services, they engage in open defecation, the primary cause of faecal oral disease transmission. This study investigated Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS, subsidy free, community based disaster risk reduction approach, for open defecation reduction, in four constituencies in Swaziland. Data collected from households, through a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey illustrated that with appropriate training, involvement of traditional and community leaders, CLTS minimises open defecation. There is need of participatory rural appraisal through regular community monitoring and feedback meetings, as the disgust generated especially for women and youth, through the meetings, as well as group dynamics, steer the sustained construction and use of sanitation facilities. Lack of coordination between Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs leads to slow improvement of sanitation coverage, wherein the same communities are promoting CLTS and others are promoting Subsidy Based Sanitation Intervention (SBSI which involves subsidies. It is recommended that there be coordination between partners for harmonisation of messages and an integration of the CLTS and SBSI approaches.
... Street, Stafford, KS 67578. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Toni Griffin, 303-236-4378 (phone); or David... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and... opportunities for the public including hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, interpretation...
What has been brought to residents and communities by the nuclear power plant accident? Special and serious disaster relief procedure modification after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Fukushima
After the catastrophic 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami which struck cities and towns on the Japanese Pacific coast, Fukushima has been the focus of special and serious disaster relief procedures modification regarding nuclear power plant accidents. To date, the Japanese government has repeatedly issued evacuation orders to more than 100,000 residents. Huge numbers of refugees are still uncertain if they can return home and re-cultivate their farm land. Ambiguous public announcements concerning the radiation risks seem to have aggravated feelings of insecurity, fear and the desire to escape, both at home and abroad. This disaster has seriously undermined trust internationally and locally in Fukushima. Harmful rumors added further difficulties. In response to this disaster, local government, medical institutions, care facilities, police, emergency services and the self-defense forces continue to put their utmost effort into reconstruction. This seismic disaster has reminded us that supplies of water, electricity, gas, gasoline and telephone communication facilities are essential prerequisites for reconstruction and daily life. Disaster and radiation medical association teams actively participated in the rescue efforts, and a number of organized medical teams cared for about 15,000 refugees in 100 shelters. We also visited homebound patients, who were unable to evacuate from the 20-30 km inner evacuation area. In this relief role, we need to consider the following; (1) professionals, both healthcare and nuclear engineers, must always be prepared for unexpected circumstances, (2) the daily organic cooperation of individuals and units is closely linked to readiness against sudden risks, and (3) appropriate accountability is essential to assuage the fears of residents and refugees. A sincere learning process may benefit those innocent refugees who may be forced to abandon their homes permanently. (author)
... an emergency declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency.... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (``the Stafford Act... Medicine and the Tribal Nation of the Upper Sioux Community for emergency protective measures (Category B...
Scouten, William T; Mehalick, Melissa L; Yoder, Elizabeth; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Riddle, Mark S
/MH complaints increased as the mission progressed, were more prevalent in certain groups, and appeared to be related to ship's movement. These findings document the pattern of operational stress in a ship-based medical humanitarian mission and confirm unique ship-based stressors. This information may be used by planners of similar missions to develop mitigation strategies for known stressors and by preventive medicine, behavioral health specialists, and mission leaders to develop sensitive surveillance tools to better detect and manage operational stress while on mission. Scouten WT , Mehalick ML , Yoder E , McCoy A , Brannock T , Riddle MS . The epidemiology of operation stress during Continuing Promise 2011: a humanitarian response and disaster relief mission aboard a US Navy hospital ship. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):393-402.
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015
After disasters, displaced families long to return to a sense of normalcy. As such, reconnecting children and youth to school is especially important during this time. By providing the structure of the educational setting, schools can help children and youth overcome the trauma of a disaster and regain their academic and social stability. Once…
Genova, Gina L.
When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…
Relief sculpture is an art form that is midway between painting and sculpture in the round. It is a process in which the subject stands out or projects a surface from the background. The surface has several levels. It can be low relief or high relief (deep or almost round) or anywhere in between. The most common example of low relief is a coin…
Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression prevalence and associated risk factors among local disaster relief and reconstruction workers fourteen months after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a cross-sectional study.
Sakuma, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoko; Ueda, Ikki; Sato, Hirotoshi; Katsura, Masahiro; Abe, Mikika; Nagao, Ayami; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuji, Ichiro; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori
Many local workers have been involved in rescue and reconstruction duties since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) on March 11, 2011. These workers continuously confront diverse stressors as both survivors and relief and reconstruction workers. However, little is known about the psychological sequelae among these workers. Thus, we assessed the prevalence of and personal/workplace risk factors for probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and high general psychological distress in this population. Participants (N = 1294; overall response rate, 82.9%) were workers (firefighters, n = 327; local municipality workers, n = 610; hospital medical workers, n = 357) in coastal areas of Miyagi prefecture. The study was cross-sectional and conducted 14 months after the GEJE using a self-administered questionnaire which included the PTSD Checklist-Specific Version, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the K6 scale. Significant risk factors from bivariate analysis, such as displacement, dead or missing family member(s), near-death experience, disaster related work, lack of communication, and lack of rest were considered potential factors in probable PTSD, probable depression, and high general psychological distress, and were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of probable PTSD, probable depression, and high general psychological distress was higher among municipality (6.6%, 15.9%, and 14.9%, respectively) and medical (6.6%, 14.3%, and 14.5%, respectively) workers than among firefighters (1.6%, 3.8%, and 2.6%, respectively). Lack of rest was associated with increased risk of PTSD and depression in municipality and medical workers; lack of communication was linked to increased PTSD risk in medical workers and depression in municipality and medical workers; and involvement in disaster-related work was associated with increased PTSD and depression risk in municipality workers. The present results
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2006
Mental health experts consider the return to school to be a critical step in the healing process for children and youth whose lives have been disrupted by disasters. Going to school helps these students find the structure, normalcy, and routine that is essential to their health and well-being. Federal law (The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance…
Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...
also be safe from disasters such as tsunami, flood, volcano eruptions and heavy snowfall. Moreover, the stockpile would best be located near a...Ring of Fire,” it suffers from frequent cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons, floods, and even volcanic eruptions . According to the Asia-Pacific...peacekeeping operations (PKOs). Then, in 1995, the massive earthquake that struck Kobe and the sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway network served as
initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...
Dalgas, Karina Märcher
The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major point of origin of migrants worldwide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investigates citizens’ responses to the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I examine how individual migrants channel relief...... collective coping mechanisms in a way that complements equality as a principle of distributive justice, while at the same time they contradict the rather different principles of equity. However, on the level of practical implementation, these individual relief channels pose challenges to aspirations...... to provide equal as well as equitable relief. Drawing attention to the practice of excluding the migrants households of origin from the receipt of targeted relief, the article suggests that disaster management should re-consider the assumption that such households are automatically (the sole) recipients...
Otsu, Yuichi; Choh, Toshio; Yamazaki, Ichiro; Kosaka, Katsuhiko; Iguchi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Isao
Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electro-cardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electro-cardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.
Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I
Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.
Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.
Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram
Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.
Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...
... Funds for Explicit and Eligible Purposes B. Treatment of Small Business Administration Loans VII... consultation with the Small Business Administration (SBA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA... duplication of benefit inquiries--the Stafford Act and applicable ``necessary and reasonable cost principles...
Chen, Li-Chin; Fan, Jun-Yu
Due to its geographic position and the effect of changes in both global and island-specific environments, Taiwan is an area highly prone to natural disasters. While responsibility for national disaster prevention and rescue are distributed amongst various authorities, healthcare agencies hold sole responsibility for the treatment of injuries sustained during disaster events. Disaster casualties require differing levels of medical assistance. In order to respond systematically to disaster events, the government should require that all healthcare facilities operate a hospital emergency incident command system (HEICS). Past experience shows the important role that nurses play in the disaster relief process. The 911 disaster in the United States both helped reorient the direction of nursing education and emphasized teaching practical strategies, standard operating procedures, and frequently asked questions for nurses. Recognizing the limited research done worldwide on disaster nursing, the World Society of Disaster Nursing (WSDN) was established in 2008 in Kobe, Japan. The main purposes of the WSDN is to promote international academic exchange, establish an Internet information exchange platform, and organize international disaster nursing related activities. The WSDN has suggested that future research may focus in on critical issues that include post-disaster health status follow-up, exploration of the healthcare needs and other issues of disaster survivors, care skills development, and the potential for development of cooperative support networks between medical institutions.
... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Disaster Assistance § 20.327 When can the Bureau provide Disaster Assistance? Disaster assistance is immediate and/or short-term relief from a disaster and... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Disaster Assistance? 20.327...
EC2, accessed 20 January 2015, http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/. 196. Microsoft Azure , "Storage Pricing," MS Azure , accessed 20 January 2015, http...hakin9_wifi_EN.pdf. Microsoft Azure . “Storage Pricing.” MS Azure . Accessed 20 January 2015. http://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/details/storage/. Miller
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
This article uses the mass-media career of the British psychiatrist David Stafford-Clark (1916-1999) as a case study in the exercise of cultural authority by celebrity medical professionals in post-war Britain. Stafford-Clark rose to prominence in the mass media, particularly through his presenting work on medical and related topics for BBC TV and Radio, and was in the vanguard of psychiatrists and physicians who eroded professional edicts on anonymity. At the height of his career, he traded upon his celebrity status, and consequent cultural authority, to deliver mass media sermons on a variety of social, cultural, and political topics. Stafford-Clark tried to preserve his sense of personal and intellectual integrity by clinging to a belief that his authority in the public sphere was ultimately to be vindicated by his literary, intellectual, and spiritual significance. But as his credibility dwindled, he came to distrust the cultural intermediaries, such as broadcasters and publishers, who had supported him. PMID:28503668
Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz
Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.
This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain ...
Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...
... for information fusion with application to search-and-rescue and large scale disaster relief. The objective is to develop and to deploy tools to support the monitoring activities in an intervention caused by a large-scale disaster...
Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.
Full Text Available This study elaborates on the connection between socioeconomic status, education, and the ability to respond to natural disasters. Using the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters as teachable moments, I foreground how uneven access to resources and capital leave some people more vulnerable than others to natural disasters and how marginal communities inevitably bear the accompanying repercussions of who gets what, when, and how much in the postdisaster emergency relief and reconstruction phase. This occurs not necessarily and merely through a “natural” disaster, as the Boxer Day Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina, but through processes of social, political, and economic disempowerment associated with prior racialized histories and inequitable access to cultural capital.
Scherschel, Patricia M.
A study of the rate of growth in Stafford student loan debt levels compiled average indebtedness figures for graduate students, undergraduate students, proprietary students, and students enrolled in community colleges and other 2- and 3-year institutions. The study also attempted to develop payment stress indicators by tracking payment status data…
This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.
... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. The Great Midwest Floods in 1993 affected nine states and caused numerous industrial accidents, such as the inundation of water treatment plants and landfills...
Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.
Some of the former Apollo program astronauts and their family members and friends tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Observing one of the displays inside the ASVC are (from left): Lois Aldrin, wife of Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr.; Aldrin; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweickart; Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/ Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.
Tao, Peng; Chen, Chunliang
China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system. China's political cycle has no significant impact on disaster politics. A change in the emergency management system has a significant bearing on presidential disaster instructions, reflecting the strong influence of the concept of rule of law and benefiting the sustainable development of the emergency management system. In terms of disaster politics research, unlocking the black box of China's disaster politics and increasing the number of comparative political studies will benefit the development of empirical and theoretical study. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Hunt, Matthew R; Anderson, James A; Boulanger, Renaud F
Enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness of interventions is an increasing source of concern in the field of disaster response. As a result, the expansion of the disaster relief evidence base has been identified as a pressing need. There has been a corresponding increase in discussions of ethical standards and procedures for disaster research. In general, these discussions have focused on elucidating how traditional research ethics concerns can be operationalized in disaster settings. Less attention has been given to the exploration of the ethical implications of heterogeneity within the field of disaster research. Hence, while current efforts to discuss the ethics of disaster research in low-resource settings are very encouraging, it is clear that further initiatives will be crucial to promote the ethical conduct of disaster research. In this article, we explore how the ethical review of disaster research conducted in low-resource settings should account for this diversity. More specifically, we consider how the nature of the project (what?), sociopolitical and physical environment of research sites (where?), temporal proximity to the disaster event (when?), objectives motivating the research (why?), and identity of the stakeholders involved in the research process (who?) all relate to the ethics of disaster research.
Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.
checkered history of Ethiopian Disaster Management system (EDM) from circa mid-1970s. Having thrown some ... Having drawn from historical and archival documents and the extant literature, the objective of this ..... same time laying stress on a coordinated and concreted effort towards relief and recovery (ibid). In brief, the ...
Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...
Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H 2 O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.
... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 203.31 Section 203.31... EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Emergency Operations § 203.31 Authority... a disaster and the provision of disaster relief efforts under authority of The Stafford Act. (a...
Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan
Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.
Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo
. Men, on the other side, feel more often prepared to overcome the crises, but what emerges from the stress and the losses caused by disasters are different types of violence (self-harm and interpersonal violence). It is therefore necessary to recognize violence and mental health pathologies as part of the negative consequences that occur after natural disasters and that can be part of people's vulnerability if those events recur frequently. Living conditions, demographic, economic attributes, behaviours and beliefs reflect gender power relations in the disaster context. Failing to recognize it, may lead to inefficient community-based risk management plans. Gender dynamics in the disaster context should be the interest not only of non-governmental and/or international organizations. They should be a priority for researchers that have to contribute more in their studies to find a gendered differentiation, without limiting gender to an isolated attribute. This will help public authorities to develop sensitive management plans in order to let the disaster relief an easy process to achieve. This work will contribute to the scientific recognition of gender in the disaster management context, in order to raise further investigations on this topic. World Bank (2010) Natural Hazards, Unnatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Reports.
The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which
Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.
When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment
Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems Ã¢Â€Â“ GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information Ã¢Â€Â“ oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of Ã¢Â€Âœpeople as sensorsÃ¢Â€Â - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.
Full Text Available Disaster is not independent of society and culture and always happens in specific cultural and social contexts. Cultural and social characteristics influence the responses of people affected by disaster, as well as the process of disaster relief.As one of the countries in the world that suffer most from natural disasters, various ethnic groups in China vary greatly in psychology and behavior characteristics after major disasters due to different geographical environments and economic and political conditions. To launch an effective post-disaster psychosocial care, 1 it is necessary to consider how to satisfy material, health, and other fundamental biological needs of affected people; 2 it is necessary to relieve disaster victims of their mental pain (spiritual in Chinese and help them restore their psychological health; 3 it is necessary to revitalize the seriously unbalanced communities affected by disasters so that these communities would burst with vitality again. In addition, it is necessary to take specific ethnic and regional culture into account when helping people in these areas gradually achieve social adaptation and cultural identification. All these require us to intensify our efforts in the following four aspects: 1 to strengthen legislation and institutional construction in this field; 2 to help citizens master the most fundamental psychological principles and methods of coping with disasters to enable timely self-aid and mutual-aid; 3 to build a national database of the post-disaster psychosocial care teams; 4 to continue the research on disaster psychology, so as to provide a scientific basis as well as techniques and methods for implementing disaster relief efforts in a scientific way.
Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.
Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.
Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos
This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...
Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin
This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...
Halsted, Deborah D; Wilson, Daniel T
Libraries have always played a special role in times of disaster by continuing to provide crucial information and services. The Stafford Act of 2011, a federal government directive, designates libraries as among the temporary facilities delivering essential services, making a Continuity of Operations Plan imperative for libraries. Peppered with informative first-person narratives from librarians recounting emergency situations, Halsted, Clifton, and Wilson cover such topics as:An eight-step approach to developing a risk assessment planHow to draft a one-page service continuity planInformation
event found the U.S. government soliciting funds from the likes of Pfizer, UNICEF, UPS, Coca - Cola and the UN Development program. The U.S. president...requesting only minimal logistical and nuclear safety support.” Companies such as Coca - Cola and Costco did assist but only by working in tandem with
assessment, pathfinding for first responders, and security overwatch for civil disturbances. The base was ready to mobilize a single MQ-1 Predator...security overwatch . With most of the island’s communications equipment destroyed, an airborne radio asset would have been helpful for radio relays...mission of IAA, and TTPs of the most likely missions, such as search and rescue, damage assessment, and first-re- sponder overwatch . The scenario-based
the Samsung Galaxy SII (i9100) if it is the Unlocked GSM International Version that runs Gingerbread 2.3.4 OS; the 8 Samsung Nexus S if it is the...runs Gingerbread 2.3.4 OS (Naval Postgraduate School, 2013). Likewise he software can also be run on tablets, including the Samsung Galaxy Tab 7...Froyo 2.2 and Apple iOS devices running Zerion only, which includes the iPhone 4S if it is the Unlocked GSM International Version; the iPhone 4 if
Wishart, John P
.... There are currently many initiatives that attempt to enhance collaboration between United States Government Agencies, foreign governments, international government organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs...
49 vLex , Usc 334 - Sec. 334. Proclamation to Disperse," (2011), http://vlex.com/vid/sec-proclamation- disperse-19222198#. (Accessed...Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America’s Founding. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2005. vLex . Usc 334 - Sec. 334. Proclamation to Disperse." (2011
May Florence J. Franco
Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at pdrrmcguimaras.herokuapp.com to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.
Full Text Available Jean Stafford’s short story “The Interior Castle” (1946 and Sylvia Plath’s “Face Lift” and “The Plaster”, written in the early 1960s but published posthumously in Crossing the Water (1971, dwell on a theme which is rarely tackled in Postwar American literature: plastic surgery. Using a markedly mnemonic tone, both authors trace in detail the passive submission of female bodies to male (reconstruction. While the history of women in early Cold War America is usually associated with the patriarchal mystifying of housewifery, the myth of ideal, domestic femininity was also intimately related to bodily beauty. The demand for physical “perfection” which resulted from constructing women as, primarily, objects of male desire was mirrored in popular magazines, such as Ladies’ Home Journal, which endorsed women’s seeking medical aid to model themselves into “ideal” sexual mates (Meyerowitz in Meyerowitz ed., 244. Women’s submission to the notion that they should use any means necessary to become aesthetic objects to be appraised by men was thus represented as desirable. In this paper, I shall trace how both Stafford and Plath adopted a confessional style of writing in the abovementioned pieces in order to denounce the cultural construction of women as passive bodies to be moulded at will, instead of as active, thinking subjects. I shall argue that by reproducing the recollections and thoughts of the women being stitched, sewn and bandaged in their pieces, both authors articulated an alternative protofeminist aesthetics based on the beauty of what Stafford described as “inscrutable intelligence”.
On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.
Full Text Available China is a country often subjected to severe meteorological disasters. Analyzing the evolution of policies concerning the prevention and reduction of disasters is of great practical significance for the management of such natural events. We focus on typhoons and rainstorms as disaster sources and examine policy documents from two dimensions: basic policy instruments and disaster chains. Results indicate that (1 two levels of government (central and local focus on five policy instruments; namely, they are fund and material input, infrastructure construction and management, information sharing and support, goal programming, and regulations. Other policies, however, such as engineering construction of disaster prevention, or material reserves and international cooperation, are relatively few. (2 At present, both the Central and Local governments prefer both supply-oriented policies and environment-oriented policies to focusing on demand-oriented policies. (3 As for the disaster chains, the typhoon and rainstorm disaster policies are focused on disaster defense, disaster warning, and disaster relief, neglecting disaster evaluation and post-disaster reconstruction. Finally, we put forward suggestions for perfecting the policies of disaster evaluation and post-disaster reconstruction, and point out the importance of demand-oriented policies.
Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A
Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roy, Nobhojit; Thakkar, Purvi; Shah, Hemant
The technology and resource-rich solutions of the developed world may not be completely applicable to or replicable in disasters occurring in the developing world. With the current looming hazards of pandemics, climate change, global terrorism and conflicts around the world, policy makers and governments will need high-quality scientific data to make informed decisions for preparedness and mitigation. The evidence on disasters in peer-reviewed journals about the developing world was examined for quality and quantity in this systematic review. PubMed was searched using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms disasters, disaster medicine, rescue work, relief work, and conflict and then refined using the MeSH term developing country. The final list of selected manuscripts were analyzed by type of article, level of evidence, theme of the manuscript and topic, author affiliation, and region of the study. After searching and refining, developing countries. The majority was original research articles or reviews, and most of the original research articles were level IV or V evidence. Less than 25% of the authors were from the developing world. The predominant themes were missions, health care provision, and humanitarian aid during the acute phase of disasters in the developing world. Considering that 85% of disasters and 95% of disaster-related deaths occur in the developing world, the overwhelming number of casualties has contributed insignificantly to the world's peer-reviewed literature. Less than 1% of all disaster-related publications are about disasters in the developing world. This may be a publication bias, or it may be a genuine lack of submissions dealing with these disasters. Authors in this part of the world need to contribute to future disaster research through better-quality systematic research and better funding priorities. Aid for sustaining long-term disaster research may be a more useful investment in mitigating future disasters than short
Jones, B. K.
The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to national disaster authorities of countries affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each of the sixteen Member Agencies has committed resources to support the objectives of the Charter and thus helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property, getting critical information into the hands of the disaster responders so that they can make informed decisions in the wake of a disaster. The Charter Member Agencies work together to provide remotely sensed imagery to any requesting country that is experiencing a natural or man-made disaster. The Space Agencies contribute priority satellite taskings, archive retrievals, and map production, as well as imagery of the affected areas. The imagery is provided at no cost to the affected country and is made available for the immediate response phase of the disaster. The Charter also has agreements with Sentinel Asia to submit activation requests on behalf of its 30+ member countries and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (UN OOSA) and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)/ United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) to submit activations on behalf of United Nations relief agencies such as UNICEF and UNOCHA. To further expand accessibility to the Charter Member Agency resources, the Charter has implemented the Universal Access initiative, which allows any country's disaster management authority to submit an application, attend a brief training session, and after successful completion, become an Authorized User able to submit activation requests without assistance from Member Agencies. The data provided by the Charter is used for many purposes including damage assessments, reference maps, evacuation route planning, search and rescue operations, decision maker briefings, scientific evaluations, and other response activities.
Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.
The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions
Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad
India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.
The article examines the post-disaster response to recent urban-centered calamities in Indonesia, extracting lessons learned and identifying specific implications for public health. Brief background information is provided on the December 2004 tsunami and earthquakes in Aceh and Nias and the May 2006 earthquake in Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces. Another brief section summarizes the post-disaster response to both events, covering relief and recovery efforts. Lessons that have been learned from the post-disaster response are summarized, including: (a) lessons that apply primarily to the relief phase; (b) lessons for rehabilitation and reconstruction; (c) do's and don'ts; (d) city-specific observations. Finally, several implications for urban public health are drawn from the experiences to address health inequities in the aftermath of disasters. An initial implication is the importance of undertaking a serious assessment of health sector damages and needs shortly following the disaster. Then, there is a need to distinguish between different types of interventions and concerns during the humanitarian (relief) and recovery phases. As recovery proceeds, it is important to incorporate disaster preparation and prevention into the overall reconstruction effort. Lastly, both relief and recovery efforts must pay special attention to the needs of vulnerable groups. In conclusion, these lessons are likely to be increasingly relevant as the risk of urban-centered disasters increases.
... effect that a major disaster, as defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via the Internet: email@example.com . If you use a telecommunications device for...
The massive destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 provided an opportunity for many volunteers to be involved with disaster relief work. Exposure to devastation and personal trauma can have long-lasting and sometimes detrimental effects on people providing help. This qualitative study explored the experience of volunteer relief workers who provided disaster relief services after the hurricanes. Three major themes emerged: emotional reactions that included feelings of shock, fatigue, anger and grief as well as sleep disturbances; frustration with leadership; and life-changing personal transformation. Stress reactions were noted but appeared to be mitigated by feelings of compassion for the victims and personal satisfaction in being able to provide assistance. Suggestions are provided for further research.
Hanes, Patricia Frohock
Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.
Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel
Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.
In Pakistan, no management strategy existed for combating major disasters. A nuclear disaster involves the emission of insidious radiations which can cause different cancers if ingested with water. The water supplies in Pakistan are managed by local water boards or Water and Power Development Authority. A plant called Karachi Emergency Relief Plant (KERP) has been formulated for overcoming natural and nuclear disasters in Karachi. This plan does not consider the radioactive pollution of water supplies separately. It can be made more effective with certain improvements and used as a model for managing nuclear disasters in other cities of Pakistan. (author)
Matsunari, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Nao
To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki.
... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Are You Prepared? Information for Specific Groups Disaster Evacuation Centers Infection Control Infection Control Guidance for Community ...
Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning
conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...
Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel
of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...
Full Text Available The relief distributions after large disasters play an important role for rescue works. After disasters there is a high degree of uncertainty, such as the demands of disaster points and the damage of paths. The demands of affected points and the velocities between two points on the paths are uncertain in this article, and the robust optimization method is applied to deal with the uncertain parameters. This paper proposes a nonlinear location routing problem with half-time windows and with three objectives. The affected points can be visited more than one time. The goals are the total costs of the transportation, the satisfaction rates of disaster nodes, and the path transport capacities which are denoted by vehicle velocities. Finally, the genetic algorithm is applied to solve a number of numerical examples, and the results show that the genetic algorithm is very stable and effective for this problem.
Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...
... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.
Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W
Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.
Relief: Cache, OK 133 C18 Orthonormal Shaded Relief Image With Variable Sun Azimuth Merged With SIMCON Contours (20-meters Interval) 134 CI 9 Relief...lines generated by the program SIMCON 3 9 have been overlaid by FTL-developed software. 3 9 Thle next two imiages illustrate the relief contour option of
Talbot, Max; Meunier, Bethann; Trottier, Vincent; Christian, Michael; Hillier, Tracey; Berger, Chris; McAlister, Vivian; Taylor, Scott
The Canadian Forces' (CF) deployable hospital, 1 Canadian Field Hospital, was deployed to Haiti after an earthquake that caused massive devastation. Two surgical teams performed 167 operations over a 39-day period starting 17 days after the index event. Most operations were unrelated to the earthquake. Replacing or supplementing the destroyed local surgical capacity for a brief period after a disaster can be a valuable contribution to relief efforts. For future humanitarian operations/disaster response missions, the CF will study the feasibility of accelerating the deployment of surgical capabilities.
Daniels, R Steven
This paper examines the shift from vulnerability to political responsiveness in presidential and gubernatorial disaster decisions in the United States from 1953-2009 (President Dwight D. Eisenhower to President Barack Obama) using annual request, declaration, and approval data from multiple sources. It makes three key conclusions: first, the 1988 Stafford Act expanded federal coverage to all categories of disasters, added a significant range of individual types of assistance, and provided extensive funding for recovery planning. Second, the election effects on disaster decisions increased over time whereas the impact of social and economic vulnerability (measured by scope of disaster) declined. Third, the changes affected governors more than presidents, and the choices of governors drove those of presidents. The analysis underscores the increasingly political nature of the disaster decision-making process, as well as the difficulty in emphasising mitigation and preparedness as intensively as response and recovery. Proactive intervention yields fewer political rewards than responsiveness. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
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Lei, Tianjie; Zhang, Yazhen; Wang, Xingyong; Fu, Jun'e.; Li, Lin; Pang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaolei; Kan, Guangyuan
Remote sensing system fitted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can obtain clear images and high-resolution aerial photographs. It has advantages of strong real-time, flexibility and convenience, free from influence of external environment, low cost, low-flying under clouds and ability to work full-time. When an earthquake happened, it could go deep into the places safely and reliably which human staff can hardly approach, such as secondary geological disasters hit areas. The system can be timely precise in response to secondary geological disasters monitoring by a way of obtaining first-hand information as quickly as possible, producing a unique emergency response capacity to provide a scientific basis for overall decision-making processes. It can greatly enhance the capability of on-site disaster emergency working team in data collection and transmission. The great advantages of UAV remote sensing system played an irreplaceable role in monitoring secondary geological disaster dynamics and influences. Taking the landslides and barrier lakes for example, the paper explored the basic application and process of UAV remote sensing in the disaster emergency relief. UAV high-resolution remote sensing images had been exploited to estimate the situation of disaster-hit areas and monitor secondary geological disasters rapidly, systematically and continuously. Furthermore, a rapid quantitative assessment on the distribution and size of landslides and barrier lakes was carried out. Monitoring results could support relevant government departments and rescue teams, providing detailed and reliable scientific evidence for disaster relief and decision-making.
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
This paper reviews the effect of environmental disasters on migration. Although there is an increase of environmental disasters and migration over the past years, the relationship is complex. While some authors find that environmental disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Migration appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks. Remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dam...
Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel
The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.
... and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have... Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I declare that such a major..., McLeod, Morrison, Pope, Sibley, Stearns, Stevens, Swift, Traverse, and Wilkin Counties for Public...
Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.
This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment
Full Text Available The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of “box-counting”can be applied.
This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas
Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.
Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.
Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian
It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.
Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan
The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.
Matin, N; Taher, M
Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affected by cyclones and floods, as well as chronic hazards such as arsenic poisoning. NGOs have played a major role in bringing concerns related to risk management on to the national agenda and promoting a shift of focus from mere relief response to disaster mitigation and preparedness. The government has, after earlier scepticism, now accepted NGOs as major partners in these tasks. Innovative approaches, such as the use of microfinance, have been applied; many of which are related to preserving the gains of development efforts as part of rehabilitation. NGOs have pressured for better coordination with government. Improved structures are now approved, but it is still too early to judge their impact. Despite progress, neither NGOs nor governmental agencies have clearly defined roles in the effort to link disaster management priorities. This will ensure that longer-term development efforts build on local capacities and reduce vulnerabilities.
... Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... with her quality of life, and acupuncture brought relief from severe shoulder pain. "I'm functional again. That's the best way ...
The advancement of location-based services now covers indoor location positioning. Under disaster in the building, the sufferer might faint, be wounded, or enclosed by structures in the dark. In the cases, the sufferer could not let the relief team know her position in the building. The LBS server provides location tracking or positioning of her device for quick relief. In the service UltraWideBand is used by its good penetrability. In dead-reckoning operation that the device is lost on the sensor network, the relief team traces logged profiles of location tracks. The strategy regards the privacy concerns.
... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I... section 272 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, or § 64.1903 of this chapter, the price cap LEC...
... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages...
Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.
Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).
Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.
Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…
Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.
The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.
Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry
As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
... technology, public information, integrated emergency management, and train-the-trainer. In order to meet..., training experience, and classroom environment. Section 611 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g...
... Federal financial assistance (except assistance pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Putnam 540165 July 1, 1975, ......do Do. County. Emerg; December 18, 1985, Reg; February 2, 2012, Susp. Buffalo, Town of, Putnam 540166 July 16, 1975, ......do Do. County. Emerg; December 18, 1985, Reg...
... financial assistance (except assistance pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency.... Fulton County. 1974, Emerg; June 15, 1981, Reg; February 4, 2011, Susp. Mark, Village of, Putnam 170572 April 23, 1976, ......do Do. County. Emerg; January 3, 1985, Reg; February 4, 2011, Susp. Putnam County...
... defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via email: firstname.lastname@example.org . If you use a telecommunications device for the...
van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Karátson, Dávid
The concept of volcanic inverted relief is almost as old as geology. It was identified by Desmarest (1870) in Central France, and by Whitney (1879) in California, and quickly began to be used as a tool in the uniformitarianism / catastrophism argument. In the 20th century inverted relief was identified and described in many volcanic fields by Cotton, later explored in Australia by Ollier, and most of the known examples presented in their textbooks are from Australia.Study continued in Central France, in the 19th and 20th centuries, notably on the Montagne de la Serre at the southern end of the Chaîne des Puys. This latter site has the advantage of having multiple ages of inverted relief stacked closely together over a rift margin fault. This creates especially clear and intricate inverted relief types. However, apart from these studies inverted relief has received little attention, yet is acknowledged to be present in most volcanic environments to some degree. The advent of planetary geology has partly brought inverted relief back to the fore, as it is clearly present on Mars. We review the characteristics of inverted relief and discuss their use as a tracer of long-term landscape evolution. At a broad scale it can be used for determining differential erosion rates. In turn, these can be used for assessing feedback processes between erosion, exhumation and mantle melting in rifts. Inverted relief also protects surfaces that can then record tectonic movement. This is used to clarify the structure of the Limagne Rift margin. At a more local scale, the inverted relief is often characterised by landsliding and deep seated gravitational deformation that is an important hazard in volcanic terrains. Several inverted relief related landslide disasters are recorded in the French Massif Central, and a landslide map is presented for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault area. Finally a global review of inverted relief geosites is presented.
Kawasaki, Akiyuki; Berman, Merrick Lex; Guan, Wendy
This paper examines changes in disaster response and relief efforts and recent web-based geospatial technological developments through an evaluation of the experiences of the Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, of the Sichuan (2008) and Haiti (2010) earthquake responses. This paper outlines how conventional GIS (geographic information systems) disaster responses by governmental agencies and relief response organisations and the means for geospatial data-sharing have been transformed into a more dynamic, more transparent, and decentralised form with a wide participation. It begins by reviewing briefly at historical changes in the employment of geospatial technologies in major devastating disasters, including the Sichuan and Haiti earthquakes (case studies for our geospatial portal project). It goes on to assess changes in the available dataset type and in geospatial disaster responders, as well as the impact of geospatial technological changes on disaster relief effort. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learned from recent responses and offers some thoughts for future development. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
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Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel
This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....
Vento, Carla J.
A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)
Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M
Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.
Su, Wen-Ray; Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Huang, Kuei-Chin; Hsieh, Ching-En
To facilitate disaster response and enhance the effectiveness of disaster prevention and relief, people and emergency response personnel should be able to rapidly acquire and understand information when disasters occur. However, in existing disaster platforms information is typically presented in text tables, static charts, and maps with points. These formats do not make it easy for users to understand the overall situation. Therefore, this study converts data into human-readable charts by using data visualization techniques, and builds a disaster information dashboard that is concise, attractive and flexible. This information dashboard integrates temporally and spatially correlated data, disaster statistics according to category and county, lists of disasters, and any other relevant information. The graphs are animated and interactive. The dashboard allows users to filter the data according to their needs and thus to assimilate the information more rapidly. In this study, we applied the information dashboard to the analysis of landslides during three typhoon events in 2016: Typhoon Nepartak, Typhoon Meranti and Typhoon Megi. According to the statistical results in the dashboard, the order of frequency of the disaster categories in all three events combined was rock fall, roadbed loss, slope slump, road blockage and debris flow. Disasters occurred mainly in the areas that received the most rainfall. Typhoons Nepartak and Meranti mainly affected Taitung, and Typhoon Megi mainly affected Kaohsiung. The towns Xiulin, Fengbin, Fenglin and Guangfu in Hualian County were all issued with debris flow warnings in all three typhoon events. The disaster information dashboard developed in this study allows the user to rapidly assess the overall disaster situation. It clearly and concisely reveals interactions between time, space and disaster type, and also provides comprehensive details about the disaster. The dashboard provides a foundation for future disaster visualization
Nagamine, Masanori; Harada, Nahoko; Shigemura, Jun; Dobashi, Kosuke; Yoshiga, Makiko; Esaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Tanichi, Masaaki; Yoshino, Aihide; Shimizu, Kunio
Defense Force workers engaged in disaster relief activities might suffer from strong psychological stress due to the tasks that they had been involved. We evaluated how living environments, work environments, and individual factors psychologically affect those who engaged in disaster relief activities. Data generated with 1506 personnel engaged in the Great East Japan Earthquake relief activity were analyzed. Those who scored ≥25 points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high post-traumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively. The multiple logistic regression analysis extracted living environment (camping within the shelter sites) as the significant risk factor for both high-PTSR (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI 2.04-5.64, p living environment in which they can keep an appropriate distance from the victims.
Prasad, Sameer; Su, Hung-Chung; Altay, Nezih; Tata, Jasmine
Family-owned micro enterprises operating within the informal sector of most developing countries provide millions of citizens with a livelihood and are the economic backbone of many communities. Yet, the turbulence that emanates up or down respective supply chains following a disaster can cause these entities to fail. This study develops a model that recognises the relative weakness of micro enterprises to such disaster-related shocks. The model proposes that micro enterprises can moderate the effect of such shocks by creating resilience through cognitive preparation, continuous learning, and the generation of various forms of social capital (cognitive, relational, and structural). The propositions for the model are established through an extensive literature review, coupled with examples drawn from the documents of humanitarian agencies performing disaster relief work in India. This model also serves as a preliminary basis with which to derive metrics to set benchmarks or to assess the viability of a micro enterprise's ability to survive disaster-related shocks. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces` Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995.
A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995
Kieffer, Susan W.
Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility
Zawani Zahari, Nur; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad
The recent flood event occurred in 2014 had caused disastrous effects in Peninsular Malaysia in states of Kelantan, Pahang, Terengganu, Perak, Johor and Perlis. Perak state was reported with 12,115 victims from 2,896 families registered at 77 relief shelters. There are several issues encountered by the victims and related agencies which caused inconveniences and interruptions during the flooding period. Besides, the usage of public buildings as relief shelters contributes to deterioration of the infrastructures whereby their suitability, convenient, capacity and safety might not be optimum for longer period of time. This paper focuses on the assessment of relief shelters established in Perak Tengah district, Perak. Standards and guidelines for relief shelters were reviewed according to the most relevant agreed principles for humanitarian response. Data and information in this study were obtained from survey activities, interview sessions and observations. In Perak Tengah, more than 50% of the previous relief shelters were public buildings with low capacity areas. Strategic location of shelters with proper design standards should be established to ensure safe and healthy environment for the victims. Findings from this paper provide important outcomes to serve as better preparation in handling future disaster.
Zahari Nur Zawani
Full Text Available The recent flood event occurred in 2014 had caused disastrous effects in Peninsular Malaysia in states of Kelantan, Pahang, Terengganu, Perak, Johor and Perlis. Perak state was reported with 12,115 victims from 2,896 families registered at 77 relief shelters. There are several issues encountered by the victims and related agencies which caused inconveniences and interruptions during the flooding period. Besides, the usage of public buildings as relief shelters contributes to deterioration of the infrastructures whereby their suitability, convenient, capacity and safety might not be optimum for longer period of time. This paper focuses on the assessment of relief shelters established in Perak Tengah district, Perak. Standards and guidelines for relief shelters were reviewed according to the most relevant agreed principles for humanitarian response. Data and information in this study were obtained from survey activities, interview sessions and observations. In Perak Tengah, more than 50% of the previous relief shelters were public buildings with low capacity areas. Strategic location of shelters with proper design standards should be established to ensure safe and healthy environment for the victims. Findings from this paper provide important outcomes to serve as better preparation in handling future disaster.
Poncelet, J L; de Ville de Goyet, C
Latin American and Caribbean countries are prone to natural, technological and "complex" disasters. This vulnerability to catastrophic events led the region to undertake the long journey away from an ad hoc response towards institutional preparedness and, more recently, to disaster prevention and mitigation. This article attempts to outline the definitions and basic principles of institutional emergency preparedness, including reliance on the more effective use of existing resources, rather than establishment of special stockpiles and equipment; the critical importance of general participation and awareness; and the interrelationship of the health sector with others and the potential for leadership. How to assess the level of preparedness is discussed. Stress is placed on the fact that preparedness is traditionally confused with the existence of a written disaster plan. Preparedness should be seen as a never-ending, complex process that can only be assessed through an in-depth review of coordination, planning, training and logistic elements. There is also a fundamental distinction between preparedness, i.e., "getting ready to respond" and disaster prevention/mitigation, which aims to reduce the health impact. The latter calls for the collaboration of engineers, architects, planners and economists with the health sector. It is illustrated by the regional initiative in the Americas to reduce the physical vulnerability of hospitals to earthquakes and hurricanes. In spite of the encouraging achievements, much remains to be done. Weak areas include preparedness for technological disasters, and a true inter-country preventive approach to common disasters across borders. Electronic communications through the Internet will also help to suppress borders and boundaries, contributing to a truly collective approach to emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination.
Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka
Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)
Full Text Available In recent decays, there has been an extensive improvement in technology and knowledge; hence, human societies have started to fortify their urban environment against the natural disasters in order to diminish the context of vulnerability. Local administrators as well as government officials are thinking about new options for disaster management programs within their territories. Planning to set up local disaster management facilities and stock pre-positioning of relief items can keep an urban area prepared for a natural disaster. In this paper, based on a real-world case study for a municipal district in Tehran, a multi-objective mathematical model is developed for the location-distribution problem. The proposed model considers the role of demand in an urban area, which might be affected by neighbor wards. Integrating decision-making process for a disaster helps to improve a better relief operation during response phase of disaster management cycle. In the proposed approach, a proactive damage estimation method is used to estimate demands for the district based on worst-case scenario of earthquake in Tehran. Since such model is designed for an entire urban district, it is considered to be a large-scale mixed integer problem and hence, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve the model.
Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.
The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.
Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza
Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255
Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza
Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.
Full Text Available The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic–ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity. Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region
Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank
Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single
Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji
Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.
Johnson, Heather L; Ling, Catherine G; McBee, Elexis C
Older adults are disproportionately affected by disaster. Frail elders, individuals with chronic diseases, conditions, or disabilities, and those who live in long-term care facilities are especially vulnerable. Purpose The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to describe the system-wide knowledge and skills that multi-disciplinary health care providers need to provide appropriate care for the elderly during domestic-humanitarian and disaster-relief efforts. Data sources A systematic search protocol was developed in conjunction with a research librarian. Searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were conducted using terms such as Disaster, Geological Processes, Aged, Disaster Planning, and Vulnerable Populations. Forty-six articles met criteria for inclusion in the review. Policies and guidance regarding evacuating versus sheltering in place are lacking. Tenets of elderly-focused disaster planning/preparation and clarification of legal and ethical standards of care and liability issues are needed. Functional capacity, capabilities, or impairments, rather than age, should be considered in disaster preparation. Older adults should be included in disaster planning as population-specific experts. Implications for Practice A multifaceted approach to population-specific disaster planning and curriculum development should include consideration of the biophysical and psychosocial aspects of care, ethical and legal issues, logistics, and resources.
Southwick, Steven M; Satodiya, Ritvij; Pietrzak, Robert H
The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity. To achieve this goal, this body of literature suggests that it is important for disaster mental health workers to partner with community leaders, organizations, and the population at large to understand community vulnerabilities, take advantage of existing strengths, and respect cultural factors implicated in disaster recovery. It further suggests that an effective community-based approach to disaster recovery will make psychosocial support and skill-building programs available to large numbers of survivors, which is critical for responding to future national and international disasters. Continued high-quality research that is comprehensive and considers not only relevant psychological, social, cultural, and biological factors but also interrelations between individuals, organizations and communities is needed to advance this relatively new and important direction of the disaster mental health field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.
Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro
A Conceptual Framework upon which the study of disasters can be organized is essential for understanding the epidemiology of disasters, as well as the interventions/responses undertaken. Application of the structure provided by the Conceptual Framework should facilitate the development of the science of Disaster Health. This Framework is based on deconstructions of the commonly used Disaster Management Cycle. The Conceptual Framework incorporates the steps that occur as a hazard progresses to a disaster. It describes an event that results from the changes in the release of energy from a hazard that may cause Structural Damages that in turn, may result in Functional Damages (decreases in levels of function) that produce needs (goods and services required). These needs can be met by the goods and services that are available during normal, day-to-day operations of the community, or the resources that are contained within the community's Response Capacity (ie, an Emergency), or by goods and services provided from outside of the affected area (outside response capacities). Whenever the Local Response Capacity is unable to meet the needs, and the Response Capacities from areas outside of the affected community are required, a disaster occurs. All responses, whether in the Relief or Recovery phases of a disaster, are interventions that use the goods, services, and resources contained in the Response Capacity (local or outside). Responses may be directed at preventing/mitigating further deterioration in levels of functions (damage control, deaths, injuries, diseases, morbidity, and secondary events) in the affected population and filling the gaps in available services created by Structural Damages (compromise in available goods, services, and/or resources; ie, Relief Responses), or may be directed toward returning the affected community and its components to the pre-event functional state (ie, Recovery Responses). Hazard Mitigation includes interventions designed to
We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus
A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...
Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein
in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...
The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)
water levels in the Elbe still reached threatening heights on an annual basis, the next sixty years did not produce any flood event that overran the city's flood defences. In hindsight, Dresden experienced what historians of disaster call a disaster memory gap, whereby the collective memory of what....... The recent spate of floods in Dresden prompts us to investigate the nature of the relationship between the ordinary and the exceptional, since events that were once thought to be rare and extraordinary suddenly seem to be more and more frequent. In the thesis, I explore how the citizens of Dresden...... are adjusting to a new understanding of the future in which recurring floods may prove to be the rule rather than the exception. In other words, floods have become what I term usual disasters. The ethnographic research that I conducted in 2014-2015 explores how locals, at this specific moment in time, perceive...
Maggs, William Ward
Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.
... certain areas of the State of Mississippi resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight- line winds..., and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject to...
... certain areas of the State of Georgia resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight line winds, and... State, and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject to...
... certain areas of the State of Alabama resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and... State, and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject to...
... resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, and flooding beginning on February 10, 2013, and continuing, is of... the State, and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject...
Canter . 26 July 2006. 1. 10 Thomas A Garrett and Russell S. Sobel. “The political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments.” The Federal Bank of St. Louis...and, Brownie, you’re doing a heck of a job. The FEMA Director is working 24…they’re working 24 hours a day.”19 David McEntire highlights the...releases/2005/09/20050902-2.html. Last accessed 9 November 2007. 20 David A. McEntire. Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for
Because poor countries are vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters, the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) launched on 30 March a new policy to better integrate natural disaster risk reduction into development and humanitarian activities. Gareth Thomas, U.K. development minister, said, ``There is nothing we can do to stop hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes from striking. But what we can do is help put simple measures in place, such as better built houses, schools, and hospitals alongside more high-tech early warning systems to reduce the loss of life.''
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.
A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…
Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.
This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that
Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.
Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…
This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model.
Full Text Available After massive earthquakes and other large-scale disasters, existing communication infrastructure may become unavailable and, therefore, it can be quite difficult for relief organizations to fully grasp the impact of the disaster on the affected region. Consequently, this will be the cause of delays to offer the strategic assistance, and to provide water and food, etc. In order to solve the problem of re-establishing communication infrastructure to allow for information gathering, we developed an ad hoc mobile communications network for disaster-struck areas using ZigBee. As the communication speed of ZigBee is low, we propose a problem-specific image compression method for the multimedia data visualization. By using the proposed method combined with GPS information, it is possible to quickly grasp the damage situation in the region. Through our communication experiments in Tsukuba City, Japan we confirm the effectiveness of our system as a disaster information gathering and management system.
Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation. ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ... Key words: disaster management, drought, pre-disaster action, post-disaster action, hazards, disaster, Ethiopian disaster management system, Ethiopia.
Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task
Puspito Sari, D. A.; Listiyowati, I.; Nefianto, T.; Lasmono
Bogor regency consists of 40 districts, 23 are prone tonatural disasters. Klapanunggal district is listed in 10 districts declared as most vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters could lead to loss of property and infrastructure damage and will affect the food security in the region. Food shortages is one example of the condition which causes food insecurity. The aim of this research is to analyze the government's food security strategy in anticipation of disaster with a case study of food insecurity in Klapanunggal district. The analysis suggested that; 1) FSVA is an appropriate program to identify food shortage areas, 2) Food Shortage Relief Program (Program Penanganan Daerah Rawan Pangan-PDRP) is the optimal efforts in reducing food shortages in the region, 3)The mismatch between FSVA indicators and Food Shortage Relief Program makes Klapanunggal district difficult in achievingfree status food-shortage. Based on the analysis, it is suggested that the implementation of Food Shortages Relief Program could be carried out based on the priority issues and implemented with integrated coordination and assistance among stakeholders. Such priority issues, integrated coordination and assistance are fully analyzed in this study.
In China, the assessment of the earthquake disasters information is mainly based on the inversion of the seismic source mechanism and the pre-calculated population data model, the real information of the earthquake disaster is usually collected through the government departments, the accuracy and the speed need to be improved. And in a massive earthquake like the one in Mexico, the telecommunications infrastructure on ground were damaged , the quake zone was difficult to observe by satellites and aircraft in the bad weather. Only a bit of information was sent out through maritime satellite of other country. Thus, the timely and effective development of disaster relief was seriously affected. Now Chinese communication satellites have been orbiting, people don't only rely on the ground telecom base station to keep communication with the outside world, to open the web page,to land social networking sites, to release information, to transmit images and videoes. This paper will establish an earthquake information collection system which public can participate. Through popular social platform and other information sources, the public can participate in the collection of earthquake information, and supply quake zone information, including photos, video, etc.,especially those information made by unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) after earthqake, the public can use the computer, potable terminals, or mobile text message to participate in the earthquake information collection. In the system, the information will be divided into earthquake zone basic information, earthquake disaster reduction information, earthquake site information, post-disaster reconstruction information etc. and they will been processed and put into database. The quality of data is analyzed by multi-source information, and is controlled by local public opinion on them to supplement the data collected by government departments timely and implement the calibration of simulation results ,which will better guide
Every year, suddenly, large-scale threats of health or disasters occur across Europe. There are many types of them: explosions, legionellose and other epidemics of infectious diseases, large-scale traffic accidents, unsafe food, and large-scale air pollution.
Full Text Available Every year, suddenly, large-scale threats of health or disasters occur across Europe. There are many types of them: explosions, legionellose and other epidemics of infectious diseases, large-scale traffic accidents, unsafe food, and large-scale air pollution.
When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit. Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR). Date Released: 7/23/2012.
Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia
While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J
Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.
Murthy, Dhiraj; Gross, Alexander J
This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations. We conclude that social media use during disruptive events is complex and understanding these nuanced behaviors is important across the social sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T.-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W. S.
Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897
Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank
To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended.
Full Text Available Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS, which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m.
Jacob, Binu; Mawson, Anthony R; Payton, Marinelle; Guignard, John C
Misconceptions about disasters and their social and health consequences remain prevalent despite considerable research evidence to the contrary. Eight such myths and their factual counterparts were reviewed in a classic report on the public health impact of disasters by Claude de Ville de Goyet entitled, The Role of WHO in Disaster Management: Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991), and two additional myths and facts were added by Pan American Health Organization. In this article, we reconsider these myths and facts in relation to Hurricane Katrina, with particular emphasis on psychosocial needs and behaviors, based on data gleaned from scientific sources as well as printed and electronic media reports. The review suggests that preparedness plans for disasters involving forced mass evacuation and resettlement should place a high priority on keeping families together--and even entire neighborhoods, where possible--so as to preserve the familiar and thereby minimize the adverse effects of separation and major dislocation on mental and physical health.
Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W S
Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m.
Full Text Available Background: Disaster management relies on the prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management. Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and relevant documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors. Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages
Tanzi, Tullio Joseph; Chandra, Madhu; Isnard, Jean; Camara, Daniel; Sebastien, Olivier; Harivelo, Fanilo
Information plays a key role in crisis management and relief efforts for natural disaster scenarios. Given their flight properties, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) provide new and interesting perspectives on the data gathering for disaster management. A new generation of UAVs may help to improve situational awareness and information assessment. Among the advantages UAVs may bring to the disaster management field, we can highlight the gain in terms of time and human resources, as they can free rescue teams from time-consuming data collection tasks and assist research operations with more insightful and precise guidance thanks to advanced sensing capabilities. However, in order to be useful, UAVs need to overcome two main challenges. The first one is to achieve a sufficient autonomy level, both in terms of navigation and interpretation of the data sensed. The second major challenge relates to the reliability of the UAV, with respect to accidental (safety) or malicious (security) risks. This paper first discusses the potential of UAV in assisting in different humanitarian relief scenarios, as well as possible issues in such situations. Based on recent experiments, we discuss the inherent advantages of autonomous flight operations, both lone flights and formation flights. The question of autonomy is then addressed and a secure embedded architecture and its specific hardware capabilities is sketched out. We finally present a typical use case based on the new detection and observation abilities that UAVs can bring to rescue teams. Although this approach still has limits that have to be addressed, technically speaking as well as operationally speaking, it seems to be a very promising one to enhance disaster management efforts activities.
Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.
One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development
Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun
Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.
Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun
Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363
Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.
Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Noorizhar; Khalid, Khairin Norhashidah
As the frequency of disaster occurrence increases, the world cities today are getting more difficult in terms of the management of the event. One of the most discussed issues today is the management of the post-disaster recovery that involves several stages such as the planning, management of multiple stakeholders, restoration, reconstruction and delivery. It is important to note that input from related stakeholders is necessary to make the right decision during this most critical period. In the process of building back after a disaster, it is important to ensure the newly constructed infrastructures are built to be more resilient and able to withstand a certain level of disaster recurrence. Elements of disaster risk reduction should be incorporated in the planning, redesign, construction and the operation of the built environment. In Malaysia, the disaster management has been the responsibility of the Disaster Management and Relief Committee that consists of agencies at the central, state and local levels. This is to ensure that all aspects are being considered and to be more effective in managing the situation.
..., including valves, frangible (rupture) disks, vacuum vents and combination devices must certify that the... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valves. A secondary pressure relief system consisting of another pressure relief valve in...
Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Camran R.
Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2...
Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development Integración de la salud bucodental en el Plan Nacional de Salud de Haití: de la ayuda en casos de desastre al desarrollo sostenible
Full Text Available In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.En el 2010, Haití padeció tres emergencias nacionales devastadoras: un terremoto de 7,0 de magnitud que causó la muerte de 200 000 personas y
Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei
Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)
Mirzapour, S. A.; Wong, K. Y.; Govindan, K.
, a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers......Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research...... the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence...
permanent population of the island was increased (due to the fact that foreign immigrants moved to the island), we will use the data of 2001 census, since...25 37 60 0 Source is Google Earth 54 mention that regular trade routes have not been established among the harbors of Kefalonia (except...per casualty Hygiene kit 2.044 1 kit per person Toothbrush 0.019 1 per person Toothpaste 0.151 1 per person Comb 0.025 1 per person Soap, toilet
Hunt, Matthew; Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa
Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs), in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries. We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques. Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process. Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be taken to ensure that
Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...
Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank
Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.
PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...
... Issues Subscribe June 2016 Print this issue Seeking Allergy Relief When Breathing Becomes Bothersome En español Send ... Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Allergy Symptoms Runny or stuffy nose Sneezing Itchy nose, ...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...
... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...
Bell, Sue Anne; Folkerth, Lisa A
Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster. Purpose The purpose of this review was to report the results of a scoping review on the specific mental health effects that commonly impact women following natural disasters, and to develop a conceptual framework with which to guide future research. A scoping review of mental and physical health effects experienced by women following natural disasters in the United States was conducted. Articles from 2000-2015 were included. Databases examined were PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, JSTOR, Web of Science, and databases available through ProQuest, including ProQuest Research Library. A total of 58 articles were selected for inclusion, out of an original 149 that were selected for full-text review. Forty-eight articles, or 82.8%, focused on mental health outcomes. Ten articles, or 17.2%, focused on IPV. Discussion Certain mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and other significant mental health concerns, were recurrent issues for women post-disaster. Despite the strong correlation between experience of mental health consequences after disaster and increased risk of domestic violence, studies on the risk and mediating factors are rare. The specific challenges faced by women and the interrelation between negative mental health outcomes and heightened exposure to IPV following disasters require a solid evidence base in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions. Additional research informed by theory on probable health impacts is
Ampudia García, Omar
Major disasters in Perul ack from a treatment plan and adapt to the current reality. Were rare and limited to natural disasters such as major earthquakes, floods, torrential rains, erupting volcanoes, and so on.At first these disasters were limited to certain geographic areas ingeneral,but with the advancement of science and technology these events have soared alarming lyas rail crashes, plane crashes, car crashes going at high speed,and if we add the attacks by fundamentalist groups with car...
Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi
Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which
Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...
Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12121 and 12122] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00031 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.
The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.
Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.
Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.
Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306
Mahmoud Nekouyi Moghaddam
Conclusion: Women, despite their vulnerability in natural accidents, have the capability in performing different tasks such as taking care and accommodating the injured family members, and making peace and relief in difficult and undesirable situations after natural disasters such as earthquake. However, the results of this study revealed that women’s cooperation in different parts of crisis management was very limited. This matter demands more attention of the responsible authorities.
Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F
The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.
Green, D. S.
Earth observations have made substantive contributions to the understanding of natural hazards, answering key science questions on the mechanisms, processes and dynamics of changes in the land, air and water. This has been achieved through the ability to advance models and interpret the results through maps and assessments. Disaster application science is focused on the two-way flow of data and information between hazard understanding and the knowledge required for disaster response, relief and recovery. This presentation will examine the integration of results from mature science and technology development in areas including optical imagery, synthetic-aperture radar and geodetic sensors, which together provide new levels of situational awareness. Specific examples will be highlighted from the recent Nepal "Gorkha" earthquake. Optical imagery from a host of satellite missions was used to create a comprehensive mosaic across the region, which when analyzed by a global network of volunteer scientists yielded insight into the extent of induced hazards and impacts. In some cases unique day/night band images provided guidance on areas where energy-dependent infrastructure of livelihoods were disrupted. Earthquake modeling and historical trend analysis revealed areas of potential vulnerability and combined with aftershock analysis to guide areas for urgent analysis and action. The combination of SAR and GPS data, innovative integration and processing approaches and nontraditional data integration approaches resulted in damage proxy maps or where combination with airborne photography, field sightings and crowd sourced reports to assess susceptibility to induced hazards (floods and landslides). Opportunities and challenges to build the science and community relationships, harness the earth observations from multiple agencies and institutions and co-develop timely applications to users will be areas for ongoing collaboration and study.Earth observations have made
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises J; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 includes 29 putative species commonly found in the intestine and liver of anurans from all over the world but mainly in the Americas. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1), ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and the large subunit 28S rDNA gene were obtained and analysed using pairwise distance matrices and parsimony methods in order to characterise the interrelationships between 14 isolates of four nominal species of Glypthelmins recognised on morphological grounds. The highest intra-specific sequence divergence occurred in the cox 1 (18.53%) sequence, followed by that of the ITS2 (5.44%) and 28S (4.63%). Genetic variability was detected between the three isolates originally identified as G. facioi Brenes et al., 1959 from two localities in Mexico and one locality in Costa Rica. Sequence divergence exhibited among these isolates ranged from 10.70 to 11.22%, from 0.48 to 0.97% and from 1.33 to 1.88% for cox 1, ITS2 and 28S, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis combining all three data-sets generated a single most parsimonious tree. The three isolates of G. facioi form a clade, with an isolate collected from frogs in Veracruz State as the sister group to an isolate from Tabasco State + G. facioi from Costa Rica. The information derived from pairwise distance of independent data-sets plus the phylogenetic information indicate that each of the two isolates from Mexico, identified a priori as G. facioi, represent separate species. A re-examination of specimens was carried out and a re-evaluation made of the morphological characters to find reliable differences that had been overlooked. As a consequence, G. brownorumae n. sp. from Tabasco and G. tuxtlasensis n. sp. from Veracruz are described based on molecular and morphological differences.
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum...
Mercer, Mary P; Ancock, Benedict; Levis, Joel T; Reyes, Vivian
During major disasters, hospitals experience varied levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the immediate response period. Loss of critical hospital personnel, including Emergency Department (ED) staff, during this time can negatively impact a facility's ability to effectively treat large numbers of ill and injured patients. Prior studies have examined factors contributing to HCW ability and willingness to report for duty during a disaster. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of readiness of ED personnel, as measured by household preparedness, is associated with predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Additionally, the authors sought to elucidate other factors associated with absenteeism among ED staff during a disaster. ED staff of five hospitals participated in this survey-based study, answering questions regarding demographic information, past disaster experience, household disaster preparedness (using a novel,15-point scale), and likelihood of reporting to work during various categories of disaster. The primary outcome was personal predicted likelihood of reporting for duty following a disaster. A total of 399 subjects participated in the study. ED staffs were most likely to report for duty in the setting of an earthquake (95 percent) or other natural disaster, followed by an epidemic (90 percent) and were less likely to report for work during a biological, chemical, or a nuclear event (63 percent). Degree of household preparedness was determined to have no association with an ED HCW's predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Factors associated with predicted absenteeism varied based on type of disaster and included having dependents in the home, female gender, past disaster relief experience, having a spouse or domestic partner, and not owning pets. Having dependents in the home was associated with predicted absenteeism for all disaster types (OR 0.30-0.66). However, when stratified by gender, the presence of
Kestenbaum, Allison; Fleischman, Catherine Anne; Dabis, Marta; Birnbaum, Bette; Dunn, Laura B
Objectives Spiritual support is an essential component to disaster response and recovery. The goals of this study were to (a) provide a qualitative examination of spiritual needs of recipients of disaster relief after Hurricane Sandy, as observed by spiritual care interns in "verbatims"; (b) demonstrate the feasibility of conducting research with providers of disaster spiritual care. Methods The study was accomplished through analysis (including codebook development and transcript coding) of written pastoral reports-aka "verbatims" ( n = 18)-as well as audio-recorded, transcribed seminars ( n = 23). Clinical Pastoral Education verbatims offer qualitative data in the form of confidential, anonymous reports of what the students do in the field. Results Analysis of coded transcripts yielded several themes and subthemes as results. Significance of Results Major themes include: (a) the feasibility of research for CPE students as subject; (b) the discussion of magnitude of the storm and aftermath, as a spiritual need in disaster; (c) the relationship between "normative crisis" and disaster; (d) the use of metaphors and images to describe disaster experiences.
Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch
Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…
Miller, Andrew C; Arquilla, Bonnie
Inadequately controlled chronic diseases may present a threat to life and well-being during the emergency response phase of disasters. Chronic disease exacerbations (CDE) account for one of the largest patient populations during disasters, and patients are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of chronic renal failure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease during disasters due to natural hazards, identify impediments to care, and propose solutions to improve the disaster preparation and management of CDE. A thorough search of the PubMed, Ovid, and Medline databases was performed. Dr. Miller's personal international experiences treating CDE after disasters due to natural hazards, such as the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, are included. Chronic disease exacerbations comprise a sizable disease burden during disasters related to natural hazards. Surveys estimate that 25-40% of those living in the regions affected by hurricanes Katrina and Rita lived with at least one chronic disease. Chronic illness accounted for 33% of visits, peaking 10 days after hurricane landfall. The international nephrology community has responded to dialysis needs by forming a well-organized and effective organization called the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF). The response to the needs of diabetic and cardiac patients has been less vigorous. Patients must be familiar with emergency diet and renal fluid restriction plans, possible modification of dialysis schedules and methods, and rescue treatments such as the administration of kayexalate. Facilities may consider investing in water-independent extracorporeal dialysis techniques as a rescue treatment. In addition to patient databases and medical alert identification, diabetics should maintain an emergency medical kit. Diabetic patients must be taught and practice the carbohydrate counting technique. In addition to improved planning, responding agencies and organizations must bring
Labrague, Leodoro J; Yboa, Begonia C; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Lobrino, Ledwin R; Brennan, Mary Geronima B
This study examined the perceived level of disaster preparedness in Philippine nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Two hundred nurses were invited to participate in the study, with 170 responses (105 hospital nurses and 65 community nurses) or an 85% response rate, during the months of April 2014 through July 2014. Data collection was based on interviews using a standardized instrument, the Disaster Preparedness Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, percentages, and standard deviations were utilized to quantify the responses. Three fourths of the respondents (n = 136, 80%) indicated that they were not fully prepared to respond to disasters, while only 20% (n = 34) acknowledged that they felt they were adequately prepared. Respondents believed that they could function in the primary roles of educator (n = 107, 62.94%), caregiver (n = 104, 61.17%), and counselor (n = 82, 48.24%). More than half of the respondents (n = 98, 57.7%) were not aware of existing protocols of disaster management in the workplace. Courses taken in such areas as first aid (n = 79, 46.4%), field triage (n = 43, 25.29%), and basic cardiac life support (n = 57, 33.53%) were cited as important in preparing for disasters. Nurses in the study revealed that they were not sufficiently prepared for disasters nor were they aware of disaster management protocols in the workplace. Hospital administrators should consider the development and formulation of disaster management protocols and provide appropriate disaster nursing education and training. Nursing curricula should incorporate basic principles of disaster management into nursing courses as a framework for addressing this critical deficit. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Lin, Jen-Jen; Lin, Wan-I
Most members of Taiwan's indigenous communities live in areas that are prone to natural disasters. Yet, due to their marginalised cultural, economic and political status, each time such calamities strike, any assistance they receive is usually provided without considering their actual needs. The areas hardest hit by Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 were the indigenous villages in the southern and eastern parts of the island. After the initial emergency relief efforts had been completed, there remained the highly challenging task of reconstruction and the resettlement of those who lost their homes and livelihoods. This paper examines the cultural conflicts that arose during the reconstruction process, with special emphasis on the participation of Taiwan's indigenous communities and their capacity for resilience. It was found that community participation and identification are key issues in effective disaster governance. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.
McNamara, D.; Werner, B.; Kelso, A.
Motivated by destruction in New Orleans following hurricane Katrina, we use a numerical model to explore how natural processes, economic development, hazard mitigation measures and policy decisions intertwine to produce long periods of quiescence punctuated by disasters of increasing magnitude. Physical, economic and policy dynamics are modeled on a grid representing the subsiding Mississippi Delta region surrounding New Orleans. Water flow and resulting sediment erosion and deposition are simulated in response to prescribed river floods and storms. Economic development operates on a limited number of commodities and services such as agricultural products, oil and chemical industries and port services, with investment and employment responding to both local conditions and global constraints. Development permitting, artificial levee construction and pumping are implemented by policy agents who weigh predicted economic benefits (tax revenue), mitigation costs and potential hazards. Economic risk is reduced by a combination of private insurance, federal flood insurance and disaster relief. With this model, we simulate the initiation and growth of New Orleans coupled with an increasing level of protection from a series of flooding events. Hazard mitigation filters out small magnitude events, but terrain and hydrological modifications amplify the impact of large events. In our model, "natural disasters" are the inevitable outcome of the mismatch between policy based on short-time-scale economic calculations and stochastic forcing by infrequent, high-magnitude flooding events. A comparison of the hazard mitigation response to river- and hurricane-induced flooding will be discussed. Supported by NSF Geology and Paleontology and the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.
This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury
This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.
Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando
Siambabala B. Manyena
Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.
Siambabala B. Manyena
Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.
Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E
Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.
... Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Parts 759, 1945 and 762 RIN 0560-AH17 Disaster Designation Process... severe drought situations, and change the USDA Secretarial disaster designation process from six steps to... programs such as crop disaster payment programs. The current disaster designation process is set out in 7...
Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David
In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…
17. 8 Karl C. Rohr . “Operation Tomodachi: The eastern Japan earthquake humanitarian assistance mission,” Marine Corps Gazette, 96, no. 1...aircraft 15 Ibid., 11. 16 Rohr , 30. 17 Team Kadena and Operation Tomodachi, 15. 18 Gosselin and...Corps Newsletter 73, no. 4 (July 2010): 34. 10 Karl C. Rohr . “Operation Tomodachi: The eastern Japan earthquake humanitarian assistance mission
DREAMS clinical and basic science projects complement the digital EMS effort by investigating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to minimize the mortality and mortality of trauma and "natural...
earthquake caused a tsunami which impacted Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Maldives, Malaysia , Myanmar and Somalia. 25 This tsunami caused... homeless . 35 The devastation to the already austere infrastructure included blockage or damage to over 45% of the roads which disrupted 77,000
include medical, surgical, dental, and veterinary care, as well as well-drilling, surface transportation, and sanitation facility and public...General dentistry 35 VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The U.S. military is a major player in HA/DR operations due to the
worked in victim identification teams, provided missing persons/family liaison support, and organized media briefings” ( Snell , Surgenor, Dorahy...S80–S87. 51 Snell , D. L., Surgenor, L. J., Dorahy, M. J., & Hay-Smith, E. J. (2014, November). Coping and adjustment in New Zealand Police staff 12
World Service The Mission: Feed the hungry, clothe the naked, heal the sick, comfort the aged, and shelter the homeless . (Nguyen & Curley, 2013, p. 7...differing standards were applied across AOR, causing a lack of convenience and comparability of the data when evaluated as a whole . Om work...were applied across AOR, causing a lack of convenience and comparability of the data when evaluated as a whole. Our work systematically evaluated
national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human...Persons affected,” is the number of total affected according to the EM- DAT definitions. Total affected is the sum of injured, homeless , and affected... Homeless ” is defined as people needing immediate assistance for shelter. ‘“Affected” is defined as people requiring immediate assistance during a
These special delivery requirements resulted in command-level planners managing public relations with the consigners back in the U.S. and the media...sudden increase in flight hours on the aircraft participating in the mission would place a strain on the local supply system of items not stocked . In...Organizations Cargo Consignment to Specified Consignees. Retrieved from https://www.jllis.mil/NAVY/index.cfm?disp=lms.cfm&doit=view&lmsid=5128 Joint
effects of tropical cyclone events including hurricanes that make landfall.15 The combination of large numbers of people near the coast and the...Military Duty Status The HSPD 5 slide effectively condenses the information contained in the directive. There is a hyperlink on the slide to the...National Climatic Data Center Technical Report No. 2003-01, (December 2003):7. 13 Franks Hobbs and Nicole Stoops , Demographic Trends in the 20th Century
Atovaquone/Proguanil, Chloroquine, Docycycline and Mefloquine .” c. Team Solution Option Generation (TSOG) Definition: TSOG involves the...Docycycline and Mefloquine . TIE TIE TIE 90 Information can be followed at the Haiti Operational Biosurveillance website address. TIE TIE TIE From...falciparumin Haiti: TKS TKS TKS ATOVAQUONE/ PROGUANIL, CHLOROQUINE, DOXYCYCLINE AND MEFLOQUINE . TIE TIE TIE Information can be followed at the Haiti
what are they but the publicans who flourish on the weakness of our poor?” and comparing African streams with “the gin- shop stands on every corner with...local social reform programs, including emergency assistance, addiction counseling, homeless and domestic violence assistance, and other similar...kilogram bag of maize and three liters of cooking oil. This initial distribution phase focused on the more vulnerable members of the population, such as
in the development of this project. We would like to thank RADM Buzby and his staff, CDR Redmond, John Quandt, and Hitch Peabody at Military...Hurricane Georges and Hurricane Mitch (CCSP, 2005). The CCSP report further offers a long list of questions that may be applied to evaluate HADR operations
the area, and drop off personnel able to help dig (Truax, 2006). 10 Hurricane Felix swept through much of Nicaragua in late 2007. Luckily, two...people in the aftermath of Hurricane Felix ” (Wimbish, 2007). He further went on to say that it was a “demonstration of the close linkages among the...36.055.194.00 $17,709.84 $ 38,781.35 1ST L T ALEX BONNYMA T-AK 4 18 $ 8.470.399.00 $ 48.113.801.00 $23.206.57 $ 131.818.63 TIPPECANOE T-AO 0 26 $ 13,801.293.00
Military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities such as aerial drones and satellite imagery were used by the military to...Safety at refugee camps -Debris clearance -Trucks, ambulances , heavy equipment...development of the U.S. response plan (Wilson, 2012). These unmanned aerial drones also successfully provided information and monitoring of
Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.
cooperative schemes becomes essential. A cluster based decentralized orchestration cooperative sensing scheme is proposed, where each node in the cluster decides which spectrum it should monitor, according to the past sensing decisions of all the cluster nodes. The proposed scheme performance is evaluated...... through a framework, which allows gauging the accuracy of multi narrow-band spectrum sensing cooperative schemes as well as to gauge the error in the estimation of each of the channels un-occupancy. Through that evaluation it is shown that the proposed decentralized scheme performance reaches...
result of building collapses. The construction widely used in the region, which was vulnerable to earthquakes, was primarily made of mud brick with... mortar and wood supports. (1) U.S. Government Response Shortly after the earthquake the president of Pakistan, President Musharraf made a formal
coast of Honshu Island, Japan. Within less than an hour, tsunami waves mea- suring up to 40 meters high crashed almost six miles inland, inundat- ing...million households in four- teen prefectures had no access to water across Japan, and 1.25 million households were without electricity.5 The number...GPS information. By using Google GPS software, officials were able to determine which Japanese highways were passable and which were not. Cars
thrombosis . Lancet 1996;347:1447-1449. 11. Stefanadis C, Diamantopoulos L, *Vlachopoulos C, Tsiamis E, Dernellis J, Toutouzas K, Stefanadi E, Toutouzas P...1) Sham laparotomy, (2) mesenteric ischemia for 30 min and (3) IPC/ mesenteric ischemia ’(three cycles of mesenteric ischemia for 4 min and...reperfusion for 10 min followed immediately by mesenteric ischemia for 30 min) and (4) late IPC/ mesenteric ischemia (IPC as above, wait 24 hrs then mesenteric
captured the scene in the 1850s. Courtesy of the National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering, EERC, University of California , Berkeley...the down- stream levees that protected their own homes and farms . Other crevasses, caused chiefly by foundation weaknesses, then followed.17 “Had it... fresnoes or wheelers) pulled by mule teams were the most economical means of raising levee grades. Where scrapers could not be used, workers moved the
Abbink, G.J.; Sorenson, J.
This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in K„fa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to
SMART Special Malaysia Assistance and Rescue Team SOP Standard Operating Procedure TCG Tripartite Core Group TNI Tentara Nasional Indonesia...UN Humanitarian Response Depot Network UNOCHA UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UNOSOCC UN On-Site Operations Coordination...AHTF) and Tripartite Core Group (TCG), to facilitate coordination. The AHTF was made up of twenty-two members and its primary function was to
..., inflammation, oxidation, apoptosis, reperfusion injury, organ failure, and nitric oxide. New techniques have been developed to automatically diagnose ischemia and heart, kidney, and respiratory failure...
system (GPS) sensor17 is elevated on a mast in an effort to receive better GPS measurements. Finally, an ASUS Xtion Pro Live provided red, green, blue (RGB...and-boards/gps-18x-oem/prod27594.html;. 18. ASUS Xtion Pro Live. http://www.asus.com/us/Multimedia/Xtion_ PRO_LIVE/;. 19. Velodyne LiDAR. http
ground-level complex comprised of a casino, showrooms , convention facilities, jai alai fronton, and mercantile complex. The hotel was partially...horrifying: at least half a dozen cars and trucks on the northbound span had their rooftops virtually crushed to seat level or sheared off completely... virtually the only rescue vehicle able to quickly reach and rescue the survivors. It would have taken an ice-breaker several hours to plow its way
distance that a MTVR can travel before it has to refuel is 351 miles. By extension, the maximum distance that a DDT agent , regardless of convoy size...can travel before refueling is also 351 miles as the MTVRs travel together in a convoy. The maximum distance that a DDT agent can travel within the...An agent -based simulation is then used to model the effectiveness of OE-focused resupply strategies and capabilities. These options include (1
Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert
The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters.
Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith
National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that
Jointly initiated by NATO Partnership for Peace and UN Department for Humanitarian Affairs, the EXERClSE '95 took place on the Kola peninsula near Murmansk, Russia. Organised by the Russian ministry for disaster management, the trigger incident was supposed to be an explosion in a nuclear power plant, similar to Chernobyl. Different international teams participated in an effort to determine the extent and implications of the incident, gauge radiation levels in the environment, study relief procedures, and estimate the applicability of recommended protection measures. The exercise was organised in three time scenarios, starting with the third day after the accident up to one month after the accident. The system developed by the Research Centre and employed by the Austrian NBC defense group encompasses a scenario analysis tool based on three-dimensional dispersion calculations and forecasting capability, GPS-based acquisition of radiation data by mobile teams, and permanent site monitoring instrumentation. Additionally, a robust Nal food stuff probe was used to measure food and soil samples. (author)
Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017
A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)
Brouillette, Greg A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Risk Analysis and Decision Support Group
These are slides for various presentations on C41SR and urban disasters disasters response and recovery tools. These are all mainly charts and images of disaster response and recovery tools. Slides included have headings such as the following: vignette of a disaster response, situational awareness and common operating picture available to EOC, plume modeling capability, Program ASPECT Chemical Response Products, EPA ASPECT - Hurricane RITA Response 9/25/2005, Angel Fire Imagery, incident commander's view/police chief's view/ EMS' view, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training capability, systems diagram, Austere Challenge 06 Sim/C4 Requirements, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training environment, common situational awareness, real world, crisis response, and consequence management.
Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)
Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.
Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to
Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…
Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo
An integrated simulation system of emergency response in disasters is under development that can consider various factors of disasters, such as disaster phenomena, activities of response organizations, resident behavior, and their environment. The aim of this system is to provide support for design and assessment of disaster management systems. This paper introduces the conceptual design of the entire system and presents simulators of organizational behavior in nuclear and earthquake disasters. (author)
Dikmenli, Yurdal; Gafa, İbrahim
Disasters cover allthe events that damage both humans and their living environment. The disasters whichstem from nature are called natural disasters while those which stem from humankind,are called human disasters. Since humans constantly encounter such events at differenttimes, places and in different forms, it is inevitable that they will be affectedby them. Thus, one wonders what people understand the concept of disaster tobe. The aim of this study is to identify the students from all the ...
Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.
According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce
Huang, Cheng-Min; Chan, Edward; Hyder, Adnan A
Internet social networking tools and the emerging web 2.0 technologies are providing a new way for web users and health workers in information sharing and knowledge dissemination. Based on the characters of immediate, two-way and large scale of impact, the internet social networking tools have been utilized as a solution in emergency response during disasters. This paper highlights the use of internet social networking in disaster emergency response and public health management of disasters by focusing on a case study of the typhoon Morakot disaster in Taiwan. In the case of typhoon disaster in Taiwan, internet social networking and mobile technology were found to be helpful for community residents, professional emergency rescuers, and government agencies in gathering and disseminating real-time information, regarding volunteer recruitment and relief supplies allocation. We noted that if internet tools are to be integrated in the development of emergency response system, the accessibility, accuracy, validity, feasibility, privacy and the scalability of itself should be carefully considered especially in the effort of applying it in resource poor settings. This paper seeks to promote an internet-based emergency response system by integrating internet social networking and information communication technology into central government disaster management system. Web-based networking provides two-way communication which establishes a reliable and accessible tunnel for proximal and distal users in disaster preparedness and management.
Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E
Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.
Ganchoon, Filipinas; Bugho, Rommel; Calina, Liezel; Dy, Rochelle; Gosney, James
Physiatrists have provided humanitarian assistance in recent large-scale global natural disasters. Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest and most costly typhoon in modern Philippine history, made landfall on 8 November 2013 resulting in significant humanitarian needs. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine physiatrists conducted a project of 23 emergency basic relief and medical aid missions in response to Super Typhoon Haiyan from November 2013 to February 2014. The final mission was a medical aid mission to the inland rural community of Burauen, Leyte. Summary data were collected, collated, and tabulated; project and mission evaluation was performed. During the humanitarian assistance project, 31,254 basic relief kits containing a variety of food and non-food items were distributed and medical services including consultation, treatment, and medicines were provided to 7255 patients. Of the 344 conditions evaluated in the medical aid mission to Burauen, Leyte 85 (59%) were physical and rehabilitation medicine conditions comprised of musculoskeletal (62 [73%]), neurological (17 [20%]), and dermatological (6 [7%]) diagnoses. Post-mission and project analysis resulted in recommendations and programmatic changes to strengthen response in future disasters. Physiatrists functioned as medical providers, mission team leaders, community advocates, and in other roles. This physiatrist-led humanitarian assistance project met critical basic relief and medical aid needs of persons impacted by Super Typhoon Haiyan, demonstrating significant roles performed by physiatrists in response to a large-scale natural disaster. Resulting disaster programing changes and recommendations may inform a more effective response by PARM mission teams in the Philippines as well as by other South-Eastern Asia teams comprising rehabilitation professionals to large-scale, regional natural disasters. Implications for rehabilitation Large-scale natural disasters including tropical cyclones can
Basu, Moumita; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Arnab; Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Singh, Ravikant
The objective of this study was to explore a log of WhatsApp messages exchanged among members of the health care group Doctors For You (DFY) while they were providing medical relief in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015. Our motivation was to identify medical resource requirements during a disaster in order to help government agencies and other responding organizations to be better prepared in any upcoming disaster. A large set of WhatsApp (WhatsApp Inc, Mountain View, CA) messages exchanged among DFY members during the Nepal earthquake was collected and analyzed to identify the medical resource requirements during different phases of relief operations. The study revealed detailed phase-wise requirements for various types of medical resources, including medicines, medical equipment, and medical personnel. The data also reflected some of the problems faced by the medical relief workers in the earthquake-affected region. The insights from this study may help not only the Nepalese government, but also authorities in other earthquake-prone regions of the world to better prepare for similar disasters in the future. Moreover, real-time analysis of such online data during a disaster would aid decision-makers in dynamically formulating resource-mapping strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:652-655).
Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.
The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)
For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)
In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of
Full Text Available Those who left Haiti in the chaotic aftermath of the 2010earthquake did not generally find the same posture of solidarityand humanitarianism overseas that was apparent in the significantinternational assistance that followed the disaster.
Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...
Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.
There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment
Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...
Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John
Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.
Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann
Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krstić Miroslav Ž.
Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.
Vanssay, B. de.
Sociology of disasters is a global approach of situations of disasters. It is an analysis of behaviours and social dynamics used by a community to answer to it. Sociology studied different phases of these situations in a chronological and thematic way. It studies a social context, tries to find risk perceptions and then possibilities of populations to answer to a emergency situation. A concrete example is studied with the disastrous inundation happened in the south of France, the 22 September 1992
Lim, J.; Cho, K.; Lee, Y. S.; Jung, H. S.; Yoo, H. D.; Ryu, D.; Kwon, J.
Hydrological disaster relief expenditure accounts for as much as 70 percent of total expenditure of disasters occurring in Korea. Since the response to and recovery of disasters are normally based on previous experiences, there have been limitations when dealing with ever-increasing localized heavy rainfall with short range in the era of climate change. Therefore, it became necessary to establish a system that can respond to a disaster in advance through the analysis and prediction of hydrometeorological information. Because a wide range of big data is essential, it cannot be done by a single agency only. That is why the three hydrometeorology-related agencies cooperated to establish a pilot (trial) system at Soemjingang basin in 2013. The three governmental agencies include the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) in charge of disaster prevention and public safety, the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII under Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport) in charge of geographical data, and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in charge of weather information. This pilot system was designed to be able to respond to disasters in advance through providing a damage prediction information for flash flood to public officers for safety part using high resolution precipitation prediction data provided by the KMA and high precision geographic data by NGII. To produce precipitation prediction data with high resolution, the KMA conducted downscaling from 25km×25km global model to 3km×3km local model and is running the local model twice a day. To maximize the utility of weather prediction information, the KMA is providing the prediction information for 7 days with 1 hour interval at Soemjingang basin to monitor and predict not only flood but also drought. As no prediction is complete without a description of its uncertainty, it is planned to continuously develop the skills to improve the uncertainty of the prediction on weather and its impact
There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...
... from other drug classes with distinct mechanisms of pain relief (such as antidepressants) may be used in combination ... disabling, but anti-seizure drugs may provide moderate pain relief. Neuropathic pain. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www. ...
... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...
Abbasi, Mohsen; Salehnia, M Hossein
In the past 10 years, 13 fatal earthquakes have occurred in Iran and led to death of 30,000 people whom most of them were killed in the earlier hours of the disaster. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams are groups of trained medical and non-medical personnel with various combinations that on the optimal conditions are deployed just within 8 hours of notification and are able to work self-sufficiently for at least 72 hours without any outside help and can treat up to 250 patients per day. Currently there are no such rapid-response teams in case of unexpected events in Iran, which causes the responses to such disasters, not to be organized or practiced. For instance, there were many rescue forces in 2003 Bam earthquake but not enough skilled ones to cope with; consequently they themselves became a problem in crisis management instead of solving the problem. IN THIS STUDY, WE HAVE INVESTIGATED WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS MORE EFFICIENT: changing the size and combination of the team depending on the type of disaster and environmental conditions or, determine a fixed combination team. Totally, several reasons for dynamic combination and size of the teams are presented. later, earthquake disaster is divided into 3 phases in terms of time including the acute phase (1(st) to 4(th) day after disaster), the sub-acute phase (5(th) to 14(th)day) and the recovery phase (after the 14(th) day), and finally the appropriate team combinations in every phases are offered. Regarding to introduction and considering the existing statistics in different legal Iranian resources and by division of the earthquake disaster to three phases including acute phase (1st to the 4th day after disaster), sub-acute phase (5th to 14th day) and recovery phase (after the 14th day). The countries pioneer in disaster medical assistance teams, now are inclined to deploy different teams consistent with each kind of disasters or with other effective components on the combination of system. Every disaster has its
Teeuw, R.; McWilliam, N.; Morris, N.; Saunders, C.
We examine the uses of free satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for disaster management, targeting three data sources: the United Nations Charter on Space and Disasters, Google Earth and internet-based satellite data archives, such as the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). The research has assessed SRTM and ASTER DEM data, Landsat TM/ETM+ and ASTER imagery, as well as utilising datasets and basic GIS operations available via Google Earth. As an aid to Disaster Risk Reduction, four sets of maps can be produced from satellite data: (i) Multiple Geohazards: areas prone to slope instability, coastal inundation and fluvial flooding; (ii) Vulnerability: population density, habitation types, land cover types and infrastructure; (iii) Disaster Risk: produced by combining severity scores from (i) and (ii); (iv) Reconstruction: zones of rock/sediment with construction uses; areas of woodland (for fuel/construction) water sources; transport routes; zones suitable for re-settlement. This set of Disaster Risk Reduction maps are ideal for regional (1:50,000 to 1:250,000 scale) planning for in low-income countries: more detailed assessments require relatively expensive high resolution satellite imagery or aerial photography, although Google Earth has a good track record for posting high-res imagery of disaster zones (e.g. the 2008 Burma storm surge). The Disaster Risk maps highlight areas of maximum risk to a region's emergency planners and decision makers, enabling various types of public education and other disaster mitigation measures. The Reconstruction map also helps to save lives, by facilitating disaster recovery. Many problems have been identified. Access to the UN Charter imagery is fine after a disaster, but very difficult if assessing pre-disaster indicators: the data supplied also tends to be pre-processed, when some relief agencies would prefer to have raw data. The limited and expensive internet access in many developing countries limits access to
As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.
Bealt, Jennifer; Mansouri, S Afshin
A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations. This study proposes that CANs, as a result of their unique characteristics, present alternatives to established humanitarian approaches to logistics, while also mitigating the challenges commonly faced by traditional humanitarian organisations. Furthermore, CANs offer a more holistic, long-term approach to disaster management, owing to their impact on development through their involvement in humanitarian logistics. This research provides the foundation for further theoretical analysis of effective and efficient disaster management, and details opportunities for policy and practice. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Vikneswaran, M.; Raffiee, Rabiatul Adawiyah Ahmad; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Subramaniam, S. Ananthan; Loong, Wong Wai; Othman, Maidiana; Galerial, Jessica
The research is conducted to study the exact need of the signage at disaster prone area. The smart signage is needed to increase the safety, reduce the search and rescue time and finally will ease the help to arrive at the relieve center in any condition at any time without interruption. Signage implementation for disaster relief centers is still a foreign matter in Malaysia. The level of preparedness to the natural disaster mainly flood among our citizens is inadequate. Here the signage which usually used as a tool to help and protect the health and safety of the road users, employees and work place visitors. For many years, the signage has played its part miraculously to provide vivid information to the users in whatever condition. The signage also could be used as an indicator or information provider for the natural disaster victims to move to a safer place on time. Sometimes, the victims would not have sufficient time to safe themselves due to lack of information and time. Thus, it can be concluded that the signage at disaster prone area is vital.
Kessler, Jason L.
Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.
Zhang, Yang; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S
Business plays important roles in community functioning. However, disaster research has been disproportionately focused on units of analysis such as families, households and government agencies. This paper synthesises the major findings within the business development research field and the disaster research field. It constructs a framework for evaluating business vulnerability to natural disasters. Our theoretical integration of the research conducted to date addresses five major issues. First, it defines the ways in which businesses are subject to the impacts of natural disasters. Second, it identifies the factors that determine the magnitude of business impacts after a disaster. Third, it identifies how and when businesses return to their pre-disaster level in the disaster stricken community. Fourth, it describes measures that can be taken by individual firms and community planners to reduce the impacts of environmental disasters. Fifth, it identifies needs for public policy and future research to reduce business vulnerability to environmental disasters.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64...
... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one relief valve setting must have one of the following arrangements: (a) Relief valves that: (1) Are set and...
... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154...
..., except a relief valve may vent to a common tank relief valve header if the back pressure is included in... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...
Full Text Available This research article explores the concept that libraries as communication centres in sub-Saharan Africa can play a vital role in bringing poverty relief by providing greater access to information through modern technology. It discusses the patrons who can benefit from community information centres and explores their particular needs. I have researched how modern tools like the Internet, computers, e-readers and cell phones can bring valuable information to impoverished citizens. My research was conducted through reading research papers using article databases, books and Internet websites. The future for libraries in sub-Saharan Africa is bright, as new technology opens up vast opportunities to share information in a way that is accessible, affordable and adaptable to the needs of the African people. I recommend that librarians and relief organisations in Southern Africa seriously consider using modern technology to provide information that will empower its citizens.
Chow, Roberta T; Armati, Patricia J
This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture. Animal studies using noxious stimuli indicate nociceptor-specific inhibition with other studies providing direct evidence of local conduction block, leading to inhibited translation of pain centrally. Evidence of PBM-disrupted neuronal physiology affecting axonal flow, cytoskeleton organization, and decreased ATP is also presented. PBM changes are reversible with no side effects or nerve damage. This review provides strong evidence in neuroscience identifying inhibition of neural function as a mechanism for the clinical application of PBM in pain and anesthesia.
Portelli, A.; Guarnieri, F.; Martin, C.
'The China Syndrome' by J.Bridges is the most famous film about nuclear energy, it was released in 1979 and tells the story of a television reporter who discovers safety cover-ups in the Ventana nuclear power plant. In the film 'Mount Fuji in red' a part of 'Akira Kurosawa's dreams' film released in 1990, the eruption of the Mount Fuji triggered a series of accidents in Japanese nuclear plants which sent millions of people fleeing in terror and blocked by the ocean. More recent films are 'Land of Oblivion' by M.Boganim - 2012, 'The land of hope' by S.Sion - 2012 or 'Grand Central' by R. Zlotowski - 2013. All this list of films depicting nuclear disasters and their dramatic consequences on the daily life of people contribute to build a frightening picture of nuclear energy in the mind of people. Although any film is fictional it can influence people but also open people's eyes on society issues like sub-contracting, unemployment, risk assessment... (A.C.)
Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam
This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the
Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...
Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management.
Gupta, Preeti; Khanna, Anurag; Majumdar, S
Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6%) and foreigners (10.2%). Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25–50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11–25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life. PMID:23112446
Full Text Available Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6% and foreigners (10.2%. Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army′s immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...
Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M
The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building.
Arima, Yuzo; Matsui, Tamano; Partridge, Jeffrey; Kasai, Takeshi
After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries. In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the "inter-disaster" period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster.
Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko
Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru
The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...
Americas FBO Faith-Based Organization HA/DR Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief HHI Heart to Heart International HIV/AIDS Human...íÉ=pÅÜççä= B. FOCUSED LITERATURE 1. AERObridge Description: AERObridge is a group of “ aviation specialists who coordinate emergency aviation ...allow us to begin initial response efforts as rapidly as possible. To do this, we are continually forming new working relationships with FBOs [faith
Perfetti, Marcelo R.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since the beginning of this century, the Argentine Army has used Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) wireless products, equipment, and communication systems to support Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations. The participation of Military, Governmental, and Non-Governmental Organizations in these activities requires more wireless coverage area. These communication systems are an integration of several subsystems that...
Wuthisuthimethawee, Prasit; Lindquist, Samuel J; Sandler, Nicola; Clavisi, Ornella; Korin, Stephanie; Watters, David; Gruen, Russell L
Few guidelines exist for the initial management of wounds in disaster settings. As wounds sustained are often contaminated, there is a high risk of further complications from infection, both local and systemic. Healthcare workers with little to no surgical training often provide early wound care, and where resources and facilities are also often limited, and clear appropriate guidance is needed for early wound management. We undertook a systematic review focusing on the nature of wounds in disaster situations, and the outcomes of wound management in recent disasters. We then presented the findings to an international consensus panel with a view to formulating a guideline for the initial management of wounds by first responders and subsequent healthcare personnel as they deploy. We included 62 studies in the review that described wound care challenges in a diverse range of disasters, and reported high rates of wound infection with multiple causative organisms. The panel defined a guideline in which the emphasis is on not closing wounds primarily but rather directing efforts toward cleaning, debridement, and dressing wounds in preparation for delayed primary closure, or further exploration and management by skilled surgeons. Good wound care in disaster settings, as outlined in this article, can be achieved with relatively simple measures, and have important mortality and morbidity benefits.
Key common issues for preventing disasters are maintaining competence, application of acceptable standards, questioning attitude, organisational 'complacency'/loss of focus/organisational drift, poor communication, loss of 'oversight', management of change (often involving contractorisation) and external pressures. Lessons learned in leadership are well communicated standards and expectations, high visibility; 'actions align with words', demonstration that safety has priority; no 'turning a blind eye' because 'to tolerate is to validate', encouraging questioning and learning and need to be aware of these deeper root-causes and impact of organisational issues. Leadership issues relating to communication and learning comprise listening to the workforce and encouraging a questioning attitude 'If you really want to know how safe you are - ask your people', raise awareness of risks, consequences and promoting the importance of 'questioning and alert compliance', promoting the need for excellence in communication over safety issues at all levels e.g. between shifts and encouraging learning which leads to - 'the right message to the right people at the right time'. Alertness to 'organisational drift' means continuous review against best practice, monitoring of range of 'deeper' indicators, 'not just headlines', effective risk identification and management of change processes (particularly organisational), reinforcement of the safety message when perceptions may be that its priority has become lower and questioning and challenging the impact of changes in an organisational 'context'. Possible issues for the agency are to promote an understanding of these 'deeper' but vital issues in all organisations with an impact on nuclear safety, develop common ('hard hitting') messages about the vital role of leadership and the need for 'alertness and challenge', develop approaches and tools to assist and encourage self assessment and external scrutiny in the key areas, embed these
David, Clarissa C.; Ong, Jonathan Corpus; Legara, Erika Fille T.
When disaster events capture global attention users of Twitter form transient interest communities that disseminate information and other messages online. This paper examines content related to Typhoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda) as it hit the Philippines and triggered international humanitarian response and media attention. It reveals how Twitter conversations about disasters evolve over time, showing an issue attention cycle on a social media platform. The paper examines different functions of Twitter and the information hubs that drive and sustain conversation about the event. Content analysis shows that the majority of tweets contain information about the typhoon or its damage, and disaster relief activities. There are differences in types of content between the most retweeted messages and posts that are original tweets. Original tweets are more likely to come from ordinary users, who are more likely to tweet emotions, messages of support, and political content compared with official sources and key information hubs that include news organizations, aid organization, and celebrities. Original tweets reveal use of the site beyond information to relief coordination and response. PMID:27019425
See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian
The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.
The impacts of recurring disasters on vulnerable urban societies have been tragic in terms of destruction and fatalities. However, disaster risk education that promotes risk mitigation and disaster preparedness has been shown to be effective in minimizing the impacts of recurring disasters on urban societies. Although the recent integration of…
Chung, Soondool; Kim, Eunjeong
The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and mental health status of disaster victims according to disaster types, such as a typhoon disaster and an oil spill disaster, and to suggest adequate health care services for them. A total of 484 people who suffered disasters were selected for this study, and data were collected from July to August, 2008. The data-set for this study included 286 victims of typhoon disasters in Jeju and Jeollanamdo district in South Korea, and 198 victims of the oil spill disaster in Taean. Physical health status was measured using revised Patient Health Questionnaire and mental health status was measured using the Korean version of 'Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale'. According to the comparative analyses of typhoon disaster victims and oil spill disaster victims, poorer physical health outcomes were shown among the oil spill disaster victims when compared to the typhoon disaster victims. Also, the oil spill disaster victims showed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, at rates higher than those found among the typhoon disaster victims. These findings suggest that there is a need to provide adequate physical and mental health-related care services for oil spill disaster victims. The seriousness of oil spill disaster should be realized and reconsidered in developing recovery strategies and disaster preparedness for physical and mental health services.
Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira
The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2008 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12754 and 12755] Iowa Disaster IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major [[Page 54522
Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe
Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2011 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2004 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2007 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2006 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2012 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2005 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...
... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Are You Prepared? Information for Specific Groups Disaster Evacuation Centers Infection Control Infection Control Guidance for Community ...
After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the
Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie
Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.
During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.
Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step
The book is intended to serve as a source of information and a line of orientation for all people afraid of or angry about the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The author describes the effects of nuclear disasters that might happen as a result of military or 'peaceful' application of nuclear energy; he explains the situation people will have to cope with, gives advice on protective means and methods and topical information with reference to institutions or authorities where assistance might be available, also including a list of addresses and telephone numbers that has been issued by the governments after the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [de
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated 09/ 12...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12697 and 12698] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13463 and 13464] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR), dated 09/ 12...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13669 and 13670] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 07/16/2013. Incident: Severe...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13790 and 13791] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13065 and 13066] Hawaii Disaster HI-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-4062- DR), dated 04...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of HAWAII dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12526 and 12527] Hawaii Disaster HI-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-1967- DR), dated 04...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12541 and 12542] Iowa Disaster IA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa dated 05/04/2011. Incident: Severe storms and tornadoes...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12252 and 12253] Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1928- DR), dated 07/27...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13567 and 13568] Iowa Disaster IA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4114- DR), dated 05/06...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12895 and 12896] Iowa Disaster IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated 10/18/2011. Incident: Flooding...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13605 and 13606] Iowa Disaster IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4119- DR), dated 05/31...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13699 and 13700] Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4135- DR), dated 07/31...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930- DR), dated 07/29...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12568 and 12569] Iowa Disaster IA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1977- DR), dated 05/05...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12772 and 12773] Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4018- DR), dated 08/30...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12760 and 12761] Iowa Disaster IA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4016- DR), dated 08/24...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12053 and 12054] Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of IOWA (FEMA--1877-- DR), dated 02...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA- 1930-DR...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12279 and 12280] Iowa Disaster IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930-DR), dated 08/14/2010. Incident: Severe...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13645 and 13646] Iowa Disaster IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4126- DR), dated 07/02...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12734 and 12735] Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated. Incident: Severe Storms and Flash Flooding. Incident...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12062 and 12063] IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1880- DR), dated 03/02...
Full Text Available The present study explains the various concepts used in disastermanagement. The concepts explained include: Disaster, Hazard,Vulnerability, Capacity, Risk and Disaster Management Cycle. In addition tothe terminologies, the study also seeks to explain various types of disasters.
Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...
... funds. The legislation also amended the statutory definition of disaster to include ice storms and... that codifies SBA existing practice of treating ice storms and blizzards as disasters. Because ice storms and blizzards have previously qualified under SBA's existing regulations as disasters for purposes...
Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew
Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…
Pakistan is a fascinating and important region for geological research, but formal field surveys in this region are scarce. Beyond political and logistical challenges, cultural tensions can greatly complicate research efforts. Ninety eight percent of the population of Pakistan are Muslims, and many see a link between natural disasters and divine power. For example, it is widely believed that when the cumulative sins of a society exceed a certain limit then the whole society is punished by God, in the form of earthquakes or other calamities. This perspective encourages a resistance to accepting scientific explanations related to a natural phenomenon. This resistance can extend to scientific research teams and even to disaster response teams. In remote regions of the country where formal education opportunities are limited and the literacy rate is quite low, people are strongly influenced by the views of their local religious leaders. Scientific and humanitarian relief activities greatly benefit from culturally competent dialogue with local religious and community leaders to establish trust and credibility, and (in the longer term) through introduction and discussion of relevant scientific ideas, concepts and practices.
Miwa, Masataka; Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro
After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster (GEJED) and Joso City Flood (JCF), a number of people were relocated to evacuation centers. In situations following a large-scale disaster, acupuncture can be applied for various health problems in evacuation centers. In this study, we report the medical support operation for evacuees with acupuncture and massage therapy (AP/MT) and its effectiveness. In addition, we propose an experience-based guideline for AP/MT in such situations. We retrospectively investigated the treatment with AP/MT after GEJED and JCF based on the medical records that were coded. We performed AP/MT for evacuees or supporters in Iwanuma City, Shiogama City, and Natori City after the GEJED (total number of 1042), and in Joso City after the JCF (total number of 110). The most common complaints, shoulder, back, and knee pain, were reported in 67.6% of patients after the GEJED and 80.9% of patients after the JCF. Acupuncture and massage therapy (AP/MT) significantly decreased the median Face Scale score of subjective symptoms in evacuees (before, 3.0 vs after, 1.0, P < .001) and supporters (before, 3.0 vs after, 1.0, P < .001) in the JCF. Evacuees and supporters in affected areas could benefit from AP/MT for relief of subjective symptoms. For proper management and safety support, we proposed a guideline of AP/MT for postdisaster situations.
During the big natural disasters, such as the terrible Asian tsunami at Christmas or the earthquake that hit the same region last Monday, UNOSAT's website proves to be a critical resource for ensuring that relief organizations have the necessary information to plan actions in the field. CERN has played a supportive role in keeping the information flowing. This map, one of many prepared by UNOSAT during the tsunami crisis, shows the low-lying coastlines in the surrounding region. The epicentre is indicated by the red triangle. On Sunday 26 December, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 struck off the coast of Sumatra, launching one of the most devastating tidal waves ever recorded. UNOSAT, a UN service to provide the international community with geographic information and access to satellite imagery to cope with natural disasters and post-conflict situations, moved immediately into action. UNOSAT involves a consortium of UN and space agencies as well as public and private providers of satellite...
Full Text Available In any profession, a basic set of moral values needs to be followed to comply with what we call ethics. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise society about the possibilities of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geoscientists cannot only assess these hazards, but they can also estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and at a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientists among society and government is lost, due to some unethical practices for short-term gain, or due to incorrect understanding of geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecast by some pseudo-geoscientists, to draw social/ media attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There is the need to be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in providing information about natural hazards that are not yet fully understood by the professionals themselves. More specifically, the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of society as well as media in the developing countries where the ‘common’ people have different perceptions. Most often, popular myths take over scientific facts among the public, and this can lead to rumors about natural hazards. This article will mention some cases of rumors about natural disasters, and particularly earthquakes, and the response of society, media and government. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the actual situations and the geohazards, to avoid panic caused by rumors from non-specialists or hyperactive pseudo experts. This article indicates the recent rumors about a lake outburst, flash floods, and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M 6.9, September 18
Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India
Full Text Available The earthquake of 8 October 2005, an unprecedented disaster in the history of Pakistan, led to an equally exceptional national response. Reconstruction and rehabilitation of affected areas was indeed a herculean task. The Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA was immediately established as a peak national body with extraordinary powers and mandate to ensure coordinated actions for rescue, relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation. The national institutional set up was forced to readjust rapidly to convert this adversity into an opportunity to improve its capability to deal with disasters. This paper aims to provide an overview of the institutional strategy and measures undertaken in the wake of the 2005 earthquake. It looks at the strengths and weaknesses of installing an efficient entity largely adopting a command and control approach to efficiently and effectively deliver reconstruction projects on the ground. The paper seeks to derive lessons that can be useful for governments considering the setting up of comprehensive proactive disaster management systems.
The aim of this paper is to find out, whether the modern music has a relaxing effect on today’s youngsters. The theoretical part will present the period of adolescence and especially all the challenges they face during this time. These challenges can represent a high amount of stress in a youngster’s life, and one of the ways of stress relief is music. In addition to having a relaxing effect, music also enables them to shape their identity and to integrate into groups of people that share the...
Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.
The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.
This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200
Wu, J.; /Fermilab
This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.
The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice
Lutz, T.J.; Bissert, P.T.; Homce, G.T.; Yonkey, J.A.
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, ...
The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) started exploring current technology and internet trends in order to answer the question if post-disaster situation awareness can be improved by community involvement. An exploratory research project revolves around the development of an iPhone App to provide users with real-time information about disasters and give them the possibility to send information in the form of a geo-located image and/or text back. Targeted users include professional emergency responders of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS), as well as general users affected by disasters. GDACS provides global multi-hazard disaster monitoring and alerting for earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, floods and volcanoes. It serves to consolidate and improve the dissemination of disaster-related information, in order to improve the coordination of international relief efforts. The goal of the exploratory research project is to extract and feedback useful information from reports shared by the community for improving situation awareness and providing ground truth for rapid satellite-based mapping. From a technological point of view, JRC is focusing on interoperability of field reporting software and is working with several organizations to develop standards and reference implementations of an interoperable mobile information platform. The iPhone App developed by JRC provides on one hand information about GDACS alerts and on the other hand the possibility for the users to send reports about a selected disaster back to JRC. iPhones are equipped with a camera and (apart from the very first model) a GPS receiver. This offers the possibility to transmit pictures and also the location for every sent report. A test has shown that the accuracy of the location can be expected to be in the range of 50 meters (iPhone 3GS) and respectively 5 meters (iPhone 4). For this reason pictures sent by the new iPhone generation can be very
Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus
Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.